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					        Internationalisation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Globalisation

                                 University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Higher                                          Education
       Linkages

                           Internationalisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • science • awards •
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cation                                               c ult u r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lhiaher eguu a g e s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      d                                                                                             e                                  • la
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ng
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               •                                                                                                                                                                                  ua
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            g es                                                                                                                       at         io n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nce • awards •                                                                                                                                     ali s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                tion • scie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 •                                                                                             b
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    i nt
                                                                                                                                                                                                           uca                                   c ult u r                                                                                                g lo
                                                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                                                                             igh    er ed                                                   e • er n a t
                                                                                                                                 P a r t n e r s h i pes      s                            h                                • science • awards •                   lang
                                                                                                                                                         ka
                                                                                                                                                            g
                                                                                                                                                                                  n •                          r edu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cation                      c ult u r               ua
                                                                                                                                                     lin
                                                                                                                                                                        lis at io                       h ighe                                             e •
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lang
                                                                                                                                                                     ba                              •                                                                 uag




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              •
                                                                                                                                                                g lo                          t io n                                                                       es




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           es
                                                                                                                                                                                       l i sa
                                                                                                                                                                                     oa • science • awards • cul




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         mm
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                                                                                                                                                                                   o                                         tur e
Awards                                                                                                                                                 ge




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     gra
                                                                                                                                                                   ighe •                                                          • la
                                                                                                                                                    ka         • h        es                                                            ngu




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pro
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             k                                                                                                                                                               s •


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               •
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ba                                                                                                                                                                                  • science • scieds ceen• awwads • cn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • awar•n s•i cuce • aar rds • iult
                                        Learnership                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 c




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             •
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    es
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          na l gesgu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              g
 Edition 1: Volume 2 •   OctOber 2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              at io •                 t io n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         age                                     n




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mm
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • • l ea

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  gra
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 Of f i c e f o r I n t erna ti ona l Educa ti on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 esa                                                                               • science • awards •                        ati




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              lkogb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          •



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             pro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ucation                        c ult u r                on
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           li                                                               n •                                                                  ua s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        awards • lang me




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          •                                                     k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          •
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          o




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       melting
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     •
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ip                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   i nt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               glo n • science • awards • c




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         gra




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                                                                                                                                                                                                       alisation •


                                                                                                                                                                                                 awards • lang




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                                         sa tion • awards • lang uage




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      awards • lang




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sa tion • awards • lang uage
                                                                                                                                                                                              •• glob




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rship • programmes • li nkag
                                                                                                                                                                 m globalisation •




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                                                                                                                                                                                    balisa
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • glo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          alisation •
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Eastern African Broad Palm Tree
2                                                                                                                                          trends
                                                             Office for International Education – our                                                                            philosophy
                                                             By Dr NJ Jooste (Director, Office for International Education)


    C o nt e n t s
                                                             I
                                                                  nternationalisation of Higher Education is                               practices comprehensive internationalisation,
                                                                  globally being recognised as the feature                                 and those that merely offer a study abroad
                                                                  that     identifies      the      modern            university.          destination. The NMMU Office for International


                                          2
                                                             Internationalisation in the modern era is much                                Education            is     practicing            ‘Internationalization
    PHILOSOPHY of an
    office                                                   more than the mobility of students and the                                    at      Home’,         and       endeavours               to    focus          its
                                                             management of inter-institutional agreements. A                               activities in such a way that it will benefit all
                                                             university can only claim to be comprehensively                               on our campus.                   The structure of the Office


                                          3
    MEDICAL scheme                                           internationalised if it practices internationalisation                        for International Education was designed to
    cover for International                                  at all levels, and adopts the approach that it is                             support          the      philosophy              of     comprehensive
    students                                                 for everybody and not only a selected few.                                    Internationalisation with a focus on IaH. As
                                                                                                                                           indicated in the previous edition we will in this


                                          4
    An AMERICAN                                                    One of the practices that characterise the                              edition, and the next, explain the structure of the
    perspective                                              internationalisation of the modern university is                              Office for International Education.
                                                             the practice described as ‘Internationalization
                                                             at Home (IaH)’. IaH is described by Hanneke                                          Along with myself, the management of


