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WHAT’S HAPPENING?...................................................................................................... 3

REMINDERS FOR YOUR SCHOOL VISIT......................................................................... 4
   •       Zoo Hours.......................................................................................................................................................... 4
   •       Admission ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
   •       Supervisor to student ratios......................................................................................................................... 4


MEET THE DINOSAURS!................................................................................................... 5
   Allosaurus................................................................................................................................................................... 5
   Apatosaurus............................................................................................................................................................... 6
   Baryonyx ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7
   Deinonychus .............................................................................................................................................................. 8
   Dilophosaurus ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
   Metriacanthosaurus ............................................................................................................................................... 10
   Omeisaurus (outdoors) ........................................................................................................................................... 11
   Parasaurolophus..................................................................................................................................................... 12
   Protoceratops .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
   Pterosaur................................................................................................................................................................... 14
   Stegosaurus ............................................................................................................................................................. 15
   Triceratops ............................................................................................................................................................... 16
   Tyrannosaurus rex ................................................................................................................................................. 17
   Agilisaurus (skeleton) ............................................................................................................................................. 18
   Angustinaripterus (skeleton) ................................................................................................................................ 19
   Mamenchisaurus (skeleton) .................................................................................................................................. 20
   Yangchuanosaurus (skeleton).............................................................................................................................. 21


HOW DOES IT ALL FIT IN? CURRICULUM LINKS ...................................................... 22

DINO LESSONS ............................................................................................................... 25
   Primary Lesson 1 .................................................................................................................................................... 25
   Primary Lesson 2 .................................................................................................................................................... 27
   Junior/Intermediate Lesson ................................................................................................................................. 33


FUN FACTS & ACTIVITIES.............................................................................................. 35
   Bone Wars ................................................................................................................................................................ 35
   Where Did They Come From … and Where Did They Go?........................................................................... 36
   Dino Word Search................................................................................................................................................... 38




                                                                                                                                                                                 2
What’s Happening?




The dinosaurs who ruled the Earth 65 million years ago are back at the Toronto Zoo!

See moving, growling, 30 tonne monsters as they thunder over the Earth. Take a stroll
back in time to the Mesozoic Era, where no human being has ever gone before.
Experience life eons ago as the dinosaurs did, through sights, sounds, and special effects!

As part of your regular admission you can go eye to eye with sixteen life size animatronic
dinosaurs. Familiar relicts from the past such as the Stegosaurus, the gigantic
Apatosaurus, and the fearsome Tyrannosaurus rex will amaze you! In addition to the
sixteen life-sized animatronic dinosaurs, the exhibit will include a number of life-sized
dinosaur skeletons, various fossils, and displays.

DinoKing Tech Group, based out of Vancouver, B.C., has provided the exhibition for the
Toronto Zoo. DinoKing offers the world’s largest and most advanced dinosaurs for visual
exhibitions and educational experiences. Partnered with a technology company in China
that creates emulational robotic dinosaurs, this exhibit will truly be stunning.




                                                                                             3
REMINDERS FOR YOUR SCHOOL VISIT




          Dinosaurs Alive! will be open from May 18th – October 8th

          Zoo Hours are:
            •  May 19th – September 3rd
                             9:00am – 7:30pm (last admission 6:30pm)
            •
                            th
               September 4 – October 8th
                             9:00am – 6:00pm (last admission 5:00pm)
            •
                         th
               October 9 – December 31st
                             9:30am – 4:30pm (last admission 3:30pm)

          Admission for school groups is:
                  •   $7 per student/supervisor (elementary)
                  •   $8 per student/supervisor (secondary)
                  •   $9 per student/supervisor (post-secondary)

          Please call Toronto Zoo Group Sales at 416-392-5932 to book your school
          group

          Supervisor to student ratios are:
                   •   Grades K – 3: one supervisor per 5 students
                   •   Grades 4 – 12: one supervisor per 10 students

          As this is a very busy time of year is it always useful for supervisors to know
          the names of each student in their group

          The Toronto Zoo and the Dinosaurs Alive! event will be wheelchair
          accessible. For more information please visit the website at:
          http://www.torontozoo.com/AboutTheZoo/SpecialNeeds.Services.asp

          On the day of your visit please remember to bring your group confirmation
          and payment can be made at Guest Services at the main entrance of the
          Zoo. Payment can be made by cheque payable to “Toronto Zoo”, cash,
          MasterCard, VISA, or American Express




                                                                                            4
MEET THE DINOSAURS!




                                       Allosaurus
Pronunciation: al – o – SAWR – us             Size: 12 m
Meaning: Strange Lizard or Different          Weight: 3 tonnes
Lizard
Origin: USA; Canada; Mexico; Africa;          Age: Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous
      Australia; China




Allosaurus was a large carnivorous dinosaur that walked on two powerful legs.
Allosaurus means “different lizard”. It is so named because the vertebrae in its strong ,
S-shaped neck were different from those of other dinosaurs. It had a massive tail, a
bulky body, and heavy bones. Its arms were short and had three-fingered hands with
sharp claws that were up to 15 cm (6 inches) long. It had large, powerful jaws with long,
sharp, serrated teeth 5 to 10 cm long. It lived primarily in what are now North America,
Africa, Australia, and China. Rare discoveries of a smaller species similar to Allosaurus,
and dating from the Early Cretaceous of North America and Australia, indicate that this
versatile hunter might have survived the mass extinction at the end of the Jurassic
period.




