Development of Co Operative Marketing in India by zju20190


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               Development Digest
    Spring 2002                                        canadian co-operative association

                                          Tipping the scales of economy
In This Issue...
Women’s Mentorship
The Class of 2002             2
Youth Interns:
The Next Wave                 4
Best of Show                  5
CDF goes on-line
wth e-giving                  5
Tipping the scales of
economy: The Central
American Co-operative
Marketing Consortium          6
India: Co-operation
for Sustainable
Development                    9
Commentary: Poor
Farmers Plowed
Under by U.S. Subsidies 12

                                                                                                             See story page 6.

A New Look!                          Five-Year Funding Agreement Signed
After a decade as a hefty tabloid,
International Development            Susan Whelan, the Federal Minister in charge of the Canadian International Development
Digest has lost weight. Our new      Agency, has approved a five-year funding agreement between CIDA’s Canadian Partnership
look is part of a larger effort to   Branch and the Canadian Co-operative Association.
coordinate design and distribution
with our sister publication,         The agreement commits CIDA to approximately $4 million per year in support of CCA’s work using
InterSector. The two will arrive     co-operatives and credit unions to fight poverty in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. For its part, CCA
together three times per year.
We have not changed our              is committed to providing annual cash contributions, rasied through the Co-operative Development
commitment to bring you              Foundation, of approximately $350,000. CCA must also supply in-kind contributions — primarily
interesting, thoughtful stories      volunteer time — valued at approximately $800,000 per year. The process leading up to the agreement
about international co-operative     which included preparation of a detailed proposal, an appearance before a CIDA committee, as well as
development accompanied by
compelling photographs. We           ongoing negotiations, has been underway for more than a year. ■
hope you enjoy the new look. ■

                                                                         International Development Digest                                    1
                             Women’s Mentorship Program
                             The Class of 2002
             “This           “I never expected such warmth from Canadi-               “The rapport was instant,” recalls project officer
                             ans,” says Joan Garfield laughing heartily. “It          Laurie Tennian, who managed the program.
       program is            was quite a culture shock, but the hospitality of        “CCA created the right environment for us and
    an innovative            the Canadians I met was really first rate.” That’s       we all just jelled together very, very well,” adds
                             how the General Manager of NCB Employees                 Ms. Garfield. “We are all dynamic women and
      experiment             Co-operative Credit Union in Kingston,                   each of us brought our own uniqueness to the
        in human             Jamaica, summed up her recent experience                 experience.”
                             learning about Canada’s credit union system.             “The take-up among Canadian credit unions was
         resource            Ms. Garfield was one of sixteen senior women             very impressive indeed,” says Ms. Tennian. “The
    development,             employees of credit unions from every corner             call for help went out to credit unions in early
                             of the developing world who shared a unique              January and we were overwhelmed by the
     with benefits           experience this winter improving their skills and        response.”
       for visitors          experience in credit union management. They              The women, who hailed from Jamaica, Philip-
                             also took in their first Canadian winter.
        and hosts                                                                     pines, Indonesia, South Africa, Ghana, Nepal,
                             Sponsored by the Canadian Co-operative                   India and Mongolia, were matched with Cana-
            alike.”          Association and funded by the Canadian                   dian credit unions according to organizational
         Jo-Anne             International Development Agency, the study              size and their learning objectives. Joan Garfield
                             program involved two one-week postings at                came to learn about mutual funds and RRSP
        Ferguson             credit unions across the country and two weeks           products. She was so impressed she wants to
                             of classroom work in Ottawa.                             introduce these into her credit union. “This will
                             The women started with a week of briefings               give us a great advantage in Jamaica,” she says.
                             and presentations in Ottawa. Topics covered                   Harriet Stewart hails from Cape Town in South
                             included: women in financial services, savings                Africa where she is the General Manager of the
                             mobilization, legal framework and policy                      Cape Metropole Savings and Credit Co-opera-
                             environment. They also looked at issues in                    tive. “Our members are largely refugees from a
                             accounting and financial systems, human                       number of countries. We were the first commu-
                             resources and marketing and micro financing.                  nity based co-operative falling under the
                                                                                                            umbrella of the Savings and
     The class of 2002, pictured here while attending CS Co-op’s annual meeting in Ottawa.                  Co-operative Credit Union
                                                                                                            League, and the first to serve
                                                                                                            women.” Ms. Stewart spent
                                                                                                            one week at Valley Credit
                                                                                                            Union in Nova Scotia’s
                                                                                                            Annapolis Valley, as well as
                                                                                                            Heritage Credit Union in
                                                                                                         While in Nova Scotia, Ms.
                                                                                                         Stewart attended a junior
                                                                                                         hockey game where she and
                                                                                                         her fellow guest, Andrea
                                                                                                         Garay, from Santa Ana Multi-
                                                                                                         Purpose Co-operative in Davao
                                                                                                         City, in the Philippines,
                                                                                                         received greetings on the
                                                                                                         jumbo scoreboard at centre ice.
                                                                                                         “What a thrill it was to see our
                                                                                                         names up there in lights,”
                                                                                                         recalls Ms. Stewart. “They
                                                                                                         even gave us a hockey puck
                                                                                                         after the game.”

