Disorders Associated with the Excretory System UNIT 1 THE STUDY OF LIFE C Unit 1

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					                      UNIT 1: THE STUDY OF LIFE                                                     C:Unit 1 Text Materials(U1S.M)


                      1.1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                               Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            1.1.1     Biology.                                                            O&H       G/Lines pg 7
                      Define the term: Biology.
                      Name three areas of study incorporated in Biology.

            1.1.2     Scientific Method                                                   O&H
                      State the process of the Scientific Method
                      Including Observation, Hypothesis, Design
                      Experiment, Collect & Interpret Data, Conclusions,
                      Compare to Existing Knowledge Reporting,
                      Developing Theory & Principle
                      State the limitations of value of the Scientific Method including
                      Extent of basic knowledge, basis of investigation,
                      application to the natural world in a state of change,
                      accidental discovery.

            1.1.3     Experimentation                                                     O&H
                      State the principles of experimentation including
                      Planning & Design, Safety Procedure, Experimental Control,
                      explaining why Sample Size, Random Selection, Replicates
                      and Double-Blind Testing are important.
                      State some possible sources of errors
                      UNIT 1: THE STUDY OF LIFE

                      1.2 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                             Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            1.2.1     A Search for a Definition of Life                                 O&H       G/Lines pg 8
                      Present an outline of the diversity of living things
                      List the common features & behaviours identified as living.
                      Define the term: metabolism.
                      Define the expression: continuity of life.

            1.2.2     Definition of Life                                                O&H
                      Define the term: life.

            1.2.3     Characteristics of Life                                           O&H       G/Lines pg 9-10
                      Definition and identification of the "characteristics of life",
                      through fundamental principles and interactions of organisation
                      nutrition, excretion, response and reproduction.




                      UNIT 1: THE STUDY OF LIFE
                      1.3 NUTRITION
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                              Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            1.3.1     Function of Food                                                   O&H       G/Lines pg 11
                      Name three reasons for requiring food as 1. Source of energy
                      2. Make chemicals required for reactions, 3. Raw materials
                      for growth & repair.

            1.3.2     Chemical Elements                                                  O&H       G/Lines pg 11
                      Name six common chemical elements in food:CHNOPS
                      Name five elements present in dissolved salts:Na,Mg,Cl,K,Ca
                      Name 3 trace elements required: Fe, Cu, Zn

            1.3.3     Biomolecular Structures                                            O&H       G/Lines pg 11
                      State that simple biomolecular units are composed of a
                      combination of elements in different ratios. Eg carbohydrates
                      Cx(H2O)y

            1.3.4     Biomolecular Sources & Components of Food                          O&H       G/Lines pg 12
                      Name the element components, biomolecular components
                      and sources of: carbohydrates, fats & oil, protein & vitamin.
                      State that carbohydrates are composed of indivisible units and
                      give examples of these. Eg. monosaccharide-glucose.
                      Disaccharides- maltose & polysaccharides-starch/cellulose.
                      Name one water soluble vitamin.
                      Name one water in-soluble vitamin.

            1.3.5     Energy Transfer Reactions                                          O&H       G/Lines pg 13
                      Definition of the term: Anabolic
                      Definition of the term: Catabolic.
                      State that Photosynthesis is an example of an anabolic reaction.
                      State that Respiration is an example of a catabolic reaction.
1.3.6       Structural Role of Biomolecules                                        O&H   G/Lines pg 13
            State carbohydrates role as cellulose in cell walls
            State proteins role as fibrous protein in keratin(hair)
            or as myosin in muscle.
            State the role of lipids as Phospholipids in cell membranes

1.3.7       Metabolic Role of Biomolecules                                         O&H   G/Lines pg 13
            State that carbs & lipids act as a primary source of energy.
            State that proteins act as enzymes and are composed of amino acids
            State that hormones (protein) act as regulators of metabolic act.
            State that vitamin C & D are used for tissue growth, cell production
            and health maintenance.
            Name disorders associated with deficiency of a water soluble
            and a water in-soluble vitamin.

