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					                      West Coast National Park



                       PARK MANAGEMENT PLAN

                            October 2006




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AUTHORISATION
This management plan is hereby internally accepted and authorised as the legal
requirement for managing West Coast National Park as stated in the Protected Areas
Act.

______________________________                      Date:   _____         _____
Paul Daphne
Executive Director Parks, SANParks




______________________________                      Date: _______     _      __
Sydney Soundy
Chief Operating Officer, SANParks




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                               2
______________________________                    Date:   _____   _____
Dr David Mabunda
Chief Executive, SANParks




Recommended to SANParks Board




_____________________________                     Date:   _____   _____
Ms Cheryl Carolus
Chairperson, SANParks Board




Recommended to Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism




_____________________________                     Date:   _____   _____
Mr Marthinus van Schalkwyk
Minister: Department of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism (DEAT)




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                       3
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)




SUMMARY

The West Coast National Park (WCNP) conserves an exceptional range of important natural
and cultural assets, including marine and terrestrial biodiversity, and rich palaeontological,
archaeological and cultural-historical resources. The particularly wide diversity of natural
habitats is one of the factors accounting for the rich biodiversity of the park. In the marine
environment the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system varies widely with regard to
exposure to wave action, an important feature accounting for the spatial diversity of marine
fishes. The presence of several nearshore islands provides breeding colonies of Red Listed
seabirds, including Cape gannet, African penguin and Bank cormorant. Other important
aquatic habitats include saltmarshes (those in the park constituting 32 % of the saltmarsh
habitat in South Africa) and freshwater wetlands. Situated in the diverse Cape Floral
Kingdom the WCNP is also of significance in terms of floral diversity. One of the terrestrial
vegetation types of the WCNP, the sand plain fynbos, is poorly represented in other
protected areas and is a conservation priority for the park. Not surprisingly in view of its
habitat diversity, the WCNP protects a very wide variety of Red Listed species, ranging from
South Africa’s most endangered marine mollusc (for which the park provides the only known
habitat), to the vulnerable black harrier (the park having the highest population density in
South Africa), not to mention numerous plant species. The cultural-historical resources range
from 117 000 year old fossilized human footprints to the Vereenigde Oostindische
Compagnie beacon at Geelbek, now a national monument. Added to this is the extremely
rich fossil record. This Management Plan includes plans to expand the WCNP more of both
the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. A plan is put forward to expand the currently under-
developed tourism potential, with a view to enhancing the financial sustainability of the park.




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TABLE OF CONTENT
1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
    1.1        Location...................................................................................................................... 1
    1.2        Extent ......................................................................................................................... 1
    1.3        History........................................................................................................................ 2
    1.4        History of park establishment .................................................................................... 3
    1.5        Urban/rural park relation ............................................................................................ 3
    1.6        Climate ....................................................................................................................... 4
    1.7        Geology and soils ....................................................................................................... 4
    1.8        Topography ................................................................................................................ 5
    1.9        Marine & coastal processes........................................................................................ 5
    1.10       Flora ........................................................................................................................... 5
    1.11       Fauna .......................................................................................................................... 6
    1.12       Socio economic .......................................................................................................... 8
2      . Protected Areas Management Planning Framework ...................... 8
    2.1        Background to and formulation of the Desired State for the park ............................. 8
    2.2        Vision ......................................................................................................................... 8
    2.3        Balanced Scorecard .................................................................................................... 9
    2.4        Desired state ............................................................................................................... 9
    2.5        Vital Attributes, Determinants, Threats and Constraints ......................................... 10
    2.6        Objectives Hierarchy for the West Coast National Park.......................................... 13
3      OPERATIONAL PLANS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES ....................... 25
    3.1    Biodiversity and Heritage Conservation .................................................................. 25
      3.1.1      Park expansion ................................................................................................. 25
      3.1.2      Resource Use.................................................................................................... 26
      3.1.3      Rehabilitation ................................................................................................... 26
      3.1.4      Faunal Management and Reintroduction ......................................................... 27
      3.1.5      Species of Special Concern .............................................................................. 27
      3.1.6      Fire Management.............................................................................................. 28
      3.1.7      Freshwater Wetlands ........................................................................................ 29
    3.2     Cultural Heritage Resources..................................................................................... 29
    3.3     Sustainable tourism .................................................................................................. 30
      3.3.1      West Coast National Park Zoning Plan............................................................ 30
      3.3.2      Tourism Background........................................................................................ 31
      3.3.3      Tourism Products ............................................................................................. 31
      3.3.4      Tourist Activities.............................................................................................. 33
      3.3.5      Tourism Roads ................................................................................................. 34
      3.3.6      Access............................................................................................................... 34
      3.3.7      Financial Analysis ............................................................................................ 34
      3.3.8      Marketing ......................................................................................................... 34
    3.4     Building cooperation ................................................................................................ 34
      3.4.1      Co-operative Governance................................................................................. 34
      3.4.2      Environmental Interpretation ........................................................................... 35
      3.4.3      Local socio economic development ................................................................. 35
      3.4.4 Constituency Building............................................................................................. 36
    3.5     Effective park management...................................................................................... 37
      3.5.1      Environmental management (includes waste, energy, water, NEMA
      compliance): ..................................................................................................................... 37
      3.5.2      Safety and Security........................................................................................... 38
      3.5.3      Infrastructure Plan ............................................................................................ 39

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       3.5.4      Human Resources and Staff Capacity Building ............................................... 41
       3.5.4      Institutional Development and Administration ................................................ 41
       3.5.5      Financial Sustainability .................................................................................... 42
       3.5.5      HIV/AIDS ........................................................................................................ 42
       3.5.6      Legal compliance/risk management................................................................. 43
4.       REFERENCES.................................................................................. 45


LIST OF ACRONYMS / ABBREVIATIONS
  1            BSC                      Balanced Scorecard
  2            CDF                      Conservation Development Framework
  3            DEAT                     Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism
  4            DoE                      Department of Education
  5            DWAF                     Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
  6            EIA                      Environmental Impact Assessment
  7            EMS                      Environmental Management System
  8            EPWP                     Expanded Public Works Programme
  9            FPA                      Fire Protection Agency
  10           GIS                      Geographic Information System
  11           GPS                      Global Positioning System
  12           IDP                      Integrated Development Plan
  13           MCM                      Marine and Coastal Management
  14           MLRA                     Marine Living Resources Act
  15           MPA                      Marine Protected Area
  16           NEMA                     National Environmental Management Act
  17           SANParks                 South African National Parks
  18           SMME                     Small, medium and micro enterprises
  19           SDF                      Spatial Development Framework
  20           SSC                      Species of special concern
  21           WCNCB                    Western Cape Nature Conservation Board
  22           WCNP                     West Coast National Park




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1     INTRODUCTION

1.1   Location

The West Coast National Park (WCNP) is situated approximately 100 km northwest of Cape
Town on the Atlantic seaboard in the Western Cape Province. The park extends from
Yzerfontein in the south to Langebaan in the north and from the Atlantic Ocean in the west
across the West Coast road (R27) in the east and incorporates a coastline stretching
approximately 30 km. The park includes the Langebaan lagoon and all but one of the islands
in Saldanha Bay (Figure 1).




                 FIGURE 1: Location of the West Coast National Park

1.2   Extent

The WCNP currently comprises some 35,000 ha of lagoon, saltmarshes, coastal dunes,
strandveld and islands (Figure 2). The terrestrial part of the park extends along the coast
from Yzerfontein in the south to Plankiesbaai (in line with the town Langebaan) in the north,
and from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Elandsfontein in the east. It flanks the marine
component of the park (c. 5,000 ha), the Langebaan Lagoon which incorporates the lagoon
south of Leentjiesklip and excludes the Donkergat Military Area.

Three nearshore islands in Saldanha Bay (Marcus, Malgas and Jutten islands) form part of
the park. The Langebaan Lagoon is also designated as a Marine protected Area (MPA),
while the park adjoins the Sixteen Mile Beach MPA on the Atlantic coast, the Saldanha Bay
MPA north of the lagoon, and three MPAs surrounding Jutten, Malgas and Marcus islands.


Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                     1
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)




                 FIGURE 2: Extent of West Coast National Park
1.3   History

        Palaeontology
The area, especially around Elandsfontein, is extremely rich in fossils, and abundant Late
Cenozoic deposits of up to 5 million years in age in the Varswater formation have been found
(Hendey 1985). Fossils can also be found elsewhere in the park, and several fossils in the
calcrete areas in and near the dunes at Geelbek are accessible to visitors.



Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                    2
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The fossilised imprints of human footprints were found at Kraalbaai in 1997. The substrate
was dated through lumenescence dating as 117,000 years old. The original footprints were
removed and are now kept in the S A Museum. Subsequently a trackway of the same
footprints were found on the site (Roberts & Berger 1997).

        Archaeology
The evidence of human occupation of the park date back to the middle Pleistocene, but most
of the records date from the later Holocene some 12,000 years ago. These remains range
from fish traps to middens, and include an important site known as Oudepost I at Kraalbaai
relating to contact between the Dutch VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) officials
and the local Khoekhoe (Shrire 1985).

         Historical Aspects
The history of the Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon was described in a number of
accounts, with a book on Saldanha Bay the best known (Burman & Levin, 1974). The park
has two national monuments in the VOC beacon at Geelbek and the Geelbek homestead
itself, while other historical buildings can also be found in the park at Bottelary and Soutpan.

Human exploitation of the park dates back to prehistory and continued until the present
(Liengme 1987) and included a wide range of activities such as planting of alien plants to
stabilise dunes, farming, sealing, seabird guano collection penguin egg collection, oyster
culture, trout mariculture, fishing, whaling and mining of oyster shells, phosphate rock and
salt (Yssel 2000).

1.4   History of park establishment

The first conservation measures for the Langebaan Lagoon were implemented in 1973 when
the lagoon was proclaimed a reserve in terms of the Sea Fisheries Act. Concern about the
state of the Langebaan Lagoon and Saldanha Bay led the then Department of Planning and
Environment in 1974 to appoint a committee to, among other tasks, evaluate and advise on
proposals for development in the area, and in the holding of an international symposium in
1976 recommending that the Langebaan Lagoon, the peninsula, adjacent islands and
surrounding land be proclaimed a Nature Reserve as a matter of urgency.

Years of reports and planning culminated in the lagoon, some adjoining state land, the
marshes near Geelbek, part of Sixteen Mile Beach and the islands Marcus, Malgas,
Schaapen and Jutten being proclaimed as the Langebaan National Park in 1985. The first
further expansion of the park occurred in 1987 when state land previously managed by the
Department of Forestry as De Hoek Forestry station, a dune reclamation scheme, as well as
Geelbek, portions of the farms Bottelary and Schrywershoek as well as Abrahamskraal was
added to the park, while Postberg was included in the national park as the first contractual
national park in South Africa. Some land in Langebaan was added in 1988, when a name
change from Langebaan National Park to West Coast National Park was gazetted and
implemented. The farm Stofbergsfontein, which included a contractual component with
residential rights, was added in 1991, and since then the park has steadily increased in size,
with properties being added to bring the park to its present size of around 35,000 ha.

1.5   Urban/rural park relation

The park falls within the West Coast District Municipality, with the northern part in the
Saldanha Bay Local Municipality and the southern part in the Swartland Municipality. The
park forms the northern core of the West Coast Biosphere Reserve, and is fully integrated in
the various Spatial Development Frameworks of the municipalities. The town of Langebaan



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and Yzerfontein adjoin the park to the north and south respectively, while the towns of
Saldanha, Vredenburg and Hopefield are within 20 km of the park boundaries.

1.6   Climate

The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, mild and without extremes, but with strong seasonal
winds, predominantly southerlies in summer and northerlies in winter. The monthly maximum
and minimum air temperatures recorded for Langebaanweg (15 km northeast of the town of
Langebaan) range from 18.4oC – 27.5oC and 7.1oC – 14.9oC respectively. The average
annual rainfall is 265 mm, falling mainly in winter (Weather Bureau 1988 in Heydenrych
1995).

1.7   Geology and soils

The landscapes of the park are products of a long and complex geological history. The
basement rocks of the Malmesbury formation, laid down as marine sediments during the Pre-
Cambrian (700 million years BP) were uplifted, folded and intruded by successive phases of
igneous activitiy, which now form some exposed granite outcrops. The land surface so
formed was altered by drastic changes in sea level over millions of years, leading to
successive phases of denudation and submergence, during which sediments were again
deposited, redistributed or eroded by water, wind or wave action. Near the coast most of the
ancient bedrock is now locally between 20-60m below sea level, and is mostly buried in dune
sands more than 90m deep. The loose sandy surface was moulded into flats, dunes and
hollows by strong southerly winds, and while most of these areas were stabilised, some
mobile dunes remained until recent stabilisation in the 1960s by alien vegetation (Geological
Survey, 1972; Visser & Schoch, 1973; Tinley, 1985).

The sands, being derived from marine deposits, contain a large proportion of calcareous
material, and older dunes have become calcified to sandy limestone. A thickness of 88m of
this material has been recorded in boreholes at Geelbek. The marine origin of the sand is
also reflected in the generally brack groundwater, and where badly drained pans flood in the
winter, salt deposits can be found in the summer. Such salt pans near Geelbek have been
worked intermittently since the 17th century (Visser & Schoch, 1973).

