Develop a Best Practices Quality Management System - DOC by lts17637

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									PROPOSED LIST/TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL BEST PRACTICES -
CLEAN AIR

Goal:        To achieve and maintain good air quality to safeguard good public health
             (PSI < 100)

Objectives            To control emissions from both stationary and mobile
                       sources
                      To promote use of cleaner fuels and best available and
                       environmental technologies
                      To enhance environmental responsibility and ownership

Environmental      Data Availability and Data Quality & Analysis
Best Practices      Set clear ambient air quality objectives/ criteria to serve as
                      guiding principle for the air pollution control programmes
                    Set up a comprehensive monitoring network to provide data
                      on the state of the ambient air quality and assess the
                      effectiveness of control programmes (Singapore, Malaysia)
                    Establish an environmental information management and
                      administration system (Bangkok)

                   Emission Control from Mobile Sources
                    Formulate a comprehensive control programme which
                     includes the setting of stringent fuel / emission standards (eg.
                     phase out leaded petrol), vehicular inspection and
                     maintenance systems and enforcement measures
                    Conduct black smoke inspection along roadside (Bangkok)

                   Emission Control from Stationary Sources
                    Adopt stringent emission standards to help meet the ambient
                      air quality objectives/criteria
                    Put in place an effective and transparent enforcement
                      system to ensure compliance with stringent emission
                      standards
                    Implement emission caps to meet ambient air quality
                      standards (eg. cap sulphur content in fuel) (Singapore)
                    Adopt best available technologies and best available
                      practices both in terms of emission control and fuel efficiency
                      (eg. co-generation in power generation)

                   Zoning / Land Use Planning
                    Zone and segregate different types of industries as part of
                      the masterplan for land use (Singapore)
                    Incorporate Environmental impact assessment / Pollution
                      impact study (EIA/PIS) as part of the evaluation process for
                      assessing new industries
                    Relocate and centralise industries (Balikpapan)
Transport and Traffic Management
 Conduct an integrated transport planning for air quality
    management (Medan)
 Study on the transport master plan for Phnom Penh
    Metropolitan Area (Phnom Penh)
 Build a well-developed and affordable public transport system
   based on omnibuses plying designated bus routes and easy
   accessibility
 Develop light rail transport or other transit systems for
   enhanced accessibility / convenience to public transport
 Use of fiscal and other measures to control vehicular growth
   (eg. High import taxes, registration fees, etc)
 Introduce schemes to manage the use of private vehicles
    such as area licensing scheme, electronic road pricing, etc

Cleaner Fuels
 Formulate programmes/measures to promote the
   development and use of cleaner fuels (eg. natural gas,
   biofuels) and clean/green vehicles (eg. natural gas, fuel-cell,
   electric vehicles)
 Determine competitive pricing for alternative cleaner fuels
 Develop necessary infrastructure to facilitate the introduction
   of alternative cleaner fuels such as CNG refilling stations

Energy Efficiency
 Promote adoption of clean technologies and use of
   renewable energies (eg. solar, hydropower, etc)
 Use solid waste for electricity generation (Balikpapan)
 Introduce programmes/ measures to build awareness on
   energy-efficient vehicles and to encourage the switch to such
   vehicles (eg. fuel-consumption labeling schemes, tax
   rebates, etc)

Institutional Arrangements and Capacity Building
  Formulate a policy and prospective plan for enhancement
     and conservation of national environmental quality (Thailand)
  Develop comprehensive air pollution control programme for
     mobile sources (Singapore)
  Set up an air quality management advisory council of Chiang
     Mai City (Chiang Mai)
  Implement programme on Environmental Planning and
     Management (Strategic Action Planning) (UN-HABITAT /
     UNEP)
  Establish an Air Pollution Centre of Excellence to develop air
     quality management training programmes (Thailand)