1.3.8       Minerals                                                               O&H   G/Lines pg 14
            State the requirements & use of any 2 minerals in plants.
            State the requirements & use of any 2 minerals in animals.

1.3.9       Water                                                                  O&H   G/Lines pg 14
            State 5 good reasons why water is important for organisms.

        1.3 Prac: Food Tests                                                       O&H   G/Lines pg 12. S.M.pg 25-31.
            conduct a qualitative test for: starch,
            fats
            a reducing sugar
            protein




            UNIT 1: THE STUDY OF LIFE
            1.4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                            Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            1.4.1     Ecology                                                          O&H       G/Lines pg 15
                      Define the term: ecology.

            1.4.2     Ecosystem                                                        O&H       G/Lines pg 15
                      Define the term: ecosystem.
                      Name a range of ecosystems demonstrating diversity.

            1.4.3     Biosphere                                                        O&H       G/Lines pg 16
                      Explain the term: biosphere.

            1.4.4     Habitat                                                          O&H       G/Lines pg 16
                      Define the term: habitat.
                      Name examples of habitats.

            1.4.5     Environmental Factors                                            O&H       G/Lines pg 16
                      Define and give examples of the following as applied to
                      terrestrial (land) and aquatic (water) environments:
                      Abiotic
                      Biotic
                      Climatic
                      Define and give examples of edaphic factors (soil) as applied
                      to terrestrial environments.




            1.4.6     Energy Flow                                                      O&H       G/Lines pg 17
                      Name the sun as the primary source of energy.
                      Name feeding as the pathway of energy flow.                                Charts/Diag in lab
                      Present a grazing food chain.
                      Present a food web.
                      Draw and construct a pyramid of numbers and explain their use.
1.4.7    Niche                                                               O&H   G/Lines pg 17
         Explain the term: niche and give examples.

1.4.8    Nutrient Recycling                                                  O&H   G/Lines pg 17
         Define the term: nutrient recycling by organisms.                         C:Cycles Diag
         Outline and draw the Carbon Cycle.
         Outline and draw the Nitrogen Cycle.

1.4.9    Human Impact on an Ecosystem                                        O&H   G/Lines pg 18
         Define the term: Pollution.                                               C: Waste M/ment
         State areas affected by pollution.
         State mechanisms to control pollution.
         Explain the difference between the terms pollutant and pollution.
         Examine the ecological impact of one human activity.
         Define the term: Conservation.
         Outline any 1 practice from agriculture, forestry of fisheries.
         State problems associated with waste management & disposal.
         Explain the importance of waste minimisation.
         Explain the role of microorganisms in pollution control.

1.4.10   Pyramid of Numbers                                                  H     G/Lines pg 19
         Explain the limitations of use regarding the size of organisms
         and the relationship to scale.
         State two inferences that can be made regarding the shape
         of the pyramid.
         Explain the energy loss shown in the pyramid.



1.4.11   Ecological Relationships                                            H     G/Lines pg 19
         Name factors that can control populations.
         Define and give one example of the following factors: Competition
         Predation
         Parasitism
         Symbiosis
            1.4.12    Population Dynamics                                                            H         G/Lines pg 19
                      Outline the contributory factors or variables in the Predator/Prey Rel/ships             C: Pop Dynamics
                      State the effects on the Human Population due to: War
                      Famine
                      Contraception
                      Disease




                      UNIT 1: THE STUDY OF LIFE
                      1.5 A STUDY OF AN ECOSYSTEM
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                          Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:                                         C: Ecology P/folio
1.5 Overview Selected Ecosystem                                                                O&H   G/Lines pg 21
    Present an o/view of diversity of life forms in an ecosystem.                                    C:Ecology Field Study 1&2

1.5 Obs & Study of Ecosystem                                                                   O&H   G/Lines pg 21
    Identify a number of habitats from the selected ecosystem.
    Identify and apply of collection apparatus.
    Identify five plants and animals using simple keys.
    Identify and use various apparatus required for collection methods
    in an ecological study.

1.5 Organism Distribution                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 22
    Explain the difference between a Qualitative & Quantitative study
    for plants and animals.
    Complete frequency & % Cover techniques.                                                         C:Quadrat Exercise
    Present result and Error sources for a quantitative study of plants and animals.