The soils at the coast are highly calcareous and susceptible to wind erosion (Liengme 1987),
while earth mounds or ‘heuweltjies’ are found at Postberg (Heydenrych 1995). At places
such as Massenberg and Vlaeberg the hard granite bedrock reveals wave-worn former
island shores, while in other areas such as Meeuwklip wave-bevelled former shoals and
reefs are evident. Indications, borne out by phosphate deposits from guano on Postberg, are
that the 150m contour formed the highest sea level. The successive advances and retreats
of the sea were also responsible for the formation of Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon.
At times when the sea retreated, barrier dunes were built up along the coast. During the
most recent advance of the sea about 9 000 years ago, the dune barriers between the
granite headlands to the north and south of the modern Saldanha Bay were breached and
the low-lying land behind the barriers were flooded, thus forming the modern bay and lagoon.
The remaining dune barrier runs south from Postberg to form the Langebaan peninsula
(Fleming 1977, 1980).

The main geological formations are:
        Witzand formation - unconsolidated white sand with comminuted shells,
        Langebaan formation - limestone calcrete and calcified parabolic dune sand,
        Springfontyn formation - light grey to pale red sandy soils,
        Langebaan-Saldanha Pluton formation - stony granite; quartz monzonite and quartz
        porphyry.



Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                     4
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1.8   Topography

The Langebaan peninsula, which abuts the Atlantic Ocean on the west and Langebaan
Lagoon on the east, is about 2 km wide and 15 km long. In the northern sector there are
elevated granite outcrops, the highest being Vlaeberg (193 m amsl) and Konstabelkop (189
m amsl), and low ridges of limestone and calcrete. In the south there are unconsolidated and
vegetated dunes, and near Yzerfontein a large mobile dunefield extends inland towards Van
Niekerkspos. The low-lying areas inland of the lagoon consist mainly of calcrete sheets and
unconsolidated sands and the occasional granite outcrop such as Seeberg (Flemming 1977).

1.9   Marine & coastal processes

Langebaan Lagoon, which is a large marine embayment, has a small freshwater catchment,
and surface fresh-water in the park is generally scarce and of a seasonal nature. The lagoon
is tidal and the subtidal region is generally less than 4 m deep (Flemming 1977). Current
velocities during spring tides can reach speeds up of to 100 cm/sec in the main entrance
channels to the lagoon, before decreasing to approximately 20 – 25 cm/sec in the wider
lower reaches. Approximately 12 percent of the volume of the Saldanha Bay - Langebaan
Lagoon system is exchanged during a spring tide (Shannon & Stander 1977). Upwelling of
cold, nutrient rich waters occurs seasonally (spring and summer) along the west coast. The
upwelled water is advected into Saldanha Bay, affecting the temperature and nutrient levels
of the bay (Pitcher & Calder 1998) and to lesser extent that of the lagoon (Monteiro &Largier
1999).

1.10 Flora

       Phytoplankton
Saldanha Bay is linked to the Benguela upwelling system and is characterized by inputs of
surface nitrate and high chlorophyll levels most of the year, and a mean water column
chlorophyll a concentration of 8.6 µg/l, and a mean daily rate of production of 3.40 g of
C/m²/day have been recorded (Pitcher and Calder 1998)

        Algae (seaweeds)
A total of 200 seaweed species consisting of 33 green seaweeds, 26 brown seaweeds and
141 red seaweeds have been recorded for the Saldanha Bay / Langebaan Lagoon system
(Schils 1998). Seven seaweed species found in the lagoon have a warm south coast
distribution (Bolton & Stegenga 2002).

       Aquatic & semi aquatic plants
The saltmarsh plants Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia perennis reach maximum
abundance in the southern half of the lagoon where nutrients in the marsh water are highest
and current speeds reduced (Christie 1981). Other common saltmarsh species found are
Arthrocnemum pillanssi var. pillanssi, Salicornia capensis and Disphyma crassifolium,
Juncus krausii, Scirpus nodosus, Nidorella foetida, Senecio haliminfolius, Typha capensis
and Phragmites australis (Boucher & Jarman 1977).

The saltmarshes of Langebaan are unique in that no river feeds them and the lagoon, and at
some 5,700ha, constituting 32% of saltmarsh habitat in the country, the marshes are the
largest in South Africa (O’Callaghan 1990).

       Terrestrial vegetation
WCNP mostly contains strandveld vegetation (24,025 ha), which was previously classified as
West Coast Strandveld (Acocks 1988) and Langebaan Fynbos/Thicket Mosaic (Cowling &
Heijnis 2001), and hereafter referred to as ‘strandveld’. In recent years the park has
expanded incorporating substantial areas (6,382 ha) of an additional vegetation type / broad


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habitat unit i.e. Hopefield Sand Plain Fynbos, previously called Coastal Fynbos, and
hereafter referred to as ‘sand plain fynbos’. Both these habitat units were given a 50 %
irreplaceability rating (Cowling et al. 1999), meaning that half of what remains outside
reserves should be conserved. However, sand plain fynbos is regarded to be of higher
conservation value than strandveld, due to very little being formally conserved and it being
more threatened by alien plant invasion.

The strandveld vegetation of WCNP occurs on the Langebaan peninsula and east of the
Langebaan lagoon on deep calcareous sands of the Langebaan formation. Sand plain
fynbos occurs inland of the strandveld, around Hopefield, on deep acidic light-grey to pale-
red sands of the Springfontyn formation. Extensive marshes, dominated by Sarcocornia,
Salicornia, Spartina, Limonium, Phragmites, Typha, Juncus, and/or Scirpus species, occur
on the fringes of the Langebaan lagoon (Boucher & Jarman 1977).

The vegetation of the park, excluding the newly acquired properties such as Van Niekerks
Hoop, Kalkkilpfontein, Langefontein and Elandsfontein, may be divided into 36 associations
(or communities), having some 482 plant species (including salt marsh species), of which 21
are Red Data Book species (Heydenrych 1995). A further 14 Red Data species have been
recorded, or are likely to occur, in the newly acquired sections of land (see Operational plan
for species of special concern).

1.11 Fauna

        Marine Invertebrates
Langebaan Lagoon has a rich marine fauna of more than 400 species. In general the density
and diversity of macro-invertebrates in the soft substrata of the lagoon is higher than in that
of Saldanha Bay (Simons 2000). In the early 1990s approximately 800,000 sand prawns
Callianassa kraussi were removed per annum from the central bank in the lagoon by bait
diggers, who disturbed a further 1,300 kg of associated macrofauna, much of which (c. 80%)
was preyed upon by scavenging gulls (Wynberg & Branch1997). Such bait digging activities
had a marked impact on the composition of the macro-fauna in the mudflats of the lagoon,
with some polychaeta species being attracted to disturbed sites, while others avoid these
sites (Simons 2000). The lagoon is also the only known habitat for South Africa's most
endangered marine mollusc, Siphonaria compressa (Hebert 1999). Another small mollusc
Assiminea globulus constitutes about 63 percent of the invertebrate biomass in the surface
layers of the intertidal mudflats of the lagoon, and it is the major prey item of the curlew
sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, which is the most abundant migrant wader at Langebaan
Lagoon (Puttick 1978). Three alien invertebrate species have sizeable populations in the
lagoon. They are the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, European periwinkle
Littorina saxatilis and an anemone Sagartia ornata (Robinson et al. 2004).

       Fishes
The overall abundance of teleosts (bony fish such as bream and mullets) across the
Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system increases as wave exposure decreases, while the
highest species richness and diversity occur at intermediate levels of wave exposure. A total
of 29 bony fish species and 5 elasmobranch (sharks) species have been found in the lagoon
(Clark 1997) with the sandshark Rhinobatos annulatus being an important predator due to its
numbers and biomass (Harris et al. 1988).


         Amphibians
Very little is known about the amphibians of the park, with only a preliminary checklist being
available.




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                        6
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        Reptiles
Thirty-three reptile species have been recorded in the park (Cordes & Mouton 1996).
Detailed studies have been done on the girdled lizards Cordylus niger and C. polyzonus and
angulale tortoise Chersina angulate. The angulate tortoise Chersina angulate population of
the park is genetically (mtDNA) different from that at Kleinzee (Lesia et al. 2003).

        Birds
Langebaan Lagoon: A total of some 255 species have been recorded in the park. Langebaan
Lagoon provides an important feeding area for migrant waders. The lagoon supports
approximately 26 % of all waders noted in the wetlands of the south-western Cape Province
(Ryan et al. 1988), and between 1975 and 1995 an average of 34 700 birds were recorded
during annual summer counts. Of these approximately 90% were Palaearctic migrant
waders, with the most abundant species Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea (c. 56%), Grey
plover Pluvialis squatarola (11%), Sanderling Calidris alba (8%) and Knot Calidris canutus (8
%). In winter the numbers of waterbirds decline to approximately 10,300, which include about
4,500 flamingos (Phoenicipterus ruber and P. minor) (Navarro et al. 1995). The terrestrial
area adjacent to the lagoon supports the highest density of the Vulnerable black harrier
Circus maurus in South Africa.

Nearshore islands: The nearshore islands support large breeding colonies of Red Data
seabirds. Based on a survey done in 2000 (Du Toit et al. 2003), these include the Vulnerable
species:
           • Cape gannets Morus capensis – 70,000 nest sites/breeding pairs
           • African penguin Spheniscus demersus - 1,507 nest sites
           • Bank cormorant Phalocrocorax neglectus - 65 nest sites

and the Near-threatened species:
          • Cape cormorant Phalocrocorax capensis - 33,000 nest sites (1978)
          • Crowned cormorant Phalocrocorax coronatus - 224 nest sites
          • African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini - 180 breeding pairs

Substantial numbers of non-threatened species also breed on these islands (e.g. Kelp gull
Larus dominicanus – 8,351 breeding pairs; Hartlaub’s Gull Larus hartlaubii – 1,669 breeding
pairs).

The overall breeding success of the Cape gannet and African penguin is adversely affected
by decreases in stocks of anchovy and sardine (Crawford 1998); oil pollution (Crawford et al.
2000a), and predation by seals (Mecenero et al. 2005).

        Mammals
Terrestrial: Compared with the more tropical regions of southern Africa, the South West
Cape has few species. Nevertheless, 19 rodents, 11 insectivores, 13 carnivores and 10
ungulates have been recorded in the park (Avery et al. 1990). Of these animals five
ungulates and one rodent are extralimital (i.e. they were introduced into the park, which lies
outside their normal distribution range). One such species is the Bontebok Damaliscus
dorcas dorcas, which together Grant’s golden mole Eremitalpa granti and honey badger
Mellivora capensis, comprise the three Red Data mammals found in the park (Friedmann &
Daly 2004). The larger carnivores in the park (Yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata, small
grey mongoose Galerella pulverulenta, water mongoose Atilax paludinosus and caracal Felis
caracal) show opportunistic feeding behaviour and an absence of dietary specialisation.
Rodents (Rhabdomys pumilio and Otomys unisulcatus) are the main prey item of the last
three mentioned carnivore species (Avenant & Nel 1997).




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                       7
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Marine: Cape fur seal colonies historically occurred on the nearshore islands in Saldanha
Bay, but no longer occupy this habitat However, seals still forage in the area, often preying
on the seabirds of the islands (Yssel 2000).

1.12 Socio economic

Demography
The area surrounding Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon (Vredenburg, Saldanha, Velddrif
and Langebaan) had an estimated population of 46,427 in 1994, growing to an estimated
64,300 in 1998. The rapid increase could be ascribed to recent industrial development of the
area. The average population growth, however, could vary between 3.4% and 5.382% per
annum. 98% of this population of the area live in the towns of the area, with only 2% in the
rural areas. The various spatial development frameworks and structure plans for the area
provide information on population composition, employment and other demographic aspects of
the area

Main Economic Activities
Agriculture and fishing currently provide the largest employment, i.e. 24%. The West Coast is
the center of South Africa's commercial fishing industry and produces 22% of the total South
African fish catch. The next largest sector is manufacturing, providing 21% of all jobs, which
partly reflects the large number of people involved in fish processing and industrial
manufacturing. The service sector accounts for 20% of jobs, and trade for 9%. The West
Coast's 1994 GDP of R3.7 billion amounted to 7.2 % of that of the Province as a whole. As
many employment opportunities in agriculture, fishing and, to some extent, tourism, are
seasonal or temporary, rates of unemployment in the West Coast vary. The 1991 census
showed that 71% of the region's labour force was formally employed and unemployment was
rated at 10%. The percentage active in the informal sector had grown from 6% in 1980 to 19%
in 1991 (Yssel 2000)

2     . PROTECTED AREAS MANAGEMENT PLANNING FRAMEWORK

2.1     Background to and formulation of the Desired State for the park

The SANParks Policy Framework guides the development of park management plans. The
essential feature of the system is the iterative way in which it will enable continual
improvement in the management of the Park though annual and five-year review cycles. The
first step in developing/revising a management plan is to develop the desired state of the
park.