 Awareness and Participation
 Promote energy audit and benchmarking schemes
 Raise public awareness through communication
                             programmes (Medan)
                            Conduct education programmes and campaigns to curb
                             open burning (Chiang Mai)
                            Integrate environmental protection and energy conservation
                             into school curriculum – Municipal School‟s Dawn Project
                             (Phuket)
                            Carry out clean, green healthy roads project (Bangkok)
                            Carry out consultation on policies between government,
                             public and industry players
                            Implement Environmental Management System (EMS) and
                             self regulation by industries
                            Formulate programmes to promote alternative lifestyle (eg.
                             use of non-motorised transport) and to nurture responsible
                             individual and corporate behaviour



Existing Environmental Best Practices / Case Studies on Clean Air


 #         Title           City / Country / Contact Person                      Scope

Topic: Data Availability and Data Quality & Analysis
 1. Air Quality           City/Country:                      Problem:
     Monitoring (AQM) Singapore                              Before 1990, air quality monitoring was
     Network and Use                                         carried out using manual samplers at a
     of AQM Data in       Contact Person:                    limited number of locations. Collection and
     Policy-Making        Ms Koh Mei Leng                    analysis of samples were tedious and time-
                          Planning & Development             consuming. In addition, data management
                          Department, National               was also not systematic.
                          Environment Agency
                          Email:                             Solution:
                           koh_mei_leng@nea.gov.sg           Singapore set up a telemetric network of air
                                                             quality monitoring and management system
                                                             in 1990. A total of 16 air quality monitoring
                                                             stations with automatic analyzers were set
                                                             up to measure ambient and roadside air
                                                             quality.
                                                             The system is linked to a Central Control
                                                             System (CCS) via dial-up telephone lines to
                                                             provide an efficient means of obtaining air
                                                             quality data.
                                                             The AQM data is used to support policy
                                                             initiatives, such as the phase out of leaded
                                                             petrol and reduce the sulphur content in
                                                             diesel.

                                                             Implementing Organization:
                                                             National Environment Agency, Singapore

                                                             Period of Implementation:
                                                             1990
2.   Malaysian-            City/Country:                     Problem:
     German                Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia            Although the Department of Environment
     Technical                                               monitors air quality with 50 air monitoring
     Cooperation on        Contact Person:                   stations, more detailed information on
     Air Pollution     Mr Roland Haas                     vehicular emission is required in Kuala
     Control           Chief Technical Advisor, Dept of   Lumpur.
                       Environment / GTZ (German
                       Government own development         Solution:
                       agency)                            Fifteen „hotspot‟ locations in KL were
                       Email: rhaas@tm.net.my             identified for air quality measurement.
                                                          Four mini-volume particle samplers (MiniVol
                                                          Portable Air Sampler) measure at the same
                                                          time at 4 locations for 2-3 days and are then
                                                          shifted to the next 4 locations. Additionally,
                                                          passive samplers are installed for the
                                                          measurement of NO2, benzene, toluene,
                                                          ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX).
                                                          Regular checks, maintenance and
                                                          calibration are carried out for the MiniVol
                                                          Portable Air Samplers. Records of the
                                                          checks are kept in a dedicated file. No
                                                          maintenance is required for the passive
                                                          samplers.
                                                          The work of monitoring and data reporting is
                                                          contracted to the same firm that operates
                                                          the air quality monitoring network.

                                                          Implementing Organizations:
                                                          GTZ and DOE, Malaysia

                                                          Duration of Project:
                                                          2002 to 2006.
3.   Project on        City/Country:                      Problem:
     Environmental     Bangkok, Thailand                  Agencies within the Bangkok Metropolitan
     Information                                          Administration (BMA) generate a lot of
     Management &      Contact Person:                    environmental data, but often in different
     Administration    Mrs Siriporn Tantivanich           forms – digital, hardcopies, etc. This makes
     System (EIMA      Bangkok Metropolitan               data analysis, transfer and sharing of
     System)           Administration (BMA)               information difficult.
                       Email: siribhond@yahoo.com
                                                          Solution:
                                                          A central unit within BMA was established to
                                                          develop an environmental database and
                                                          network, and analyse the data to present the
                                                          Bangkok‟s state of the environment.
                                                          Data collection was harmonized in digital
                                                          format (MS Excel, MS Access and Informix
                                                          Database) and environmental databases (for
                                                          policies, projects, environmental information,
                                                          etc) were created.
                                                          Public could now also gain access to these
                                                          important environmental information from
                                                          the above databases via the Environmental
                                                          Quality Management and Control Division
                                                          website: www.bma.go.th/eqmcd