Vilma Fernandez Llanes, who manages the Holy
Child Multi-Purpose Co-operative in the city of
Bato, Philippines, says women continue to face
a glass ceiling in credit unions. “In the Philip-
pines there are always women in management
positions,” commented Ms. Llanes, “but at the
higher decision-making levels it is always men.
That is a challenge for us women leaders.” Ms.
Llanes observed operations at Westoba Credit
Union and Gimli Credit Union in Manitoba.
Westoba Marketing Co-ordinator Valerie Parrott
enjoyed the experience. “I think by seeing what
kind of challenges they (the visiting women)
encounter, we can realize what we have here,
and how we can help somebody else develop                  Joan Garfield (centre) shares stories of her visits to Vancouver Island credit
their system.”                                             unions with fellow classmates.

Wiwik Mudjiningsih, who manages Permata
Lestari Credit Union in East Java, Indonesia, put       placements and their foray into traveling in                “We are all
her self-taught English language skills to the test     Canada in the winter time. “They were all so
at Bayview Credit Union in Saint John, NB. She          excited to learn about each other’s adventures,”            dynamic
says in her country, more and more women are            says Ms. Tennian. “I know this event has                    women and
working in credit unions. Twelve years ago she          changed their lives. They will continue to
began her own credit union career. “I convinced         exchange information and stories with each                  each of us
my husband that women can work in credit                other long after they return home.”                         brought
unions and still be good wives and mothers.”
                                                        Hosting this dynamic group of women clearly
Ghanaian credit union manager Monica Aidoo
                                                                                                                    our own
                                                        had a big impact on their Canadian hosts.
was impressed by her visits to credit unions in         “What a great idea for exchanging ideas, talents            uniqueness
Muenster and Estevan, Saskatchewan, particu-            and knowledge,” remarked Jan Worrall, Branch
larly by their computer systems and the
                                                                                                                    to the
                                                        Manager at First Calgary Savings and Credit
member’s extensive use of credit cards. “We use         Union Limited. “I saw this program as a great               experience.”
computers but the software can’t handle much of         opportunity to meet and interact with someone
the workload,” she remarked.
                                                                                                                    Joan Garfield
                                                        who has a similar career path as mine but comes
Estevan’s manager of marketing and human                from a totally different background.”
resources Tami Scott says that part of the              Before departing for home and family, the class
program for Monica was learning policies and            of 2002 exchanged tearful hugs and email
                             procedures. “She           addresses and then received certificates from
                             also talked to staff       Jo-Anne Ferguson commemorating their
                             members about the          accomplishment. “This program is an innovative
                             services they              experiment in human resource development,
                             provide, and the           with benefits for visitors and hosts alike,” says
                             needs of the               Ms. Ferguson. “We hope to replicate it in other
                             membership, then           co-op sectors.”
                             visited the smaller
                                                        Back home in Kingston, Joan Garfield is
                             Oxbow Credit
                                                        implementing many of the ideas she saw at work
                                                        on Vancouver Island. “I’m an HR person and so
                              As the women              I was particularly interested in their human
                              gathered again in         resource policies such as their incentive program
                              Ottawa, it was clear      and job weighting systems. I am revising my
                              that a strong bond        policies to include some of those aspects. I made
                              had developed             quite a few lasting connections and friends. We
                              among the group.          email each other almost every day.” ■
                              The first day back,
                              they all shared           For more information on this and future
                              stories and high-         mentorship programs contact:
                              lights of their 
                              Krishna Kumari (left) spent her second week-long placement with Ottawa
                              Women’s Credit Union General Manager Holly Hughes.