                                          5
                                                             Teekens as any internationally related activity,                              the Office and all its activities are driven by:
    The vision of
    one WOMAN                                                with the exception of outbound students and                                   Marian          Neale-Shutte,               the        Senior       Manager
                                                             staff mobility. IaH also endeavours to link                                   International             Engagement                   and      Research:
                                                             international        and      inter-cultural          aspects         in                                                          
                                                                                                                                           •  Marian  is  responsible  for  the  promotion  of 


                                          6
                                                             promoting broad-mindedness, understanding                                     internationalisation on the campus through
    KENYA - a jewel on
    the African continent                                    and respect for other people and their cultures.                              promoting academic engagement with students
                                                             It focuses the attention on what happens at                                   and staff, organising “study abroad at home”
                                                             home, thus internationalisation activities are                                experiences, and undertaking research to assist


                                          7
                                                             not necessarily ‘far away’ and for others, but for                            in the promotion of internationalisation on the
    AMERICAN SOUTH
    - a distinctive culture                                  everyone.                                                                     campus. She is also responsible for all the
                                                                                                                                           short-stay programs organised for international
                                                                   For the NMMU, as for most universities                                  partners.  •  Tohiera                  Moodien,              the      Senior 


                                          8
                                                             in    a     developing       environment,             IaH       should        Manager International Student Administration:
    KENYAN elections
    2007                                                     be the main focus of its internationalisation                                 Tohiera is responsible for the management
                                                             strategies; it needs to bring all the benefits of                             of all student administrative activities of the
                                                             internationalisation to all the students and not                              OIE, as well as the administrative activities
                                                             only to the privileged few that can travel abroad.                            associated with study abroad and exchange
                                                             It should also comprehensively link-up with the                               students.  •  Bev  Sanderson,  the  Manager 
    Publisher: Office for International Education
                                                             broader civil society to share in the benefits                                International  Student  Finance:  Bev  provides 
    Phone: +27 (0) 41 504 2161                               of    a     globalised       world.        Internationalisation               financial         management                services           relating        to
    Email: international@nmmu.ac.za                          should thus not be primarily for the private                                  the implementation of the student fees policy,
    Address:                                                 good, but the main focus should be on the                                     assistance with compilation and control of
    P O Box 77000,                                           ‘public good’. The way universities apply the                                 the budget for the OIE, budgetary control
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University,                  practice described as ‘Internationalisation at                                of off-campus accommodation cost centres and
    Port Elizabeth, 6013,
                                                             Home’, distinguishes between a university that                                all relevant financial administrative services.
    SOUTH AFRICA


    THE TEAM                                                              To become a truly internationalised University, the Office for International Education
                                                                                         is structured in the following way to reach this goal.
    Editor: Dr Nico Jooste
    Project Manager: Nadia Chalkley                                            Structure of the NMMU Office for International Education
    contributing Writer: Divinia Pillay
    Writing and Editing: Design@Bay                                                                 coordinator                     coordinator                     coordinator
                                                                                              Inter. Centre Reception         International Marketing        Public Relations & Events
    concept and Design: Design@Bay
    Printers: Valmac
                                                                                       Manager                           international Student                                Assistant
                                                                             International Student Finance                  Accounts Officer                              Student accounts
    Disclaimer: The information in this newsletter is for
    educational purposes only. The Opinions expressed                                                                                                                                            coordinator:
                                                                                   SNr Manager                  coordinator: study abroad                     research:
    on the Feedback, Facility and in the Content are        director       Inter. Academic Engagement        programs & community Projects        Institutional Internationalization
                                                                                                                                                                                         English as a foreign language
    not those of the International Office of NMMU, and                                                                                                                                              program
    the International Office of NMMU accepts no legal
    responsibility for their veracity and nature.                                                                   Study
                                                                              SNr Manager: Int. Student                          records & Int.     Int. Student Admin.      Int. student Admin.          Data capt. &
                                                                                                                   Abroad
                                                                           Admin., Study Abroad & Exchange                      Student Admin.         (Africa & Asia)        (SADc countries)             Filing clerk
                                                                                                                   Advisor