                                                          Implementing Organizations:
                                                          Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

                                                          Duration of Project:
                                                          Aug 2003 to Feb 2004
Topic: Emission Control from Mobile Sources
 4. Black Smoke         City/Country:                     Problem:
     Inspection along   Bangkok, Thailand                 Poor planning of road network, increasing
     Roadside                                       vehicle population and lack of an effective
                       Contact Person:              vehicle maintenance system have resulted
                       Mrs Siriporn Tantivanich     in heavy traffic congestion and serious traffic
                       Bangkok Metropolitan         pollution in Bangkok.
                       Administration (BMA)
                       Email: siribhond@yahoo.com   Solution:
                                                    To improve air quality by reducing the
                                                    number of black smoke vehicles and
                                                    encourage drivers to maintain their vehicles
                                                    on a regular basis.
                                                    Black smoke inspection checkpoints have
                                                    been set up along the roadside in 50
                                                    districts. At each check point, Traffic Police
                                                    used the black smoke inspection equipment,
                                                    BOSCH using filter paper technique.
                                                    Under the Traffic Act, vehicles that do not
                                                    comply with the standard will be fined. Non-
                                                    compliant vehicle owners are required to fix
                                                    the engine within 30 days and be subjected
                                                    to anther black smoke test. Should they fail
                                                    the second test, they would be prohibited
                                                    from driving on the road.

                                                    Implementing Organizations:
                                                    Bangkok Metropolitan Authority, Traffic
                                                    Police, Pollution Control Department, Land
                                                    Transport Department and Bangkok Mass
                                                    Transit Authority

                                                    Period of Implementation:
                                                    1999
Topic: Emission Control from Stationary Sources
 5. Cleaner Fuel for    City/Country:               Problem:
     Stationary         Singapore                   Rapid industrialization will bring about
     Sources                                        deterioration in air quality if emissions are
                        Contact Person:             not curbed.
                        Ms Koh Mei Leng
                        Planning & Development      Solution:
                        Department, National        Singapore‟s success in achieving clean air is
                        Environment Agency          partly due to our efforts in encouraging
                        Email:                      industries to use cleaner fuel. Industries
                       koh_mei_leng@nea.gov.sg      located in designated industrial estates are
                                                    required to use fuel oil containing not more
                                                    than 1% sulphur by weight. Industries on
                                                    Jurong Island and Tuas industrial estate may
                                                    use natural gas, a clean fuel. Those located
                                                    near housing estates or residential premises
                                                    are required to use cleaner fuel, viz. diesel
                                                    with 0.05% or less sulphur content, or town
                                                    gas.
                                                    Electricity will increasingly be generated
                                                    from gas-fired combined cycle power plants,
                                                    as these are more efficient than oil-fired
                                                    steam plants. Today, about 60% of
                                                    Singapore‟s electricity is generated from
                                                    natural gas.
                                                    Currently, gas from Malaysia, West Natuna
                                                    and South Sumatra has been contracted to
                                                    meet Singapore‟s demand for natural gas.
                                                           Implementing Organization:
                                                           National Environment Agency, Singapore