                                                                                             5
                                     Apatosaurus
Pronunciation: a – pat – o – SAWR – us             Size: 22 m
Meaning: Deceptive Lizard                          Weight: 35 tonnes

Origin: Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, USA;              Age: Late Jurassic
Mexico




Apatosaurus were some of the largest land animals that ever existed. These enormous
dinosaurs were about 4.5 m (15 ft) tall at the hips, 22 m (70 ft) long, and weighed up to 35
tonnes. Their name means 'deceptive lizard' because of the similarity in bone structure to
another dinosaur named the Mosasaurus. It is not known how Apatosaurus ate enough
food to satisfy their enormous bodies. It is likely that they ate constantly, pausing only to
cool off, drink, or to remove parasites. Scientists believe that these dinosaurs may have
slept upright due to their gigantic size. They likely relied on their enormous size and herd
behavior to deter predators.




                                                                                                6
                                        Baryonyx
Pronunciation: BAYR-ee-ON-iks                  Size: 8 m
Meaning: Heavy Claw                            Weight: 2 tonnes

Origin: England                                Age: Early Cretaceous




Baryonyx means “heavy claw”, referring to the large claws on their hands. This
carnivorous dinosaur was about 8 to 10 m long (26 to 33 ft) and approximately 3.6 m
(12 ft) tall. Based on its size, it probably weighed around 2 tonnes. It had a long curved
claw on the thumb of each hand, which measured about 31 cm (12 in). The crocodile-
like jaws and large number of finely serrated teeth suggested to scientists that Baryonyx
was a fish eater. As confirmation, a number of scales and bones from the fish
Lepidotes were also discovered in the body cavity of an English specimen of Baryonyx.
It is speculated that Baryonyx would sit on a riverbank, resting on its powerful front legs,
and then sweep fish from the river with its powerful striking claw, similar to the modern
grizzly bear. Its long and low stance and angled head support this theory.




                                                                                               7
                                    Deinonychus

Pronunciation: dye-NON-ik-us                  Size: 3 m
Meaning: Terrible Claw                        Weight: 80 kg

Origin: Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming,              Age: Early Cretaceous
Maryland, USA; Alberta, Canada




Deinonychus (meaning “terrible claw”) was a 2-3 m (7-10 ft) long, carnivorous
dromaeosaurid (running lizard) dinosaur species from the early Cretaceous period.
Dramaeosaurs were a group of small, fast, and agile dinosaurs from the Cretaceous
period. Deinonychus had an unusually large, sickle-shaped claw on the second toe of
each hind foot that was probably held upright while the dinosaur walked on the third and
fourth toes. It was commonly thought that Deinonychus would kick with this large claw
to slash at its prey, but recent tests on reconstructions of similar Velociraptor claws
suggest that it was used to stab, not slash. Deinonychus and other dromaeosaurids are
so birdlike that there has been debate whether they are in fact true birds. Discoveries of
related dinosaurs from China, such as Sinornithosaurus and Microraptor indicate that
this dinosaur may have had feathers.




                                                                                             8
                                     Dilophosaurus

Pronunciation: dye-LO-fuh-SAWR-us               Size: 6 m
Meaning: Two-crested Lizard                     Weight: 300 kg to 450 kg
Origin: Arizona, USA; Lufeng, Yunnan,           Age: Early Jurassic
China




Dilophosaurus (meaning “two-crested lizard”) measured around 6 m (20 ft) long and
may have weighed half a tonne. The most distinctive characteristic of Dilophosaurus
was the pair of rounded crests on its skull, probably used for display. Another curious
skull feature was a ‘notch’ behind the first row of teeth, giving it an almost crocodile-like
appearance. This notch existed because of a weak connection between the
premaxillary and maxillary bones of the skull. This, along with the belief that the front
teeth were too weak to bring down and hold large prey, led to the early hypothesis that
Dilophosaurus was a scavenger. Dilophosaurus was featured in the 1993 movie
‘Jurassic Park’. In the film version, it had a retractable frill around its neck (much like a
modern-day frilled lizard), and was able to spit poison, aiming for the eyes to blind and
paralyze its prey. There is no evidence to support this representation, which was
invented by the filmmakers to heighten drama and suspense.