        Setting the Desired State
In order that the current, and future, extent of the Park is to be protected and managed
effectively, a Desired State is developed to guide park management in its daily operations.
The Desired State is drafted every five years in consultation with representative
stakeholders.

2.2   Vision

We see a West Coast National Park that conserves and enhances the unique terrestrial and
 marine ecological and cultural, historical and scenic resources of the Langebaan lagoon,
proximate islands and natural environments of the West Coast for the appreciation, and use
                            of, present and future generations.




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Cultural heritage

        To manage and sustain the significance, authenticity and integrity of the tangible and
    intangible cultural heritage resources for which SANParks is responsible, for the enjoyment
                          and benefit of all South Africans and of the world.

Tourism

     To become a fully operational National Park that offers a diversity of tourism products and
                    enhances the tourist experience in a sustainable manner.

People and Conservation

    To enable stakeholders to derive maximum and equitable benefit from opportunities created
         through the West Coast National Park thereby promoting a regional and national
                                       conservation ethic.

2.3     Balanced Scorecard

SANParks implemented a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in 2004 as a management tool to
provide a comprehensive management framework and business measurement translating
value positions to achievable objectives, measures and targets. This framework is used in
setting out objectives in the management plan.

2.4     Desired state

         Desired state                                                                           Priority

1        Nearshore seabird breeding sites adequately protected                                   High

2        Lagoon habitat for migrant waders adequately protected                                  High

3        Natural functions of the lagoon maintained                                              High

4        The extent of underrepresented habitat types increased (Sand Plain Fynbos, Coastal      High
         Renosterveld, sandy beaches & adjacent subtidal areas)

5        Fossil beds (Elandsfontein) incorporated into park                                      High

6        Development and activities in the park in line with conservation objectives             High

7        Extralimital species in the park and contractual areas removed and herbivory            High
         decreased.

8        Gill net activities reduced                                                             High

9        Alien removal programs continued and expanded (terrestrial & aquatic), and aligned      High
         with fire programme

10       Compliance in the multi-use zone of park improved (boating, bait collecting, fishing)   High

11       Knowledge of rare plant and animal populations improved (performance & distributions)   High

12       The determination of groundwater reserves by DWAF encouraged                            High

13       Neighbouring land use compatible with park objectives encouraged.                       High




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 14       Fire management programme implemented                                                              Medium

 15       Degraded lands rehabilitated, apart from select lands maintained for spring flower                 Medium
          displays

 16       Re-establishment of functioning mobile dune field investigated                                     Low

 17       Indigenous herbivore complement are re-established within constraints                              Low

 18       Old quarries, decommissioned roads, old farm yards and other disturbed sites                       Low
          rehabilitated.

 19       Knowledge of pollination/dispersal processes increased                                             Low

 20       Archaeological, cultural & historical sites inventorised and well managed.                         High

 21       Tourism infrastructure that caters for a wide variety of markets by providing a high               High
          quality service and experience without compromising biodiversity is developed




2.5      Vital Attributes, Determinants, Threats and Constraints

 Biodiversity
 Vital attributes          Determinants                   Threats                                 Constraints
                                                                                                  GENERIC CONSTRAINTS:
                                                                                                        Limited knowledge
                                                                                                        Lack of funds
                                                                                                        Limited staff capacity
                                                                                                        Changing focus of funding
                                                                                                  sources (land acquisition for
                                                                                                  biodiversity vs. infrastructure)
 Representation
 a) Patterns               Important landscape/ habitat
                           elements (and associated
                           biota):
                          Langebaan Lagoon                 Expanding harbour and increasing        Harbour (incl. oil terminal)
                                                           shipping traffic                        Langebaan & park villages
                                                           Oil pipeline Saldanha – Milnerton       Special Forces bases
                                                           Developments                            Industrial developments
                                                           Water quality & pollution               Historical fishing agreements
                                                           Extractive use                          House boats,
                                                           Invasive alien species                  Servitude running through park
                                                           Boating activities
                                                           Decreasing freshwater input
                                                           Flow barriers,
                          Nearshore Islands                Sea level rise                           Difficult access
                                                           Developments                             Illegal access
                                                           Oil pollution                            Manpower
                                                           Human disturbance                        Distance from park centre
                                                           Poaching                                 Current inability to ensure
                                                           Predators (natural & introduced)         proper management
                                                           Alien invasive species                   Existing infrastructure
                          Mobile dunes                     Alien invasive species                       Developments
                                                           Developments                                 Entrance road
                                                           Dune stabilization in adjacent areas
                          Vegetation types (and
                          associated fauna):

                          Sand Plain Fynbos                Alien invasive species                 Outside transformation by




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                      Strandveld                          Inappropriate fires                      agriculture & development
                                                          Over-utilisation                         Loss of indigenous seedbanks
                      Saltmarsh vegetation                Development activities                   Limited knowledge & baseline
                                                          Erosion                                  info
                      Freshwater wetland vegetation
                                                          Ground water abstraction
                                                          Groundwater contamination
                                                          Potential species loss
                      Species of Special Concern:
                      Red-listed plant species             Over-utilisation by herbivores          Limited Sand Plain Fynbos
                                                           Inappropriate fire regime               conserved
                                                           Development activities
                                                           Climate change
                                                           Insufficient knowledge
                                                           Alien invasive plants
                      Red-Data seabirds breeding           Predators (natural & introduced)        Size of island
                      sites:                               Oil pollution                           Commercial fishing activities
                                                           Disease                                 Oil terminal & harbour
                                                           Collapse of fish stocks                 Shipping activities
                                                           Human disturbance                       Large seal colonies
                                                           Developments                            Breakwater at Marcus island
                                                           Alien invasive species
                      Migrant waders over wintering     Human disturbance                          Developments (western shore
                      on lagoon                         Pollution                                  of lagoon)
                                                        Disease                                    Boating activities
                                                        Developments                               Oil terminal & harbour
                                                        Predators
                                                        Alien invasive species
                                                        Potential transmitters of human
                                                        diseases
                      Red Data bird: Black Harrier      Deterioration of marshlands                Limited marshland area
                                                        Human disturbance
                                                        Inappropriate fires


                      Exploited line fish species and   Gill-netting                               Existing permits Existing fishing
                      bycatch from gill-netting         Illegal fishing and exceeding bag limits   activities
                                                                                                   Lack of cooperative governance
                                                                                                   wrt MLRA

                      False limpet Siphonaria           Deterioration of eelgrass beds             Recreational bait digging
                      compressa                         Human disturbance                          activities
                                                        Pollution
                                                        Sedimentation.
                      Mammals and                       Diseases                                   Lack of destinations for
                      Reptiles                          Developments outside park                  bontebok
                                                        Bee-keeping.

b) Processes          Fire                              Accidental fires                           Equipment and manpower to
                                                        Over-utilisation by herbivores             control burns
                                                        Inappropriate fire regime                  Fire Protection Association
                                                        Climate change                             Limited access
                                                        Alien vegetation                           Alien vegetation
                                                        Damage to infrastructure                   Existing infrastructure
                      Herbivory                         Over-utilisation                           Contractual arrangements with
                                                        Unacceptable change in vegetation          Postberg
                                                        Inappropriate species                      Tourist expectations (flowers,
                                                        Inappropriate fires                        game)
                                                        Inappropriate water provision              Bontebok




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                       Hydrological (lagoon & aquifers)     Alteration of water circulation in lagoon   Hydrological influences are
                                                            (breakwater, groynes, extension to oil      outside park
                                                            terminal & jetties)                         Demand for ground water
                                                            Increasing demand for ground water,         No reserve determination

                       Sediment movement (lagoon)           Alien mussel colonization                   Harbour & Langebaan town
                                                            Harbour / Oil terminal extensions           developments
                                                            Climate change                              Existing flow barriers
                                                            Artificial sedimentation
                       Sediment movement (mobile            Alien vegetation                            Developments
                       dunes)                               Development                                 Roads
Rehabilitation         Alien mussel removal from            Potential recruitment from rocky shores     Huge populations in adjacent
                       sandbanks of the lagoon              and mussel farms                            areas.

                       Alien invasive plant removal         Continued invasions                         Persistent alien seed banks,
                                                            Disturbance                                 Inefficient follow-up
                                                            Fires                                       Fire-sensitive strandveld
                                                            Sand blowouts                               Slow recovery of vegetation
                                                                                                        Insufficient indigenous seed
                       Active rehabilitation of disturbed   Loss of topsoil                             bank
                       areas                                Climate change                              Funding.
                                                            Unpredictable weather
                                                            Alien reinvasion (persistent seed banks)
                                                            Herbivory
Landscape              Land use - inside park (zoning)      Conflicting biodiversity and tourism        Inappropriate existing roads &
                                                            objectives                                  infrastructure & roads
                                                            Inadequate planning (CDF not                Past agreements (Postberg,
                                                            developed)                                  Stofbergsfontein)
                                                            Inappropriate activities                    Illegal houseboats
                                                            Poverty relief development projects         Flower season
                                                            Tourism pressure
                       Land use – surrounding park          Inappropriate land use                      Proximity to towns
                                                            Changing land use                           Donkergat military base
                                                            Regional development strategies (IDPs)
                                                            conflicting with park objectives
                                                            Extension of towns and industry


Wildness               Configuration of park                Outside development                         Limited expansion options
                                                                                                        Prioritisation for allocation of
                                                                                                        funds
                                                                                                        Lack of acceptance about
                                                                                                        importance of specific
                                                                                                        acquisitions
                                                                                                        Development

                       Visual experience                    High visibility of structures from lagoon   Flat landscape
                                                            Wind farm(s)                                Situation of Langebaan town
                                                            Structures on outcrops                      Existing visually intrusive
                                                                                                        infrastructure
                       Human impact                         Littering                                   Need to generate revenue
                                                            Visual, auditory, olfactory & other         Expectation that protected
                                                            pollution                                   areas will provide benefits to
                                                            Military & Air-force activity               public
                                                            Illegal collection of biota                 Open (accessible) nature of
                                                            Trampling (trails)                          park,
                                                            Tourism & boating pressure                  Resident communities within
                                                            Increasing tourism pressure & road          park
                                                            network                                     Military & Air-force not
                                                            Human dependence on services /              respecting park rules /
                                                            infrastructure (e.g. toilets)               legislation
                                                                                                        No control over aviation
                                                                                                        activities




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2.6    Objectives Hierarchy for the West Coast National Park

   High level                                                                                                              Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective             Initiative
   objective                                                                                                               plan
  CONSERVATIO                                                              (1) Identification of under represented
  N OF                                                                         habitats/communities.
  REPRESENTAT
                                                                           (2) Consolidate park boundaries.
  IVE,                                             Consolidation and
  FUNCTIONAL                                       expansion of land/      (3) Incorporate more Sand Plain Fynbos.
  ECOSYSTEMS:                                      sea areas:
                                                                           (4) Incorporate Elandsfontein Fossil Fields.
  To conserve a                                    Consolidate protected
                          Representative                                                                                     Park
  representative                                   areas focusing on       (5) Incorporate MPAs, i.e. 16 Mile Beach and
                          ecosystems:                                                                                        Expansion
  sample of the                                    under represented           those surrounding Marcus, Malgas & Jutten
  regions                 To incorporate a         ecosystems,                 Island.
  ecosystems in a         spectrum of viable       functional linkages
                          terrestrial, aquatic,                            (6) Investigate incorporation of Meeuw- and
  linked                                           and processes. (8)
                          and marine                                           Vondeling islands.
  landscape/
  seascape, and           ecosystems                                       (7) Align park expansion with bioregional
  the maintenance         characteristic of                                    planning.
  or restoration of       the West Coast
                          Region, and to re-       Reintroduction of
  environmental                                    biota:
  processes to            introduce missing
                          elements where           Re-establish, where
  enable natural                                   possible, locally                                                         Fauna
  spatial and             possible.
                                                   extinct or depleted     (1) Re-establish indigenous biota within          Manageme
  temporal                                         biodiversity                constraints of park size, location,           nt &
  variation in                                     components and              infrastructure, etc.                          reintroducti
  structural,                                      populations in                                                            on
  functional and                                   accordance with
  compositional                                    principles &
  components of                                    guidelines. (14)




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   High level                                                                                                                      Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective                Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                       plan
  biodiversity.                                                              (1) Pursue appropriate management
                                                                                 arrangements of lagoon with MCM.
                                                   Langebaan Lagoon:         (2) Ensure appropriate co-operative governance
                                                                                 with relevant government
                                                   Strive to maintain long
                          Functional                                             departments/agencies (esp. wrt oil spill).
                                                   term persistence of
                          ecosystems:              biodiversity patterns     (3) Meet international obligations with respect to
                          To ensure the long       and processes in the          Ramsar Convention.                                  Safety &
                          term persistence         lagoon ecosystem,
                                                                             (4) Liaise with stakeholders to ensure protection       Security
                          of biodiversity          particularly the
                          patterns and                                           of natural resources
                                                   protection of
                          processes.               invertebrates, fishes     (5) Enforce applicable fishing and bait legislation
                                                   and migrant waders.           (MLRA).
                                                   (1)
                                                                             (6) Encourage research & monitoring (e.g. of
                                                                                 migrant waders, invasive aliens, harvesting of
                                                                                 fish & invertebrates).
                                                                             (1) Maintain appropriate conditions for successful
                                                                                 seabird breeding (limit human disturbance,
                                                                                 eradicate introduced predators, address
                                                                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                 rogue seal predation).
                                                                                                                                Management
                                                                             (2) Pursue appropriate management                  (incl. oil spill
                                                   Nearshore Islands             arrangements of inshore marine areas with      contingency,
                                                   Strive to maintain the        MCM.                                           SANCCOB bird
                                                   islands as safe                                                              rescue),
                                                   breeding areas for        (3) Ensure appropriate co-operative governance
                                                   seabirds. (2)                 with relevant government agencies
                                                                                 (especially with respect to seabird rescues    Species of
                                                                                 after oil spills).                             Special
                                                                                                                                Concern
                                                                             (4) Encourage research & monitoring of breeding
                                                                                 seabird colonies, predation & avian
                                                                                 mortalities.