                                                           Period of Implementation:
                                                           On-going
Topic: Zoning / Land Use Planning
 6. Physical Land       City/Country:                      Problem:
     Use Planning       Singapore                          Industrial developments will lead to serious
                                                           environmental degradation if not planned
                         Contact Person:                   and sited properly.
                         Ms Koh Mei Leng
                         Planning & Development            Solution:
                         Department, National              Control at the planning stage is important in
                         Environment Agency                the prevention of pollution.
                         Email:                            The National Environment Agency (NEA)
                         koh_mei_leng@nea.gov.sg           adopts an integrated approach in the planning
                                                           control of new developments. This is to
                                                           ensure that environmental considerations and
                                                           factors are incorporated at the land use
                                                           planning, development control and building
                                                           control stages, so as to minimise pollution and
                                                           to mitigate pollution impact on surrounding
                                                           land use.
                                                           NEA assesses and evaluates the hazard and
                                                           pollution impacts of the proposed industries to
                                                           ensure that they do not pose unmanageable
                                                           health and safety hazards and pollution
                                                           problems. A proposed industry will only be
                                                           allowed to set up if it is sited in an appropriate
                                                           industrial estate and can comply with pollution
                                                           control requirements. For example, only
                                                           clean or light industries are allowed to be
                                                           located close to residential areas and within
                                                           unprotected water catchments.
                                                           To raise environmental awareness and
                                                           responsibility, a Code of Practice on Pollution
                                                           Control, Guidelines for Quantitative Risk
                                                           Assessment Studies and Guidelines for
                                                           Pollution Control Studies was developed to
                                                           inform industrialists, architects, professional
                                                           engineers and consultants on pollution
                                                           control requirements.

                                                           Implementing Organization:
                                                           National Environment Agency, Singapore

                                                           Period of Implementation:
                                                           On-going
7.   Relocation and      City/Country:                     Problem:
     Centralization of   Balikpapan, Indonesia             No proper siting for industries. Industries are
     Industries                                            developed without proper waste and
                         Contact Person:                   disposal handling.
                         Mr Bahrun, Bsc
                         Industrial, Trade and Corporate   Solution:
                         Services                          To allocate an area for industrial estate and
                         Email: -                          to relocate and site the (small) industries in
                                                           the industrial estate, with proper waste and
                                                           disposal handling facilities.
                                                           Socialization programmes are arranged to
                                                           inform the small industries about this
                                                              programme and training programmes are
                                                              conducted to heighten environmental
                                                              awareness of the industrial owners.

                                                              Implementing Organizations:
                                                              Planning & Development City Board
                                                              (Bappeda, Balikpapan), Environmental
                                                              Impact Assessment Board (Bapedalda),
                                                              Somber Industrial Estate Authority Board,
                                                              Industrial-Trading & Cooperated Agency
                                                              (Disperindagkop)

                                                              Duration of Project:
                                                              2002 - 2005
Topic: Transport and Traffic Management
 8. Integrated          City/Country:                         Problem:
     Transport          Medan, Indonesia                      Air pollution, traffic congestion and
     Planning for Air                                         increasing vehicular population are
     Quality            Contact Person:                       problems facing Medan city.
     Management         Ir. Binsar Situmorang, M. Si
                        Head of Environmental, Energy         Solution:
                        and Mineral Resources Agency in       To develop an integrated transportation plan
                        Medan City                            and management system that aims to
                        Email:                                control emissions from mobile sources,
                        bapedalda@pemkomedan.go.id            promote adoption of clean technologies and
                                                              use of renewable energies, and develop a
                                                              more comprehensive public transportation.

                                                              Implementing Organizations:
                                                              Relevant government agencies such as the
                                                              transportation and environment agencies,
                                                              NGOs, CAI-Asia, etc.