                                                                  International Development Digest                                          3
                             Youth Interns: The next wave
                             Narish Maharaj just started his new job at           It’s not for everyone, cautions Ms. Nelson. “The
       “The work             Capital City Savings Credit Union in Edmonton.       work is very challenging and you need to have a
             is very         As demanding as the first few days can be, he        flexible, open attitude to adapt to the rigours of
                             can be forgiven if his thoughts occasionally drift   life and work in a developing country.”
      challenging            to far off places. Narish has just returned from     At 21, armed with a bachelor degree in econom-
    and you need             six-months developing a co-operative on an           ics from the University of Saskatchewan, Narish
                             island in the Philippines.                           Maharaj decided to take up that challenge. “I
         to have a           Over the past five years sixty-eight young           thought it would be a good opportunity to work
    flexible, open           graduates like Narish have taken up the chal-        abroad and get experience in my field,” he recalls.
                             lenge of overseas development work as a means        Narish organized a youth co-operative and
        attitude to          to ready themselves for employment opportuni-        designed an environmental program to manage
                             ties. This month, the Canadian Co-operative          the collection of household waste in Cordova, a
      adapt to the           Association is recruiting its sixth group of         community of 30,000 people on Mactan Island
        rigours of           overseas interns through the Youth Experience        in the central region of the Philippines. “The
                             International program.                               project had a social economics side to it,” Narish
           life and          “We’re sending out a group of young people           explains. “Trying to increase the value of the
         work in a           again this year,” says project officer Erin          environment and the value people place on it.”
                             Nelson, who manages CCA’s youth intern               Narish worked with Cordova Multi-purpose Co-
       developing            program. “A number of placements in this wave        operative, a community minded credit union that
         country.”           of interns involve working with co-operatives        also owns a co-op lumber mill and a consumer
                             and credit unions with services and programs         store. Narish says Cordova gave him a free hand
      Erin Nelson            related to HIV/AIDS.”                                in how he would spend his internship. “I sur-
                             The internships last for six months and are          veyed about 400 young people asking them what
                             funded by the Canadian International Develop-        would benefit their community. Environment
                             ment Agency as part of Canada’s Youth                issues came up again and again so it made sense
                             Employment Strategy. CCA is one of eighty            to start a youth co-op and organize a solid waste
                             organizations CIDA selects each year to help         management system.”
                             manage some 450 youth interns. While on their        “In the beginning I was quite unsure of myself,
                             overseas placements, interns develop profes-         but with the help of the co-op youth officers I
                             sional and personal skills in areas such as          came to understand the work environment in the
                             marketing, gender and development, youth             Philippines and the expectations of the youth
                             programming, business administration, financial      themselves,” recalls Narish. The latter part of his
                             services and project management.                     internship was spent establishing organizational
                                                                                  partnerships to ensure the sustainability of the
                                                                                  solid waste management project.
                                                                                  “Before the project, garbage was being burned
                                                                                  or thrown onto the roads and into the ocean,” he
                                                                                  explains. “Now it’s going to the local dump.
                                                                                  People’s mindsets have changed and they are
                                                                                  paying for collection.”
                                                                                  Narish says the biggest challenge for him was
                                                                                  coping with cultural differences. “Not all the
                                                                                  young people spoke English as well as I
                                                                                  thought,” he explains. “It just took a lot longer
                                                                                  to do things.”
                                                                                  Minor frustrations aside, Narish says the
                                                                                  experience was a great opportunity to develop
                                                                                  his managerial, networking and public relations
                                                                                  skills. “It has taught me the processes involved
                                                                                  in establishing and operating an organization,”
                                                                                  he says. “Ideally, the project is on a firm founda-
                                                                                  tion and will continue without me.”
                                                                                  This year’s wave of CCA interns will be placed
                                                                                  with co-op and credit union projects in Ghana,
                                                                                  Kenya, Uganda, Indonesia, India and the
                                                                                  Philippines. ■
     Life offers few employment opportunities for young people in Cordova such
     as these high school students.

      Best of Show
    New Brunswick Dairy farmer Dwayne Hicks
    is back home from a recent mission providing
    technical advice to dairy farmers in Indonesia.
    “We visited eight dairy co-ops over 18 days,”
    says Mr. Hicks. “The farmers wanted to know
    how we did things over here, to see if they were
    on the same track as we were.” Mr. Hicks and
    fellow dairy farmer Bonar Morton, both members
    of Northumberland Co-operative, signed on to
    share their expertise as technical co-operants for
    the Canadian Co-operative Association.
    During their mission the members of Kuningan
    Co-op organized a 4-H style Heifer calf show.
    “This kind of event helps farmers learn to
    recognize what characteristics will make better
    cows among their herds,” explains Mr. Hicks.
    This was Mr. Hicks’ first overseas assignment for
    CCA. “You can’t believe how intensively cultivated      A farmer poses with the trophy his calf won for “best of show” at the heifer
                                                            calf show sponsored by Kuningan Co-op. Dwayne Hicks (right) was in Indonesia
    the land is in Indonesia,” he recalls. “There is no     for his first technical co-operant mission for CCA.
    land wasted, and that’s a lesson to Canadians.”

      The Canadian Co-operative Association provides expert technical assistance to overseas co-operatives and credit unions.
      In the past three years alone, more than 190 individuals from all across Canada provided support to projects abroad.