                                                                                                9
                               Metriacanthosaurus

Pronunciation: met-rih-ah-KANTH-uh-SAWR-us       Size: 8 m
Meaning: Moderate-spined Lizard                  Weight: 1 tonne

Origin: England                                  Age: Jurassic




Metriacanthosaurus (meaning “moderate-spined lizard”) was a dinosaur that lived during
the Jurassic period. It was a carnivorous dinosaur that ruled what is now England, feeding
on many small herbivores. Because so little is known about this dinosaur, how it may have
looked is largely unknown and is generally based on closely related carnivores. What is
known about it is that it is a carnivore distinct from any other. Metriacanthosaurus had
spines measuring up to 25cm long on each of its vertebrae (not shown in picture). It is
thought that these spines may have had a skin ‘sail’ between them. In the film version of
‘Jurassic Park’, one of the vials containing dinosaur DNA is labeled with the name
Metriacanthosaurus, though the genus does not appear in the film.




                                                                                         10
                             Omeisaurus (outdoors)

Pronunciation: o-MY-ee-SAWR-us                   Size: 20 m
Meaning: Mount Emei (China) Lizard               Weight: 25 tonnes

Origin: Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan, China         Age: Middle and Late Jurassic




Omeisaurus tianfuensis is a large, long-necked sauropod dinosaur that measured up to 20
m long. The elongate neck consists of 17 cervical (neck) vertebrae. The length of the
longest cervical vertebra is about 3.5 times that of the longest dorsal (back) one. The
structures of the cervical and dorsal vertebrae are comparatively complex, with developed
beehive-shaped structures. The bones of the four limbs are sturdy. It probably walked on
vast alluvial plains and ate leaves of tall trees. Omeisaurus bones are often discovered in
groups, suggesting that it may have moved in herds. Herding behaviour is common
among herbivores, as it provides some safety from predators.




                                                                                          11
                                 Parasaurolophus

Pronunciation: par-ah-SAWR-OL-uh-fus         Size: 8 m
Meaning: Similar Crested Lizard              Weight: 3.5 tonnes

Origin: Alberta, Canada; USA                 Age: Late Cretaceous




Parasaurolophus were about 10 m (33 ft) long, 5 m (16 ft) high and weighed around 3.5
tonnes (7,700 lb). Like other hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs), they most often moved
bipedally but also had the ability to move quadrupedally (they could alternate between
two legs and four), probably preferring a quadrupedal stance while they foraged for food
and assumed a bipedal mode for fast running. Their most noticeable feature would have
been the 2 m (6 ft) long curved crest, protruding from the rear of the head, often longer
in males than in females. This hollow crest was probably used for communication, by
creating a resonance chamber to amplify sounds and for mating display by the males.
Parasaurolophus probably lived in large herds and inhabited flood plains. Fossils of
Parasaurolophus have been found across North America, and a complete skeleton was
found in Canada.




                                                                                            12
                                  Protoceratops

Pronunciation: pro-toe-SAIR-uh-tops            Size: 2 m
Meaning: First Horned Face                     Weight: 400 kg
Origin: Inner Mongolia, China                  Age: Early Cretaceous




Protoceratops (meaning “First Horned Face”) was a sheep-sized (1.5 to 2 m long)
herbivorous ceratopsian (horned face) dinosaur, from the Upper Cretaceous period of
what is now Inner Mongolia. Protoceratops had a large neck frill, which may have served
to protect the neck, anchor jaw muscles, and/or impress other members of the species.




                                                                                          13
                                       Pterosaur
Pronunciation: TER-oh-SAWR                   Size: 2 m
Meaning: Winged Lizards                      Weight: 135 kg

Origin: unknown                              Age: Cretaceous




Pterosaurs (meaning “winged lizards”) were flying reptiles. Pterosaurs were the first
known vertebrates thought to be able to fly. Their wings were formed by a sophisticated
membrane of skin, stretching from the neck to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger.
They are thought to have evolved flight from some manner other than the “tree-down”
route possibly taken by birds. Evidence suggests a “ground-up” evolution of flight or
even a route that evolved by gliding from cliff-tops. It has been suggested that smaller
Pterosaurs with longer hind limbs such as Dimorphodon might have walked or even run
bipedally, in addition to flying, not unlike modern roadrunners. They became extinct
about 65 million years ago at the same time as the dinosaurs. Pterosaurs are
sometimes referred to in popular media as dinosaurs, but this is incorrect. The term
“dinosaur” is more correctly restricted to a certain group of terrestrial reptiles with a
unique upright stance (superorder Dinosauria), and therefore excludes the pterosaurs,
as well as the various groups of extinct aquatic reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs,
plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs.