                                                              Duration of Project:
                                                              2005 (estimated to take 1 year)
9.   Study on the        City/Country:                        Problem:
     Transportation      Phnom Penh, Cambodia                 Phnom Penh was faced with serious
     Master Plan for                                          transportation problems caused by
     Phnom Penh          Contact Person:                      inadequate transport facilities and
     Metropolitan Area   Mr Moeung Sophan                     management system.
                         Dept of Public Works, Municipality   With rapid urbanization and population
                         of Phnom Penh                        growth, the city is also faced with serious air
                         Email:                               pollution problems and traffic congestion.
                         msophan@comnet.com.kh
                                                              Solution:
                                                              Formulated an Urban Transport Master Plan
                                                              to tackle the various transport problems and
                                                              support sustainable urban development.
                                                              The process involved the following:
                                                                   i) Identifying and evaluating present
                                                                        and future transport issues
                                                                   ii) Establishing a transport planning
                                                                        policy to address transport and
                                                                        future traffic demand, land use and
                                                                        socioeconomic development.
                                                                   iii) Developing a transport sector plan
                                                                        for road, public transport and traffic
                                                                        management.
                                                                   iv) Implementing the Plan with due
                                                                        consideration for institutional
                                                                   organization, human resource
                                                                   capability and financial restrictions.
                                                        Action programmes were made at both the
                                                        national and provincial/municipal levels.
                                                        At the national level, programmes included:
                                                             i) Conduct inventory of emissions from
                                                                  both stationary and mobile sources
                                                             ii) Develop National Policy for Air
                                                                  Quality Management which includes
                                                                  landuse planning and zoning, cleaner
                                                                  fuels, enforcement measures, EIA,
                                                                  etc.
                                                             iii) Decentralise and clarify roles and
                                                                  responsibilities between the national
                                                                  and provincial/municipal levels
                                                             iv) Promote partnership with all relevant
                                                                  stakeholders to address urban air
                                                                  pollution issues.
                                                        At the provincial/municipal level,
                                                        programmes included:
                                                             i) Install air quality monitoring facilities
                                                             ii) Control emissions from both
                                                                  stationary and mobile sources
                                                             iii) Conduct vehicle inspection and
                                                                  enforcement
                                                             iv) Enhance public transport systems
                                                             v) Establish urban traffic management
                                                                  plan
                                                             vi) Promote use of cleaner fuels and
                                                                  clean technology

                                                        Implementing Organizations:
                                                        Department of Public Works, Municipality of
                                                        Phnom Penh, JICA (Japan)

                                                        Period of Implementation:
                                                        2000 – 2001
Topic: Energy Efficiency
10. Use of Solid         City/Country:                  Problem:
     Waste for           Balikpapan, Indonesia          Most of the refuse collected in Balikpapan is
     Electricity                                        dumped in sanitary landfill. However, it is
     Generation          Contact Person:                becoming more and more difficult to identify
                         Drs. Amin Latief, Bsc          new landfill sites due to land constraint.
                         Cleansing, Gardening and
                         Funeral Services               Solution:
                         Email: amin_latief@plaza.com   To reduce amount of solid waste by turning
                                                        them into electricity.
                                                        The Balikpapan City Government entered
                                                        into an MOU with the Electricity State
                                                        Company to derive electricity from solid
                                                        waste.

                                                        Implementing Organizations:
                                                        Planning & Development City Board
                                                        (Bappeda), Cleansing, Gardening & Funeral
                                                        Services (DKPP), Environmental Impact
                                                        Assessment Board (Bapedalda), Electricity
                                                        State Company (PT. PLN)

                                                        Duration of Project:
                                                            2002 - 2005
Topic: Institutional Arrangements and Capacity Building
11. Policy and            City/Country: Thailand            Problem:
     Prospective Plan                                       Air pollution, resulting from industries, traffic
     for Enhancement Contact Person:                        and construction, is a serious problem in
     and Conservation Mrs Supitporn Bunnag                  rapidly developing areas in Thailand.
     of National          Chief of Green & Recreation
     Environmental        Areas Sub-Division                Solution:
     Quality              Office of Natural Resources &     To formulate a comprehensive plan to
                          Environmental Policy & Planning   address the air pollution problem in Thailand
                          Ministry of Natural Resources &   and to ensure that the air quality meets
                          Environment                       stipulated standards and guidelines.
                          Email: supitporn@yahoo.com        Policies, guidelines (management,
                                                            investment, legal and supporting) were
                                                            established to achieve the desired outcome.
                                                            Policies will include:
                                                                i) Accelerate the reduction of air
                                                                     pollution from vehicles, industries,
                                                                     construction and transportation
                                                                ii) Maintain air quality standards
                                                                iii) Promote and support utilization of low
                                                                     emission transport systems
                                                                iv) Promote participation among
                                                                     government and private sectors and
                                                                     the general public

