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資訊時代

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					Chapter 1 Information Age

     1.1   Information Age and IT   3
     1.2   Applications of IT       4
                              Chapter 1 Information Age


1.1 Information Age and IT

 1.1.1 Nature of Computers
 1.1.2 IT and Computers
                              1.1 Information Age and Information Technology


1.1.1 Nature of Computers (1)

 1. Speed
   High processing speed
      But, may not be at full power all the times
 2. Reliability
   Low failure rate of electronic components
 3. Accuracy
   Always gives accurate results, unless
      program bugs OR
      incorrect data input
                        1.1 Information Age and Information Technology


1.1.1 Nature of Computers (2)

 4. Storage capacity
   Different types of storage
   can store huge amount of data

 5. Communication ability
   Data transmission between computers
   Use of computers :
      Communication between people
                          1.1 Information Age and Information Technology


1.1.2 IT and Computers

 Information Technology (IT)
   Create, store, exchange, and use information
   Mainly computer technology
      other technologies: communication, audio and video etc.
   Includes computers and other technologies
 Information
   Helps people in making decision
 Information Age
   Driven by information technology
                                     Chapter 1 Information Age


1.2 Applications of IT

 Clothing, Eating & Food, Housing, Transportation

 Finance & commerce, Education, Science, Health,
  Law Enforcement, Government and Robotics
                     1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.1 Clothing

 Design
 Manufacturing
 Inventory System
 Sales Record
                                                 1.2.1 Clothing
             Clothing-

1.2.1.1 Design

 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software
   Complete most of the design process
   Allow designers to modify their designs easily

 Templates
   eliminate the needs to start everything from scratch
                                                        1.2.1 Clothing
             Clothing-

1.2.1.2 Manufacturing

 Design
   Passed electronically to the manufacturing department
 Schedule Production lines
   Evaluate the time for each section
   based on
      date of completion, quantity required and complexity of the
       design
   Ensure that
      all sections completed according to a pre-set sequence
      work load evenly distributed among the production lines
   For the best overall efficiency
                                                        1.2.1 Clothing
             Clothing-

1.2.1.3 Inventory System

 Computer-based Inventory System
   Records the details of each product
      like the product name, type, location and quantity
 Electronic Map
   Shows the locations of all goods
   Allows retrieval of goods quickly
                                                        1.2.1 Clothing
             Clothing-

1.2.1.4 Sales records

 Inventory system (similar to last page)
 Sales records
   data for each sale is recorded
   Help Sales manager to
      know the trend and
      make decision on future replenishment of goods
   The statistics help the store manager to
      determine the business strategy of the company
                           1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.2 Eating and food

 Monitoring and Control
 Supermarket
 Embedded Computer
 Food Ordering
                                           1.2.2 Eating and food
             Eating and food-
1.2.2.1      Monitoring and controls

 Agriculture
   Providing information about
      crop, cattle and farming
 Food processing factory
   Monitoring the production process
   Controlling the quantity of the final product
                                                 1.2.2 Eating and Food
             Eating and food-
1.2.2.2 Supermarket

 Inventory, Personnel, Sales, C. Services etc.
 Point-Of-Sales (POS) terminal
   Bar code readers are installed
      to provide fast and reliable data input
   Stock-on-shelf records on central computer
      updated instantly
      verified by a staff who uses a handheld computer
 Sales Information
   Information about the popularity of goods
   Arrange items for display on the shelves
   Replenishment of goods
                                          1.2.2 Eating and food
             Eating and food-
1.2.2.3 Embedded computer

 Embedded computer
   Microwave oven inside a kitchen
   Using a pre-programmed fire setting
      defrost frozen meat
                                         1.2.2 Eating and food
            Eating and food-
1.2.2.4 Food ordering

 Handheld computer (PDA)
   Waiter records your food order
 Radio Waves
   Transmits information to a central computer
 Inside the kitchen
   Food order appears on a display
   The cook to follow.
                        1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.3 Housing

 House Design
 Engineering
 Building Management
 Home Security
                                                 1.2.3 Housing
             Housing -
1.2.3.1 House design

 Computer Aided Design (CAD) Software
 3D model of the design
   Viewed from different angles,
   both inside and outside
 Interactive animations
   Allow clients to understand more about the final design
                                             1.2.3 Housing
            Housing-

1.2.3.2 Engineering

 In a construction site, engineers use computers to
   Plan their projects &
   Manage resources
                                                  1.2.3 Housing
             Housing-
1.2.3.3 Building management

 Smart card technology
   Authenticate residents at the entrance of the buildings
   No need to remember password
   Difficult to forge
 Web site
   Allows residents to reserve facilities
      like tennis court or conference room.
                                             1.2.3 Housing
             Housing-
1.2.3.4 Home security

 Web cams
   Monitor their houses via the Internet.
 Smart home technology
   that provides greater security
   more convenience.
                        1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.4 Transportation

 Railway Control
 Traffic Information
 GPS
 Autotoll
                                               1.2.4 Transportation
             Transportation-

1.2.4.1 Controls

 The central computer system
   Controls the movements of all the trains along the
    complex railway network.
   Must be fully tested before put into use
      because any bugs may lead to serious accidents.
                                                    1.2.4 Transportation
             Transportation-
1.2.4.2 Traffic information

 Airport
   Monitors all the flying planes
   Collects vast amount of data,
      like aircraft positions, temperature and wind speed,
   Analyzed by the computer
      to give a reliable overall picture of the weather
      and air traffic conditions
   Results sent to all the airplanes
                                                    1.2.4 Transportation
             Transportation-