      CCA is adding to its database of skilled credit union and co-operative professionals interested in furthering worldwide
      co-operative development. There are also opportunities for paid consultants to work on short or long-term overseas
      assignments. If you are interested in volunteering your knowledge and skills to assist with development projects in Africa,
      the Americas, Asia, or Eastern Europe we would like to hear from you today. ■

                                                          For more information contact

                                              CDF goes on-line with e-giving
                                              Beginning July 1st, you can donate to CDF directly from your computer.
                                              CDF has joined, a national on-line organization that assists
                                              donors to direct their dollars to CDF using the Internet.
                                              It’s efficient. It’s private and secure. And it’s easy to use.
The Charity of Choice for
                                              ➧ Go to CDF’s new website.
Canadian Co-operators                         ➧ Press the Donate button, select the donate now option and follow
                                                the simple instructions.

                                                                  International Development Digest                                         5
                                                        Tipping the sca
                                                           The Central American Co-ope

     “A bridge was     “Small farmer co-ops face many barriers to getting their      Ten years ago, co-operatives in five Central
                       product to market, be it in neighbouring countries or
     needed to help    farther a field,” says Jonathan Wells, Americas project       breaking alliance. Enticed by the potential o
         small scale   officer for the Canadian Co-operative Association.            the Central American Co-operative Market
                       “Some barriers have to do with the quality and quantity
          producers    of product, and the capacity to market their product.         member farm co-ops streamline their opera
      improve their
                       Other obstacles are beyond their individual control, such     into new markets. Along the way, CCMC h
                       as the need for credit to finance initial shipments, the
      products and     absence of trade guarantees and consistent regulations        in the Americas, a common table where co-
                       across the region, and the deep-rooted domination of          far beyond their individual means. This issu
    to open market     middlemen.”
                                                                                     examines how a small group of co-operativ
      opportunities    The idea for a marketing system was born in 1990 at
                       a gathering of primary and federation agricultural            do business in the Americas.
        for co-ops.”   co-operatives in Antigua, Guatemala sponsored by the
    Nestor Zamora      International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) and the             Comprised of 14 small scale producer co-operatives in
                       Canadian Co-operative Association (CCA). Representa-          five countries, CCMC is the only co-operative market-
                       tives from five countries — Guatemala, El Salvador,           ing network in Latin America.
                       Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica — approached
                                                                                     CCMC has an office and a manager called the Local
                       the two organizations to study farmer co-op issues and
                                                                                     Co-operative Marketing Agent (LCMA) in each of the
                       needs and to make recommendations. The idea for a
                                                                                     five participating countries. The agent represents the
                       trade alliance with local marketing agents in each
                                                                                     CCMC-member co-ops in that country and acts on trade
                       country arose from that study.
                                                                                     opportunities identified by CCMC. This decentralized
                       “A bridge was needed to help small scale producers            approach builds capacity at the local level and maximizes
                       improve their products and to open market opportunities       local knowledge. It also creates incredible economies of
                                    for co-ops,” says CCMC General Manager           scale. Equally important are the connections the agents
                                    Nestor Zamora. “To succeed, the consor-          create with local financial institutions in each country.
                                    tium had to be member-driven and                 Lines of credit are negotiated and guaranteed with a
                                    member-financed. CCMC was created to             US$ term deposit financed with CCA support.
                                    find business opportunities, but the
                                                                                     “LCMAs are paid on commission, and the headquarters
                                    members themselves broker the deals.”
                                                                                     rotates from country to country,” explains Jonathan
                                    The alliance evolved over two distinct           Wells, Americas Project Officer for the Canadian Co-
                                    phases, the first (1993-1996) concentrated       operative Association. “Because CCMC has a product
                                    on trade within the region, and the second       ‘offer-and-demand’ approach, staff are highly motivated
                                    (1996-1999) on trade beyond the region,          to generate business among member co-ops.” The
                                    principally with Canada. Initial trial           Consortium has also developed an information system
                                    transactions and technical assistance            of continuously updated technical specifications on
                                    proved successful and within the first three     forty-five products produced by CCMC members. “No
                                    years, 60 transactions worth $1.6 million        single co-op could afford to pay for this kind of market
                                    were carried out within the region on such       intelligence,” says Mr. Wells.
                                    products as beans, sorghum, sesame,
                                                                                     By the end of the first phase, the Consortium was
                                    tamarind, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages,
                                                                                     helping members develop their products and make
                                    onions, and parsley. More importantly, the
                                                                                     larger purchases and sales. But new tools were needed if
                                    alliance had identified some key commodi-
                                                                                     they were to trade beyond the region. Unlike North
                                    ties that could play an important role in the
                                                                                     American exporters who can protect their investments
                                    future growth of the co-op system. In 1995
                                                                                     and purchases through a host of trade guarantees and
                                    the alliance was legally constituted as the
                                                                                     insurance schemes, small exporters in the Americas face
                                    Central American Co-operative Marketing
                                                                                     all the same risks but have none of the safety nets when
                                    Consortium with a rotating headquarters
                                                                                     things go wrong. In 1999 CCMC moved to help spread
                                    hosted in turn by each elected president.
                                                                                     the risk to trading members by pooling capital to create
                                    Cocafé quality assurance specialist in Costa
                                    Rica pours samples of fair trade co-op coffee.