                                                                                               2
 Headquarter
       Diary                                                                                                                                                                  3
                                 COLLOQUIUM 2007:
               Internalisation and Multiculturalism

t
    he fourth Colloquium in the Office for International Education’s
    Colloquium Series took place on the 28 August 2007. The theme:
    Internationalisation and Multiculturalism was purposefully chosen
to contribute to the discussion on Internationalisation by exploring
how internationalisation promotes the understanding of cultural
differences, and what should be done to celebrate diversity to enhance
the educational process.

     the first session was opened by Dr. Stella Ting-Toomey (California
State University, Fullerton) who discussed: “Promoting intercultural
competencies towards effective international understanding and
education”. This distinguished speaker, and vastly published author in the
field of Intercultural Communication, commented that: “Cultural diversity
may be a challenge, creating barriers to competent communication issues                > From left – Prof Lynette Louw, Mrs Marian Neale-Shutte, Dr Ting-Toomey, Dr
and power distance, which can be overcome with understanding of power                  Wilcox (at the back), Prof Anna Naidoo (centre), Dr Rolf Stumpf (back), Prof Nikkie
distance interpretations, cultural diversity and cultural value patterns, and          Dorfling, Dr Nico Jooste (back), and Dr Tulsi Morar. Insert - Mr Shahzad Ahmad.
mindful listening, informal and formal conflict management strategies”.
                                                                                       highly successful St. Cloud State Multicultural Centre. He commented that:
    Prof. Dr. Richard Wilcox (Nuertingen-Geislingen University)                        “there is a need to offer multicultural programmes for identity development
concentrated on: “Developing effective international learning organisations            and student empowerment through linking knowledge with action and
and international partnerships: Challenges, processes and rewards”. He                 history with contemporary issues. Students must first become culturally
observed that multinational learning organisations should be innovative in             grounded in their own cultures before they become global citizens.”
integrating management across cultural borders. He further said that they
(management) should be locally leveraged and globally linked, and that                 The Colloquium also saw the return of the Colloquium Series publication,
the selection of partners should be a strategic decision. South African,               and attendees were given a copy of: Internationalising Higher Education:
Prof. Lynette Louw (Rhodes University) opened the second session                       Colloquium Series – Volume 2&3. The Office was not able to host the
with a discussion on: “The impact of Internalisation on the multicultural              highly successful International Week that accompanied the Colloquium
environment at Rhodes University”. She observed that: “Service delivery                each year, due to the International Education Association of South Africa
within the institution, such as accommodation, is the level where impact               (IEASA) Conference, which was also hosted by the Office. However,
can be best affected on internationalisation of an institution.” In the final          next years Colloquium will again return to the old format, where cultures
session Mr Shahzad Ahmad (St. Cloud State University), discussed: “Best                from various countries take over the campus, and transforms it into a hub
practices on how to promote Multiculturalism” with examples from the                   for cultural discussion.




          11th                                                                             MEDICAL SCHEME COVER
  Annual                                                                                   for International Students
                                                                                           By Rikki Erasmus, Ingwe Health Plan.
  IEASA
Conference
                                                                                           I
                                                                                              t is estimated that approximately 120,000 students from foreign
                                                                                              countries study in South Africa at any given point in time. In terms
                                                                                              of the Immigration Act and its Amendments any prospective



t
   his year the 11th Annual IEASA Conference was hosted by,                                student must be in possession of “health insurance cover”. The
   and held at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University from                             intention is to ensure that foreign students do not fall back on the
   29-31 August. the conference included many guest speakers                               South African national health system. The Department of Home
from universities around the world, presenting papers on their                             Affairs has placed this responsibility on the Tertiary Education
research surrounding Internationalisation of Higher Education:                             institutions (TE) where such a student enrolls.
A Strategic imperative for the University of the 21st Century: A view from                                                Read more at: http://www.nmmu.ac.za/international
the South.
                                                     Read more in our next issue



                                                                                   3
4                                                                                                                Global
                                                                                                                 Linkages
One American’s
Perspective on South Africa                                                                                                   By Debby Chessin




T
     ravelling through the Office of Study
     Abroad at the University of Mississippi
     and the Office for International Education
at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University, my two students and I were very
fortunate to experience the rich flavours of
South Africa’s diverse cultures, the wonder
and beauty of the outdoors, and to share the
excitement of learning about each others’
lives– during three short, intense weeks from
July 12 – August 3, 2007.

