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WORLD HERITAGE HOMINID SITES

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					        WORLD HERITAGE
         HOMINID SITES




       UNESCO-ICOMOS Documentation Centre
                September 2008


Description of World Heritage Hominid Sites* with a Bibliography
                of Supporting Documents at the
           UNESCO-ICOMOS Documentation Centre



                              49-51, Rue de la Fédération,
                                  75015 Paris, France
                                Tel. 33 (0) 1 45 67 67 70
                                Fax. 33 (0) 1 45 66 06 22
                          E-mail: documentation@icomos.org
               http://www.international.icomos.org/centre_documentation
                             Table of Contents




AUSTRALIA / AUSTRALIE
1981 - Willandra Lakes Region / Région des lacs Willandra                    4

AZERBAIJAN / AZERBAÏDJAN
2007 –Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape / Paysage culturel d’art rupestre
de Gobustan                                                                  8

CHINA / CHINE                                                              10

ETHIOPIA / ETHIOPIE
1980 - Lower Valley of the Omo / Basse vallée de l'Omo                     12
1980 - Lower Valley of the Alwash / Basse vallé de l'Aouache               14

INDONESIA / INDONESIE
1996 - Sangiran Early Man Site / Site des premiers hommes de Sangiran      17

KENYA
1997, 2001 - Lake Turkana National Parks / Parcs nationaux du Lac Turkana 18

NAMIBIA / NAMIBIE
2007 - Twyfelfontein                                                       19

SPAIN / ESPAGNE
2000 - Archaeological Site of Atapuerca / Site archéologique d’Atapuerca   21

SOUTH AFRICA / AFRIQUE DU SUD
1999, 2005 - Fossil Hominid Sites of Syerkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and
Environs / Sites des hominidés fossiles de Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai
et les environs                                                             24

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA / REPUBLIQUE UNIE DE TANZANIE
1979 - Ngorongoro Conservation Area / Zone de conservation de Ngorongoro 26




                                       2
(*) The brief description and justification for inscription texts for every site have been taken from the
UNESCO World Heritage Centre website (http://whc.unesco.org)

(*) Les textes de la brève description et la justification d’inscription ont été pris du site web du Centre du
Patrimoine Mondial de l’UNESCO (http://whc.unesco.org)




                                                      3
                                  AUSTRALIA / AUSTRALIE


1981 - Willandra Lakes Region / Région des lacs Willandra Criteria: (iii) (viii)




Brief Description
The fossil remains of a series of lakes and sand formations that date from the Pleistocene can be found
in this region, together with archaeological evidence of human occupation dating from 45–60,000 years
ago. It is a unique landmark in the study of human evolution on the Australian continent. Several well-
preserved fossils of giant marsupials have also been found here

Brève description
On trouve dans cette région les restes fossilisés d'une série de lacs et de formations dunaires du
pléistocène, ainsi que la preuve archéologique d'une occupation humaine il y a de cela 60 000 à 45
000 ans. C'est un jalon unique dans l'histoire de l'évolution humaine sur le continent australien. On a
découvert également dans la région plusieurs fossiles de marsupiaux géants bien conservés.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

        - Nomination file
        - Bibliography:

        001082 - Nomination form. Région des Lacs Willandra. Délégation Permanente de l'Australie auprès de
        l'Unesco. sl, Délégation Permanente de l'Australie auprès de l'Unesco, 1980. 11 p. (Willandra Lakes
        Region (Australia)) (engalso in fre). The Willandra Lakes Region. eng. Date received: 31.12.80/ Quinlan,
        Gary Francis/ Incl. bibl.
          PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
        Australia; nomination forms.
          SECONDARY KEYWORDS: historical surveys; conservation policy tombs; tools.
           // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
           ACCESSION NO: WHC 167.


        001083 - Icomos evaluation. Région des Lacs Willandra. The Willandra Lakes Region (eng). Icomos.
        Paris, Icomos, 1981. 2 p. (same text in eng, fre).
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; historical
        surveys; Australia.
         SECONDARY KEYWORDS: evaluations.
           // Willandra Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 167)
          ACCESSION NO: WHC 167.


        001085 - Map. Geomorphic Map of the Mallee region. Northern Victoria and Western New South Wales.
        Canberra, 1977. 1 map. (Willandra Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng). Legend : lacustrine, aeolian.
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
        Australia; maps.
           // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
          ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Map 1.




                                                       4
001086 - Map. The course of Willandra Billabong Creek. sl, nd. 1 map. (Willandra Lakes Region
(Australia)) (eng).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; maps.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Map 2.


001087 - Map. Detailed map of the Willandra Lakes Region. sl, nd. 1 map. (Willandra Lakes Region
(Australia)) (eng).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; maps.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Map 3.


001088 - Map. Map of leasehold properties and the boundaries of the World Heritage Nomination. sl, nd.
1 map. (Willandra Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; maps.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: perimeter of protection.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Map 4.


001089 - Plan. Fig 1 : Woc Section 5. Joulni and burial site. Bowler, J.M. sl, nd. 1 plan. (Willandra Lakes
Region (Australia)) (eng). Surveyed section through Mungo lunette at southern end showing the
stratigraphic relationship of the eroded Zanci and Mungo units.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; plans.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: necropoles.
    // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 167.


001090 - Plan. Fig 2 : Woc section 6. Archaeological transect. Bowler, J.M. sl, 1973. 1 plan. (Willandra
Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng). Transect through lunette at site of the 1973 excavation.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; plans.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: archaeological excavations.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167.


001091 - Plan. Fig 3 : Woc Section 4. Palaeomagnetic reversal site. Bowler, J.M. sl, nd. 1 plan. (Willandra
Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng). Transect through Walls of China at main research area for the
palaeomagnetic excursion.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; plans.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167.


001092 - Photo. [Natural aspects]. Bowler, J.M.; Magee, J.; Mulvaney, D.J.; Shawcross, F.W. sl, nd. 9
photos: col., 8x12 cm. (Willandra Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng). In nomination form.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; photographs.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: soil properties.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Photos : 1 to 9.


001093 - Photo. [Mungo station and Zanci station]. McBryde, I.; Shawcross, F.W. sl, nd. 2 photos: col.,
8x12 cm. (Willandra Lakes Region (Australia)) (eng). In nomination form.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; photographs.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: vernacular architecture.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)


                                                 5
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Photos : 19-20.


001094 - Photo. [Excavations and archaeological remains]. Barbetti, M.; Bowler, J.M.; McBryde, I.;
Mulvaney, D.J.; Shawcross, F.W. sl, nd. 9 photos: col., 8x12 cm. (Willandra Lakes Region (Australia))
(eng). In nomination form.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural sites; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites;
Australia; photographs.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: archaeological excavations.
   // Willandra Lakes (Australia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 167. CALL NO: Photos : 10 to 18.