les of economy
erative Marketing Consortium

 l American countries formed a ground-
 of co-op-to-co-op business in the region,
 ing Consortium charted a course to help
ations, develop better products, and break
has emerged as a unique business platform
 -operatives can realize synergies that are
 ue of International Development Digest
ve businesses are changing the way co-ops

  a regional system of credit and guarantees. These
  measures allow members to trade in a lower environ-
  ment of risk. The result: over $1 million in trade with
  North America in the next three years.
  Profitable co-operatives mean better lives for their        Nestor Zamora, Oscar Brown, a co-op farmer, and Cam Bjerkseth (Agricore Bean
  members. Since its inception, CCMC has involved 34          Merchandiser) at a CCMC member co-op in Nueva Guinea, Nicaragua.
  co-operatives with over 11,000 members. It has
  developed an information system of continuously           “The Nicaragua bean project shows how the CCMC
  updated technical specifications on forty-five products   network enables co-ops in different countries to trade
  produced by Consortium members. The profits gener-        among themselves in a manner that was previously
  ated from trade create jobs and training for members,     unthinkable.”
  schooling for children, and improved health and           Mr. Wells says opportunities for inter-regional trade
  nutrition for families.                                   abound, and cites numerous examples where supply can
  CCA Americas Region Manager Oscar Brown says              meet demand within the region — examples like Nicara-
  CCMC is carving out a much needed role for co-ops         gua and Honduras, both net exporters of grains and
  trading in the Americas where supportive governments,     plantain, and El Salvador and Costa Rica which are net
  cross-sector alliances and co-operative apex bodies are   importers of these same products. Through their mem-              “The CCMC
  not a consistent feature of national co-op sectors.       bership in CCMC, poor farmers in Nicaragua are selling
  He says the absence of such structures has frustrated     products to markets in El Salvador. “This is a basic co-op        network
  co-ops and buyers alike. “Buyers who want a particular    concept,” says Mr. Wells. “Retaining earnings and wealth
                                                            and capacity among people in the same area, pushing out
  scale and quality of product wouldn’t give individual
  producer co-ops the time of day,” says Mr. Brown. “But    the intermediaries, making co-op-to-co-op connections,            co-ops in
  those buyers will deal with the same small co-ops         and increasing production and trade capacities.”
  when they pool their product and meet their standard of   Since its inception, CCMC has generated over 100 deals
  quality and reliability.”                                 worth an estimated $3.74 million. This figure does not            countries to
  Mr. Brown recalls one such buyer in Costa Rica that       include all the one-off and ongoing deals that are being          trade among
  wanted beans for 12 months of the year. “Nicaraguan       made among members on their own.
  co-op bean growers could only supply for half that        Aided by the Canadian Co-operative Association, with              themselves in a
  time. With the help of CCMC, Nicaragua bought beans       funding from the Canadian International Development               manner that
  from Canada and with their own beans made a twelve-       Agency (CIDA), CCMC has built a foundation for
  month supply deal with the buyer in Costa Rica. So        sustained growth that will continue to flourish long into         was previously
  here is a co-op that couldn’t even sell its 6-month       the future. Mr. Wells says the push now for CCMC is to            unthinkable.”
  supply of beans were it not for the deal they made with   expand its coordinating and trade initiatives to co-ops in
  a Canadian supplier, in this case Agricore.”              Colombia, Brazil, Panama and Dominican Republic. ■                Oscar Brown
                                                                                                      (continued on page 8)

                                                                              International Development Digest                                  7
             Tipping the Scales of Economy (from page 7)

    CCMC Snapshots

             Bringing food to post-earthquake El Salvador
             Perhaps no trade deal illustrates the power of          It wasn’t long before FESACORA, a federation
             co-op-to-co-op trade better than that which took        representing agrarian reform co-ops in El
             place following two horrific earthquakes that           Salvador negotiated the purchase of much
             rocked El Salvador in 2001. The quakes devas-           needed fresh vegetables from Cuatro Pinos
             tated much of the country’s productive land and         Co-operative, the CCMC marketing agent in
             infrastructure leaving many survivors without           Guatemala. “This is a good instance where trade
             food and other basic amenities. Co-ops were             among CCMC members not only delivers
             among the few organizations capable of                  commercial benefits, but can meet urgent social
             facilitating relief efforts on the ground.              needs as well,” says Mr. Wells. “The opportunity
             Ultimately, it was co-operation with co-ops             would never have arisen without CCMC.
             outside the country that helped put food back           FESACORA identified the need and knew that
             onto local shelves.                                     Cuatro Pinos could deliver.”
             “El Salvador is a net importer of food,” explains       Within two weeks of the first earthquake,
             CCA project officer Jonathan Wells, “importing          monthly shipments of fresh vegetables were sent
             more by far than it exports. Food stores dried up       to buyers in El Salvador. The value of this trade
             very quickly after the dust from the first earth-       has since grown from $2,750 to over $40,000
             quake settled.”                                         each month. ■