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   High level                                                                                                                       Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective                 Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                        plan
                                                   Fire:                      (1) Align fire management plan with alien plant
                                                   Apply appropriate fire         clearing programme.
                                                   regime in Sand Plain
                                                   Fynbos areas               (2) Implement a fire plan to conserve
                                                                                  biodiversity.                                     Fire
                                                   (frequency, season,
                                                                                                                                    management
                                                   intensity, unit size),     (3) Protect fire sensitive coastal strandveld areas
                                                   while protecting               and wetlands from fires.
                                                   vegetation types not
                                                   driven by fire. (6)        (4) Evaluate impact of fire management.

                                                                              (1) Undertake monitoring (annual aerial census
                                                   Herbivory:                     of large species, quarterly ground counts of
                                                   Maintain composition           small species - trends) of population size,
                                                   and population sizes           composition, and distribution of med-large
                                                   of medium-large                herbivores.                                       Fauna
                                                   herbivores, and                                                                  management
                                                                              (2) Assess habitat types preferred by herbivores
                                                   understand the role of                                                           &
                                                                                  for signs of over-utilisation (e.g. trampling,
                                                   herbivory as a                                                                   reintroduction
                                                                                  absence of inflorescences).
                                                   modifier of biodiversity
                                                   at different spatial and   (3) Develop TPCs and apply adaptive
                                                   temporal scales. ( 5)          management, i.e. results inform herbivore
                                                                                  management practices.
                                                                              (1) Identify and evaluate the status of species of
                                                                                  special concern.
                                                   Species of special         (2) Minimize threats to populations of breeding
                                                   concern:                       Red Data seabirds & Black Harrier                 Species of
                                                   Maintain viable            (3) Encourage monitoring of selected species          special
                                                   populations of species         (abundance, breeding success & mortalities).      concern
                                                   of special concern. (3)
                                                                              (4) Maintain viable populations of Red Data plant
                                                                                  species by means of appropriate
                                                                                  management of the vegetation.




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   High level                                                                                                                       Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective                  Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                        plan
                                                   Freshwater
                                                                               (1) Improve understanding of freshwater
                                                   wetlands: marshes &
                                                                                   wetlands and their functioning.
                                                   seeps
                                                   Maintain physical,          (2) Remove alien vegetation in freshwater              Freshwater
                                                   chemical and                    wetland areas.                                     wetlands -
                                                   biological processes
                                                                               (3) Prevent development within freshwater
                                                   in freshwater wetland
                                                                                   wetlands.
                                                   areas. (9)
                                                                               (1) Establish the distribution and density of
                                                                                   invasive species.
                                                   Alien plants and
                                                   other alien or extra-       (2) Prioritise areas for alien removal focusing on
                                                   limital biota:                  biodiversity restoration.
                          Rehabilitation:          Control and where           (3) Implement removal programs for priority
                          Rehabilitate             possible eliminate              species and areas (alien plants, mobile            Rehabilitati
                          degraded areas,          alien/extra-limital biota       dunes, mussels on soft sediments).                 on
                          including the re-        to facilitate re-
                                                   establishment of            (4) Investigate options for the control of alien
                          establishment of
                                                   natural biodiversity            species (e.g. biological control).
                          biodiversity, and
                          the restoration of       pattern and process in      (5) Remove extra-limital herbivores.
                          key processes            invaded areas. (4)
                                                                               (6) Encourage/ facilitate natural recovery of
                          which support long
                                                                                   transformed areas
                          term persistence
                          of biodiversity.         Degraded land:
                                                   strive towards re-          (1) Rehabilitate quarries, decommissioned roads
                                                   establishment of                and unused infrastructure (e.g. farmsteads).       Rehabilitati
                                                   biodiversity patterns       (2) Encourage/facilitate natural recovery of old       on
                                                   and process in                  lands.
                                                   degraded land. (11)




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   High level                                                                                                                       Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective                 Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                        plan
   MITIGATE                                        Internal
   INTERNAL and           Reconciling              developments and
   EXTERNAL               other park               activities:                (1) Implement existing zonation plan.
   PRESSURES:             activities with          Minimise impacts
                          biodiversity                                        (2) Develop and implement CDF.
   To reduce                                       associated with the
   threats and            objectives:              development of             (3) Developments in accordance with EIA
   pressures and          To ensure that all       tourism and park               process (NEMA) and corporate policies.
                          management                                                                                                  CDF
   limit                                           management
                          aspects of                                          (4) Determine tourism carrying capacities.
   environmental                                   infrastructure, and
   impacts                SANParks                 ensure that such           (5) Implement green standards and
   resulting from         operations               developments do not            environmental best practice to be based on
   non-biodiversity       (revenue                 compromise                     future corporate policy.
   management             generation               biodiversity objectives.
   aspects of             including tourism,       (12, 16)
   SANParks               resource use,
                          developments,            Extractive resource
   operations and
                          management               use:
   surrounding
                          activities) are          Minimise the impacts
   land and                                                                   (1) Quantify current extractive resource activities
                          informed and             of extractive resource
   resource use.                                                                  (biological & groundwater).
                          constrained by           use, and ensure that
                          biodiversity             such activities are        (2) Define opportunities and constraints in line
                                                                                                                                      Resource
                          conservation             aligned with corporate         with corporate guidelines.
                                                                                                                                      use
                          objectives, and          guidelines; are within
                                                                              (3) Regulate resource use, according to adaptive
                          that the impacts of      management capacity
                                                                                  management process (e.g. gill net activities
                          these activities on      constraints, and do
                                                                                  by local communities)
                          biodiversity are         not compromise
                          minimised.               biodiversity objectives.
                                                   (13)




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   High level                                                                                                                   Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective              Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                    plan
                          Reconciling                                       (1) Engage with regional land management
                          biodiversity with                                     authorities, with respect to IDPs and SDFs at
                          external threats:        External                     local & regional level.
                          To reduce external       developments:
                                                                            (2) Provide input into planning and decision
                          threats and              Minimise the impacts
                                                                                making process (e.g. EIAs) for external         Cooperative
                          pressures, and           associated with
                                                                                development that may compromise park            governance
                          limit impacts of         inappropriate
                                                                                biodiversity objectives.
                          surrounding land         developments outside
                          & resource use on        the park. (17)           (3) Negotiate to ensure that external
                          biodiversity                                          developments are not visually obtrusive or
                          conservation                                          out of character with the park.
                          within the park.
                                                                            (1) Negotiate to mitigate or improve the
                                                   External activities:         management of external potentially
                                                   Negotiate to ensure          detrimental impacts.
                                                   that external resource
                                                                            (2) Encourage eco-friendly resource use and         Cooperative
                                                   and land use do not
                                                                                land management practices on adjacent           governance
                                                   detrimentally affect
                                                                                properties.
                                                   ecological processes
                                                   within the park. (15)    (3) Encourage reserve determination for ground
                                                                                water systems.




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   High level                                                                                                                       Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective                Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                        plan
                                                   Hydrological and
                                                   water chemistry           (1) Participate in the Saldanha Forum,
                                                   changes:                      monitoring committee of beach restoration,
                                                   Encourage                     Saldanha Bay Water Quality Trust and obtain
                                                   responsible authorities       results of water quality monitoring.               Environmental
                                                   to ensure that            (2) Encourage enforcement of legislation               management
                                                   industries in the             applicable to the management and protection        (incl. oil spill
                                                   Saldanha Bay comply           of aquatic resources.                              contingency),
                                                   with water quality                                                               Cooperative
                                                   standards, use ground     (3) Mitigate the impacts of oil and other pollution,   governance
                                                   water responsibly and         through appropriate contingency planning.
                                                   alert SANParks to any     (4) Address the issue of sewage and other point
                                                   effluent discharges.          source pollution into the marine environment.
                                                   (10)
                                                   Illegal harvesting of
                                                   resources:                (1) Public education and liaison.
                                                   Prevent the illegal
                                                                             (2) Law enforcement.                                   Safety and
                                                   collection, removal or
                                                                                                                                    Security
                                                   destruction of physical   (3) Enhance interagency cooperation in law
                                                   and biological                enforcement, compliance and prosecution.
                                                   resources. (7)
                                                   Human-animal
                                                   conflict:
                                                   In consultation with      (1) Implement strategy to control problem
                                                   stakeholders,                 animals entering the park.                         Safety and
                                                   minimize negative         (2) Develop and implement disease                      Security
                                                   outcomes resulting            management plan.
                                                   from human-animal
                                                   conflicts. (18)




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   High level                                                                                                                   Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective               Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                    plan
   WILDNESS /             Range of                                          (1) Develop CDF, including sensitivity-value
   REMOTENESS             experiences:                                          analysis.
   :                      Provide a range of
   To maintain and        visitor                                           (2) Investigate opportunities for providing a
   restore                experiences.                                          greater range of experiences for visitors.
   wildness /                                                                                                                   CDF, Park
                                                                            (1) Implement & update CDF.
   remoteness in                                                                                                                expansion,
   WCNP such                                                                (2) Establish and apply appropriate tourism         Tourism,
   that the spiritual     Sense of place:                                       carrying capacity.                              Rehabilitatio
   and experiential       Maintain or restore                                                                                   n
                                                                            (3) Negotiate to ensure that internal & external
   qualities of           appropriate sense                                     developments are not visually obtrusive or
   wildness are           of place.                                             out of character with park.
   maintained,
   enhanced, or                                                             (4) Ensure integration with local & regional IDPs
   restored                                                                     and SDFs
                                                                            (1) Documentation of newly discovered cultural
                          To further develop
                                                                                heritage sites and associated oral histories
   Attain                 and continuously         Cultural heritage            and indigenous knowledge (tangible &
   leadership in          update an                resources data for the       intangible heritage)                            Cultural
   cultural               inventory of             national park                                                                Heritage
   heritage               cultural resources                                (2) Maps
   managment              in the West Coast
                                                                            (3) GPS coordinates; include information in the
                          National Park
                                                                                Cultural heritage data base




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   High level                                                                                                                     Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective               Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                      plan
                                                                            (1) Asses significance of individual sites;
                                                                            (2) Assess conservation/protection status for all
                                                                                cultural resources in the park;
                          To formulate and
                          implement a                                       (3) Site conservation measures
                          Cultural Heritage                                 (4) Assess the potential utilisation of sites
                          Management Plan                                       (current & future);
                          (CHMP) for the           Cultural Heritage                                                                Cultural
                          West Coast               Management plan          (5) involve stakeholder participation in the            Heritage
                          National Park as                                      development process
                          soon as                                           (6) Maintain an appropriate balance between
                          inventorisation is                                    natural and cultural heritage in all aspects of
                          fully done.                                           park management.
                                                                            (7) Allocate resources to implement CHMP
                                                                            (8) Identify cultural heritage research priorities
                          To formulate and                                  (1) Visitor control measures
                          implement CHMP
                                                                            (2) Information boards & signage
                          Site Plan for
                          heritage sites that                               (3) Conservation measures - restore and
                                                   Cultural heritage site                                                           Cultural
                          have been                                             maintain stone walls
                                                   management plans                                                                 Heritage
                          identified for
                                                                            (4) Interpretation plan
                          educational,
                          research and                                      (5) Maintain the sense of place at archaeological
                          tourism purposes                                      sites




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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



   High level                                                                                                                  Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective          Initiative
   objective                                                                                                                   plan
                          To monitor cultural                          (1) Design and implement a monitoring system
                          resources                                        for cultural resources as required by the
                          regularly in order                               management plan
                          to determine state
                          of resources and         Cultural heritage   (2) Compile status files for all sites with condition     Cultural
                          to enable                monitoring system       reporting forms and photos.                           Heritage
                          decision-making                              (3) Assess sites as highly sensitive, sensitive or
                          ito conservation                                 stable and monitor accordingly
                          measures or
                          management.                                  (4) Annotate files after each visit

                                                                       (1) Contribute to local community development             Local
                          Enhance benefits                                 by identifying projects that can be developed         socio-
   Contribute to          to local                                         in conjunction with neighbouring communities          economic
   local                  communities                                  (2) Identify SMME opportunities within the                developme
   educational                                                             planning domain                                       nt
   and socio-
   economic                                                            (1) Present environmental education and youth
                          Increase                                         programs                                              Environ-
   development
                          environmental                                                                                          mental
                          awareness                                    (2) Establish and market an environmental                 Education
                                                                           education centre and programs