                                                                                            14
                                     Stegosaurus

Pronunciation: STEG-oh-SAWR-us                Size: 9 m
Meaning: Covered Lizard or Roof lizard        Weight: 3 tonnes

Origin: Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, USA;         Age: Late Jurassic
Madagascar, Africa




Due to its distinctive tail spikes and plates, Stegosaurus is one of the most recognizable
dinosaurs, along with Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Apatosaurus. A large, heavily-
built and herbivorous quadruped, averaging around 9 m (30 ft) long and 4 m (14 ft) tall,
Stegosaurus had a distinctive and unusual posture, with a heavily-arched back, short
forelimbs, head held low to the ground, and a stiffened tail held high in the air. The
function of the many plates and spikes has been the subject of debate. The spikes were
most likely used for defense, while the plates have also been proposed as a defensive
mechanism, as well as having display and thermoregulatory (heat control) functions. As
one of the most recognizable dinosaurs, Stegosaurus has been widely depicted on film,
in cartoons, comics, and as children's toys. It has even been declared the State
Dinosaur of Colorado.




                                                                                             15
                                      Triceratops

Pronunciation: try-SAIR-uh-tops               Size: 9 m
Meaning: Three-horned Face                    Weight: 6 tonnes

Origin: Wyoming, Montana, S. Dakota,          Age: Late Cretaceous
Colorado, USA; Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Canada




Triceratops (meaning “three-horned face”) was one of the last dinosaurs to appear
before the great extinction. Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on its head, this
large four-legged dinosaur is somewhat reminiscent of an ancient rhinoceros.
Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs. Triceratops has been
estimated to reach about 9 m (26 ft) in length, 3 m (10 ft) in height, and weigh up to 6
tonnes. The most distinctive feature is its large skull, one of the largest of all land
animals, which could grow over 2 m in length and reach almost a third of the length of
the entire animal. A recent study of the smallest Triceratops skull, believed to be a
juvenile, showed that the frills and horns developed at a very early age, before sexual
maturity and thus were probably important for visual communication and species
recognition in general. The distinctive appearance of Triceratops has led to it being
frequently depicted in various forms of popular culture including films, computer games
and children’s toys.




                                                                                            16
                                Tyrannosaurus rex

Pronunciation: tye-RAN-uh-SAWR-us             Size: 15 m
Meaning: Tyrant King Lizard                   Weight: 7 tonnes

Origin: Alberta, Canada; New Mexico,          Age: Late Cretaceous
Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, USA




The species Tyrannosaurus rex (meaning “tyrant king lizard”), commonly abbreviated to
T. rex, is one of the dinosaurs most often featured in popular culture around the world. It
was one of the largest land bipedal carnivores of all time, measuring about 13 m (43 ft)
long and 5 m (17 ft) tall when fully grown. Its weight is estimated to range between 5.4
tonnes and 6.8 tonnes (12,000 and 15,000 lbs). T. rex featured a massive skull balanced
by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hind limbs, its forelimbs were
small and supported only two digits. T. rex had heterodont teeth (or many kinds of teeth),
with the premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw closely-packed and D-shaped in
cross-section. Large bite marks found on bones of other dinosaurs indicate that these
teeth could penetrate solid bone. T. rex had the greatest bite force of any dinosaur and
one of the strongest bite forces of any animal.




                                                                                              17
                               Agilisaurus (skeleton)
Pronunciation: uh-JIL-uh-SAWR-us               Size: 80 cm × 60 cm× 40 cm
Meaning: Nimble Lizard                         Weight: 13 kg

Origin: Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan,             Age: Middle Jurassic
China




Agilisaurus is a small ornithopod dinosaur. It was named after a beautifully preserved
skeleton that was unearthed in 1984 from the famous Dashanpu Quarry in China.
Agilisaurus had a slight build with short forelimbs and long hind limbs. Its skull was short
but high, with numerous leaf-like teeth in its jaw. It was bipedal and a fast runner that is
believed to have lived on river shores or open plains. This specimen is considered to be
the most complete small ornithopod known in China, or even the world.




                                                                                               18
                          Angustinaripterus (skeleton)
Pronunciation: ang-GUHS-ti-na-RIP-ter-us Size: 1 m × 1.5 m × 0.4 m
Meaning: Narrow-Nostriled Wing Lizard    Weight: unknown
Origin: Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan,            Age: Middle Jurassic
China




Angustinaripterus longicephalus was a pterosaur. Its head was relatively long, with
narrow nostrils, and contains long, sharp teeth believed to be perfect for catching fish.
The neck was relatively long, and the body was punctuated by a short tail. The
wingspan was modest, and the hind limbs were short and slender. It is believed that
they lived mainly on the shores of rivers or lakes.