002077 - Les 136 Biens inscrits sur la Liste du Patrimoine mondial. Description de 28 de ces sites.
Unesco. Paris, Unesco, [1983]. p. 4-25, illus. (Patrimoine Culturel de l'Humanité. 21-22) (). Suite des
descriptions contenues dans le Bulletin no 18.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; protection of cultural heritage; historic monuments and sites;
lists.
    // Los Glaciares (Argentina) // Kakadu National Park (Australia) // Willandra Lakes Region (Australia) //
Anthony Island (Canada) // Head-Smashed-In Bison Jump Complex (Canada) // Mammoth Cave National
Park (USA) // Olympic National Park (USA) // Tiya (Ethiopia) // Fontainebleau (France) // Cathedral,
Amiens (France) // Orange (France) // Arles (France) // Cistercian Abbey, Fontenay (France) //
Archaeological Park, Quirigua (Guatemala) // Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Guinea) // Jerusalem (Jordan)
// Medina, Fez (Marocco) // Thatta (Pakistan) // Fort and Shalimar gardens, Lahore (Pakistan) // National
Park, Darien (Panama) // Cathedral, Spire (German FR) // Residence, Wurzburg (German FR) // National
Park, Niokolo-Koba (Senegal) // National Bird Sanctuary, Djoudj (Senegal) // Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo
Mnara (Tanzania) // National Park, Serengeti (Tanzania) // Chateau de Chambord (France)
    ACCESSION NO: K-156.


009050 - El Patrimonio del Mundo. Aritio, Luis Blas. Madrid, Plaza
 Janés, Incafo, S.A., 1985. 264 p, illus. (El Patrimonio del Mundo. 4) (spa). Incl. world heritage list.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; historic monuments; historic sites; descriptions; architecture
history; Yugoslavia; natural sites; Serbia and Montenegro.
   // Unesco // San Lorenzo Monastery, the Escurial, Madrid (Spain) // Quito (Ecuador) // Benedictine
Convent of St John at Müstair, Switzerland (WHC 269) // Timgad (Algeria) // Statue of Liberty, New York
(USA) // Sun Temple, Konarak (India) // Place Stanislas, Place de la Carriere and Place d'Alliance, Nancy
(France) // Natural and Cultural-Historical Region of Kotor, Serbia and Montenegro (WHC 96) // Petra
(Jordan) // Carthagena (Colombia) // Historic Centre, Cracow (Poland) // Island of Goree (Senegal) //
Residence, Court Gardens and Residence Square, Wurzburg (Germany) // Fortaleza and San Juan
Historic Site, Puerto Rico (USA) // Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with 'The
Last Supper ' by Leonardo da Vinci, Milan (Italy) // Palmyra (Syrian AR) // Willandra Lakes Region
(Australia) // Church and Hill, Vezelay (France) // Archaeological Park and Ruins, Quirigua (Guatemala) //
Independence Hall, Philadelphia (USA) // Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belem, Lisbon
(Portugal) // Forts and Castles (Ghana) // Goreme Valley (Turkey)
   ACCESSION NO: 9493. ISBN: 84-01-60285-8; 84-01-60289-0.


012095 - Willandra Lakes Region and archaeological excavations, Australia. [s.l.], [s.n.], [s.d.]. 10 slides :
col.+ 2 p. typescript. (eng). From dossier WHC 167 listed in 1981. Slide 3-1 missing. Accompanying
material: narrative legends.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological heritage; cultural heritage; natural heritage;
archaeological excavations; archaeological finds; human remains; human settlement sites; archaeological
field work; archaeologists; Australia.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: slides; aerial photography.
    // Lake Mungo Lunettes, Willandra Lakes Region (Australia)
   CALL NO: AU.WIL.02:1-10 (WHC167). (restricted).


016679 - Outstanding cultural landscapes in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific: the footprint of man
in wilderness. Bridgewater, Peter; Hooy, Theo. Jena; Stuttgart; New York, G. Fischer, 1995. p. 162-169,
illus. (Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value: components of a global strategy) (eng). Incl. bibl.
   PRIMARY KEYWORDS: cultural landscapes; world heritage list; Pacific cultures; wildlife; national parks;
natural sites; Australia; New Zealand.
    // Kakadu National Park, Australia (WHC 147) // Willandra Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 167) //
Tasmanian Wilderuen, Australia (WHC 181 rev) // Uluni-Kata Tjuta National Park, Australia (WHC 447
rev)
    ACCESSION NO: 13757. CALL NO: P.C. 003. ISBN: 3-334-61022-5.


                                                 6
016773 - The role of the local communities involvement in the management of World Natural Heritage.
Towsend, George. Paris, UNESCO, 1999. p.180-184. (eng). In : "World Natural Heritage and the local
community", Incl.bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural heritage; local communities; community
participation; aboriginal cultures; conservation; management; local level; Australia.
   // Willandra Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 167)
  ACCESSION NO: 13833.


017054 - "To know the place for the first time": Consideration of Diverse Values for an Australian World
Heritage Site. McBryde, Isabel. Paris, ICOMOS, 1994. p. 34-44, illus. (Scientific Journal: Articles of
members / Journal Scientifique: Articles des membres. 3) (eng). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; cultural heritage; natural heritage; cultural landscapes;
aboriginal cultures; sacred places; Australia.
   // International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) // UNESCO // Kakadu National Park,
Australia (WHC 147) // Willandra Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 167) // Tasmanian Wilderness, Australia
(WHC 181 rev)
  ACCESSION NO: 13699. ISSN: 955-613-054-3.


019150 - Australia's World Heritage. World Heritage Branch. Canberra, Environment Australia, 1999.
77p., illus. (eng). Incl. bibl.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; world cultural heritage; world heritage convention;
legislation; Australia.
    // Great Barrier Reef, Australia (WHC 154) // Kakadu National Park, Australia (WHC 147) // Willandra
Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 167) // Tasmanian Wilderness, Australia (WHC 181) // Lord Howe Island
Group (WHC 186) // Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, Australia (WHC 447) // Central Eastern Rainforest
Reserves, Australia (WHC 368) // Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia (WHC 486) // Shark Bay,
Western Australia (WHC 578) // Fraser Island, Australia (WHC 630) // Australian Fossil Mammal Sites
(Riversleigh/Naracoorte) (WHC 698) // Heard and McDonald Islands, Australia (WHC 577) // Macquarie
Island, Australia (WHC 629)
   ACCESSION NO: 14196. ISBN: 0-642-21431-X.


025671 - Local involvement and traditional practices in the world heritage system. Sullivan, Sharon. Paris,
UNESCO WHC, 2004. p.49-55. (World Heritage Papers. 13) In: "Linking universal and local values :
managing a sustainable future for world heritage" (eng). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world cultural heritage; local level; management; community participation;
Australia.
   // Willandra Lakes, Australia (WHC 167)
  ACCESSION NO: 14553-13.


027018 - Periodic Report: Willandra Lakes Region. Environtment Australia; NSW National Parks,
Australis; Wildlife Service, Australia. [Paris], [UNESCO], [2003]. 35p. (also in eng). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage convention; world heritage list; periodic reports; lakes; natural
heritage; natural sites; conservation; management; monitoring; tourists; attendance rate; authenticity;
Australia.
   // Willandra Lakes Region, Australia (WHC 181)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 181.




                                                7
                              AZERBAIJAN / AZERBAÏDJAN


2007 – Paysage culturel d’art rupestre de Gobustan Criteria: (iii)




Brief Description

Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape covers three areas of a plateau of rocky boulders rising out of
the semi-desert of central Azerbaijan, with an outstanding collection of more than 6,000 rock
engravings bearing testimony to 40,000 years of rock art. The site also features the remains of
inhabited caves, settlements and burials, all reflecting an intensive human use by the inhabitants of the
area during the wet period that followed the last Ice Age, from the Upper Paleolithic to the Middle Ages.
The site, which covers an area of 537 ha, is part of the larger protected Gobustan Reservation.