1.5 Choice of Habitat                                                                          O&H   G/Lines pg 23
    Correlate choice of habitat for organisms in study area to Abiotic Factors
    Investigate and report on any 3 Abiotic Factors.

1.5 Organisms Adaptations                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 23
    Explain the necessity for and examples of Structural/Competitive/Behavioural adaptations
    state one adaptation by one organism in the selected ecosystem.




1.5 Organisms Role in Energy Transfer                                                          O&H   G/Lines pg 23
    Explain and identify the role of the organism in energy transfers.
    Draw a food chain of the study area.
    Draw a food web of the study area.
    Draw a food pyramid of the study area.

1.5 Analysis                                                                                   O&H   G/Lines pg 23
    Explain the necessity for analysis & assessment
    Identify any local ecological issues.
                      Report Presentation




                      UNIT 2: THE CELL                                             C:Unit 2 Text Materials(U2 S.M.)


                      2.1 CELL STRUCTURE
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                              Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            2.1.1     Microscopy                                         O&H       G/Lines pg 27
                       Compare the use of the light m/scope to the TEM.

            2.1.2      Cell Structure & Function                                                O&H       G/Lines pg 227
                       Name the components of the plant cell as seen under the light m/scope              Slides
                       including cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole and chloroplast.
                       Name the components of the animal cell as seen under the light m/scope             Slides
                       including cytoplasm & nucleus.
                       State the position & function of the cell membrane

            2.1.3      Cell Ultrastructure                                                      O&H       G/Lines pg 28
                       Identify and name the structure & function of cell membrane
                       mitochondrion, chloroplast, nucleus, nuclear pores, ribosomes & DNA.
                       Draw ultrastructure of mitochondrion & chloroplast.

            2.1.4      Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic                                                 H         G/Lines pg 28
                       Define the terms: prokaryotic & eukaryotic.

                    2.1 Prac: Use of light microscope                                           O&H       G/Lines pg 27S.M.32-35

                    2.1 Prac: Plant & Animal Cells                                              O&H       G/Lines pg 27S.M.36-42




                        UNIT 2: THE CELL
                        2.2 CELL METABOLISM
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                     Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            2.2.1      Cell Metabolism                                                          O&H       G/Lines pg 30
                       Define the term: metabolism.
2.2.2   Sources of Energy                                                                O&H   G/Lines pg 30
        State that solar energy is source of energy on Earth.
        State that cellular energy sourced from chemical energy in ATP

2.2.3   Enzymes                                                                          O&H   G/Lines pg 31
        Define the term: enzymes
        State the nature, folded shape & functions of enzymes.
        Explain the role of enzymes in plants and animals including role in metabolism
        Explain the effects of pH & temperature on enzyme activity.
        State the procedure and advantages of Bioprocessing.
        State the use of Bioprocessing.

2.2.4   Photosynthesis                                                                   O&H   G/Lines pg 32
        Define the term: photosynthesis.
        Express photosynthesis as a balanced reaction.
        State the nature of photosynthesis from the syllabus.                                  Syll p. 18
        State the role & location of chlorophyll.
        Explain the nature of electron carriage.
        Identify the light source, CO2 & water for photosynthesis.
        Explain how human intervention can play a role in photosynthesis.




2.2.5   Respiration                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 32
        Definition of the term: aerobic respiration.
        Explain the role of aerobic respiration.
        Express aerobic respiration by a balanced equation.
        State the nature of respiration from syllabus.                                         Syll p. 19
        Definition of the term: anaerobic respiration.
        Express anaerobic respiration by a balanced equation.
        State the nature and role of fermentation.
        State the cellular location of the first & second stage.
        Explain the role of microorganisms in fermentation.
        Explain the role of microorganisms including bioprocessing.
        Bioreactors
2.2.6    Movement Through Cell Membranes                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 33
         Define the term: Selectively permeable
         Explain the role of selectively permeable membranes.
         Define the terms: osmosis & diffusion
         Give examples of diffusion and osmosis.
         Define the term: turgor.
         Explain turgidity in plant cells.
         Describe the application of high salt or sugar concentration in food preservation.