                                                                                            19
                          Mamenchisaurus (skeleton)
Pronunciation: mah-MEN-chih-SAWR-us               Size: 23 m x 1.5 m x 7 m
Meaning: Mamenchi (China) Lizard                  Weight: 30 tonnes
Origin: Xinmin, Zigong, Sichuan, China            Age: Late Jurassic




Mamenchisaurus youngi was a large, long-necked sauropod dinosaur. The elongate neck
consists of 19 cervical vertebrae. The length of the longest cervical vertebra is about 3.5
times that of the longest dorsal one. The structures of the cervical and dorsal vertebrae are
comparatively complex, with well developed beehive-shaped structures. The bones of the
four limbs were sturdy. It probably walked on vast alluvial plains and ate leaves of tall
trees.




                                                                                           20
                         Yangchuanosaurus (skeleton)
Pronunciation: yang-chew-ANN-uh-SAWR-us        Size: 9 m × 1.4 m × 3.6 m
Meaning: Yang-ch'uan Lizard                    Weight: 2 tonnes
Origin: Heping, Zigong, Sichuan, China         Age: Late Jurassic




Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis was a large carnosaur (carnivorous dinosaur). Its skull
is relatively flat, long, and heavily built, measuring a little more than one metre in length
and it sat on a short neck. The teeth, while relatively small, are sharp and formed like
daggers. Its body, consisting of 14 amphiplatyan (flat on both the front and back sides)
dorsal vertebrae, is slightly longer compared with that of other Jurassic megalosaurs (a
group of very large, bipedal, carnivorous dinosaurs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous
periods). The forelimbs are very small, while the powerful hind limbs were equipped with
sharp, massive claws at the tip of its digits – perfect for seizing prey or tearing through
their tough hide. It was a fierce bipedal carnosaur, preying on herbivorous dinosaurs
and other animals.




                                                                                                21
HOW DOES IT ALL FIT IN? CURRICULUM LINKS



Kindergarten
Overall Expectations
   - Demonstrate an understanding of and care for the natural world

Exploration and Experimentation
   - sort and classify groups of living and non-living things in their own way
           o   students can look at fossils and dinosaur skeletons, group them as non-living, and compare with living
               collections, to be grouped as living.

   -   describe and/or represent, using their own observations, patterns and cycles in the natural
       world
           o   students can look at dinosaur eggs, baby Apatosaurus, and adult Apatosaurus and discuss life cycles

   -   demonstrate an awareness of local natural habitats through exploration and observation (e.g.,
       talk about what would happen if something in the environment changed)
           o   students can discuss dinosaur extinction



Grade 1
Overall Expectations
   - Investigate the characteristics and needs of animals and plants

Understanding Basic Concepts
   - classify characteristics of animals and plants by using the senses (e.g., texture, colour, size,
      sounds)
           o   students can describe the look of dinosaurs as compared to living collections

   -   describe the different ways in which animals move
           o   students can hypothesize how the various dinosaurs may have moved based on body size and shape
               and compare with living collections

   -   describe some basic changes in humans as they grow, and compare changes in humans with
       changes in other living things
           o   students can observe differences between dinosaur life cycles and human life cycles




                                                                                                                     22
Grade 2
Overall Expectations
   - Demonstrate an understanding of the similarities and differences among various types of
       animals

Understanding Basic Concepts
   - identify and describe the major physical characteristics of different types of animals
           o   students can look at the characteristics of dinosaurs and compare/contrast to other vertebrate groups

   -   compare ways in which animals eat their food (e.g., tear flesh, crack shells), move, and use
       their environment to meet their needs
           o   students can group dinosaurs into herbivores and carnivores based on physical characteristics




Grade 4
Overall Expectations
   - Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of habitat and community
           o   students can discuss the niche that the various dinosaurs played in their habitat

   -   Describe ways in which humans can change habitats and the effects of these changes on the
       plants and animals within the habitats
           o   students can discuss the theoretical causes of the dinosaur extinction and compare to the current rate
               of extinction and modern day causes

Understanding Basic Concepts
   - classify organisms according to their role in a food chain (e.g. producer, consumer)
           o   students can discuss the role of the top predator (e.g. Tyrannosaurus rex) in a food chain

   -   demonstrate an understanding of a food chain as a system in which energy from the sun is
       transferred eventually to animals, construct food chains of different plant and animal
       species, and classify animals as omnivore, carnivore, and herbivore
           o   students can examine various plants and dinosaurs and construct food chains from the species on
               display




                                                                                                                        23
Grade 6
Overall Expectations
   - Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which classification systems are used to
       understand the diversity of living things and the interrelationships among living things

Understanding Basic Concepts
   - identify and describe the characteristics of vertebrates, and use these characteristics to
      classify vertebrates as mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fish
           o   after students have reviewed characteristics of the main vertebrate classes have them classify the
               dinosaurs based upon visible characteristics.

   -   explain how fossils provide evidence of changes in animals over geological time
           o   discuss the current theories surrounding bird, mammal, and reptile evolution from dinosaurs.