1.2.4.3 GPS

 GPS (Global Positioning System)
  to keep bus company informed about
      the positions of all the buses on the road
   Schedule bus services
   Solve unexpected problems,
      like traffic jam due to a road accident.
                                                 1.2.4 Transportation
             Transportation-
1.2.4.4 Autotoll

 Autotoll
   At the gate, the chip is activated
   The chip emits a radio wave, carrying information,
      like the driver's account number.
   Central computer
      Locates the driver's record based
      the deposit is deducted
      appropriate information shown to driver through
         • traffic lights
                         1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.5 Finance and Commerce

 Banking
 E-commerce
                                              1.2.5 Finance and Commerce
             Finance and Commerce-

1.2.5.1 Banking

 Bank
   Pioneer in computerization among other commercial
    activities
   All financial transactions are handled and recorded by
    computers
   ATM (automatic teller machine) terminals
      to withdraw or transfer money
   Online banking allows you
      view account balance, transfer money and
      financial transactions, like online investment
                                         1.2.5 Finance and Commerce
             Finance and Commerce-
1.2.5.2 E-commerce

 E-commerce
   getting more and more popular
   Online storefront
      always opens
   Cybermall
      provides one-stop-shop services
                       1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.6 Communications

 E-mail
 Internet Services
                                                 1.2.6 Communications
             Communications-
1.2.6.1 e-mail

 e-mail
   Communication tool of many people
   E-mail message quickly reach the other side of the
    world
   easily reply, forward or attach with
      other documents
   handheld computer incorporated with Mobile phone
    technology,
      Sending and receiving e-mail everywhere
                                                   1.2.6 Communications
             Communications-
1.2.6.2 Internet Services

 Broadband access
   Standard access to the Internet
 Telephony and videoconferencing
   Internet-based
   Part of many people's daily life activities.
                                                   1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.7 Education

 IT in education
   used in schools
   to assist teaching and learning
   Many classrooms are connected to the Internet
      Providing a huge source of supplementary materials
   Multimedia learning/Interactive assessing tools
      More interesting learning experiences to students
   E-learning
      enables self-paced learning
                        1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.8 Science

 Scientific Research
 Weather Forecasting
                                                   1.2.8 Science
             Science-
1.2.8.1 Research

 Research
   High-speed capabilities of computers
   Simulate events
   Prove hypotheses in a cost-effective manner.
                                                       1.2.8 Science
             Science-
1.2.8.2 Weather forecasting

 Weather forecasting
  Need the processing power of supercomputers
  Observatories in the world are linked
      to form a network
      to share and exchange climatic data
   Data are analyzed by the computers
      to simulate the weather conditions
      to predict more accurately in coming few days
                            1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.9 Health and Medicine

 Medical Diagnosis
 Remote Instruction
                                            1.2.9 Health&Medicine
             Health and Medicine-
1.2.9.1 Medical diagnosis

 Monitoring patients
   Intensive care in hospitals
 Computer-Axial Tomography (CAT)
   Assist in diagnosis
   Giving 3D pictures of the organs inside a body
                                            1.2.9 Health&Medicine
             Health and Medicine-
1.2.9.2 Remote instruction

 Remote instruction
   Use of videoconferencing
   Allows experienced doctors instruct other doctors
     remotely
 Virtual reality
   Train medical students in surgical skills
                         1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.10 Law enforcement

 Fingerprint Matching
 DNA Modelling
                                          1.2.10 Law Enforcement
                    Law enforcement-
1.2.10.1            Fingerprint matching

 Fingerprint matching
   Storage of fingerprints
   Matching with thousands of fingerprint records from
     the fingerprint database
      Analyze the patterns
      Confirm matching automatically
                                                1.2.10 Law Enforcement
                     Law enforcement-
1.2.10.2             DNA modelling

 DNA modelling
   Computer modelling of DNA
   Match the DNA from criminal's body with traces
      such as blood, left at the crime scene
                           1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.11 Government

 Examination
 Public Awareness of IT
 ESD Scheme
                                           1.2.11 Government
                 Government-
1.2.11.1         Examinations

 Examinations
   Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority
    (HKEAA) is using
   OMR (Optical Mark Reader) readers
   to mark MC questions
                                               1.2.11 Government
                   Government-
1.2.11.2           Public awareness of IT

 Public awareness of IT
   strengthening the IT awareness of the public
   building information infrastructure
   developing e-commerce environment
                                               1.2.11 Government
                     Government-
1.2.11.3             ESD scheme

 Electronic Service Delivery (ESD)
   ESD scheme won the Stockholm Challenge Award in
     2001
   Aim to deliver government services to the public via
     the Internet
   Without leaving home, HK residents can
      reserve books in a public library
      pay government bills
      make appointment
      apply licenses etc
                   1.2 Applications of IT


1.2.12 Robots

 Dangerous Jobs
 Various Sizes
                                                      1.2.12 Robots
                   Robots-
1.2.12.1           Dangerous jobs

 Computer-controlled Robots take over many jobs
  which are
   too unpleasant, or
   too dangerous for human,
   such as
     opening packages which are believed to contain bombs
     monitoring the conditions near a volcano.
                                          1.2.12 Robots
                     Robots-
1.2.12.2             Various size

 Large robots
   working in factories,
   e.g. car manufacturing.
 Medium sized robots
   play their roles as electronic pets
 Tiny sized robots
   great potential use in
       medical diagnosis or
       medical treatment

				
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