H2.2.7   Enzymes (Ext)                                                                        H     G/Lines pg 33
         Explain the active site theory to examine enzyme function & specificity.                   Syll p. 18
         Explain the term: optimum activity relating to pH.
         Explain the nature of heat denaturation.

H2.2.8   Role of ATP & NAD (Ext)                                                              H     G/Lines pg 34
         Explain the nature & role of ATP.
         Explain the production of ATP from ADP + P.
         Explain the role NADP+ in trapping & transferring electrons & H ions.




H2.2.9   Photosynthesis (Ext)                                                                 H     G/Lines pg 34
         Explain the Light Stage/Dark Stage                                                         Syll. P 20
         State the two-pathway system of electron carriage.
         1. Direct to chlorophyll
         2. Trapped by NADP+

H2.2.9   Respiration (Ext)                                                                    H     G/Lines pg 35
         State the first stage reaction: Glycolysis                                                 Syll p. 20
         Explain the difference in the fermentation option.
         State the second stage reaction: Krebs
                    2.2 Prac: Investigate effect of pH on enzyme rate                              O&H       G/Lines pg 31 S.M p43-46

                    2.2 Prac: Investigate effect of temperature on enzyme rate                     O&H       G/Lines pg 31 S.M p. 47-51

                    2.2 Prac: Prepare one enzyme immobilisation and examine its application        O&H       G/Lines pg 31 S.M. p 56-60
                                                                                                             C:Enz Immob(U2)
                    2.2 Prac: Investigate influence of light intensity on rate of photosynthesis   O&H       G/Lines pg 32 S.M. p 61-63

                    2.2 Prac: Prepare & show the production of alcohol by yeasts                   O&H       G/Lines pg 32 S.M p69-73

                    2.2 Prac: Activity to demonstrate osmosis                                      O&H       G/Lines pg 33 S.M. p74-77

                    2.2 Prac: Investigate effect of heat denaturation on activity of enzyme        H         G/Lines pg 33 S.M. p 51-55




                        UNIT 2: THE CELL
                        2.3 CELL CONTINUITY
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                        Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            2.3.1       Cell Continuity & Chromosomes                                              O&H       G/Lines pg 36
                        Explain the terms: cell continuity & chromosomes.

            2.3.2       Haploid, Diploid                                                           O&H       G/Lines pg 36
                        Define the terms: haploid & diploid number.
            2.3.3       The Cell Cycle                                                                      O&H       G/Lines pg 37
                        Describe the cell activities in he state of non-division: Interphase
                        and Division (mitosis).

            2.3.4       Mitosis                                                                             O&H       G/Lines pg 37
                        Define the term: mitosis.                                                                     C:Cancer Sheet(U2)
                        Explain the process in simple terms with some diagrams.
                        Define cancer and state causes.

            2.3.5       Function of Mitosis                                                                 O&H       G/Lines pg 37
                        State the primary function of mitosis for single-celled vs multi-cell. Organisms.

            2.3.6       Meiosis                                                                             O&H       G/Lines pg 37
                        Define the term: meiosis.

            2.3.7       Functions of Meiosis                                                                O&H       G/Lines pg 38
                        State the functions of meiosis.

            H2.3.8      Stages of Mitosis                                                                   H         G/Lines pg 38
                        Present a detailed study with names of stages & diags


                        UNIT 2: THE CELL
                        2.4 CELL DIVERSITY
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                                 Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

                    2.4 Tissues                                                                             O&H       G/Lines pg 39
                        Define the term: tissue.
                        Name 2 plant tissues.
                        Name 2 animal tissues.
                        Explain the term: Tissue culture.                                                             C:Tissue Culture(U2)
                        State 2 applications of tissue culture.
                    2.4 Organs                                           O&H       G/Lines pg 39
                        Define the term:organ.
                        Name 1 plant organ.
                        Name 1 animal organ.

                    2.4 Organ System                                     O&H       G/Lines pg 39
                        Define the term: organ system.
                        Name any 2 animal systems.