Outstanding Universal Value

Gobustan has outstanding universal value for the quality and density of its rock art engravings, for the
substantial evidence the collection of rock art images presents for hunting, fauna, flora and lifestyles in
pre-historic times and for the cultural continuity between prehistoric and mediaeval times that the site
reflects.
 Criterion (iii): The rock engravings are an exceptional testimony to a way of life that has disappeared in
the way they represent so graphically activities connected with hunting and fishing at a time when the
climate and vegetation of the area were warmer and wetter than today.
The most remote and undisturbed landscapes are the Jinghirdag Moutain-Yazylytepe hill and
Kichikdash Mountain. These areas need to be fully protected in order to ensure they keep their
authenticity. The most visited site, Boyukdash, has more disturbances in the form of installations such
as a prison and stone quarry, which should be managed as part of the Management Plan.
The knowledge of the site does not extend evenly across the whole rock art reservation. It would be
desirable for a large-scale survey of the wider environment to be carried out to ensure the extent of
protection needed to ensure the overall integrity of the rock art corpus.
The legal protective measures for the property are adequate. There is a need to complete the
documentation, put in place active conservation measures and improve the technical competence of
staff to carry out necessary urgent conservation work.



Brève description


Le site occupe trois zones d'un plateau rocheux qui s'élève dans la région semi-désertique du centre
de l'Azerbaïdjan. Il recèle une collection remarquable de plus de 6 000 gravures qui témoignent de 40
000 ans d'art rupestre. Le site comprend également des vestiges de grottes habitées, de peuplements
et de sites funéraires, qui reflètent une occupation humaine intensive des lieux durant une période
humide après la dernière ère glaciaire, depuis le paléolithique supérieur jusqu'au Moyen Âge. Le site
occupe un total de 537 ha et s'inscrit dans la réserve protégée de Gobustan qui est beaucoup plus
grande.




                                                     8
Valeur universelle exceptionnelle

Gobustan a une valeur universelle exceptionnelle due à la qualité et à la densité de ses gravures d’art
rupestre, à l’important témoignage que présente son ensemble d’images d’art rupestre pour la chasse,
la faune, la flore et le mode de vie à l’époque préhistorique et à la continuité culturelle entre les
époques préhistorique et médiévale que reflète le site.
Critère (iii) : Les gravures rupestres sont un témoignage exceptionnel d’un mode de vie disparu dans la
mesure où elles représentent graphiquement des activités associées à la pêche et à la chasse à une
époque où le climat et la végétation de la région étaient plus chauds et plus humide qu’aujourd’hui.
Les paysages les plus isolés et les plus intacts sont ceux du mont Jinghirdag, de la colline de
Yazylytepe et du mont Kichikdash. Ces zones doivent être tout à fait protégées pour faire en sorte
qu’elles conservent leur authenticité. Le site le plus visité, Boyukdash, a été plus perturbé, avec des
installations telles qu’une prison et une carrière de pierre qu’il faudra gérer dans le cadre du plan de
gestion.
La connaissance de ce site est inégale selon les parties de la réserve d’art rupestre. Il serait
souhaitable d’effectuer un levé à grande échelle de l’environnement du site en vue d’assurer la
protection nécessaire garantissant l’intégrité d’ensemble du corpus rupestre.
Les mesures juridiques de protection du bien sont adaptées. Il conviendrait de compléter la
documentation, der mettre en place des mesures actives de conservation et d’améliorer les
compétences techniques du personnel pour mener à bien les travaux de conservation urgents.

Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

          - Nomination file
          - Bibliography:

015081 - The rock engravings of Gobystan. Baku, ^c1996. (same text in ). 3 booklets.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: rock art; rock engravings; palaeolithic; Azerbaijan.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: animal representations.
   // Gobustan (Azerbaijan)
  ACCESSION NO: 13381. CALL NO: A.R. 290.


019045 - Gobustan Azerbaijan. Anati, Emmanuel. Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici. Capo di Ponte, Edizioni Del Centro, 2001.
96p. , illus., maps. (same text in aze, rus, ita, eng). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric art; rock art; rock art sites; rock engravings; Azerbaijan.
   // Gobustan, Azerbaijan
  ACCESSION NO: 14151. CALL NO: A.R. 196. ISBN: 88-86621-14-0.


031602 - Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape. UNESCO. 47 slides: col. (eng). From WHC 1076 rev listed in 2007.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; cultural landscapes; rock art; rock art sites; prehistoric art; Azerbaijan.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: slides.
   // Gobustan, Azerbaidjan
  CALL NO: AZ.GOB.02:1-47 (WHC 1076 rev).


031605 - Gobustan. Azerbaijan. s.l., Wara Archives Edicioni del Centro, 2001. 96 p., illus. (same text in eng, ita, rus). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; Azerbaijan; cultural landscapes; rock art; rock art sites; prehistoric art.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: Anati, Emmanuel.
   // Gobustan, Azerbaijan
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 1076 rev. CALL NO: 15385. ISBN: 88-86621-14-0.


032696 - Gobustan. anon. Baki, Isig, 1991. 24 p., illus. (same text in rus, eng). Incl. list of captions.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: rock art; rock art sites; rock engravings; world heritage list; archaeological excavations.
   // Gobustan, Azerbajan (WHC 1076)
  ACCESSION NO: 15607. CALL NO: A.R.325.




                                                                   9
                                            CHINA / CHINE


1987 - Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian / Site de l'homme de Pékin à
Zhoukoudian Criteria: (iii) (vi)




Brief Description
Scientific work at the site, which lies 42 km south-west of Beijing, is still underway. So far, it has led to
the discovery of the remains of Sinanthropus pekinensis, who lived in the Middle Pleistocene, along
with various objects, and remains of Homo sapiens sapiens dating as far back as 18,000–11,000 B.C.
The site is not only an exceptional reminder of the prehistorical human societies of the Asian continent,
but also illustrates the process of evolution.
Brève description
À 42 km au sud-ouest de Pékin, le site, dont l'exploitation scientifique continue, a permis notamment de
découvrir, accompagnés d'objets variés, les restes de Sinanthropus pekinensis, qui vivait au
pléistocène moyen, puis des restes d'Homo sapiens sapiens, datables de -18 000 à -11 000. Le site
n'apporte pas seulement un témoignage exceptionnel sur les sociétés humaines du continent asiatique
à une époque très reculée, mais illustre aussi le processus de l'évolution.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

        - Nomination file
        - Bibliography:

        010252 - Mission Report : the People's Republic of China, March 21 to April 5 1988. World Heritage
        Convention. Unesco. Rome, Iccrom, 1988. 49 p, illus. (eng). Incl. list of names and addresses; technical
        cooperation.
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: protection of cultural heritage; conservation of historic monuments;
        archaeological sites; conservation policy; maintenance; deterioration; China.
         SECONDARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; expert reports; guidelines.
           // Imperial Palace, Beijing (China) // Peking Man Site (China) // Mogao Caves (China) // First Emperor's
        Tomb, Xian (China) // Taishan Mountain (China) // Great Wall (China)
          ACCESSION NO: 9811.


        016869 - Patrimoine, site, tourisme : de quelques contradictions. Beschaouch, Azedine. Paris, ICOMOS
        France , 2000. p. 19-23. (fre). In : "Accueil, aménagement et gestion dans les grands sites".
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: cultural tourism; protection of cultural heritage; management plans;
        authenticity; case studies.
           // UNESCO // ICOMOS // Trohée, Carthage, Tunisia (WHC 37) // Pekin Man Site at Zhoukoudian,
        China (WHC 449) // Pyramides, Egypt (WHC 86)
          ACCESSION NO: 13843. CALL NO: To. 267.