                                                                       (1) Identify and involve all relevant stakeholders        Stakeholde
                          Good community
                                                                           for a park forum                                      r
                          and stakeholder
   Custodian of                                                                                                                  relationshi
                          relation
   Choice for                                                                                                                    p
   Protected Area                                                                                                                Stakeholde
                          Effective                                    (1) Establish and maintain good relationships
   Management                                                                                                                    r
                          cooperate                                        with relevant government institutions
                                                                                                                                 relationshi
                          governance                                   (2) Schedule formal meetings                              p




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                    22
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



   High level                                                                                                           Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective      Initiative
   objective                                                                                                            plan
                                                                   (1) Develop the current and new tourist nodes to
                                                                       their full potential
                                                                   (2) Develop and maintain basic visitor and
   Become the
                          To develop,                                  infrastructure
   nature based                                                                                                           Tourism,
                          manage and
   tourism                                                         (3) Increase opportunities for SMMEs and
                          enhance a range                                                                                 Infrastructu
   destination of                                                      concessionaires to develop activities
                          of sustainable                                                                                  re
   choice in the
                          tourism products                         (4) Increase number of overnight visitors
   region
                                                                   (5) Improve the tourism knowledge and skills of
                                                                       staff in order to deliver an excellent service
                                                                       and create loyalty
   Transform              Transform the
   domestic               domestic guest
   guest profile,         profile, through                         (1) Promote and manage access to the park
   through                growth, to be                                                                                   Marketing
   growth, to be          representative of                        (2) Market park resources and services
   representative         the regional
   of SA Society          demography
   Ensure Best
                          Implement Best
   Practice in
                          Practice in
   managing and
                          managing and
   understanding                                                      (1) Implement SANParks policies and
                          understanding                                                                                   HIV/AIDS
   HIV and AIDS                                                       guidelines
                          HIV, AIDS and
   (and
                          associated
   associated
                          diseases
   disease)
   Advance                                                                                                                Staff
                          Ensure good                              (1) Implement staff capacity program
   Strategic                                                                                                              Capacity
                          human resource                           (2) Develop an institutional development and           Building,
   Resource
                          management                                   administration program                             Institutional
   Management
                                                                                                                          Developme


Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                23
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



   High level                                                                                                 Operational
                          Objective                Sub-objective     Initiative
   objective                                                                                                  plan
                                                                   (3) Performance management plan in place     nt




   Improve                Improve the                                                                           Financial
   income to cost         income to cost                             (1) Manage cost to income ratio            sustainabili
   ratio                  ratio continuously                                                                    ty
   Achieve good                                                    (1) Do legal review
                                                                                                                Risk
   corporate              Manage risk
                                                                   (2) Develop compliance plan                  Manageme
   governance             profile effectively
                                                                                                                nt
   management                                                      (3) Monitor plan




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                               24
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



3     OPERATIONAL PLANS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES

This section deals with the discrete, but often interlinked programs making up the approach
to issues and lead management actions in the park. They represent the efforts by the park to
achieve the Desired State. Each subsection of this management plan is a summary of a
particular program, which are supported by details contained in lower level plans, referred to
but not included here.

The programs are divided into the five activity groupings reflected in the SANParks
Biodiversity Custodianship Framework, namely Biodiversity and Heritage Conservation,
Sustainable Tourism Building Cooperation, Effective Park Management and Corporate
Support. SANParks corporate policies provide the guiding framework for most of these
sections and are not repeated here except by reference.

3.1   Biodiversity and Heritage Conservation

3.1.1 Park expansion
The WCNP is situated in an internationally & nationally identified priority conservation area
by the South African national conservation assessment (Driver et al. 2005). As such, the
conservation and expansion of WCNP remains important for SANParks in its attempt to
further the protection of the threatened marine environment and the botanically diverse
remaining fragments of the lowland fynbos vegetation types in an otherwise highly
fragmented and transformed landscape.

The objective for the park is to create a park that conserves the land-seascape characteristic
of the southern Western Cape coastal region. The expansion programme is in full
congruence with SANParks accepted biodiversity values and follows the SANParks land
acquisition framework. The envisaged expansion options to consolidate this important
biodiversity across the marine, terrestrial and wetland environments are expected to be
affected by the environmental legislation governing these areas. The desired state of the
park, in the context of park expansion, includes:
  •     The unification of the marine protected seascape incorporating its diverse marine-
        island-lagoon-mainland linkages;
  •     The consolidation of untransformed lowland fynbos including poorly represented
        sandveld fynbos and renosterveld vegetation types into a contiguous marine-
        terrestrial park unit;
  •     The minimisation of visual and hard boundary impact of inappropriate surrounding
        developments on the parks aesthetic qualities.
  •     Develop an ecotourism product in synergy with the parks conservation goals and
        regional development plans.

The 34,389 ha large park with its Fynbos and Wetland biome representations, has seven
vegetation types, of which four are endangered (Hopefield Sand Fynbos, Saldanha Flats
Strandveld, Saldanha Granite Strandveld, Cape Inland Salt Pans). Although the park does
not have a fine scale systematic conservation plan as of yet, planned expansion direction is
in line with the regional CAPE initiative that is aimed at building a comprehensive protected
area system in the Cape Floristic Region, and conserving poorly protected vegetation types
such as the endangered Hopefield Sandveld Fynbos. In this regard the proposed terrestrial
expansion includes a consolidation component of 501 ha state land adjoining Posberg, 1,110
ha around Langebaan, and a marine inclusion of the 13 ha Vondeling Island. Other
expansions include a southern 1,951 ha component, an eastern 32,468 ha and an extension
to the 16 mile beach marine protected area. This would take the park to its desired state of
about 70 000 ha. Acquisition of non state land would cost a minimum of R70 million.




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                      25
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



During the 2006-10 management cycle its expected to acquire about 3502 ha for about R7.0
million.

3.1.2 Resource Use
SANParks is committed to a policy which includes investigating avenues for communities to
benefit through participation in national park development, while still maintaining effective
conservation of resources. At present, two forms of extractive resource utilization are
permitted in WCNP. These are regulated harvesting of marine biota for bait and food
purposes, and felling alien tree species for firewood. In the former instance, 11 ‘traditional’
fishers have permits to gill net mullets in Langebaan Lagoon MPA, while the general public is
permitted to collect bait and line fish in accordance with legislation of the Marine Living
Resources Act of 1998 (MLRA).

Contractors are used to harvest firewood from alien tree species in allocated sections of the
park. Extractive resource use is the biggest threat to the marine environment in the South-
western Cape Bioregion (Lombard et al. 2004), and staff from WCNP and MCM undertake
regular patrols to encourage compliance with the legislation through summons and
prosecutions. In future the above and other potential natural resource use activities will be
aligned with the SANParks corporate policy on extractive use, which is still to be developed.

3.1.3   Rehabilitation
      Old agricultural land:
Significant tracts (c. 730 ha) of old agricultural land occur in the park, largely within the
strandveld vegetation and concentrated at Postberg, Mooimaak, Massenberg / Nuwepos and
Abrahamskraal. Reestablishment of indigenous vegetation on these old lands should be
attempted but may be hampered by: (i) high cost of intensive rehabilitation efforts, (ii) lack of
knowledge of effective rehabilitation methods, (iii) potentially irreversible changes having
occurred, i.e. soil enrichment and loss of seedbanks and underground rootstocks, and (iv)
continuous disturbance by herbivores. The strip-cultivated lands (e.g. at Abrahamskraal)
have better potential for natural recovery due to the proximity of indigenous seed source. In
the absence of sufficient funds and/or clear guidelines for the active reestablishment of
strandveld, management actions should focus on creating conditions conducive to natural
recovery and succession of the vegetation. Of importance in this process is the reduction of
physical disturbance by limiting herbivory and trampling through the removal of high numbers
of herbivores, and particularly extra-limital concentrate grazers, as well as preventing fires.
Fixed-point photography and monitoring of vegetation recovery using herbivore exclosures
on the old lands at Postberg should continue. Additional photographic records should be kept
of areas undergoing natural recovery and/or facilitated rehabilitation to evaluate progress.

       Alien invasive plants:
The terrestrial component of the park is extensive (c. 29,000ha), and containing large areas
(>19,000 ha) of strandveld and smaller ones of sand plain fynbos. The fynbos, strandveld
and ecotones along coastal and mobile dunes are the most susceptible to invasion by alien
invasive plants (AIPs). Eradication of AIPs in the dune fields will ensure reinstatement of
sand movement. The overall level of AIP infestation in the park is generally low to moderate.
An exception is the south region of the park, where historically wood harvesting was
permitted. Through inappropriate clearing methods and high levels of disturbance the AIP
problem has worsened. A total of seven AIP species (excluding emergent and garden
weeds) have been recorded in the park. They are Acacia cyclops (rooikranz), A. saligna (Port
Jackson willow), Pinus pinaster (pines), Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum), Myoporum serratum
(manatoka), Datura ferox (thorn apple) and Nicotiniana glauca (wild tobacco). Acacia cyclops
is most abundant and widespread. Management should correctly manage the clearing of
woodlots to: (i) ensure effective AIP control, (ii) ensure that follow-up operations are
undertaken in previously cleared areas, as well as (iii) being proactive in areas bordering the




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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



park that act as reservoir for AIP that threaten to invade the park. Regular assessments of
the rate of re-infestation of cleared or burnt areas should be done.

         Alien marine invertebrates:
The distribution and abundance of alien invertebrate species in the Saldanha Bay -
Langebaan Lagoon system have recently been evaluated (Robinson et al. 2004). The alien
Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurs as scattered individuals on the rocky
shores of the lagoon, while the European periwinkle Littorina saxatilis and alien anemone
Sagartia ornata had limited distributions, but sizeable populations (>2 million individuals)
within the lagoon. A single carapace of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas has also
been recorded. This crab species could pose a major threat to the indigenous invertebrates
should it become established in the lagoon (Robinson et al. 2004; 2005). A further threat is
the extensive colonization of the intertidal sandflats by the Mediterranean mussel, as
occurred in the late 1990s, since it markedly affects the faunal composition of the sandflats
(Branch & Steffani 2004). The dangers posed by the European periwinkle and the alien
anemone are presently unquantified, but appear slight. Park Management should strive to be
proactive and actions should include: (i) equipping field rangers with a list and full description
of invasive species that could potentially invade the park, (ii) routine inspections of key areas,
(iii) removal of all established mussel beds from on the intertidal sandflats, and (iv) setting
traps for the European shore crab should this species be detected in the lagoon. The
knowledge on the distribution and abundance of existing alien species in the park, as well as
other potential invader species in the region should be regularly updated. .

        Alien/extra-limital vertebrates:
Large numbers of extra-limital herbivores occur within the Postberg contractual area, some
of which have spread to the remainder of the WCNP. The 2005 aerial census recorded 25
Blue wildebeest, 32 Gemsbok, 48 Kudu, 79 Bontebok and 100 Springbok within WCNP. The
Conservation Services Division made various requests in the past for the removal of these
species but to no avail. Exotic or extra-limital species compromise natural biodiversity and
ecosystem functioning as a result of competitive exclusion and associated effects). In the
context of WCNP these species were furthermore found to inhibit natural recovery of the old
lands at Postberg (Heydenrych 1995). Further spread of extra-limitals from Postberg to
remaining areas of the park would be unacceptable, and removal of these species from the
entire park (including Postberg) is a matter of high priority (see also Faunal Management and
Reintroduction).

3.1.4 Faunal Management and Reintroduction
The purpose of the herbivore management and reintroduction plan is to strive towards a
herbivore complement indigenous to the strandveld and sandplain fynbos vegetation, while
ensuring that these herbivores do not adversely or irreversibly alter the biodiversity of these
vegetation types. The main focus of the plan is cross-linked to the rehabilitation plan, to
remove extralimital herbivore species from the Postberg section of WCNP.

Herbivore management in WCNP will no longer be based on stocking rates, but rather on the
results of monitoring of herbivore impacts on vegetation. Human and capital budgeting will be
required to establish monitoring to ensure that existing and introduced herbivores do not
unacceptably alter the Desired State of the WCNP. Some of the monitoring is crosslinked
with fire or SSC monitoring already in place.

3.1.5 Species of Special Concern
The WCNP supports populations of several species of special concern (SSC). These include
35 Red Data plant species; South Africa's most endangered marine mollusc Siphonaria
compressa (Herbert 1999); the Cape sand snake Psammophis leightoni leightoni and the
melanistic Cape girdled lizard Cordylus niger, both Near Threatened; breeding populations of
six Red Data ‘seabird’ species African penguin Spheniscus demersus, bank cormorant



Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                                          27
WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



Phalacrocorax neglectus, Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis, Cape gannet Sula
capensis, Leach’s storm petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa and African black oystercatcher
Haematopus moquini; nine species of waterbirds where the size of local populations in the
park regularly exceeds one percent of the world population; and the highest population
density of the Vulnerable black harrier Circus maurus in South Africa.