                        UNIT 2: THE CELL
                        2.5 GENETICS                                               C: Genetics/Gen Issues.U2Gen fold.

REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                              Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            2.5.1      Variation of Species                              O&H       G/Lines pg 40
                       Explain the diversity of organisms.
                       Define the term: species.

            2.5.2      Heredity & Gene Expression                        O&H       G/Lines pg 41
                       Define the terms: heredity & gene expression.
                       State examples of heredity and gene expression.
2.5.3   Genetic Code                                                                             O&H   G/Lines pg 41
        Define the term: gene.
        State the role of the gene.
        Explain the chromosome structure.

2.5.4   DNA Structure, Replication & Profiling                                                   O&H   G/Lines pg 41
        State a simple structure for DNA.                                                              C:DNA profiling-Genfolder
        Explain the coding and non-coding segments of DNA.                                             (Genetic Testing vs Gen scr
        State that RNA is a complementary structure to DNA.                                            C:DNA Rep1&2.Gen folder
        State the function mRNA
        State the nature of replication for DNA                                                        Syll. p 23
        Define the term: DNA profiling                                                                 Syll p.23
        Name two applications for DNA profiling.
        Explain the process of genetic screening.                                                      Syll p.23

2.5.5   Protein Synthesis                                                                        O&H   G/Lines pg 42
        Describe the nature of protein synthesis.                                                      Syll p23
                                                                                                       C:ProtSyn.U2Gen Fold

2.5.6   Genetic Inheritance                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 42
        Define the term: Gamete formation.
        Define the term: gamete.
        State the function of gametes in sexual reproduction.
        Define the following terms: fertilisation.
        allele/ homozygous & heterozygous.
        genotype/ phenotype
        dominance/ recessive.
        recessive/ incomplete dominance.
        Explain the F1 (unlinked traits)-homozygous parents (gametes of parents & offspring)
        Explain the F1 (unlinked traits)-heterozygous parents (gametes of parents & offspring)
        Explain the F1 (unlinked traits)-sex determination (gametes of parents & offspring)
        Explain & use Pedigree Charts & Punnett Squares

2.5.7   Causes of Variation                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 43
        Explain the term: variation & give examples within human populations (height/weight)
        State that variation is caused by: Sexual Repro & mutation
         Define the term: mutation.
         Name 2 agents of mutation. (Chromosomal & genetic).

2.5.8    Evolution                                                                           O&H   G/Lines pg 43
         Define the term: evolution.
         State the Theory of Natural Selection.
         Outline the contribution of Darwin/Wallace.
         Explain the evidence from any one source regarding evolution.

2.5.9    Genetic Engineering                                                                 O&H   G/Lines pg 43
         Explain the process of genetic engineering as manipulation & alteration of genes.         C:BI Gen Eng-Gen Folder
         Outline the process involving: isolation/transformation/expression
         Name 3 Applications: 1 plant, 1 animal, 1 micro-org re genetic engineering.

H2.5.10 Origin of Science of Genetics                                                        H     G/Lines pg 44
        Outline the work of Gregor Mendel.

H2.5.11 Law of Segregation                                                                   H     G/Lines pg 44
        State & explain the Law of Segregation.
H2.5.12 Law of Independent Assortment                                                        H     G/Lines pg 44
        State & explain the Law of Independent Assortment.

H2.5.13 Dihybrid Cross                                                                       H     G/Lines pg 44
        Show the F2 using Punnett Squares
        Define the term: linkage.
        Show Linkage: 1:1:1:1 with dihybrid het X recess
        Explain the term: Sex-Linkage
        Explain the term: Non-nuclear inheritance using mito & chloroplast as examples.            C:non-nuc Inh.Gen Folder

H2.5.14 Nucleic Acid Structure & Function (Ext)                                              H     G/Lines pg 45
        State that DNA structure includes: Sugar, phosphate & bases
        Draw the nucleotide structure.
        Name the Purine-pyramidine couples
        Name the complementary bases
        Name the existence of hydrogen bonds in the structure.
        Name the structure as the Double helix.
            H2.5.15 Protein Synthesis (Ext)                                          H         G/Lines pg 45
                    State the location of protein synthesis.
                    Explain protein synthesis in relation to DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