        026424 - Pekin Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Shuang-quan, Zhang. Madrid, San Marcos, UNESCO, 2004.
        p.38-39, illus. (World Heritage Review. 36) (same text in eng). Sitio del Hombre de Pekín den
        Zhoukoudian. spa. Site de l'homme de Pékin à Zhoukoudian. fre.
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; palaeontological sites; fossils; world heritage list; China;
        human settlement sites.



                                                       10
  // Pekin Man Site at Zhoukoudian, China (WHC 449) // Mount Taishan, China (WHC 437)
  ACCESSION NO: K-382-b. CALL NO: spa. ISSN: 1020-4202.


026992 - Periodic Report: Pekin Man Site at Zhoukoudian. The People's Government of Fangshan
District, China. [Paris], [UNESCO], [2003]. 36p. (also in eng).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage convention; world heritage list; periodic reports; archaeological
sites; palaeontological sites; fossils; human settlement sites; conservation; management; tourists;
attendance rate; China.
    // Pekin Man Site at Zhoukoudian, China (WHC 449)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 449.




                                             11
                                       ETHIOPIA / ETHIOPIE

1980 - Lower Valley of the Omo / Basse vallée de l'Omo Criteria: (iii) (iv)




Brief Description
A prehistoric site near Lake Turkana, the lower valley of the Omo is renowned the world over. The
discovery of many fossils there, especially Homo gracilis, has been of fundamental importance in the
study of human evolution
Brève description
Près du lac Turkana, la basse vallée de l'Omo est un site préhistorique de renommée mondiale, où ont
été découverts de nombreux fossiles, notamment l'Homo gracilis, d'une importance essentielle pour
l'étude de l'évolution humaine.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

       - Nomination file
       - Bibliography:

        000589 - Les Cent douze sites inscrits sur la liste du patrimoine mondial. Unesco. Paris, Unesco, 1982. p.
        12-21, illus. (Patrimoine Culturel de l'Humanité. 82,18) (frealso in eng, spa).
          PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; cultural property.
          SECONDARY KEYWORDS: historic sites; descriptions; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; industrial
        sites; natural sites.
            // Axum (Ethiopia) // The paleontological sites of the Omo and Awash (Ethiopia) // National Park,
        Kahuzi-Biega (Zaïre) // National Park, Garamba (Zaïre) // Traditional Ashante buildings, (Ghana) // Al
        Qal'a of Beni Hammad (Algeria) // Ancient city, Bosra (Syrian Arab Republic) // Palmyra (Syrian Arab
        Republic) // National Park, Ichkeul (Tunisia) // Archaeological ruins, Moenjodaro (Pakistan) // Buddhist
        ruins of Takhnt-i-Bahi and neighbour city remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (Pakistan) // Taxila (Pakistan) // Paphos
        (Cyprus) // The historic centre, Rome (Italy) // The convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan (Italy) //
        Roros (Norway) // The city, Valetta (Malta) // Temples, Hal Saflieni (Malta) // Hypogeum, Ggantija (Malta)
        // The historic centre, Warsaw (Poland) // The historic town, Ouro-Preto (Brazil) // Maya site, Copan
        (Honduras) // The fortifications, Caribbean site of Portobelo (Panama)
           ACCESSION NO: K-156.


        001476 - Nomination form. Basse Vallée de l'Omo: Sites de préhistoire et de paléontologie. Ministère de
        la Culture (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa, Ministère de la Culture, 1978. 6 p. (Lower Valley of the Omo
        (Ethiopia)) (frealso in eng). Lower Valley of the Omo. eng. Date received: 25-04-78/ Haile Wolde, Mikael/
        Incl. bibl.
          PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
        Ethiopia; nomination forms.
          SECONDARY KEYWORDS: historical surveys; conservation policy.
           // Omo (Ethiopia)
           ACCESSION NO: WHC 17.


        001477 - Photo. Omo. sl, nd. 2 photos : b
        w, 17x23 cm. (Lower Valley of the Omo (Ethiopia)) (fre).
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
        Ethiopia.


                                                        12
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: general views.
  // Omo (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 17. CALL NO: Photos: 4-5.


001478 - Photo. Omo: Sites de paléontologie et de préhistoire, Basse vallée de l'Omo, Région
administrative du Gamo Gofa. Bogalé, Kebbédé. Institut d'Archéologie (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa, Institut
d'Archéologie, 1970. 3 photos : b
w, 18x21 cm. (Lower Valley of the Omo (Ethiopia)) (fre).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; photographs.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: general views; archaeological field work.
   // Omo (Ethiopia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 17. CALL NO: Photos : 1-2-3.


001480 - Icomos evaluation. La basse vallée de l'Omo. The Lower valley of the Omo (eng). Icomos. Paris,
Icomos, 1980. 2 p. (same text in eng, fre).
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; historical surveys.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: evaluations.
   // Lower Valley of the Omo, Ethiopia (WHC 17)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 17.


001482 - Map. [Carte de l'Ethiopie : localisation de l'Omo]. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
(France). Paris, C.N.R.S., 1976. 1 map. (Travaux de la RCP 230. 7) (fre).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; maps.
   // Lower Valley of the Omo, Ethiopia (WHC 17)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 17.


001838 - Témoignage de l'activité technique des Hominidés du Pleistocène ancien. Formation de
Shungura, basse vallée de l'Omo, Ethiopie. Chavaillon, Jean. Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, RCP 230 (France). Paris, C.N.R.S., 1974. p. 9-18, illus. (Documents pour servir à l'Histoire
de la civilisation éthiopienne. 5) (fre). Incl. Bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites; Ethiopia.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological excavations; artefacts; excavation
reports.
   // Omo (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: 6746.


001855 - Map. Indication of sites and monuments in Ethiopia suggested for inclusion in the World
Heritage List. Ministry of Culture and Sports (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa, Ministry of Culture and Sports,
1978. 1 plan, scale 1:2,800,000. (Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region (Ethiopia)) (eng). Location of: Metara/
Yeha/ Axum/ Gondar/ Lalibela/ Hadar/ Melka Konturi/ Kalem.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; palaeontological sites; historic
monuments; Ethiopia; maps.
   // Lalibela (Ethiopia) // Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar (Ethiopia) // Hadar (Ethiopia) // Tiya (Ethiopia) // Aksum
(Ethiopia) // Omo (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 19. CALL NO: Map: 1.


002708 - L' Ethiopie avant l'histoire. Chavaillon, Jean. Dijon, Archéologia, 1973. p. 11-19, illus.
(Archeologia. 64, nov) (fre).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeology; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; housing.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: Ethiopia.
   // Vallée de l'Omo (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: K-263.


005861 - Prospection archéologique dans le Gemu-Gofa et la basse vallée de l'Omo. Chavaillon, Jean;
Boisaubert, Jean-Luc. Centre de Recherches Archéologiques - URA 14 et RCP 230 (France). Paris,
C.N.R.S., 1977. p. 3-10, illus. (Documents pour servir à l'Histoire de la civilisation éthiopienne. 8) (fre).
Incl. Bibl.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites; Ethiopia.


                                                 13
         SECONDARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological excavations; artefacts; excavation
        reports.
           // Omo (Ethiopia)
          ACCESSION NO: 6751.


        005923 - Associations polliniques actuelles et quaternaires en Ethiopie (vallées de l'Awash et de l'Omo).
        Bonnefille, Raymonde. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - RCP 230 (France). Paris,
        C.N.R.S., 1973. p. 13-17. (Documents pour servir à l'Histoire des civilisations éthiopiennes. 4) (fre).
        Résumé de la thèse de Doctorat ès Sciences présentée par Melle R. Bonnefille (Octobre 1972).
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites; world heritage list;
        Ethiopia.
         SECONDARY KEYWORDS: palynology.
           // Omo (Ethiopia)
          ACCESSION NO: 6747.