Plant SSC occur predominantly on limestone and granite outcrops, in sand plain fynbos and
fynbos / strandveld transitional habitats. Unique plant communities may also occur in
seasonal marshes and seeps. Threats to plant SSC include invasion by aliens, physical
disturbance and overuse by herbivores (particularly on limestone outcrops), inappropriate fire
regimes (particularly in fynbos areas), and groundwater abstraction from aquifers (affecting
wetlands).

The mollusc S. compressa is threatened by habitat destruction through deterioration of the
eelgrass beds and bait collecting activities. Threats to the Cape sand snake are habitat
transformation, pesticides and road kills.

Breeding seabird colonies are vulnerable to human disturbance, predation and/or
displacement by seals, and avian diseases. In the lagoon the birds would be affected by
boating activities and destruction of their food base.

Management actions to conserve SSC should include both internal activities such as alien
plant clearing, institution of an appropriate fire regime in fynbos areas, park zonation with
respect to recreational activities (particularly boating), as well as external activities such as
negotiations with the Postberg Syndicate and the SANDF.

Two mammal species are potentially SSC in WCNP, as they are nationally redlisted species.
These are the bontebok Damaliscus dorcas and Grant’s golden mole Eremitalpa granti. The
bontebok, however, is extralimital to WCNP and should be relocated to other SANParks as
soon as the genetic integrity of the WCNP population has been verified. Threats to the
continued existence of Grant’s golden mole appear to be use of the sanddunes upon which
they depend for habitat. However, further investigation of the autecology of this species is
required to verify this and to identify additional sources of threat.

3.1.6 Fire Management
The management of fire is important for the conservation of both vegetation types at WCNP
i.e. West Coast Strandveld or Langebaan Fynbos/Thicket Mosaic (called ‘strandveld’) and
Hopefield Sand Plain Fynbos (called ‘sand plain fynbos). Strandveld should be protected
from fire and physical disturbance should be kept to a minimum. Sand plain fynbos on the
other hand is fire-dependent, i.e. fire is required to stimulate plant recruitment and retain
maximum species richness. The frequency, intensity, season and size of fires are critical
determinants of fynbos composition and structure. Fires at 15-40 year intervals are deemed
suitable for sand plain fynbos. Burning should be done in late summer/early autumn in
weather conditions when fires could be expected to be sufficiently hot to stimulate plant
recruitment.

Fires in the ecotone/transition between sand plain fynbos and strandveld are essential to
maintain the ecotones, and fire should not be artificially suppressed indefinitely. The marshes
around the Langebaan lagoon should not be burnt but the reed beds may be left to burn
during wild fires, although active burning is not necessary. In general, fire management
should not be too rigid as variation in all components of the fire regime is desirable to attain
patchiness in the vegetation and maximise diversity. Herbivory has to be managed so that
overuse of recently burnt vegetation and disproportionate physical disturbance of sensitive
habitat types (e.g. wetlands, limestone outcrops) do not occur. Alien plant control operations
have to be aligned with fire management.



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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)




Records should be kept of fires occurring in and around WCNP, preferably in GIS format.
Fire management procedures should at all times comply with the regulations of the National
Veld and Forest Fire Act (101 of 1998).

3.1.7 Freshwater Wetlands
Isolated seeps and marshy areas occur in Strandvled areas surrounding Langebaan Lagoon.
It is probable that these wetlands are maintained by groundwater. Small shallow temporary
pans occur along the coastal shelf, frequently with Arthrocnemum littoreum around the pan
edges. It is assumed that these pans are maintained by precipitation. Apart from knowing
that these wetlands occur in WCNP there is very little information on their distribution, extent
or functioning. Wetlands in West Coast Strandveld are, however, known to be very sensitive
to lowered water tables, and hence are vulnerable to overuse of aquifers. Actions required to
conserve known wetlands, and generate information for the development of a
comprehensive wetland management strategy include:
       Mapping of the distribution of freshwater wetlands with subsequent ground-truthing
       subject to the availability of sufficiently small-scale, color, aerial photographic images.
       Assessment of the extent of invasion of known wetlands by opportunistic weeds and
       other invasive plant species, and the prioritization of appropriate control or eradiation
       actions.
       Encourage the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to monitor the maintenance of
       natural water tables, especially adequate winter recovery, in vulnerable areas.
       Disallow infrastructure development (roads, buildings etc.) in wetlands.

3.2     Cultural Heritage Resources

The park and the West Coast area incorporate various cultural heritage sites, with a number
of archaeological and palaeontological sites and material described in previous reports. The
Park is well known for the discovery of human footprints, known as ‘Eves Footprints’, next to
the Langebaan lagoon. In 1998 an archaeological scoping study was done on a number of
known sites. This identified the need to locate and assess the significance of archaeological
sites in the park. The known sites detailed in the scoping report and the new sites located in
the survey were all shell middens. The presence of pottery dates the sites to within the last
2000 year and links the sites to KhoeKhoe herders. The shell middens in the Park have been
the subject of a number of research projects. The 1998 scoping survey has identified
Vlaeberg and Kreeftebaai as sites with research potential. During the same year,
archaeological investigations were conducted in the Geelbek Dunes. The results of these
investigations indicated the presence of Late and Middle Age artefacts spatially associated
with faunal remains. Excavations were also conducted to locate buried finds and study site
formation processes. More than 2,200 faunal remains and 800 lithic artefacts were
documented.

The conservation of these sites and their related oral history are part the conservation
mission of the park. An Oral History Collection Project and a Cultural Mapping Project, both
of which are implemented with the purpose of identifying and cataloguing all Cultural
Heritage assets associated with the WCNP, are currently being developed in conjunction
with local community members, organisations representing community interests, as well as
relevant academic institutions and researchers. It is envisaged that a local Cultural Heritage
Forum will be established to form working groups to co-ordinate activities. Local youth will be
trained as field researchers and will work in conjunction with the community working groups.
The project will be managed in line with legislation relating to property rights and intellectual
property rights, and objectives covering research, recording of oral history, interpreting and
mapping cultural heritage and management plans will be set.




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3.3   Sustainable tourism

3.3.1 West Coast National Park Zoning Plan
The primary objective of a park zoning plan is to establish a coherent spatial framework in
and around a park to guide and co-ordinate conservation, tourism and visitor experience
initiatives. A zoning plan plays an important role in minimizing conflicts between different
users of a park by separating potentially conflicting activities such as game viewing and day-
visitor picnic areas whilst ensuring that activities which do not conflict with the park’s values
and objectives (especially the conservation of the protected area’s natural systems, its
biodiversity and heritage resources) can continue in appropriate areas. The zoning of West
Coast National Park was undertaken in conjunction with the Peace Parks Foundation, and
went through a public participation process. The zoning was based on an assessment of the
park’s biophysical resources, and an assessment of the park’s current and planned
infrastructure. The zones used in this initial process have been converted into the standard
SANParks use zones (with some minor modifications to ensure compatibility) in order to
ensure compatible outputs.

       Overview of the use zones of West Coast National Park:
The use zoning plan for West Coast National Park is shown in Figure 3. Full details of the
use zones, the zoning process, the Park Interface Zones (detailing park interaction with
adjacent areas) and the underlying landscape analyses are included in the West Coast
National Park Zoning Document.
•      Primitive Zone: The prime characteristic of the zone is the experience of wilderness
       qualities with access controlled in terms of numbers, frequency and size of groups.
       The zone has wilderness qualities, but with limited access roads (mostly 4x4) and the
       potential for basic small-scale self-catering accommodation facilities or small
       concession lodges. Views of human activities and development outside of the park
       may be visible from this zone. In WCNP, Primitive areas were designated to protect
       most of the sensitive areas from high levels of tourist activity. The areas designated
       Primitive include the park east of the R27, the islands, lowland areas adjacent to the
       Langebaan Lagoon, the coastal strip inland of 16 Mile Beach, and most of the
       southern sections.

•       Low Intensity Leisure Zone: The underlying characteristic of this zone is motorized
        self-drive access with the possibility of small basic camps without facilities such as
        shops and restaurants. Facilities along roads are limited to basic self catering picnic
        sites with toilet facilities. In WCNP, Low intensity leisure areas were designated in
        the current game, flower and landscape viewing areas, and along current access
        routes from the south.

•       High Intensity Leisure Zone: The main characteristic is that of a high density tourist
        development node with amenities such as shops, restaurants and interpretive
        centres. This is the zone where more concentrated human activities are allowed, and
        is accessible by motorized transport on high volume transport routes. In WCNP, High
        intensity leisure areas were designated in the existing high usage areas of Geelbek,
        Kraalbaai, Preekstoel and Langebaan. The R27 through-road also falls within this
        zone.

Overview of the Special Management Overlays of WCNP:
Special management overlays which designate specific areas of the park that require special
       management interventions were identified. Two areas were designated:

•       Special Conservation Areas - Dune Protection: The sensitive mobile dunefield
        system requires special protection, and will be managed to minimize impacts on
        sediment transport processes.


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•       Special Conservation Areas - Salt Marsh: This sensitive habitat types was
        identified for special protection in order to reduce any potential loss and minimize any
        ongoing impacts in these areas.

In addition to the above Special Management Overlays, three marine zones were
designated:

•       Marine A: This area is managed as a Marine Controlled Zone with enforcement of
        the Marine Living Resources Act. Fishing and motorized vessels are allowed.

•       Marine B: Access to this zone is controlled, and fishing and the use of any motorized
        vessel can only take place on the authority of and in accordance with a permit
        obtained from the management authority.

•       Marine C: This is an exclusion zone, with entry, the use of vessels and the catching
        or disturbance of fish being strictly prohibited.

       Current status and future improvements:
The current park use zonation is based on an underlying biophysical analysis combined with
an assessment of the park’s current and planned infrastructure. However, the zoning plan is
not a full Conservation Development Framework (CDF) as certain elements underlying the
CDF such as an environmental sensitivity-value analysis and a tourism market analysis have
not been incorporated into the park use zonation. A full CDF will be developed for West
Coast National Park within the current update cycle. Additional special management overlays
which designate specific areas of a park that require special management interventions (e.g.
areas requiring rehabilitation) will also be identified.

3.3.2 Tourism Background
The tourism potential of this park is underdeveloped. Accommodation facilities and more
structured tourist activities may encourage tourists to stay longer, which will have an impact
on income. Currently it is used for day visits although the day visitors’ areas need to be
upgraded. The roads are in a good condition, which increases the accessibility of the park.
The lagoon is a unique feature of the park and can be used for boat safaris and other water
recreation activities. A tourism plan was prepared. Fishing and water sports are very popular
in the area. The port of Saldanha, the West Coast Fossil Park and Club Mykonos – a time
share casino and marina - are some of the attractions around the park.

3.3.3 Tourism Products

      Accommodation
WCNP has no traditional rest camps, but has the following accommodation facilities exists:
• Duinepos. Concessionaire managed 8 x 4-bed units currently being upgraded with
  private funding. Conference facilities and a pool are planned.
• Geelbek. Converted stables with 35 beds, kitchen and ablutions for school groups.
• Abrahamskraal. A 9-bed self-catering unit which was upgraded recently. An old building
  is also used as group accommodation on occasion.
• Jo-Anne’s Beach Farmhouse. An 8-bed self-catering unit with a cottage next to it
  (cottage is being upgraded). The house has no electricity, and bedding is not provided.
• Bossieskraal. A recently upgraded luxury unit with 8 beds. This unit is currently not
  accessible to the general public due to contractual agreements. It was upgraded recently.
• Kraalbaai. Two privately run houseboats on permanent moorings providing 24 and 6
  beds respectively. The larger houseboat is privately owned, while the smaller belongs to
  the park.



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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)




FIGURE 3: Zoning of West Coast National Park




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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



    Day Visitors, Restaurant, and other Facilities
•   Reception and information office. Currently in Langebaan, but will be relocated to the
    Langebaan entrance gate currently being constructed.
•   Entrance gates at Langebaan and on the West Coast Road are currently being
    upgraded with EPWP funding. A park home serves as a seasonal n internal entrance
    gate at Postberg.
•   Kleinmooimaak has ablution facilities next to the lagoon.
•   Geelbek. A very popular restaurant operated by a concessionaire.
•   Kraalbaai. A very popular day visitor’s facility with jetty, small information office and
    internal entrance gate structure. Phase one of a rest camp development has been
    approved (5 units). A further 5 units on stilts in the lagoon are envisaged.
•   Tsaarsbank is a picnic spot with ablution and braai facilities. The facilities are in a bad
    condition.
•   Plankiesbaai is a seasonal picnic facility with braai places and ablutions.
•   Preekstoel is a seasonal picnic facility with braai places and ablutions. The facilities will
    be upgraded.
•   Bird Hides are provided at Seeberg and Geelbek.
•   Nature trails – a seasonal two-day Postberg hiking trail of 24 km with an overnight stop
    at Plankiesbaai (camping only) and a Strandveld trail of 14 km are provided.

    Tourism roads network
A road network of 80 km, ± 50 km of which is tarred and ± 30 km gravel. These roads are in
a good condition, but upgrading is planned in future. The provisional allocation of
Infrastructure Development funds, plus the next round of EPWP funding, will hopefully
provide the funds for resurfacing roads.