Getting Around:
      Thank you fellow South African drivers for
smiling when I entered your oncoming lane of
traffic -- it’s hard to break the American habit of
driving on the right side of the road! I laughed
too when I reached for the turn signal and the           > “In the jungle, the mighty jungle, the lion sleeps tonight.” Doing something I couldn’t do here in Oxford,
windshield wipers started flapping uselessly,               Mississippi!
and the times I chugged clumsily down the
road in my attempt to remember how to drive              destination -- in Oxford, Mississippi, it takes          but the sincere interest in me, just because
with a stick shift – I got pretty good at it all after   around 10 minutes to drive from one side of              I’m an American, was surprising! I was invited
week two of my visit! Some of your directions            the “city” to the other! Here in Oxford, the cars        to a “braai” with “soft chips” at the home of a
floored me at first but I got with the program           are at least twice the size of the cars I saw in         faculty member from NMMU and enjoyed what
eventually: A “robot” in America is a mechanical         the parking lots of South Africa! Teenagers and          Americans  call  BBQ  or  barbeque  and  french 
device used to mimic human form and function             college students here love to drive big trucks           fries. For someone with a sweet tooth, Port
– I realized that I should be looking for “traffic       and cumbersome Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV)              Elizabeth provided the kind of goodies and
lights” after a few wrong turns.                         despite the rising cost of gas. Increasingly             desserts I could only dream of – permutations
                                                         though, people ride bikes around town and                and combinations of simple ingredients, yet
    When you told me to go approximately                 Oxford is building “bike lanes” on its newer city        wildly different tastes and textures.
10 kilometres, I had to think twice about the            streets to accommodate that traffic safely.
conversion factor between kilometres and miles,                                                                          Each day we tried some new food – kudu,
and to consult a map to be sure of how much              Food and Companionship:                                  crocodile, ostrich, boerewors, and the most
time to leave to get to my                                   Sitting at “Friends” coffee café in                  delicious variety of veggies that are in unique
                                                         Summerstrand Village was always a treat for me.          combinations. We have “appetizers” instead of
                                                         Café culture is relatively new to us here in Oxford      “starters” and the biggest difference I found in
                                                           and it’s mostly the college students studying          the menu was the price! For a group of three to
                                                                       for exams who are there since              enjoy a meal, including appetizers and dessert,
                                                                                 we do offer free wireless        as we did in a very nice South African restaurant,
                                                                                      access in many              we would have spent easily three times the
                                                                                         public places.           amount in America!

                                                                                            At “Friends”,         Schools and Children:
                                                                                             I met people              In America, our only official language is Eng-
                                                                                              from      all       lish. In South Africa, your children are amazing in
                                                                                              walks of life       that they all speak at least two languages fluent-
                                                                                            and found it          ly! This would be very unusual in America – we
                                                                                          fascinating that        have many different cultures and languages, but
                                                                                         people were so           schools are all taught in English and children may
                                                                                       open and friendly          learn how to speak French, Spanish, or German.
                                                                                     – we are a hospitable        However this is not reflective of their own herit-
                                                                                   bunch here in Oxford,          age the way it is in South Africa. Your children –