1980 - Lower Valley of the Alwash / Basse vallé de l'Aouache Criteria: (ii) (iii) (iv)




Brief Description
The Awash valley contains one of the most important groupings of palaeontological sites on the African
continent. The remains found at the site, the oldest of which date back at least 4 million years, provide
evidence of human evolution which has modified our conception of the history of humankind. The most
spectacular discovery came in 1974, when 52 fragments of a skeleton enabled the famous Lucy to be
reconstructed.

Brève description
La vallée de l'Aouache contient un des plus importants ensembles de gisements paléontologiques du
continent africain. Les vestiges découverts sur le site, dont les plus anciens ont au moins 4 millions
d'années, fournissent une preuve de l'évolution humaine qui a modifié notre perception de l'histoire de
l'humanité. La découverte la plus spectaculaire a été faite en 1974, lorsque cinquante-deux fragments
de squelette ont permis de reconstituer la célèbre Lucy.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

        - Nomination file
        - Bibliography:

        000589 - Les Cent douze sites inscrits sur la liste du patrimoine mondial. Unesco. Paris, Unesco, 1982. p.
        12-21, illus. (Patrimoine Culturel de l'Humanité. 82,18) (frealso in eng, spa).
         PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; cultural property.
         SECONDARY KEYWORDS: historic sites; descriptions; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; industrial
        sites; natural sites.
            // Axum (Ethiopia) // The paleontological sites of the Omo and Awash (Ethiopia) // National Park,
        Kahuzi-Biega (Zaïre) // National Park, Garamba (Zaïre) // Traditional Ashante buildings, (Ghana) // Al
        Qal'a of Beni Hammad (Algeria) // Ancient city, Bosra (Syrian Arab Republic) // Palmyra (Syrian Arab
        Republic) // National Park, Ichkeul (Tunisia) // Archaeological ruins, Moenjodaro (Pakistan) // Buddhist
        ruins of Takhnt-i-Bahi and neighbour city remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (Pakistan) // Taxila (Pakistan) // Paphos
        (Cyprus) // The historic centre, Rome (Italy) // The convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan (Italy) //


                                                        14
Roros (Norway) // The city, Valetta (Malta) // Temples, Hal Saflieni (Malta) // Hypogeum, Ggantija (Malta)
// The historic centre, Warsaw (Poland) // The historic town, Ouro-Preto (Brazil) // Maya site, Copan
(Honduras) // The fortifications, Caribbean site of Portobelo (Panama)
   ACCESSION NO: K-156.


001458 - Nomination form. Basse Vallée de l'Aouache (Hadar, principalement). Sites de paléontologie et
de préhistoire. Ministry of Culture (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa, Ministry of Culture, 1978. 6 p. (Lower Valley of
the Awash (Ethiopia)) (frealso in eng). Lower Valley of the Awash. eng. Date received: 25-04-78/ Haile
Wolde, Mikael/ Incl. bibl.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; nomination forms.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: historical surveys; conservation measures; legislation.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 10.


001459 - Icomos evaluation. La Basse Vallée de l'Aouache. The Lower Valley of the Awash (eng).
Icomos. Paris, Icomos, 1980. 2 p. (same text in eng, fre).
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: evaluations.
   // Lower Valley of the Awash, Ethiopia (WHC 10)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 10.


001461 - Photo. Sites paléontologiques de la basse vallée de l'Aouache. Région administrative du Welo.
Bogalé, Kebbédé. Institut d'Archéologie (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa, Institut d'Archéologie, 1974. 3 photos: b
w, 17x20 cm. (Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)) (fre). Legends: Les collines de Hadar, Vestiges de
faune fossile, Restes fossiles d'un hominidé de type australopithèque.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; photographs.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: general views; fossils; animal remains; human remains.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 10. CALL NO: Photos: 13-14-15.


001462 - Photo. Hadar (Ethiopie). sl, nd. 12 photos: b
w, 11x18/17x24 cm. (Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)) (fre). Legends: Site à Hominidés, Industries
Acheuléennes, Site de "Lucy", "Lucy", Ossements de mains, crâne d'enfant, maxillaire d'enfant,
mandibules, Elephantidé, Félidé.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; photographs.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: human settlement sites; general views; human remains; animal remains;
archaeological finds.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 10. CALL NO: Photos: 1 to 12.


005858 - Le Site d'Hadar, Afar (Ethiopie) : à la découverte de "Lucie". Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique (France). Paris, CNRS, 1979. 2 p. (Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)) (fre). Tableau
chronologique.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: archaeological dating; human remains; natural environment; chronology.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 10.


005859 - Map. Hadar (Ethiopie). Taieb, M.; Page, N. Laboratoire de Géologie du Quaternaire, Centre
National de la Recherche Scientifique (France). sl, CNRS, 1979. 1 map, scale 1:20,000. (Lower Valley of
the Awash (Ethiopia)) (fre). Legend : Localités à hominidés.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; maps.
  SECONDARY KEYWORDS: human settlement sites.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 10. CALL NO: Map : 1.



                                                15
005860 - Map. Hadar : carte géologique (Ethiopie). Taieb, M.; Tiercelin, J.J.; Page, N.; Walter R.C.; Tola,
E. Laboratoire de Géologie du Quaternaire (France). sl, Laboratoire de Géologie du Quaternaire, 1976. 1
map, scale 1:20,000. (Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)) (fre).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; archaeological sites; prehistoric sites; palaeontological sites;
Ethiopia; maps.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: geological maps.
   // Hadar, Lower Valley of the Awash (Ethiopia)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 10. CALL NO: Map : 2.




                                               16
                                     INDONESIA / INDONESIE

1996 - Sangiran Early Man Site / Site des premiers hommes de Sangiran
Criteria: (iii) (vi)




Brief Description
Excavations here from 1936 to 1941 led to the discovery of the first hominid fossil at this site. Later, 50
fossils of Meganthropus palaeo and Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus were found – half of all the
world's known hominid fossils. Inhabited for the past one and a half million years, Sangiran is one of the
key sites for the understanding of human evolution.
          Justification for Inscription
          The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated site under cultural criteria (iii) and (vi) as one
          of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution that admirably illustrates the
          development of Homo sapiens sapiens from the Lower Pleistocene to the present through the
          outstanding fossil and artefactual material that it has produced.


Brève description
Une campagne de fouilles menée de 1936 à 1941 permit de mettre au jour le premier fossile
d'hominidé de ce site. Des fouilles ultérieures ont exhumé cinquante fossiles de Meganthropus palaeo
et Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus, soit la moitié des fossiles d'hominidés connus aujourd'hui
dans le monde. Occupé depuis 1,5 million d'années, Sangiran constitue l'un des sites clés pour la
compréhension de l'évolution de l'homme.
          Justification d'inscription
          Le Comité a décidé d'inscrire le bien proposé sur la base des critères culturels (iii) et (vi) car il
          est l'un des sites clé pour la compréhension de l'évolution de l'homme. Par les fossiles et les
          objets fabriqués qui y sont enfouis, il illustre admirablement l'évolution de l'Homo sapiens
          sapiens, depuis le Pléistocène inférieur jusqu'à notre époque.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

          - Nomination file
          - Bibliography:

          016045 - Indonésie. Site des premiers hommes de Sangiran. Slides. 2 slides: col. (fre). Listed as WHC
          593 in 1996.
           PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list.
             // Sangiran (Indonesia)
            ACCESSION NO: ID.SANG. :1-2 (WHC 593).