                                                            Implementing Organizations:
                                                            Office of Natural Resources and
                                                            Environmental Policy and Planning, Ministry
                                                            of Natural Resources and Environment,
                                                            Thailand

                                                            Duration of Project:
                                                            1997 – 2016

12.   Developing a      City/Country:                       Problem:
      Comprehensive     Singapore                           Rapid industrialization and urbanization in
      Air Pollution                                         the 1970s have taken a toll on the
      Control           Contact Person:                     environment, in particular, poorer air quality
      Programme         Ms Koh Mei Leng                     in Singapore.
                        Planning & Development
                        Department, National                Solution:
                        Environment Agency                  Implemented comprehensive air pollution
                        Email:                              control programmes to protect the
                        koh_mei_leng@nea.gov.sg             environment.
                                                            Programmes are targeted at 2 main
                                                            sources: stationary and mobile.
                                                            For stationary sources, actions include the
                                                            following:
                                                                 i) Enact air quality standards and
                                                                      review the standards regularly.
                                                                 ii) Carry out enforcement measures
                                                                      such as licensing control on
                                                                      industries, inspections and checks
                                                                      on industries to ensure they comply
                                                                      with pollution control requirements.
                                                                 iii) Empower industries to conduct their
                                                                      own source emission tests.
                                                            For mobile sources, actions include the
                                                            following:
                                                             i)     Set vehicular emission standards
                                                                    and tighten standards when
                                                                    necessary.
                                                             ii)    Enforce mandatory periodic
                                                                    inspections for in-use vehicles.
                                                             iii)   Control of automotive fuel quality.
                                                                    Eg. Introduce unleaded petrol, lower
                                                                    sulphur diesel, etc.
                                                             iv)    Promote use of cleaner and greener
                                                                    vehicles such as CNG vehicles
                                                             v)     Launch fuel economy labeling
                                                                    scheme to promote greater
                                                                    awareness of fuel economy among
                                                                    vehicle owners.

                                                         Implementing Organization:
                                                         National Environment Agency, Singapore

                                                         Period of Implementation:
                                                         On-going
13.   Air Quality         City/Country:                  Problem:
      Management          Chiang Mai, Thailand           Chiang Mai Municipality has been facing
      Advisory Council                                   with air quality problems. The problem is
      of Chiang Mai       Contact Person:                aggravated by the topography of the city.
      City                Mrs Rongrong Duriyapunt
                          Environmental Promotion        Solution:
                          Subdivision, Public Health &   Form the Air Quality Management Advisory
                          Environmental Bureau, Chiang   Council of Chiang Mai Municipality
                          Mai Municipality               (CMAQM) which comprises representatives
                          Email: toon_duri@hotmail.com   from the government agencies, private
                                                         sector, academic and NGOs.
                                                         The functions of the Council are as follows:
                                                             i) Plan, implement and review policies
                                                                  for CMAQM
                                                             ii) Advise, recommend and regulate
                                                                  policies and measures
                                                             iii) Supervise, monitor and evaluate
                                                                  results of CMAQM
                                                             iv) Find budget to support activities of
                                                                  CMAQM

                                                         Implementing Organizations:
                                                         Chiang Mai University, Land Transport
                                                         Office, local NGOs, Provincial Public Health
                                                         Office, Chiang Mai Bicycle Club, Forest Fire
                                                         Prevention Office, local communities,
                                                         schools, Regional Environmental Office and
                                                         Public Utility Vehicle Association in Chiang
                                                         Mai.