3.3.4 Tourist Activities
       Coastal recreation:
These activities take place on the Lagoon, but it are not organised by the Park; hence it
generates no income for SANParks.
These activities take place on the Lagoon, but it are not organised by the Park; hence it
generates no income for SANParks.
• Angling
• Diving
• Island cruises
• Fishing
• Sailing
• Snorkelling
• Boating
• Skiing
• Canoeing
• Windsurfing

        Nature trails:
•   Postberg Nature Trail is a two-day hiking trail of 24 km with an overnight stop at
    Plankiesbaai (Camping Site – not developed).
•   Strandveld Trail is a one- or two-day hiking trail of 14 km.

       Birdlife:
The park is renowned for its birdlife. Over a quarter of southern Africa’s bird species are
represented in the park.




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3.3.5 Tourism Roads
In total the park as a road network of 80 km, ± 50 km of which is tarred and ± 30 km gravel.
These roads are in a good condition, but upgrading is planned in future. The park has two
main entrances, one at Langebaan and one on the West Coast road.

3.3.6 Access
Accessibility to this park is excellent. The R27, the main route along the West Coast, runs
through the park. Signage in the park will be improved to create a tourist friendly
environment.

3.3.7 Financial Analysis
The Park showed a significant decrease in income since 2004 to 2005 compared to 2003
(Table 1).

Table 1: Overall operational revenue of the park

                        Total revenue        Tourism specific     % of total        Total
                                                 revenue                         expenditure
         2003            R 2,081,705.73         R 765,614.75        36.7%        R 3,824,472.81
         2004            R 1,955,150.69         R 340,861.39         17%         R 4,222,076.48
         2005            R 2,202,972.59         R 316,282.09        15.6%        R 4,049,993.76


3.3.8 Marketing
The park receives around 30 000 visitors annually, but most of them are day visitors, partially
due to the lack of accommodation - people en route to other destinations up the West Coast
or those owning a holiday home in Langebaan. Various age groups visit the park but little
data exists; once accommodation is established, marketing research should be conducted on
a regular basis. The Western Cape is the main domestic market, but quite a number of
international visitors and visitors from other provinces come for bird watching. A local
marketing policy will be developed.

3.4   Building cooperation

3.4.1 Co-operative Governance
The park is committed to implement the policies and achieve the strategies of SANParks as
an organ of state and to ensure the effectiveness of park management. To be able to do so
WCNP will focus on the SANParks strategic objectives including the following:
• To establish cooperative management the park will establish an ethos of cooperative
    governance with national, provincial and local departments and agencies within
    government.
• To put in place a risk management plan, an internal audit function and other mechanisms
    to ensure financial systems comply with the Public Finance Management Act and with
    other applicable regulatory frameworks and the King 2 requirements.
• To ensure effective supply chain management that promotes effective procurement and
    black economic empowerment in compliance with legislation.

Key governmental organisations that will provide support within the ambit of their
administrative functions include parastatals (SANParks and WCNCB), local authorities (West
Coast District Municipality, Saldanha Bay Municipality and Swartland Municipality),
particularly with regard to Integrated Development Planning and tourism related functions,
and national and provincial government structures.

Non-governmental organizations include the West Coast Biosphere Reserve, conservancies
as well as organized civil society structures such as civic and residents’ associations.



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Farmers’ and landowners’ organizations are the most significant groupings in the context of
achieving co-operative governance and hence as a collective they are a significant partner.
Multi-stakeholder forums include the Integrated Development Planning forums as well as the
Fire Protection Agency (FPA) for the area.

At a strategic level it is essential to influence the Integrated Development Planning objectives
of the local authorities, the focus of farm planning activities of the Department of Agriculture,
planning for catchments by DWAF, as well as the focus of local tourism bodies.

3.4.2 Environmental Interpretation
The park wishes to build constituencies amongst people in support of SANParks’
conservation endeavours by playing a significant, targeted and effective role in promoting a
variety of educational opportunities and initiatives. The park will continue to focus attention
on youth outreach and environmental education to build a conservation constituency for the
future. The main goal of the WCNP is to enhance biodiversity conservation through the
promotion of a conservation ethic and developing park-community relations. The greatest
part of the work conducted by this department is directly or indirectly related to environmental
interpretation and education and focuses on the various park user groups and local
communities. This involves developing an understanding of the environment, and developing
values and skills that will help learners to contribute to the protection and improvement of the
environment. The program includes talks, shows and educational excursions.

Environmental interpretation is provided by a variety of trails at Geelbek and Postberg, and
excursions highlighting marine, botanical, dune ecology, cultural, bird and saltmarshes and
canoeing and camping experiences. A Kids in Parks programme is run to provide “kids” the
opportunity to visit and experience park supported by four partners (DEAT, Pick ‘n Pay, the
Department of Education (DoE) and Liebertrans). In addition to increasing access to national
parks for kids, the programme also seeks to give them the opportunity to experience and
interact with the wonder of our natural and cultural heritage and to explore the importance of
conservation. Other programmes include Morula Kids and calendar day celebrations, while
the park also provides a traditional Open Day annually when communities are encouraged to
visit the park for free. In addition, visitor programs, teacher support and development,
environmental education networks and youth development programs such as the Junior
Honorary Rangers Program are provided.

3.4.3 Local socio economic development
The aim is to play a significant, targeted and effective role in contributing to local economic
development, economic empowerment and social development in communities and
neighbouring areas adjacent to National Parks by partnering with Local Government to form
part of the Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), participating in Government Programmes
to contribute to local skills development by supporting learnerships, implementing training
programmes and creating business opportunities.

The park involves people from the surrounding towns as follows:

•   People and Conservation Department provides support for small local business – e.g.
    catering for educational groups.
•   Conservation Department            provides concession opportunities, currently for the
    Houseboat, Geelbek Restaurant and Duinepos.
•   The Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) will remain a significant focus area
    of the organisation to effectively contribute to the creation of temporary jobs in the short
    term, sustainability by investigating exit opportunities and entrepreneurial opportunities.
•   Working for Water Programme - employs 66 people i.e 6 teams of 10 each plus
    supervisor from local communities are employed through the Work for Water Programme.




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    Courses were offered to workers relevant to their work (first aid, HIV/AIDS, chain saw
    operation, herbicide application, personal finance).
•   Coast Care Programme – employs 44 people employed through the CoastCARE
    programme. Workers are from communities in Langebaan and Vredenburg. Courses are
    presented in first aid, health and safety, herbicide application, primary health and
    personal finance,

3.4.4 Constituency Building
The park has the objective to establish and maintain meaningful and beneficial relationships
with a wide range of stakeholders supporting SANParks’ core business. The aim is to
enhance biodiversity conservation through conservation ethics and developing healthy
community custodianship. Co-operative, collaborative and mutually beneficial relationships
are essential to reach park goals and ultimately to ensure sustainability. Both formal and
informal partnerships are initiated, maintained and nurtured with Government, conservation
entities, business partners, communities, various NGO’s, CBO’s, the media, customers and
employees. These arrangements are underpinned by Guiding Principles for SANParks
Stakeholder Participation.

Co-operative governance systems are being developed and strengthened for the Park.
These aim to promote inclusively and to ensure compliance with legislation through improved
relationships and collaboration with government and various governing bodies, including:
    Governing Bodies:
• Conservation – Marine and Coastal Management, Cape Nature
• Tourism – SATOUR
• Communities – Ward Committees, Local Council Sub Committees

    All spheres of government:
•   National government – relations managed through DEAT, engagement with DWAF,
    Public Works
•   Provincial Government - Departments of Planning, Environment and Tourism,
    Agriculture, Education
•   Local Government planning e.g. IDP’s and LED’s SDF’s (Spatial Development
    Framework)

    Conservation entities:
•   National and International conservation agencies - Cape Nature, National Biodiversity
    Institute, Biosphere Reserve
•   Research houses, institutions and universities – University of Cape Town, University of
    Western Cape, Rhodes University, Cape Technikon, University of Plymouth
•   Relevant conservation related Non-governmental Organisations – WESSA, West Coast
    Fossil Park
•   Bioregional initiatives – Biosphere Reserve

    Business partners:
•   Concessionaires operating businesses in National Parks – Houseboat, Geelbek
    Restaurant and Duinepos
•   Contracted commercial operators – Gravity
•   Tourism bodies- Local tourism bodies

    Communities:
•   Property Associations – Langebaan Ratepayers Association
•   Local Association and Forums – Langebaan and Saldanha Tourism Association, Poverty
    Relief Steering Committee, Saldanha Forum, Cape Bird Club, West Coast Bird Club,
    EcoEd, Yacht Club, Water Sports Association



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•     Non Government and Community Based Organisations – DOIT project, Multipurpose
      Community Centre, Net Fishers committee

      Employees:
•     SANParks regards its employees as a most valuable asset and foundation for
      organisational competency. West Coast National Park invests in staff development,
      strives towards employment equity and endeavour to uphold employee rights. To this
      end transparent liaison is promoted with:

      The media:
•     SANParks fosters good medial relations. Not only is the media regarded as an ally to
      market our tourism products, but also as key communication tool to keep stakeholders
      informed and to promote a positive image of SANParks.

      Customers:
•     Visitors to West Coast National Park are regarded as the number one financial resource
      that enables us to fulfil the organisations’ conservation mandate.

3.5    Effective park management

3.5.1 Environmental management (includes waste, energy, water, NEMA compliance):

The basic principles and key result areas of the Corporate Policy are incorporated into an
Environmental Management System (EMS). A Management Policy, Strategic Management
Plan and procedures have been developed into an EMS for the WCNP based on the ISO
14001 standard.

The EMS sets out strategies, actions, deliverables, indicators and timeframes. Each Key
Result Area is directed by a number of strategies, while each strategy is implemented
through a set of actions and in a number of deliverables. The implementation of the
strategies by the implementing department(s) is monitored using indicators within a set time
frame. The Park Manager is ultimately responsible for all activities in the WCNP, and plays a
supervisory role for all implementing departments.

The Key Result Areas are introduced by brief statements of SANParks’ corporate approach,
the current situation for the Park and the strategic intent in addressing these. Indicators were
established and tracked for all key result areas. For monitoring the progress and
performance of management the defined strategic objectives, the measurable progress on
actions and the delivery of defined products are all used as indicators in this SMP.

A brief description of how impacts are currently managed:
• Waste management: The park recognises that health is an important issue at any
   working place and in doing this, it collects all refuse, which is kept together in their refuse
   bags and taken to the dumpsite on a regular basis.
• Pollution control: The greatest threat to the park is from marine pollution and particularly
   oil pollution. The park is a participant in the local Oil Spill Contingency Plan for which the
   Departments of Transport and Environmental Affairs and Tourism, through the South
   African Maritime Safety Association, have overall responsibility. Seabirds likely to be
   affected by oil pollution are treated according to the SANCCOB bird rescue plan.
• Managing impacts from tourist, contractors: Whenever necessary, the Park uses the
   relevant staff to monitor, control and guide tourists and/or contractors to behave in an
   appropriate/responsible manner within the Park. The monitoring of tourists and
   contractors includes but is not limited to littering and diverging from dedicated paths and
   roads.



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•   Building sites: Building sites such as storerooms are kept clean, any leaks which cannot
    be fixed are dealt with by using sand or sawdust to absorb it, which is later collected and
    disposed of at the municipal landfill. The park tries to keep all building sites/areas as
    clean as possible to avoid high cleaning costs. Construction sites falling under the EPWP
    programme are regulated according to individually tailored Environmental Management
    Plans.

An EMS provides a mechanism for environmental management throughout all areas and
departments at park level and focuses on environmental aspects at an operational level
which can be directly controlled and managed. The outcome of this standard must be
integrated with the national park management framework. The following objectives are
achieved by implementing this plan:
• continual improvement of environmental management;
• compliance to environmental law; and
• showcasing environmental responsibility.

The EMS focuses on the following requirements:
• Environmental aspects: Identification of environmental aspects which the facility controls
   and over which it may be expected to have an influence, and determination of aspects
   considered significant.
• Legal and other requirements: Identification and communication of legal and other
   requirements applicable to the park.
• Environmental Objectives and Targets: Development of objectives and targets for each
   significant environmental aspect considering significant environmental aspects,
   technological options and financial, operational and business plans, and the views of
   interested parties.
• Environmental Management Programs: Establishment of environmental management
   programs (EMPs) as a means for achieving objectives and targets. These programs
   define the principal actions to be taken, those responsible for undertaking those actions
   and the scheduled times for their implementation.
• Training, Awareness and Competence: Identification, planning, monitoring and recording
   training needs for personnel whose work may create a significant impact upon the
   environment.
• Operational Control: Identifying operations and activities associated with significant
   environmental aspects that require operational controls in procedures, practices or
   environmental management programs.
• Emergency Preparedness and Response: Identification of potential for and responding to
   accidents and emergency situations and for preventing and mitigating the environmental
   impacts that may be associated with them.

3.5.2 Safety and Security
Safety Security for the park is included in three different plans:

        Visitor Safety and Security Plan.
The strategic intent of this safety and security plan is to:
           • ensure that effective visitor safety measures are in place,
           • ensure the safety and security of SANParks employees and concessionaires,
           • ensure that tourist perceptions are managed in order to protect the brand and
               reputation of SANParks and SA Tourism at large.