                                                        17
                                                 KENYA

1997, 2001 - Lake Turkana National Parks / Parcs nationaux du Lac Turkana
Criteria: (viii) (x)




Brief Description
The most saline of Africa's large lakes, Turkana is an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and
animal communities. The three National Parks serve as a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major
breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile, hippopotamus and a variety of venomous snakes. The Koobi
Fora deposits, rich in mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains, have contributed more to the
understanding of paleo-environments than any other site on the continent.
         Justification for Inscription
         The Committee inscribed this property on the basis of natural criteria (i) and (iv) for the
         discoveries of mammal fossil remains in the site which led to the scientific reconstruction of the
         palaeo-environment of the entire Turkana Lake basin of the Quarternary Period. The Lake
         Turkana ecosystem with its diverse bird life and desert environment offers an exceptional
         laboratory for studies of plant and animal communities.
Brève description
Le plus salé des grands lacs d'Afrique, le Turkana, est un laboratoire exceptionnel pour l'étude des
communautés végétales et animales. Les trois parcs nationaux servent d'étapes aux oiseaux d'eau
migrateurs et constituent d'importantes zones de reproduction pour le crocodile du Nil, l'hippopotame et
différents serpents venimeux. Les gisements fossilifères de Koobi Fora, où l'on trouve de nombreux
restes de mammifères, de mollusques et d'autres espèces, ont davantage contribué à la
compréhension des paléo-environnements que tout autre site sur ce continent.
         Justification d'inscription
         Le Comité a inscrit ce bien au titre des critères naturels (i) et (iv) en raison de la découverte de
         vestiges fossiles de mammifères sur le site qui ont permis la reconstitution scientifique de
         l'environnement paléologique de tout le bassin du lac Turkana au Quaternaire. L'écosystème
         du lac Turkana avec son avifaune variée et son environnement désertique constitue un
         laboratoire exceptionnel pour l'étude des communautés végétales et animales.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

         - Nomination file
         - Bibliography:

         006332 - The Preservation and presentation of the monuments and sites of Koobi Fora, Lamu, Ishakani
         and Timlich Ohinga. Nunoo, Richard. Paris, Unesco, 1985. 8 p. (eng). Restricted technical report.
          PRIMARY KEYWORDS: protection of cultural heritage; conservation plans; Kenya; expert reports.
          SECONDARY KEYWORDS: conservation policy; international campaigns; financing; training.
            // Timlich Ohinga (Kenya) // Koobi Fora (Kenya) // Lamu (Kenya) // Ishakani (Kenya)
           ACCESSION NO: 8719. DOC CODE: FMR/CLT/CH/85/108.




                                                      18
                                      NAMIBIA / NAMIBIE

2007 - Twyfelfontein Criteria: (iii) (v)




Brief Description

Twyfelfontein or /Ui-//aes has one of the largest concentrations of rock petroglyphs (engravings) in
Africa. Most of these well-preserved engravings represent rhinoceros, elephant, ostrich and giraffe, as
well as drawings of human and animal footprints. The site also includes six painted rock shelters with
motifs of human figures in red ochre. The objects excavated from two sections, date from the Late
Stone Age. The site forms a coherent, extensive and high-quality record of ritual practices relating to
hunter-gatherer communities in this part of southern Africa over at least 2,000 years, and eloquently
illustrates the links between the ritual and economic practices of hunter-gatherers.

Outstanding Universal Value

The rock art forms a coherent, extensive and high quality record of ritual practices relating to hunter-
gather communities in this part of southern Africa over at least two millennia and, eloquently reflects the
links between ritual and economic practices of hunter-gatherers in terms of the value of reliable water
sources in nurturing communities on a seasonal basis.
Criterion (iii): The rock art engravings and paintings in Twyfelfontein form a coherent, extensive and
high quality record of ritual practices relating to hunter-gather communities in this part of southern
Africa over at least two millennia.
Criterion (v): The rock art reflects links between ritual and economic practices in the apparent sacred
association of the land adjacent to an aquifer as a reflection of its role in nurturing hunter-gather
communities over many millennia.
The integrity of the property is generally intact. The Twyfelfontein Country Lodge was permitted by the
Conservancy in 1999/2000 within the Seremonienplatz rock engraving site in the buffer zone. This has
severely compromised the integrity of the rock engravings in this area.
All the rock engravings and rock paintings within the core area are without doubt the authentic work of
San hunter-gatherers who lived in the region long before the influx of Damara herders and European
colonists. The setting of the Twyfelfontein rock art is also authentic as other than one small engraved
panel which was removed to the National Museum in Windhoek in the early part of the 20th century, no
panels have been moved or re-arranged.
The core area was designated a national monument in 1948 and is now protected by the National
Heritage Act 2004. A buffer zone has been established and proclaimed. The overall state of
conservation of the property has improved over the past few years, particularly in terms of the way
visitors are managed. Implementation of the Management plan began in 2005.

Brève description

Twyfelfontein possède l’une des plus importantes concentrations gravures sur roche d’Afrique. La
plupart de ces œuvres bien préservées représentent des rhinocéros, des éléphants, des autruches et
des girafes, ainsi que des empreintes de pas d’hommes et d’animaux. Le bien comprend également six
abris sous roche décorés de représentations humaines peintes à l’ocre rouge. Les vestiges mis au jour
dans deux parties du site ont été datés de la fin de l’âge de pierre. Le site forme un ensemble cohérent,
d’envergure et de qualité qui témoigne des pratiques rituelles des communautés de chasseurs-
cueilleurs dans cette partie d’Afrique australe pendant au moins deux millénaires ; il illustre de façon
éloquente les liens entre les pratiques rituelles et économiques des chasseurs-cueilleurs.




                                                    19
Valeur universelle exceptionnelle

L'art rupestre forme un vaste ensemble cohérent et de haute qualité qui témoigne des pratiques
rituelles relatives aux communautés de chasseurs-cueilleurs dans cette région de l'Afrique australe
pendant au moins deux millénaires et est un reflet éloquent des liens entre les pratiques rituelles et
économiques des chasseurs-cueilleurs, pour lesquels des sources d'eau capables de pourvoir à leurs
besoins à certaines saisons étaient précieuses.
Critère (iii) : Les gravures et peintures rupestres de Twyfelfontein forment un vaste ensemble cohérent
et de haute qualité qui témoigne des pratiques rituelles relatives aux communautés de chasseurs-
cueilleurs dans cette région de l'Afrique australe pendant au moins deux millénaires.
Critère (v) : L'art rupestre reflète les liens entre les pratiques rituelles et économiques dans l'apparente
association sacrée de la terre adjacente à l'aquifère comme reflet de son rôle dans les communautés
qu'elle a nourries pendant plusieurs millénaires.
L'intégrité du bien est généralement intacte. La zone de conservation a autorisé en 1999/2000 la
construction du Twyfelfontein Country Lodge sur le site de roches gravées de Seremonienplatz, dans la
zone tampon. Ceci a gravement compromis l'intégrité des gravures rupestres à cet endroit.
Toutes les gravures et peintures rupestres de la zone principale sont sans aucun doute l'œuvre
authentique des chasseurs-cueilleurs San qui vécurent dans la région longtemps avant l'arrivée des
bergers Damara et des colons européens. L'environnement de l'art rupestre de Twyfelfontein est aussi
authentique, puisque à l'exception d'un petit panneau gravé qui a été déposé au musée national de
Windhoek au début du XXe siècle, aucun panneau n'a été déplacé ou réorganisé.
La zone principale de l'art rupestre a été classée monument national en 1948 et elle est désormais
protégée par le National Heritage Act 2004. Une zone tampon a été établie et a fait l'objet d'un décret.
L'état général de conservation du bien s'est amélioré ces dernières années, particulièrement en termes
de gestion des visiteurs. La mise en œuvre du plan de gestion a commencé en 2005.

Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

        - Nomination file




                                                    20
                                          SPAIN / ESPAGNE

2000 - Archaeological Site of Atapuerca / Site archéologique d’Atapuerca
Criteria: (iii) (v)




Brief Description
The caves of the Sierra de Atapuerca contain a rich fossil record of the earliest human beings in
Europe, from nearly one million years ago and extending up to the Common Era. They represent an
exceptional reserve of data, the scientific study of which provides priceless information about the
appearance and the way of life of these remote human ancestors.


         Justification for Inscription
         Criterion iii The earliest and most abundant evidence of humankind in Europe is to be found in
         the caves of the Sierra de Atapuerca. Criterion v The fossil remains in the Sierra de Atapuerca
         constitute an exceptional reserve of information about the physical nature and the way of life of
         the earliest human communities in Europe.


Brève description
Les grottes de la Sierra d'Atapuerca contiennent de riches vestiges fossiles des premiers êtres
humains à s'installer en Europe depuis près d'un million d'années jusqu'à notre ère. Elles constituent
une réserve exceptionnelle de données dont l'étude scientifique fournit des renseignements
inestimables sur l'aspect et le mode de vie de ces lointains ancêtres de notre espèce.


Justification d'inscription
         Critère iii Les preuves les plus anciennes et les plus abondantes de la présence de l’homme en
         Europe se trouvent dans les grottes de la Sierra de Atapuerca. Critère v Les restes fossiles de
         la Sierra de Atapuerca constituent une réserve exceptionnelle d’informations sur la nature
         physique et le mode de vie des premières communautés humaines en Europe.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

         - Nomination file
         - Bibliography:

          017037 - La dialéctica Norte-Sur en el Cuaternario Europeo. Atapuerca y la evolución de los ecosistemas
          ibéricos. Rosas González, Antonio. Sevilla, IAPH, 1999. p. 148-155, illus. (PH: Boletín del Instituto
          Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico. 29, 1999) (spa). Incl. bibl.
            PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; world heritage list; palaeontological sites; archaeological
          excavations; archaeological interpretation; Spain.
             // Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain (WHC 989)
             ACCESSION NO: K-388. ISSN: 1136-1867.


          017580 - Le site archéologique de la Sierra de Atapuerca, dans les municipalités d'Atapuerca et d'Ibeas
          de Juarros (Burgos). 39 slides : col (spa). From WHC 989 listed in 2000 ; 3 pages typescript
           PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
          remains; archaeological finds; fossils; human remains; human settlement sites; Spain.


                                                        21
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: slides.
   // The archaeological site of the Sierra de Atapuerca in the municipalities of Atapuerca and Ibeas de
Juarros, Spain (WHC 989)
  CALL NO: ES. ATA. 52 : 1-39 (WHC 989).


021445 - Los hombres y las herramientas. Fundació Arqueológica Clos; Würth España; Fundación
Atapuerca. Barcelona, Fundació Arqueológica Clos; Würth España, 2002. 237 p., illus. (spa). Incl.
Abstract in English.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; tools; historical surveys; archaeological finds.
   // Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: 14462. CALL NO: Arch. 574. ISBN: 84-932007-1-9.


021723 - Yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca. Hernández Villa, Paloma. Patronato de Turismo de
Burgos (ed.); Fundación Atapuerca. Burgos, Patronato de Turismo de Burgos, 2001. 23 p., illus. (spa).
Incl. Bibl.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; prehistoric sites; archaeological excavations; archaeological
sites; Spain.
    // Archaeological site of Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain (WHC 989)
   ACCESSION NO: 14463. CALL NO: Arch. 573.


022145 - La sierra de Atapuerca. Un viaje a nuestros orígenes. Diez, Carlos; Moral, Sergio; Navazo,
Marta. Fundación Atapuerca. Burgos, Fundación Atapuerca, 2003. 191 p., illus. (spa).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
remains; archaeological finds; human remains.
   // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: 14603. ISBN: 84-7239-778-5.


023199 - Los yacimientos sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos. Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermudez de Castro, Jose
Maria; Carbonell, Eudald; Fernandez, J. Javier. Castilla y Leon, Fundación de Patrimonio, 2000. 73 p.,
illus. (Guia Arqueologica) (spa). Incl. Bibl.
   PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
excavations; human remains; Spain.
    // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
    ACCESSION NO: WHC 989 (1). ISBN: 84-931163-2-7.


023200 - Atapuerca y la evolucion humana. Aguirre, Emiliano (ed.). Madrid, Centro de Estudios Ramon
Areces, 1998. 453 p., illus. (various texts in eng, spa). Incl. Bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
excavations; human remains; Spain.
   // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 989 (2). ISBN: 84-8004-283-4.


023201 - Atapuerca. Un millon de años de historia. Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria;
Carbonell, Eudald; Cervera, Jose. Madrid, Plat, Editorial complutense, 1998. 238 p., illus. (spa).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
excavations; human remains; Spain.
   // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 989 (3). ISBN: 84-86702-45-3.


023202 - Atapuerca: nuestros antecesores. Castilla y Leon. Junta. (Valladolid], Junta de Castilla y Leon,
1999. 221 p., illus. (spa). Incl. Bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; world heritage list; archaeological
excavations; human remains; exhibition catalogues; Spain.
   // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 989 (4). ISBN: 84-7846-871-4.


023203 - Jornadas cientificas: Evolucion humana en Europa y los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca.
Medina del Campo, Valladolid, 1992. Actas. Evolucion humana en Europa y los yacimientos de la Sierra
de Atapuerca. Arsuaga, Juan Luis (ed.); Bermudez, Jose Maria (ed.); Carbonell, Eudald (ed.). [Valladolid],



                                               22
Junta de Castilla y Leon. Consejeria de Cultura y Turismo, 1995. 2 v., illus. (same text in eng, spa).
Human evolution in Europe and the Atapuerca evidence. Workshop. eng. Incl. Bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: prehistoric sites; human settlement sites; human remains; palaeontological
sites; palaeolithic; world heritage list.
    // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 989 (5). ISBN: 84-7846-463-8.


023205 - Yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca. Medidas de protección y estrategias de desarrollo
turistio. Castilla y Leon. Junta. (Valladolid], Junta de Castilla y Leon, 2000. pg. var., illus., plans. (same
text in spa, eng, fre). Gisements de la Sierra de Atapuerca. Moyens de protection et strategies de
developpement touristique. fre. Archaeological sites in Sierra de Atapuerca. Protection measures and
strategies for tourist development. eng.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; world heritage list; protection of archaeological sites;
cultural tourism; tourism management; Spain.
    // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
   ACCESSION NO: WHC 989.


023206 - Plan director de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca. Ortega Martinez, Ana Isabel; Adrian
Diez, Felix; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria; Carbonell i Roura, Eudald.
Castilla y Leon. Junta. Burgos, Junta de Castilla y Leon, 1993. illus., plans. (spa).
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological sites; world heritage list; human remains; management plans;
Spain.
   // Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Spain (WHC 989)
  ACCESSION NO: WHC 989.