                                                         Period of Implementation:
                                                         Dec 2001 to present
14.   Environmental       City/Country: -                Problem:
      Planning and                                       Urban environmental problems are complex,
      Management          Contact Person:                multi-dimensional, cross-sectoral, interactive
      (Strategic Action   Mr Ole Lyse                    and dynamic. These problems and
      Planning)           Global Coordinator             challenges are often poorly understood and
                          Ms Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga     the constraints are not always accepted by
                          SCP Asia Pacific               local decision-makers.
                          Mr Chris Radford
                      SCP Asia-Pacific                  Solution:
                      UN-HABITAT                        To build city level capacities for improved
                      Email:                            urban management and governance under
                      Ole.lyse@unhabitat.org            the UN-HABITAT/UNEP‟s Sustainable Cities
                      Cecilia.njenga-                   Programme and the urban environmental
                      kinuthia@unhabitat.org            planning and management (EPM) process.
                      Chris.Radford@fukuoka.unhabi      The EPM is a „vehicle‟ that is used to
                      tat.org                           establish a process through which cities can
                                                        work with a range of stakeholders and
                                                        identify appropriate responses to problems.
                                                        The process involves the following steps:
                                                            i) Improve environmental information
                                                                 and technical expertise and mobilize
                                                                 stakeholders
                                                            ii) Improve decision-making and
                                                                 policy/strategy formulation through
                                                                 strategic action planning
                                                            iii) Improve local actors policy
                                                                 implementation capacities through
                                                                 project identification and
                                                                 implementation
                                                            iv) Strengthen institutional
                                                                 arrangements and local EPM
                                                                 capacities
                                                        Cost for the projects come from UN-
                                                        HABITAT/ UNEP, and is matched by
                                                        additional resources through project
                                                        development at the national and local level.
                                                        Implementation also relies on „in-kind‟ costs
                                                        of participating cities. This is an important
                                                        element in that it helps ensure that the
                                                        environmental planning and management
                                                        process becomes a routine within local
                                                        government as the basis for sound decision-
                                                        making, and is sustained through regular
                                                        municipal budgets.

                                                        Implementing Organizations:
                                                        UN-HABITAT and various cities

                                                        Duration of Project:
                                                        Each process lasts between 2 – 4 years
15.   Air Pollution   City/Country:                     Problem:
      Centre of       Thailand                          Inadequate knowledge and expertise in air
      Excellence                                        quality management amongst officers.
      (TAPCE)         Contact Person:
                      Mrs Mingquan                      Solution:
                      Witchayarangsaridh                Establish a long-term programme under the
                      Office of Air Quality and Noise   Air Pollution Centre of Excellence (TAPCE)
                      Management, Pollution Control     to develop air quality management training
                      Dept                              programmes in Thai Universities, in
                      Email: mingquan.b@pcd.go.th       collaboration with the Pollution Control
                                                        Department (PCD) and other related
                                                        agencies.
                                                        TAPCE is patterned after the USEPA/APTI
                                                        system, which is a regional network of
                                                        teaching institutions as the source of
                                                        instructors to conduct air pollution training of
                                                        local and municipal government officials as
                                                        well as private sectors.
                                                        Main activity of TAPCE is “Train the
                                                        trainers”.

                                                        Implementing Organizations:
                                                        TAPCE (PCD) and USEPA

                                                        Duration of Project:
                                                        2000 – 2005
Topic: Awareness and Participation
16. Communication     City/Country:                     Problem:
     for Public       Medan, Indonesia                  Air quality in Medan city has been on the
     Awareness                                          decline. This is partly due to the lack of
     Raising          Contact Person:                   public awareness of the air quality of its
                      Ir. Binsar Situmorang, M.Si       people.
                      Head of Environmental, Energy
                      and Mineral Resources Agency in   Solution:
                      Medan City                        There is a need to raise public awareness to
                      Email:                            control emissions from stationary sources,
                      bapedalda@pemkomedan.go.id        promote use of cleaner fuels and enhance
                                                        environmental responsibility and ownership.
                                                        Socialization programmes are implemented
                                                        to enhance the awareness, participation and
                                                        community partnership in:
                                                              - physical land use planning and
                                                                  zoning
                                                              - capping and fuel efficiency
                                                              - energy conservation
                                                              - air quality monitoring
                                                              - cleaner fuels
                                                              - legislation and enforcement
                                                              - public awareness and ownership