             Crossing new borders, breaking new ground
             As CCMC expands its sphere of activity beyond           had they sold through middlemen. More than the
             the Americas region, member co-ops are now              money, they had gained access to the coveted
             gaining valuable experience trading with                Canadian fair trade coffee market.
             Canada. CCMC broke new ground — and                     Through its work over the years with the Cana-
             crossed a new border when it brokered a deal            dian Co-operative Association, CCMC has built
             to sell fair traded coffee to Canadian buyers in        relationships with co-op producers in Canada.
             1995. Producers earn the fair trade designation         Through CCMC, the Costa Rican co-op retail
             by having exemplary labour and profit sharing           sector is currently negotiating to bring IPCO-
             processes in place. While scouting for interna-         branded dry goods from Canada into the
                                              tional fair trade      Americas in a deal that Jonathan Wells says will
                                              market opportuni-      open up a new realm of economic opportunities
                                              ties, CCMC             and ventures for CCMC member co-operatives:
                                              found three            buying co-op products from Canada.
                                              interested Cana-
                                              dian buyers for        Mr. Wells says a chain of factors combine to
                                              coffee produced        enable CCMC partners to conduct trade. “CCA
                                              in Costa Rica.         introduces CCMC members to Canadian co-ops,
                                              They purchased         CCMC identifies the need and opportunity,
                                              7,425 sacks of         Co-op Atlantic provides the product, the money
                                              coffee worth           comes from the Costa Rican retail co-op sector,
                                              $985,700. Twelve       and CCMC’s guarantee fund secures the deal.”
                                              hundred farm           He says future deals will benefit from the risk
                                              families earned        and the learning curve borne by CCMC. “The
                                              $820 each on the       lessons learned from each international deal
                                              deal, far more         accrue to every member of the Consortium, and
                                              than would accrue      that strengthens the entire network.” ■

                                            Co-op black bean farmer in Nueva Guinea, Nicaragua.

Co-operation for
Sustainable Development
For nearly three years, member organizations of the India Forum For Co-operative Development                   The program
(IFCOD) network have been engaged in an exciting and challenging experiment to tackle environ-                 touched
mental problems in their regions of India. With support from the Canadian Co-operative Association,
the Environment Education and Action Program applied a uniquely collaborative, profoundly partici-             every corner
patory approach to engaging grassroots citizens in the environmental issues that threaten the lives and        of the Indian
livelihoods of their families and communities. Whether introducing landless tribal people to cutting-
edge gardening techniques in Maharashtra, fomenting concern for the environment among school-age               landscape,
children in Karnataka, challenging the belligerence of polluting distilleries in Uttar Pradesh, revitaliz-     pooling the
ing a canal in Kerala, de-silting water bodies in Assam, encouraging villagers in Jharkhand to plant
trees and use smokeless stoves, or reclaiming agricultural land in Gujarat, IFCOD and its members              resources,
mobilized thousands of people to become an indelible force in the battle to clean up and protect their         skills and
The program touched every corner of the Indian landscape, pooling the resources, skills and
experience of a diverse array of non-government organizations. For several of the participating                of a diverse
organizations, organizing community action on environmental was a new realm of activity.                       array of non-
IFCOD concluded its Environment Education and Action Program (EEAP) with a press conference                    government
and seminar last fall in Delhi. IFCOD and seven participating organizations marked the occasion by
launching case studies of their achievements and reflections on the program.                                   organizations.
This issue of International Development Digest spotlights the Environment Education and Action
Program and presents a sampling of images depicting its impact on village life.