   -   compare similarities and differences between fossils and animals of the present
           o   students can identify similar extant organisms to fossils



Grade 7
Overall Expectations
   - Demonstrate an understanding of the interactions of plants, animals, fungi, and
       microorganisms in an ecosystem

Understanding Basic Concepts
   - identify and explain the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers in food chains and
      their effects on the environment
           o   students can identify the role of the dinosaurs and plants and compare to extant organisms in a similar
               ecosystem




                                                                                                                    24
DINO LESSONS




Primary Lesson 1

Digging for Dinosaurs
Students will learn how paleontologists dig for dinosaurs, categorize the dinosaurs they
find as carnivores or herbivores, and graph their results.


Materials:
             Sand box
             String
             Shovels and paint brushes
             A variety of plastic dinosaurs
             Graph paper
             Pencils


Procedure:
   1. Place a variety of plastic toy dinosaurs (both carnivores and herbivores) into a sand
      box at various locations.
   2. Construct a grid by placing string across the sand box.
   3. Review with students the role of animals as both predator and prey and discuss the
      terms carnivore and herbivore.
   4. Review with students how paleontologists would perform a dig, recording the
      location of artifacts using a grid system (please see diagram below).
   5. Distribute shovels and paint brushes to students and instruct them to carefully
      search for the buried dinosaurs using the tools provided.
   6. For each dinosaur discovered, mark the location it was found on a schematic grid
      diagram on the black board.
   7. For each dinosaur discovered, also determine if it is a carnivore or herbivore and
      record it on the black board using tally marks.




                                                                                           25
Next Steps:
Have students use the tally of carnivores vs. herbivores to construct a bar graph showing
how many of each were found.

                    A           B            C             D


            1


        2



        3



        4




        - Was discovered in location B4 (herbivore)



        - Was discovered in location C2 (herbivore)



       - Was discovered in location D3 (carnivore)




                                                                                            26
Primary Lesson 2

Dinosaur Zoo Keeper
Students will design their own imaginary dinosaur and through drawings and writing they
will describe the four needs (water, food, space, and shelter) it requires for survival.

Materials:
             Dinosaur Zoo Keeper Blackline Master
             Crayons / Pencil Crayons
             Stapler

Procedure:
   1. Print off a copy of the blackline master (double-sided) for each student and staple
      along the left hand side to form a booklet.
   2. Discuss with students the needs of living things including shelter, food, water, and
      space. Use concrete examples (e.g. human needs or domestic pet needs) to help
      them understand.
   3. Go over the instructions on how to complete the handout with the students.
   4. Hand out the blackline master to each student and provide them with crayons or
      pencil crayons to draw the various pictures.
   5. Have each student complete all sections of their handouts.

Next Steps:
Have students give short presentations to the class discussing their dinosaur and the
needs that it has.




                                                                                             27
This is my imaginary dinosaur named

It looks like




                                      28
Draw a picture of the shelter that your imaginary dinosaur would need.




My Dinosaur needs shelter because




                                                                         29
Draw a picture of the food that your imaginary dinosaur would eat.




My Dinosaur needs food because




                                                                     30
Draw a picture of where your imaginary dinosaur would find water.




My Dinosaur needs water because




                                                                    31
Draw a picture of where your imaginary dinosaur would live.




My Dinosaur lives in                                 , because it




                                                                    32
Junior/Intermediate Lesson


Looking At the             Picture
Students will explore the various eras and periods of the Earth. Through research, they
will come to understand the diversity of life that existed in the different periods and
communicate those findings with their class.
      *Adapted from the Storyeum Activity Guide




    Present                                                                        Past


Materials:
             13 Sheets of 11” X 17” white paper
             Tape
             Computers with internet


Procedure:
   1. Have students evenly divided into 13 groups, and assign one time period for each
      group (include pre-Cambrian as one group).
   2. Students are to research using the internet and other media information about the
      time period they were assigned. Students should obtain information regarding the
      temperature, weather patterns, dominant plant life, and general habitat descriptors,
      and relate this to the animal life present during that period. For example, if the land
      was dominated by water and there were few predators at the time, the major animal
      life present may have been represented by slow moving crustaceans.




                                                                                           33
   3. Provide each student/group with one sheet of 11” X 17” white paper. Students are
      to draw a representative diagram/picture of their time period on the paper provided.
      Have the students draw a line on the bottom of the page with a scale to represent
      the millions of years of their time period. For example, the Devonian period lasted
      approximately 55 million years. The scale should then have each inch representing
      approximately 3.25 million years (17” of paper).
   4. Take all of the student drawings and place them in proper order on the classroom
      wall. Place a 1mm mark in the corner of the Quaternary period to represent how
      long humans have been on the Earth.
   5. Each student/group should give a five minute presentation to the class about their
      respective time periods.



Next Steps:
Have students write a short (not to exceed one page) report on how the Red Queen Effect
(i.e. arms race) played a role in the changes of dominant organisms found within their time
periods.