                                                                                  4
                                                                                                                        Global Linkages
“bless their hearts”-- (as Mississippians often          most of our children do not have recess anymore          at the Office of International Education at NMMU
say) were so eager to share with us their lan-           because administrators are scheduling more               and I wish you all well. The photos I took and
guage, home recipes, dances, songs, and sto-             time for learning and preparing for state and na-        the journal entries I made during my trip will al-
ries of their lives. In America, students eat lunch at   tional standardized tests. A typical school day in       low me to “relive” the exciting moments we all
school – either brought from home or purchased           America goes from 8am - 3pm with approximate-            shared together, and to communicate with oth-
at the school cafeteria. We were surprised that the      ly 20 – 30 minutes for lunch. Many children ride         ers the wonder I felt each day.
schools we visited did not have a breakfast and          to school on the free school bus for over an hour,
lunch program. The American government                   but the cost is paid by school taxes. Our teach-             Our visit was brief in time but long in
provides free breakfast and lunch based on               ers must sit with their students during lunch, and       experiences, understanding, and memories
financial need.                                          have very little time to plan, grade, or discuss         and my hope to return with another group of
                                                         ideas with other teachers. One lovely tradition          students -- so that they, too, can enhance their
     We have a rapidly increasing problem with           we observed in an ex-Model C school was “tea”            understanding of what unites us in our humanity
childhood obesity in our country and educators           before school started and a mid-morning break            and what details allow for infinite expressions of
are trying harder to provide low fat meals and                                                                    culture and individuality.
healthy snacks. In South Africa, your children           Farewell:
are fortunate in that they have recess – time to             This trip would not have been possible               Thank you, South Africans, for the chance to say
exercise and play with their friends. In America,        without all the support from the wonderful people        I know now why I want to come back.




                        THE VISIOn OF OnE wOMAn
                       Professor Olive Mugenda is a woman with a vision – a vision of revolutionizing Kenyatta University
                                                       into a world-class university.




P
      rofessor Olive Mugenda is a woman with a vision – a vision
      of revolutionizing Kenyatta University, in Kenya, into a world-
      class university.

    ‘The history of Kenyatta University started when Templer Barracks were 
handed over to the Kenyan government by the British in 1965. These were 
converted into a higher learning institution known as Kenyatta College,
which was actually a teacher education institution. In 1970, Kenyatta
College became a constituent college of the University of Nairobi by an Act
of Parliament, as a result, Kenyatta College changed to Kenyatta University
College.

     In 1972, Kenyatta University College admitted 200 students for
Bachelor of Education degrees, which was conferred by the University of 
Nairobi. The government transferred the Faculty of Education of the University
of Nairobi to Kenyatta University College in 1978, which became the only
institution training teachers at both undergraduate and post-graduate
level.  University  status  was  achieved  in  1985,  and  Kenyatta  University 
College was renamed Kenyatta University’ (Kenyatta University Calendar,
2001 – 2003).

     Prof Mugenda is truly an example of how hard work pay’s off in the end.
She obtained her Bachelor of Education, with First Class Honours, from the 
University of Nairobi in 1979. She then ventured to the United States of
America where she obtained both her Masters and PhD in Family Studies
and Consumer Studies from the University of Iowa. Returning to her native                   The Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Office for International
country of Kenya, she started to climb the ladder of success within Kenyatta           Education has a long, and fruitful, relationship with Kenyatta University. They
University, starting out as a Head of Department and currently holding the             signed an institutional agreement on the 13 July 2004. The cooperation is
position of Vice-Chancellor of the University. With her appointment, she               further enhanced by annual visits by senior academics from the NMMU
became the first woman Vice-Chancellor of a public university in the East              to Kenyatta and vice-a-versa, as well as their participation in the annual
African region.                                                                        Colloquium on Internationalization.


                                                                                   5
6                                                                                                            Cultural
                                                                                                             Domain
KEnYA - a jewel on the African continent
In Kenya, the past positively influences the present, and future, of the people of this culturally rich country.




t
    he country, in Eastern Africa, boasts a history that is remarkable. In                influence coaxed Kenya into changing its governing structures,
    2004, paleontologists discovered the fossils of giant crocodiles                         a council of elders, chiefs, or religious leaders governed the
    and various other fossils dating back to the Mesozoic Era,                                 various tribes.This sense of the past and present fusing with
some 200 million years ago. The migration of various ethnic                                       one another is palpable in this country. For instance, you
groups, like the Arabs, Indians, Chinese, Portuguese,                                               will find a modern metropolis with all the technological
and British, since the Late Stone Age, to Kenya                                                       attributes of a modern society, and a few hours drive
means that its culture and traditions have been                                                       from this city, you will find a traditional settlement where
influenced by a variety of other cultures. It was                                                animal pen’s are still made out of thorn-bushes (and not
only in 1963 that Kenya gained independence, and                                            wire), and the land is cultivated by people wearing traditional
it only became a Republic in 1964.  Tradition dictated                                clothes. The people of this country have grown with the times, and yet
how this country was governed, and before Western                                 held onto ancient rituals and traditions that make them a unique nation.
                                                                                                                            Information sourced: www.magicalkenya.com
                                                                                                                                                   www.kenyaweb.com