Janodaya “People’s Awakening,”                           The Environment
Bangalore, Karnataka State                               Education and Action
Case Study: From Dust to                                 Program
Green Retreat
                                                         The Environment Education and Action
                               Depletion of              Program (EEAP) began in July 1998
                               ground water and          as a partnership between CCA and IFCOD.
                               forest cover, and         A budget of $340,000 was provided by the
                               popular apathy            Canadian International Development
                               towards environ-          Agency, the Co-operative Development
                               mental protection         Foundation of Canada and the Manitoba
                               prompted                  Council for International Cooperation. Its
                               Janodaya to focus         goal was to initiate a process of sustainable
                               on a campaign of          community development through co-
                               raising awareness,        operative action. Seven IFCOD member
                               planting trees, de-       organizations signed on to deliver environ-
                               silting water             mental programs, each following a four-step
                               reservoirs, install-      process of generating community aware-
                               ing demonstration         ness; establishing environmental resource
                                                         teams to help communities identify environ-
                               bio-gas units,
                                                         mental problems; mobilizing participatory
                               establishing a
                                                         environmental approaches to the supply,
                               model herbal
                                                         conservation and use of land, water and
                               medicine garden
                                                         energy resources; and, establishing co-
                               and initiating four       operatives to sustain the economic and
                               co-operatives.            social benefits of EEAP.

                                                                                      (continued on page 10)

                                                                International Development Digest                                9
                                                                                Youth For Unity &Voluntary
                                                                                Action (YUVA), Konkan region,
                                                                                Maharashtra State
                                                                                Case Study: A Handful of
                                                                                Water and Fistful of Land
                                                                                YUVA worked with a network of organizations
                                                                                called Vikas Sahyong Pratisthan to organize
                                                                                numerous environmental projects, among them an
                                                                                experiment enabling landless tribal people to use a
                                                                                form of intensive, high yield organic gardening
                                                                                called LEISA (Low External Input for Sustainable
                                                                                Agriculture) on small 1/4-acre plots of land.

                          People’s Institute for Development &
                          Training (PIDT), Madhupur, Jharkhand
                          Case Study: Water for a better life
                          A nationally recognized training institute, PIDT focused its efforts
                          in two demonstration villages. Actions included constructing five
                          water harvesting structures and an artesian well (thus doubling
                          crops), planting saplings of herbal medicines and fruit trees,
                          demonstrating sustainable cultivation and bio-fertilizers, and
                          introducing a new type of smokeless “blue flame stove.”

     India Forum For
     Co-operative Development
     Formed in 1993, the India Forum For Co-operative Development (IFCOD) is a
     network of co-operative and non-governmental organizations from throughout India
     dedicated to co-operative research, education, training, networking and promotion. It
     is based in Delhi and governed by a 7-member council elected every three years.

                                                                                 Purvanchal Gramin Seva
                                                                                 Samiti (pGSS), Gorakhpur,
                                                                                 Uttar Pradesh State
                                                                                 Case Study: Crusade for a
                                                                                 Green Cause
                                                                                 PGSS works with Dalits (lower castes) to
                                                                                 improve health, education and economic liveli-
                                                                                 hoods. Its campaign focused on raising village
                                                                                 and school level awareness using puppetry,
                                                                                 street theatre and a bicycle rally; tree planting, a
                                                                                 campaign against plastics, and stopping pollu-
                                                                                 tion of rivers and wells by a local distillery.

        Co-operatives “Light                                  The Benefits
        a Candle”                                             ● 25,000 project beneficiaries (60% women)
        In a message delivered to IFCOD at the semi-          ● EEAP reached 470 villages in 9 states (1,500              In short, you
        nar, Ray Robertson, chairman of CCA’s                   km2)
        International Progam Committee remarked:              ● 7 Environmental Resource Teams formed (79
                                                                                                                          have gained
        “It is always a challenge `to light a candle,
                                                                persons trained)                                          important
                                                              ● 13,000 people attended environmental
        rather than keep on cursing the darkness.’
                                                                education programs
                                                                                                                          ground in the
        Thanks to your efforts, the flame of environ-
                                                              ● 750 acres in 7 locations are newly available              struggle to
        mental awareness has been ignited in the hearts
                                                                for cultivation and water is available for
        and minds of thousands of individuals in many
                                                                much of the year
                                                                                                                          protect the
        dozens of villages across this country. Environ-
                                                              ● 380 families in four states have smokeless                environment.”
        mental resource teams will carry this work
                                                                chullahs (stoves) and bio-gas sources of fuel
        forward, important work that includes the
                                                                for cooking.
                                                                                                                          Ray Robertson
        formation of people owned and managed co-
                                                              ● 167,000 saplings planted in 170 villages. If
        operative organizations through which the
                                                                half the trees survive, soil erosion in 650
        activities and benefits of the Environmental
                                                                acres of land will be prevented
        Education and Action Program may become
                                                              ● 13 water harvesting structures built in three
        sustainable. In fact, IFCOD has trained over 150
                                                                states providing better irrigation for 200
        persons in the formation and management of
                                                                acres benefiting 300 marginal farmers. A
        co-operatives. Over half of these are forming
                                                                number of Irrigation canals and tanks were
        co-operatives aimed at bringing about positive
        environmental change.
                                                              ● Each of seven participating organizations
        You have educated citizens, trained organizers,         trained 30 persons and have initiated 2 to 3
        engaged communities, mobilized youth, formed            co-ops, and formed some 300 self-help groups.
        co-operatives, attracted media attention,             ● 5 of 7 participating organizations have
        partnered with governments, challenged                  tapped into local government funding for
        polluters, devised innovative solutions and             environmental project costs
        mounted popular campaigns. In short, you have         ● Raised local contributions of cash and in-
        gained important ground in the struggle to              kind services worth 5 million Rupees
        protect the environment.”                               ($34,000), over three times the planned target