                                                                                          34
Fun Facts & Activities




Bone Wars

In the mid part of the nineteenth century, dinosaurs came into vogue, especially in the
U.S., which became the headquarters for dinosaur research.

However, something which could only loosely be called “research” took place. A battle
over bones was what it really was, and, while it was in full swing during the last three
decades of the 19th century, it was quite exciting.

The participants were Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both American
paleontologists, Cope for the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and Marsh for
the Peabody Museum at Yale. Cope was probably more brilliant, but Marsh was more
careful.

The feud got off to a flaming start when Marsh had the impertinence to point out that, on
one of Cope’s reconstructions of a dinosaur, he had put the beast’s head onto the wrong
end of its body.

Not impressed, Cope counterattacked and the battle was on.

As battles go, it was quite riveting. Each of the protagonists was out for glory and each
had an independent fortune to aid him in his quest. Each hired other men to go out in the
“field” and hunt for fossils.

They bickered over who found new species of dinosaur first. Then they squabbled over
what the new discovery should be called. They stole fossils from each other’s digging
sites, diverted train loads of specimens, and bribed off each other’s workers. Once, Cope
turned up at one of Marsh’s sites in disguise.

Occasionally, when they were finished with a digging site, they would destroy everything
left behind lest it fall into the hands of the enemy. They also stole fossils from each other
and they bid against each other for fossils.

They maligned each other in public and in print.

It might seem that this bitter rivalry was completely negative, and indeed valuable
specimens were destroyed and paleontologists are still busy sorting out the confusion of



                                                                                                35
names which Cope and Marsh left behind, yet these two men between them popularized
dinosaurs to the general public and made species such as the Brontosaurus (now
Apatosaurus) and Stegosaurus household words. They also accumulated the bulk of the
world’s collection of dinosaurs.

The Bone Wars continued until Cope went broke and Marsh ran afoul of some western
congressmen who curtailed his digging rights.




Where Did They Come From … and Where Did They Go?

Dinosaurs are considered by some to be the most successful creatures the Earth has ever
seen; after all, they ruled the land for a very long time. But where did these awesome
creatures come from?

The dinosaurs, as well as our own, most remote ancestor were amphibians. Amphibians
were the first form of life with a backbone to venture onto land, and land dwelling creatures
radiated from there. Reptiles were the first group to arise from the amphibians and there
are many representatives, such as the snake and turtle who still survive today.

The reptiles began to change and a new representative, about the size of a small dog,
called the thecodonts (THEE – co – donts) arose. The thecodonts were the direct
ancestor to the dinosaurs. At about the same time as the thecodont group formed, so did
another unusual group of animals called the therapsids (ther – ap – sids). The therapsids
were a group of mammal-like reptiles, and were one of our remote ancestors.




                                                                                           36
From the fossil discoveries so far, it is believed that dinosaurs roamed the Earth for
approximately 160 million years! To put it into perspective humans have only been around
for approximately 150,000 years! We know that the dinosaurs are no longer roaming the
Earth, but where did they go?

There are many different theories surrounding the extinction of the dinosaurs and no one
theory has been proven as correct. Here is a short list of possible explanations:

          A giant meteorite, or asteroids, several miles across in size, crashed into the
          Earth, leaving behind iridium. So great was the resulting crash, that debris
          clouded the atmosphere for many years. This killed, first of all, the plants. Next
          to go were the plant-eating dinosaurs. Last on the agenda were the meat-eating
          dinosaurs, which ate the plant-eaters. In support of this theory, deposits of
          iridium have been found in rocks dating from 65 million years ago.

          A giant comet smashed into the Earth, heating up the atmosphere and killing off
          the dinosaurs, which had no way of protecting themselves. The cyanide which
          such a comet would have left behind got into the oceans and poisoned the
          minute marine life as well as the giant marine reptiles.

          The climate dropped suddenly, killing the dinosaurs, who could not adapt. In
          fact, the climate did experience a drop at the end of the Cretaceous period, but
          many scientists feel that a drop in temperature alone could not have caused
          such a widespread devastation, and that the dinosaurs had adapted to such
          changes before.



Keep in mind that the possible causes listed above would not have led to the direct
extinction of all species. Many scientists believe that some dinosaurs were warm blooded
and had fur or feathers, and those species may have given rise to modern day creatures.
One thing is for certain, dinosaurs, in geological terms, were highly successful creatures!




                                                                                             37
Dino Word Search

Just as paleontologists have to search through layers of rock called strata for dinosaur
bones, students can search through these jumbled letters for dinosaur names and words!