Kenya - a HERITAGE of SPLEnDOUR                                                                                                 By Georgina Ogalo




L
    ocated on the eastern part of the African       began  as  early  as  3000  B.C,  later  followed  by 
    continent lies the Republic of Kenya            the Portuguese being the first Europeans to
     J
    (‘ amhuri ya Kenya’). The capital city          discover the country, ruling the coastal towns
Nairobi is named after a water hole known           and later the Omani Arabs during which the
in Maasai as Ewaso Nyirobi meaning                  Swahili culture arose. In the late 19th century it
“cool waters”, the other major cities being         became a colony of the British Empire, however, 
Mombasa and Kisumu. Kenya borders Sudan             through the Mau Mau rebellion that lasted over
and Ethiopia to the north, Uganda to the            10 years independence was gained on 12th
west and the Indian Ocean to the south east.        December 1963 with Jomo Kenyatta chosen as                languages are also spoken in the country. The
Geographical variety is reflected from the          the first president, followed by Daniel Arap Moi          most representative cultures are the famous
extensive Rift Valley Mountains, white sandy        and currently, President Mwai Kibaki.                     Maasai culture and the Swahili culture. Formation
coastlines and coral reef along the Indian                                                                    of Swahili culture and language is attributed to
Ocean edge, landscapes and flat lands of the        CULTURE                                                   the interaction of African and Asiatic people on
Nyika Plateau and savannah of the Maasai                Kenya has a population of 34 million spread           the coast of East Africa, which ultimately led to
Mara, recently named one of the Wonders of          across  its  eight  geopolitical  provinces,  66%  of     the rise of Kiswahili, the most widely spoken
the World.                                          the population living in the rural areas, which is        African language. Maasai are semi-nomadic
                                                    mostly concentrated in the fertile southern half          people found in Southern plains, easily identified
ORIGInS                                             of the country. It is a country of diversity with a       by their tall postures and red Maasai clothes,
     Archaeologically known as one of the sites     wide variety of cultures, languages and religious         symbolic for their love of the earth and their
of the Craddle of Humankind, after the discovery    beliefs. Kenya has two national languages:                culture. Beadwork plays an essential part in the 
of homohabilis and homoerectus who lived in the     English and Swahili taught throughout the                 ornamentation on their bodies. Kenya is quite a
                 fertile Rift Valley. Migration         country, however,                                     conservative country with most Kenyans being
                     of  Bantus,  Nilotes                   a plethora of                                     Christian and 30% of the population Muslim.
                        and Cushites                          42 ethnic
                                                                                                                   They are reserved in terms of dress code,
                                                                                                              sexuality and smoking. Cultural diversity is also
                                                                                                              reflected through Kenyan food and cuisine,
                                                                                                              consisting of traditional African dishes, tribal
                                                                                                              dishes, Arabian and European delicacies. Just
                                                                                                              as ‘braai’ (roasting meat over a fire) is widely
                                                                                                              popular in South Africa, especially the ‘braai’ing’
                                                                                                              of ‘boerewors’ (sausage) and other meat,
                                                                                                              Kenyan’s also love their ‘nyama choma’. Ugali
                                                                                                              is the main staple food in Kenya with its South
                                                                                                              African equivalent being ‘pap’.