                                                        Implementing Organisations:
                                                        Local government (Health agency, district
                                                        government, environment agency, etc),
                                                        NGO, University and Pertamina/Gasoline
                                                        Enterprises

                                                        Duration of Project:
                                                        6 months
17.   Education        City/Country:                    Problem:
      programmes and   Chiang Mai, Thailand             The rapid growth of economic and tourism
      campaigns to                                      has resulted in a deterioration of air quality
      curb open        Contact Person:                  in Chiang Mai. Open burning of refuse is
      burning          Mrs Rongrong Duriyapunt          especially prevalent.
                       Environmental Promotion
                       Subdivision, Public Health &     Solution:
                       Environmental Bureau             To control and reduce particulate levels in
                       Email: toon_duri@hotmail.com     Chiang Mai, there is a need to control open-
                                                        burning through education and campaigns.
                                                        Programmes implemented include:
                                                           - raise public awareness on the no
                                                                open burning policy through local
                                                                volunteers, teachers, monks and
                                                                community leaders
                                                           - public campaigns to reduce
                                                                domestic waste by the 5R approach
                                                                (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Repair
                                                                and Reject)
                                                           - organize best waste collecting
                                                            vehicle competition
                                                        -   law enforcement
                                                        -   training on composting of garbage
                                                            and leaves through monks,
                                                            community leaders, schools and
                                                            mass media.

                                                    Implementing Organizations:
                                                    Chiang Mai Municipality

                                                    Duration of Project:
                                                    Oct 2004 – Sep 2005
18.   Integrated       City/Country:                Problem:
      Environmental    Phuket, Thailand             Lack of awareness, ownership and
      Protection and                                partnership on energy conservation and
      Energy           Contact Person:              environmental protection in school children.
      Conservation     Miss Ratchanee Rodthanon
      Project          City of Phuket               Solution:
      (Municipal       Email:                       To integrate energy conservation and
      School‟s Dawn    tasaneetu44@hotmail.com      environmental concept into school
      Project)         yeenjeerasak@hotmail.com     curriculum in Phuket.
                                                    A pilot project was carried out for grade 5-6
                                                    students at one of the municipal schools in
                                                    Phuket. Once the pilot project is successful,
                                                    it will be further extended to the community.

                                                    Implementing Organizations:
                                                    Municipal school and local community

                                                    Period of Implementation:
                                                    Oct 2002 – Jan 2004 (Phase 2)
19.   Clean, Green     City/Country:                Problem:
      Healthy Roads    Bangkok, Thailand            Severe traffic congestion and air pollution in
      Project                                       Bangkok city.
                       Contact Person:
                       Mrs Siriporn Tantivanich     Solution:
                       Bangkok Metropolitan         Improve air quality through public-private
                       Administration (BMA)         participation and monitor the air quality at
                       Email: siribhond@yahoo.com   hot spot areas.
                                                    In the first phase of the project, 11 roads
                                                    with relatively high PM10 levels were
                                                    identified. The following activities were
                                                    carried out along these roads:
                                                         i) plant more trees and shrubs along
                                                              the roads and street isles to absorb
                                                              the pollutants and noise
                                                         ii) raise public awareness in pollution
                                                              reduction through proper
                                                              maintenance of vehicle engines and
                                                              promote use of public transport
                                                         iii) more regular cleaning of roads and
                                                              footpaths to reduce dust
                                                         iv) carry out roadside black smoke
                                                              inspection and prohibit vehicles that
                                                              emit black smoke on the roads
                                                    The 11 District Offices will report their
                                                    performance on a monthly basis. The PM10
                                                    levels at these locations are monitored and
                                                    compared with the air quality before the
                                                    project.
If the first phase of the project is proven
successful, it will be extended to another 39
districts.

Implementing Organizations:
Public and private sectors: BMA, Traffic
Police, Pollution Control Department, Land
Transport Department, Bangkok Mass
Transit Authority

Period of Implementation:
2004

								
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