This document addresses both the strategic and operational aspects of Visitor Safety and
Security within the framework of the SANParks Security Plan. Its context is personal safety
and not all aspects of the Occupational Health and Safety requirements.




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The Plan is informed by analysis of the following aspects:
           • The identification of high risk/use areas.
           • Associated crime statistics for each identified area.
           • The associated risks and criminal behaviour for each area.

The strategic intent of the safety and security plan is to firstly ensure that effective visitor
safety measures are in place, and secondly to ensure that tourist perceptions are good to
protect the brand and reputation of SANParks and SA Tourism Industry.

Most potential treats are linked to other illegal activities in and around the park, this includes
illegal entry/ trespassing, - fishing, flower picking and resource use. Daily park activities that
are implemented to mitigate these activities form an important part of this plan. Management
measures include the regular analysis of gathered intelligence, the aim to increase the
number of Conservation staff to the required level, appropriate and sufficient on-going
training of Conservation staff in terms of Law Enforcement and First Aid, acceptance of
responsibility by all staff for Visitor and Staff Safety and Security, general awareness of
potential of possible criminal activities and the relevant response action to be used in the
case of criminal activity taking place and hiking trails to be more regularly
patrolled/observations carried out, including at night.

       Protection Plan;
The purpose of the park protection plan is to provide park management with a dynamic
reference document to describe strategies decided upon to be applied in response to
problems identified.

The plan addresses the following aspects:
          • Criminal Information and Intelligence
          • Threat Analysis
          • Operational Security
          • Species Security
          • Physical Security
          • Authority and Jurisdiction
          • Planning for Crisis Management
          • Performance Crisis Management

    Emergency Plan.
This plan addresses various identified scenarios and actions prescribed on how to deal with
various emergencies.

Key elements of these plans are:
         • Visitor and Staff Safety and Security
         • Environmental Crime
         • Cash in Storage and Transit
         • Access Control and Infrastructure (Including Document) Security
         • EMI (Environmental Management Inspector) roll out
         • Information / Intelligence
         • The Collection of Information
         • The Collation of Information
         • The Dissemination of Intelligence
         • Counter Intelligence Measures
         • Determining of Essential Elements of Information (EEI)

3.5.3 Infrastructure Plan




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       Tourism Infrastructure:
Accommodation, day vsitor facilities, a restaurant, other facilities and the tourism roads
network are described in section 3.2.2.

        Management and Support Infrastructure:
Park Administration Offices
A building with some 6 rooms/offices, part of a now demolished hotel in Langebaan, is
currently used as offices. The redevelopment of this site is envisaged.
Staff Accommodation
In the last two years all resident staff have moved out of the Park. The park, however, does
have some staff houses in the park as well as in Langebaan. A brief summary:
            • Postberg has two buildings, both in poor condition and without any services,
                are situated in this contractual area of the park.
            • Geelbek has a large house currently rented to a concessionaire and three
                smaller cottages used by contractual staff and students.
            • Mooimaak has an old farmhouse and six labourers’ houses. The houses are
                in a poor condition.
            • Langebaan. The park has ten staff houses in Langebaan. One of these is
                relatively large unit, while the other 9 units are small.

        Other structures
A brief description follows:
           • Jutten Island. A jetty, 2 units of living quarters, 3 stores and water tanks are
                situated on the island and are in a poor condition.
           • Malgas Island also has a jetty, 2 units with living quarters, outbuildings,
                stores and water tanks in poor condition.
           • Marcus island has 2 units of living quarters and a storeroom and a predator
                wall between the island and causeway.
           • Mooimaak has some storerooms currently used by the technical section as
                well as a game boma.
           • Generally dilapidated houses and other structures are to be found in
                Langebaan, Soutpan, Seeberg, Schryvershoek, Mooimeisiesfontein, Van
                Niekerkshoop, Massenberg, Uitkyk and Bottelary. The final use of these
                buildings must still be determined. Some of these buildings may have
                historical value.

      Management roads and tracks
The park has some 20 kms of management roads and tracks in reasonable condition.

       Fences
The section of the park west of the West Coast Road was fenced with game fencing some
two years ago, but the fences east of this road remain as fairly poor farm fencing.

        Bulk Services
Full services are available in Langebaan, while Mooimaak and Geelbek have Escom power.
A project to provide water to Kraalbaai is currently underway.

Detailed plans have been prepared for:
           • Infrastructure maintenance
           • Infrastructure development
           • Income generating and local economic development projects
           • Basic infrastructure projects.
           • Labour intensive rehabilitation/green projects




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3.5.4 Human Resources and Staff Capacity Building
       Staff Capacity Building Program:
The park has an establishment of 32 staff. No current vacancies exist. The competency level
of the staff component is very important if the performance level of the park has to be
maintained; hence a staff capacity building programme is necessary.

The corporate balanced score card measure for SANParks measures the percentage of
employees who have achieved set goals in terms of defined individual development plans.
Every employee will have his/her individual plan to include training needs. The park
management will therefore see that all the training and capacity building programs are
implemented. The use of the SETA’s for funding the training is explored both at head office
and at the park level.

A Work Place skills Development Plan is also produced for the park every year as required
by legislation. This is coordinated at head office level, with input from the park and the
Employment Equity Forum. Most of the staff is involved and encouraged to make inputs into
the plan.

        Equity and Diversity

                 PDI    Females      Disabilities       White    Current          TOTAL
                                                        males   vacancies
   DU
   DL             1                                                                  1
   CU             1                                       2                          3
   CL             2         1                                                        2
   BU             4         1                                                        4
    BL           20         1                                                       20
    A             2         2                                                        2
  TOTAL                                                                             32

3.5.4 Institutional Development and Administration
Institutional arrangements are important for the functioning of the park as the park does not
and cannot function in isolation. This is critical for both the protection and management of the
park.The following is a list of key institutions which can be seen as important for the
functioning of the park. This should however not be seen as the only institutions as there are
still many institutions which the park interact with if and when necessary.

       Municipalities
The Park falls within two municipalities, namely the Saldanha Bay Municipality and the
Swartland Municipality. Both of these municipalities resort under the West Coast District
Municipality.

        Marine and Coastal Management (MCM)
MCM is the branch of the national Department of Environment affairs and Tourism (DEAT),
which is responsible for the management of marine living resources in terms of marine living
resources (MLRA) Act No. 18 of 1998. The lagoon is proclaimed as a Marine Protected Area
in terms of this Act and therefore a MCM has a statutory obligation regarding marine living
resources in the lagoon. Other Marine Protected Areas adjoin the park and the islands.
Strong ties are there fore needed between MCM and SANPARKS at both head office and
park level.




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        Provincial Conservation agencies
The Park is situated in the Western Cape Province. Cooperation is needed with Department
of Environment Affairs and Development Planning (DEA&DP), as well as Cape Nature, the
statutory organisation responsible for conservation and nature reserves in the province.
These organisations are also involved in the issuing of Record of decisions for development
in the province so strong ties are important especially in developments which happens in the
periphery of the park.

       Department of Environment affairs and Tourism (DEAT)
SANParks is management agency for reporting the minister through DEAT. Although for the
MPA the reporting is through MCM, there is also a need to report on the terrestrial
conservation issues. This in general is the responsibility of DEAT. DEAT is also involved in
the funding of infrastructure projects in the park through the expanded public works
programme (poverty relief projects). Continuous reporting of this project is thus necessary.

        Department of water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF)
This also includes the National Veld and Forest Fire Act which is necessary for the
management of the terrestrial part of the park. DWAF is also involved in the funding of the
Working for Water Programme in the park and therefore continuous reporting of this project
is thus necessary.

3.5.5 Financial Sustainability
Although the park is currently not financially sustainable, it certainly has the potential to
become so. The planned development of tourism facilities in Kraalbaai and the
redevelopment of the hotel site in Langebaan should go a long way to ensure the future
financial sustainability of the WCNP. Projected expenditure for the next five years is given as
Table 2.

                Item        2006/7      2007/8       2008/9     2009/10      2010/12      2011/12
    Operational                         R5,950      R6,6085     R6,6387      R6,6709
    IDP                    R14,726
    Unfunded IDP                                    R7,748      R7,748        R7,748
    Infrastructure
    Maintenance                         R3,117       1071        427           521
    Regional                             R59         R62          66            70
    WfW                    R1,023       R1,085      R1,150      R1,219        R1,292       R1,370
    CoastCare              R3,000       R2,000      R1,800      R2,100        R2,000       R2,500
    Land acquisition                    R7,000
Table 2: Projected expenditure for WCNP for the next five years (amounts in R 1,000).

3.5.5 HIV/AIDS
HIV & AIDS requires special attention because it is spreading at an alarmingly fast rate in
South Africa and the sub-Saharan region generally, as well as within SANParks in particular,
having reached pandemic proportions. Whilst it is an integral component of the EAP
(Employee Assistance Program), it is accorded priority within the SANParks programming. In
the most severely affected settings, there is mounting evidence that HIV/AIDS is eroding
human security and capacity, undermining economic development and threatening social
cohesion. Inevitably, this situation has serious impacts on business. Hospitality businesses
are seen as pivotal players in South Africa’s economy, especially from a job creation
perspective. South Africa’s hospitality and tourism industry, of which the organization is a key
role player, allows for job creation throughout the country, including rural areas, where HIV
prevalence is often high. It impacts on all businesses, both directly and indirectly, resulting in
increased costs and reduced productivity. Against this backdrop and because SANParks
values its human capital, a comprehensive HIV & AIDS Program which includes Developing
an HIV & AIDS Policy; Education and Awareness; Anonymous and Unlinked Prevalence
Surveys; Know-Your-Status Campaigns; Lifestyle Management; Care, Treatment & Support



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as well as Scientific Impact Analyses. The purpose of the HIV & AIDS program is to enable
SANParks maintain a healthy and productive workforce within a viable and sustainable
organization has now been introduced nationally as well as on park level .

        Objectives
           • To implement an effective workplace HIV/AIDS strategy and programmes for
               SANParks.
           • To facilitate the prevention of new HIV infections amongst all SANParks
               employees.
           • To manage the impact of AIDS on services and employees, including
               employee morale, performance, leave and other benefits.
           • To ensure a safe and supportive working environment for all employees so
               that disclosure and openness about HIV status is promoted.
           • To develop capacity to support infected employees.
           • To integrate the HIV/AIDS Programme into the all-embracing Employee
               Assistance Programme.
           • To eradicate the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, and promote acceptance
           • To reduce the impact of AIDS on all infected and affected employees.

3.5.6 Legal compliance/risk management

All possible risks are identified on a continual basis. This can include Safety and security
risks for both the visitors and staff. Most of this is covered by the Security and Safety
programme plan (See Security and Safety programme plan). The best will always be to
eliminate the risks if possible, however, in case where it is not possible to eliminate them,
strategies on how to manage them will be developed. A check list has been developed for all
the possible risks and is monitored daily by park management. This includes risks in
activities and accommodation offered by the park. The following is some of the risks
identified

      Emergency situations
For emergencies, an emergency plan is developed and staff is trained on how to react to the
emergencies as per the emergency plan.

       Accommodation
All accommodation has to comply to building legislation. To comply with legislation, an
Occupational, Health and Safety committee is established and functional in the park.

        Natural disasters:
Flooding by rain and high sea waves are possible natural disaster that can occur in the park.
In the last three years two flooding by sea waves have occurred. This may become even
more frequent with the rising sea levels due to global warming.

       Information Technology related risks
With most of some information contained in computers these days it is necessary to develop
the way to deal with the risks of the loss and exposure of such information. This is dealt with
through the corporate policy for the organisation

        Financial risks
This is dealt with in accordance with corporate policies. Continuous training is done for staff
handling the finance for the park as per the delegation frame work.

       Communicable diseases
This can include both animals and people. Cooperation is therefore necessary with the
relevant authorities in the management of such incidences. With regard to people, it may be



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easy to deal with communicable diseases among park employees in line with corporate
policy, but it remains a challenge on how to address this with the many visitors visiting the
park annually.

         Activities
The main activities offered by the park are hiking trails. Proper training is provided for all
staff involved in these activities to try and reduce the risks associated with this. With regard
to trails, proper signage is maintained on the trails. Trails are well marked. Applicable
insurance is also obtained as per corporate policy and efforts are made to get the activities
comply with the insurance policies, e.g. proper licensing, and registration of some of the
activities as required, e.g. boats, and diving.

        Fires
Fire can occur either in the veldt or in relation to the facilities and buildings in the park. Veld
fires are addressed through the integrated fire program while the response to fires from
buildings is addressed through the Occupational Health and Safety as per legislation. An
emergency plan is available on how to deal with these situations




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    4. REFERENCES

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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



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WCNP Park Management Plan Version 1 (31 October 2006)



VISSER, N. H & A. E. SCHOCH. 1973. The geology and mineral resources of the Saldanha
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South African National Parks would like to thank everybody who participated and had
  input in the formulation of this document notably S G Yssel , Dr R M Randall,Dr N
                    Hanekom, and West Coast National Park staff




Ref.16/1/5/1/5/20/2                                                              47

				
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