                                                                              6
                                                                                                                               Cultural Domain
EXPOSURE                                                   Mandela Metropolitan University, a true ‘melting
     The best experience of culture in Kenya is            pot’ of Africa with a diverse culture and student
the Old Towns of Mombasa along the coast,                  body. The need to expand my horizons led
and the Lamu Islands. Inland Safari adventures             me ‘down south’ and has exposed me to the
through the Rift Valley escarpments and Maasai             ‘Rainbow Nation’ closer to home. South Africa
Mara, down to the shores of Lake Victoria                  is the most developed country in Africa and
in Western Kenya, exposes a wide variety of                I believe the lessons I will learn academically
different cultures and ultimately the warm and             and practically will help me build my country
friendly hospitality of Kenyan's, who always greet         and Africa as a whole. Diversity is not disunity,
passers-by with a kind ‘Jambo’. It is with this            and Africans should stand together as one. We
diverse upbringing and heritage that brought               are rich in culture, history, heritage, resources
me to South Africa and especially the Nelson               and community.




                    AMERICAn SOUTH
                                   - a distinctive culture
I
 n the southeastern and south-central United States of America lies a                        examples of Southern cuisine. Famous and unique dishes from the South
 region with a unique, vibrant and interesting culture. It can be called                     include: grits, fried green tomatoes, catfish, cornbread, deep fried chicken,
 anything from the South, American South or Dixie, but its people are                        deep pit barbeque, and cobbler. The South has a culture influenced by
mostly known as Southerners.                                                                 ancestors, tradition and history that makes it truly one of a kind in the United
                                                                                             States of America.
     Like most regions across the globe, its people have ancestry from                                                                                             Information sourced:
across the world. In the South most of the inhabitants have Scottish or                                                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_United_States
Irish-Scottish ancestors, as well as English, Native American and African
ancestry. The African slaves, that form an integral part of the wars and
history of the South, were specially imported to work on the various cotton,
tobacco, rice and indigo plantations in the South. After 1800, cotton
plantations were the norm and most slaves worked on these plantations
                                                                                             Y’all -
cultivating cotton.
                                                                                             only heard in
     The South, however, also has a rich history of education. It boasts the
oldest  university  established  in  Virginia  in  1693.    The  College  of  William        Southern conversation
and Mary educated three of the United States’ Presidents: Jefferson,                         By Vanessa Cook
Monroe and Tyler. This region further boasts two other Presidents whose
routes lie in the South: Washington and Madison. Southerners are known                           Y’all. It’s a word you won’t hear often outside the Southern United
for their Southern hospitality. They are polite, respectful and welcoming                    States, but it sums up what the people and the land are all about. Y’all is a
people. Along with this Southern hospitality, the South is also known for                    combination of “you” and “all” referring to a group of people and is used in
its Southern cuisine, which is a melting pot of various styles and is very                   phrases such us, “What are y’all doing?” and “Hey, y’all!”
distinctive. Floribbean, Creole, Soul food, Cajun and Lowcountry are all
                                                                                                  Y’all means you could be related or friends, but you’re part of the
                                                                                             group. And, in the South, we want to welcome everyone to experience our
                                                                                             Southern hospitality. That’s why we invite our international students to come
                                                                                             to our football games (American football, that is) and join us as we cheer
                                                                                             on the team and eat barbeque and pecan pie. We also want to make them
                                                                                             a part of our Southern family by sharing the kindness and generosity that
                                                                                             make visitors fall in love with Oxford in Mississippi, because, to us, family
                                                                                             is the people that you make a connection with and who help you out when-
                                                                                             ever they can. We live in a unique region of the United States, surrounded
                                                                                             by trees and grass and lakes. Oxford has all the charm of a small town with
                                                                                             its music, art, literature, and food, but it also has the diversity of a big city as
                                                                                             we welcome more and more international connections. It’s a great place to
                                                                                             begin your adventure in the United States.

                                                                                             We hope to see y’all here soon.


                                                                                         7
8                                                                                                                newsroom
KEnYAn ELECTIONS 2007                                                                                   By Georgina Ogalo