                                                  23
                          SOUTH AFRICA / AFRIQUE DU SUD

1999, 2005 - Fossil Hominid Sites of Syerkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and
Environs / Sites des hominidés fossiles de Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai
et les environs Criteria: (iii) (vi)




Brief Description
These sites have produced abundant scientific information on the evolution of the human being over
the past 3.5 million years, his way of life, and the animals with which he lived and on which he fed. The
landscape also preserves many features of that prehistoric period.

The Taung Skull Fossil Site, part of the extension, is the place where in 1924 the celebrated Taung
Skull - a specimen of the species Australopithecus africanus - was found. Makapan Valley, also in the
site, features in its many archaeological caves traces of human occupation and evolution dating back
some 3.3 million years. The area contains essential elements that define the origin and evolution of
humankind. Fossils found there have enabled the identification of several specimens of early hominids,
more particularly specimens of Paranthropus, dating back between 4.5 million and 2.5 million years as
well as evidence of the domestication of fire 1.8 million to 1 million years ago. It is an extension to the
site inscribed in 1999.
        Justification for Inscription
        Criteria (iii) and (vi): The Sterkfontein area contains an exceptionally large and scientifically
        significant group of sites which throw light on the earliest ancestors of humankind. They
        constitute a vast reserve of scientific information, the potential of which is enormous

Brève description
Les nombreuses grottes de la vallée de Sterkfontein ont fourni d'abondantes informations scientifiques
sur l'évolution de l'homme moderne depuis 3,5 millions d'années, sur son mode de vie et sur les
animaux avec lesquels il cohabitait et dont il se nourrissait. De nombreuses caractéristiques du
paysage actuel sont identiques à celles du paysage du temps de l'homme préhistorique.

C’est sur ce site que le célèbre crâne fossile de Taung - un spécimen de l’espèce Australopithecus
africanus – fut découvert en 1924. La vallée de Makapan, elle aussi sur ce site, abrite dans ses
nombreuses grottes archéologiques des traces d’occupation et d’évolution humaines remontant à
quelque 3,3 millions d’années. L’ensemble de la région contient des éléments essentiels définissant
l’origine et l’évolution de l’humanité. Les fossiles trouvés ont permis l’identification de plusieurs
spécimens des premiers hominidés, plus particulièrement du Paranthropus, vieux de 2,5 à 4,5 millions
d’années, ainsi que des preuves de la domestication du feu il y a 1,8 million à 1 million d’années. Il
s’agit d’une extension du site inscrit en 1999.
        Justification d'inscription
        critères iii et vi : La zone de Sterkfontein contient un groupe de grands sites, d’une importance
        exceptionnelle pour la science, qui sortent de l’ombre les ancêtres les plus anciens de
        l’humanité. Ces sites constituent une vaste réserve de données scientifiques au potentiel
        considérable.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:



                                                     24
- Nomination file
- Bibliography:


016951 - Swartkans, kromdraai et les environs. 19 slides: col. (eng). From WHC 915 listed in 1999.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; archaeological finds;
human remains; grottoes; fossils; South Africa.
 SECONDARY KEYWORDS: slides.
   // Fossil Hominid Site of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai and environs, South Africa (WHC 915)
  CALL NO: ZA.SWA.01:1- 19 (WHC 915).


022122 - Sterkfontein. Esterhuysen, Amanda. Archaeological Resource Development Project (ARDP).
South Africa, ARDP, 2002. 26 p., illus. (eng). Incl. bibl.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; prehistoric sites; archaeological finds; fossils; human
remains; South Africa.
   // Fossil Hominid sites of Sterkfontein, South Africa (WHC 915)
  ACCESSION NO: 14596.


026221 - The Cradle of Humankind: the home of our ancestors. Investing in a global legacy. Cradle of
Humankind World Heritage Site. Johannesburg, Cradle of Humankind, 2001. 10 sheets, ilus., map. (eng).
Incl. leaflets; revised edition.
  PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; human remains; palaeontological sites; conservation of
archaeological sites; visitors; cultural tourism; management plans; economic and social development;
financial policy; partnerships; tourism management; South Africa.
    // Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs, South Africa (WHC 915)
   ACCESSION NO: 14851.




                                              25
         UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA / REPUBLIQUE UNIE DE
                             TANZANIE


1979 - Ngorongoro Conservation Area / Zone de conservation de Ngorongoro
(Criteria: (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)




Brief Description
A large permanent concentration of wild animals can be found in the huge and perfect crater of
Ngorongoro. Nearby, the crater of Empakaai, filled by a deep lake, and the active volcano of Oldonyo
Lenga can be seen. Excavations carried out in the Olduvai gorge, not far from there, have resulted in
the discovery of one of our more distant ancestors, Homo habilis. Laitoli Site, which also lies within the
area, is one of the main localities of early hominid footprints, dating back 3.6 million years.
Brève description
L'immense et parfait cratère du Ngorongoro abrite une grande concentration permanente d'animaux
sauvages. À proximité se trouvent le cratère d'Empakaai, avec son lac profond, et le volcan d'Oldonyo
Lengai, encore en activité. Non loin de là, les fouilles effectuées dans la gorge d'Olduvai ont permis de
découvrir des ossements de l'un des plus lointains ancêtres de l'homme, Homo habilis. On trouve par
ailleurs sur le site de Laitoli, dans cette même région, des traces de pas des premiers hominidés
remontant à 3,6 millions d'années.


Documentation available at the ICOMOS Documentation Centre:

          - Nomination file
          - Bibliography:


          011964 - Zone de conservation de Ngorongoro, République-Unie de Tanzanie. Zuber, C.; Albert-Hesse,
          Jane (Text). National Geographic Society(USA). Paris, Unesco, [s.d.]. 2 slides : col. + 1 p. (World
          Heritage Sites. 7,8) (frealso in eng, spa). Listed as dossier WHC 39 in 1979. Accompanying material :
          legend from booklet bearing series title.
            PRIMARY KEYWORDS: world heritage list; natural heritage; conservation of natural heritage;
          archaeological finds; natural parks; rivers; rivers; Tanzania UR.
            SECONDARY KEYWORDS: slides; general views; aerial photography.
             // Olduvai Gorge, Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania UR)
             CALL NO: TZ.NGO.01:1-2.


          016702 - Laetoli Project. Conservation of the hominid trackway at Laetoli, Tanzania. Report on the 1996-
          1997 field seasons and the Olduvai Museum exhibition. The Getty Conservation Institute. GCI, 2000.
          illus., maps, plans. (eng). Incl. bibl.
             PRIMARY KEYWORDS: archaeological heritage; prehistoric sites; archaeological sites; archaeological
          interpretation; archaeological finds; footprints; cultural landscapes; conservation plans; vegetation;
          biological factors; Tanzania.
              // Laetoli, Tanzania // Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania (WHC 39)
              ACCESSION NO: 13823. CALL NO: Arch. 534.




                                                        26
018555 - Ngorongoro - Serengeti: an irreplaceable natural heritage. Kundaeli, John N. Madrid, UNESCO,
1998. p.36-45, illus., maps. (World Heritage Review. 9, 1998) (same text in eng, fre). Ngorongoro -
Serengeti: une expérience magique. fre.
 PRIMARY KEYWORDS: natural heritage; national parks; world heritage list; wildlife; Tanzania UR.
   // Serengeti National Park, United Republic of Tanzania (WHC 156)
  ACCESSION NO: K-382 b. ISSN: 1020-4202.




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