D   V    R   M    L   W   N    O   I   T    C   N   I    T   X   E    V      M   E   F   U
R   S    D   D    Z   G   D    M   T   F    E   Q   A    R   U   G    M      Q   H   T   D
L   P    R   O    D   V   E    U   K   K    O   B   U    S   S   F    M      L   C   O   D
J   O    Z   G    S   B   I    T   U   V    R   D   U    T   U   X    P      H   Q   M   I
R   T    H   Z    T   W   N    R   M   W    P   M   P    B   R   S    U      L   Y   G   N
U   A    X   V    E   B   O    I   Z   S    A   K   S    A   U   D    E      R   Y   I   O
A   R    A   S    G   A   N    A   Z   U    R   C   H    R   A   D    H      M   V   B   S
S   E    V   Y    O   U   Y    S   X   R    A   K   L    Y   S   I    K      K   G   Q   A
O   C    R   H    S   T   C    S   A   U    S   W   A    O   O   L    D      C   I   S   U
R   I    F   Y    A   Z   H    I   L   A    A   V   O    N   H   O    F      R   A   U   R
E   R    T   O    U   B   U    C   L   S    U   D   M    Y   T   P    K      E   N   R   S
T   T    O   C    R   T   S    Z   O   I    R   G   E    X   N   H    A      T   U   U   A
P   P    R   P    U   P   P    I   S   E    O   R   S    C   A   O    A      A   A   A   L
S   B    O   R    S   F   D    C   A   M    L   R   O    I   C   S    B      C   P   S   I
U   Y    N   C    F   K   A    U   U   O    O   I   Z    S   A   A    U      E   V   O   V
H   F    T   W    B   G   Q    J   R   N    P   Q   O    S   I   U    J      O   X   T   E
K   E    O   V    M   H   G    Z   U   W    H   Q   I    A   R   R    P      U   Z   A   V
Z   D    Z   F    E   G   H    X   S   N    U   O   C    R   T   U    U      S   K   P   N
J   K    O   G    B   E   R    J   G   W    S   Z   C    U   E   S    Z      K   R   A   C
F   C    O   Z    H   N   S    T   G   F    B   Y   R    J   M   U    R      Q   A   U   T
P   G    X   E    R   S   U    R   U   A    S   O   N    N   A   R    Y      T   D   R   K



                   Allosaurus                           Metriacanthosaurus
                  Apatosaurus                              Omeisaurus
                    Baryonyx                             Parasaurolophus
                   Cretaceous                               Pterosaur
                  Deinonychus                              Stegosaurus
                 Dilophosaurus                            Toronto Zoo
                 Dinosaurs Alive                             Triassic
                   Extinction                              Triceratops
                     Jurassic                           Tyrannosaurus rex
                    Mesozoic




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                        Dino Word Search Answers


D   V   R   M   L   W   N   O   I   T   C   N   I   T   X   E   V   M   E   F   U
R   S   D   D   Z   G   D   M   T   F   E   Q   A   R   U   G   M   Q   H   T   D
L   P   R   O   D   V   E   U   K   K   O   B   U   S   S   F   M   L   C   O   D
J   O   Z   G   S   B   I   T   U   V   R   D   U   T   U   X   P   H   Q   M   I
R   T   H   Z   T   W   N   R   M   W   P   M   P   B   R   S   U   L   Y   G   N
U   A   X   V   E   B   O   I   Z   S   A   K   S   A   U   D   E   R   Y   I   O
A   R   A   S   G   A   N   A   Z   U   R   C   H   R   A   D   H   M   V   B   S
S   E   V   Y   O   U   Y   S   X   R   A   K   L   Y   S   I   K   K   G   Q   A
O   C   R   H   S   T   C   S   A   U   S   W   A   O   O   L   D   C   I   S   U
R   I   F   Y   A   Z   H   I   L   A   A   V   O   N   H   O   F   R   A   U   R
E   R   T   O   U   B   U   C   L   S   U   D   M   Y   T   P   K   E   N   R   S
T   T   O   C   R   T   S   Z   O   I   R   G   E   X   N   H   A   T   U   U   A
P   P   R   P   U   P   P   I   S   E   O   R   S   C   A   O   A   A   A   A   L
S   B   O   R   S   F   D   C   A   M   L   R   O   I   C   S   B   C   P   S   I
U   Y   N   C   F   K   A   U   U   O   O   I   Z   S   A   A   U   E   V   O   V
H   F   T   W   B   G   Q   J   R   N   P   Q   O   S   I   U   J   O   X   T   E
K   E   O   V   M   H   G   Z   U   W   H   Q   I   A   R   R   P   U   Z   A   V
Z   D   Z   F   E   G   H   X   S   N   U   O   C   R   T   U   U   S   K   P   N
J   K   O   G   B   E   R   J   G   W   S   Z   C   U   E   S   Z   K   R   A   C
F   C   O   Z   H   N   S   T   G   F   B   Y   R   J   M   U   R   Q   A   U   T
P   G   X   E   R   S   U   R   U   A   S   O   N   N   A   R   Y   T   D   R   K




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