        Lessons Learned
                    CCA’s evaluation of the program
                    commends IFCOD for its management of
                    the EEAP initiative, and the participating
                    organizations for their dedication to
                    environmental action and programming.
                    The comprehensive and flexible design of
                    the program allowed for local decision-
                    making, priority setting and participation
                    throughout the program — from planning
                    to evaluation. Future endeavours of this
                    nature should be for longer periods of time
                    and plan for more sustainable results.
To learn more about the Environment Education and
Action Program, contact or
write to IFCOD directly at:
The India Forum for Cooperative Development,
                                                                     Ms Iqbal Malik, Founder Director of ‘Vatavaran’, a well known
144 – C, Green Flats, Rajouri Garden,                                environmental NGO in Delhi, releases the Case Studies and Ms Santosh
New Delhi – 110 027. India                                           Vas, Janodaya, claps.

                                                                      International Development Digest                                      11
       Poor Farmers Plowed Under
       by U.S. Subsidies
       By Jonathan Wells
       Motivated by domestic political pressures, the U.S.               represents by far the largest employer, and contributes up
       government has recently approved a massive farm                   to half of GDP, compared with only 3% in the developed
       subsidy bill. The new package showers American farmers            world.
       with $180 billion over the next ten years, a 70% increase         The new support package encourages overproduction in
       from its already generous support. This vaults U.S. farm          the U.S. by guaranteeing a minimum payment for com-
       support up to the same wacky levels enjoyed by European           modities such as corn, cotton, wheat, and soybeans. In
       and Japanese farmers.                                             addition, the U.S. will also be in a position to export
       Branded a “ridiculous policy” by Canada’s agriculture             millions of tons of critical staples such as peas, beans,
       Minister Lyle Vanclief, this measure adds to the $350             lentils and rice. By reducing the prevailing global price,
       billion the World Bank estimates is already provided as           U.S. exports will be so cheap that farmers in the develop-
       annual farm support in the industrialized world.                  ing world will be unable to compete in their own markets,
       According to my algebra, that will put the total subsidy          let alone those of Europe and North America.
       figure at approximately a billion (with a “B”) dollars a          The shameless double standard in all of this is that these
       day for rich country farmers. In a perverse parallel, the         market-distorting subsidies come at the same time as the
       United Nations estimates that there are over a billion            drive toward free trade accelerates. Typical of this
       people struggling on less than a dollar a day. And unfor-         inexorable liberalization is the recent pledge by the
       tunately for those folks, many of them are... or used to          Central American Integration System (SICA) that all
       be... farmers.                                                    trade barriers between Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
       Canada is by no means a poor country and yet our federal          and Nicaragua will be eliminated by January 2004.
       government is nowhere near capable of matching the                Haroldo Rodas, the secretary-general of SICA, cited that
       deep pockets of Washington. But for countries not                 the eradication of tariffs was necessary in order to
       blessed with Canada’s technology, credit systems,                 implement free trade agreements with Canada and the
       transport infrastructure, and sophisticated marketing             U.S. and to prepare for the forthcoming implementation
       network, the task of keeping pace in the high-stakes game         of the Free Trade Area of the Americas.
       of global agriculture is hopeless.                                The combined impact of rich country farm subsidies —
       Furthermore, these subsidies are not aimed at just any            more than seven times the total value of the world’s official
       industry; they are supporting agriculture — the most              development assistance — and the reduction of tariff
       important and often the only income source for the                barriers will devastate the world’s small-scale farmers.
       world’s poor. In the developed world, subsistence farming         The empty rhetoric of free trade championed by the U.S.
       has long since been replaced by large-scale heavily               should be dropped until deeds match words. Until then
       mechanized commercial agriculture. However, in Africa,            farmers throughout the world will continue to suffer, not
       Asia and Latin America, small-scale agriculture still             because of free trade, but from the lack thereof. ■
                                                                         Jonathan Wells is the Americas Program Officer at CCA.

             275 Bank Street, Suite 400, Ottawa, ON K2P 2L6                      275 Bank Street, Suite 400, Ottawa, ON K2P 2L6
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     International Development Digest is published three times a year by the Canadian Co-operative Association.
                          Correspondence should be addressed to David Shanks, Editor.

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