K
      enya is scheduled to hold its fourth                                                                       approved a draft Constitution, but in December
      multiparty elections in December 2007.                                                                     2005 voters rejected it because it expanded the 
      There are already two key political                                                                        President’s powers. LDP was part of the NARC
parties, the Orange Democratic Movement                                                                          movement backing Kibaki in the 2002 elections,
(ODM)-Kenya and the Narc-Kenya. Incumbent                                                                        but  was  dismissed  from  cabinet  after  the  2005 
President Mwai Kibaki declared his intentions                                                                    Constitutional referendum.
for running for President, but has not yet             > President Mwai Kibaki speaking at the
declared under what party banner.                         Inauguration of the Aga Khan Academy in Mombasa        Consequently, ODM-Kenya’s, born out of the
                                                                                                                 referendum campaigns (KANU and LDP),
     The main opposition party, ODM-Kenya,             However the question still looms on the united            Orange team led a successful challenge against
consisting of the ODM, the Liberal Democratic          single candidate to represent the opposition.             the draft review of the Kenyan Constitution, and
Party (LDP) and the Kenya African National             President Mwai Kibaki won the December 2002               they hope to replicate the support they garnered
Union (KANU) has Raila Odinga, Kalonzo                 elections after the 24-year reign of President            in the referendum in General Elections 2007.
Musyoka, William Ruto, Musalia Mudavadi,               Daniel Arap Moi (term limits preventing him               Kenya is a country of growing democracy, with
Najid  Balala  and  Joseph  Nyagah  all  vying  for    from running again), against the then ruling              a revival of system and economy in its near
presidency. These candidates are expected to           party, KANU’s presidential candidate, Uhuru               future. If the opposition unites, we should expect
field the strongest challenger for Kibaki. In mid-     Kenyatta. Kibaki initiated policies for generating        a fiercely contested election, and it’s bound to
August 2007, Kalonzo Musyoka broke off from            economic growth, improving education,                     be fairly close and the hope of change after the
the ODM-Kenya, leaving Raila Odinga and the            combating corruption and implementing a                   disillusionment of a string of promises that stirred
other aspirants at the helm of the ODM coalition.      new  Constitution.  In  July  2005,  parliament  fully    a cocktail of euphoria back in 2002.




    The strength of South African women By Johanna Kruger
    Additional information: Carlien Jooste
                                                                                     in all aspects of society, democratic development and change will not



    S
          outh African women have come a long way. In this country,                  be achieved. Although they remain underrepresented in politics and
          they have the privilege to have the blood of heroines, and                 decision-making processes in most countries, South Africa has made
          survivors, running through their veins.                                    magnificent progress in this regard. Nelson Mandela declared the 9th
                                                                                     August a public holiday in honour of women of this diverse country for
         On  the  9  August  1956,  non-white  women  stood-up,  united              a good reason.
    together, and fought for their rights and that of their un-born children
    and grandchildren. They fought for the abolishment of the dreaded                     In his first State of the Nation address, on the 24 May 1994, he
    passbook-system, which was implemented by the Apartheid                          further made his convictions clear when he paid homage to Afrikaner
    Government;  they  marched  towards  the  Union  Buildings  in  Pretoria         poet Ingrid Jonker, who fought the Apartheid government through
    and  delivered  their  petition.  During  the  Anglo-Boer  War,  between         her words and actions, when he stated: “Confronted with death, she
    Britain and the two Boer-Republics, Britain decided to strike the Boer’s         asserted the beauty of life. In the dark days when all seemed hopeless
    where it would hurt them the most. They invaded their farms, killed all          in our country, when many refused to hear her resonant voice, she
    their animals, burnt the farms to the ground and took their women and            took her own life. To her and others like her, we owe a commitment
    children to concentration camps. These women fought for their survival,          to the poor, the oppressed, the wretched and the despised.” As long
    and that of children, but many died of starvation, illness and exposure          as women are still being discriminated against, with regard to rape,
    to the elements. After the Anglo-Boer War (1902), 26 000 Boer women              domestic violence and sexual abuse, celebrating Women’s Day will be
    and children had died in these concentration camps. Women have                   of the utmost importance. South Africa is finally in a position to highlight
    made such important contributions in every sector of society in the past         the wrongs of the past and work towards a brighter future for women to
    and will continue doing so in the future. Without them participating fully       assure their rightful place in society.




                                      For more information please contact:
                                  The Office for International Education
                   PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University,
                                    Port Elizabeth, 6031 • SOUTH AFRICA
                     Tel: +27 (0) 41 504 2161 • Fax: +27 (0) 41 504 2771
                                        E-mail: international@nmmu.ac.za         8       Port Elizabeth & George

				
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