                    2.5 Prac: Isolate DNA from a plant tissue                        H         G/Lines pg 41 S.M. p78-81

                                                                                               C:Biotech.Genfolder
                                                                                               C:Biotech Mmap.Gen Folder




                        UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM                                                   C:Unit 3 Text Materials(U3S.M)


                        3.1 DIVERSITY OF ORGANISMS
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                          Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.1.1       Diversity of Organisms                                       O&H       G/Lines pg 49
                        Name the Five Kingdom System of Classification.

            3.1.2       Micro-organisms                                              O&H       G/Lines pg 49
                        Outline the distribution of fungi & bacteria in nature.

            3.1.3       Monera                                                       O&H       G/Lines pg 50
                        Name 3 main types of bacterial cells.
                        Explain reproduction of bacteria.
                        Explain nutrition of bacteria.
                        State the factors affecting growth of micro-organisms.
         Define the term: Pathogenic
         Define the term: antibiotics
         State the role of antibiotics.
         Outline the potential abuse of antibiotics
         Name 2 Beneficial & 2 Harmful bacteria

3.1.4    Fungi                                                             O&H   G/Lines pg 51
         Define the terms: saprophytic & parasitic.                              C:Fungi Folder(U3 S.M.)
         State the structure & life cycle of Rhizopus.
         Explain nutrition in fungi.
         Outline the structure & reproduction of Yeast.
         Name 2 Beneficial & 2 Harmful fungi.
         Mention that there are Edible and Poisonous fungi.
         Identify and state functions for the following structures:
         rhizoid, sporangium, gametangium, zygospore.

3.1.5    Laboratory Procedures for Micro-organisms                         O&H   G/Lines pg 52
         State precautions used when working with micro-organisms.
         Define the terms: Asepsis & Sterility
         Outline containment & disposal methods in relation to microbes.

3.1.6    Protista                                                          O&H   G/Lines pg 52
         Explain the structure of Amoeba: nucleus & sub-cellular struc

3.1.7    Plant                                                             O&H   G/Lines pg 52
         Flowering Plant (refer Unit 3)

3.1.8    Animal                                                            O&H   G/Lines pg 52
         Human (refer Unit 3)

H3.1.9   Nature of Bacteria & Fungi                                        H     G/Lines pg 53
         Explain the Prokaryotic nature of bacteria.
         Explain the Eukaryotic nature of fungi.

H3.1.10 Growth Curves                                                      H     G/Lines pg 53
        Compare Batch and Continuous Flow Food Processing                        C:????
                    3.1 Prac: Investigate growth of leaf yeasts using agar plates                                       O&H       G/Lines pg 52 S.M.82-86




                        UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM
                        3.2 ORGANISATION & THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                                             Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.2.1       Organisational Complexity of Flowering Plants                                                   O&H       G/Lines pg 54
                        State the structure & function for the following:                                                         C:Plants Folder.U3SM
                        Root, stem, leaves, flower, seed, vasc struc
                        Explain the term, Meristem and name locations this tissue may be found.
                        Locate the following tissue types (Location in sections)
                        Dermal/Ground/Vascular.
                        Name the xylem and phloem as examples of vascular tissue.Vascular tissue-structure & function
                        Identify Monocots & Dicots under the headings: Woody/Herbaceous.
                        Arrangement of floral parts, Arrangement of vascular bundles, Cotyledon (Seed Leaf) number.

            3.2.2       Organisational Complexity of Humans                                                             O&H       G/Lines pg 55
                        Outline the organisational complexity of humans.
         Describe the structure & organisation of the Circ System.
         including heart & blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries, venules, arterioles)
         State the role of muscle tissue & valves.
         Outline the 2 circuit circ system.
         Draw structure of the heart, main blood pathways (inc hepatic portal system).
         State that cardiac supply via cardiac artery & vein.
         Present an understanding of Heartbeat/control/pulse/blood pressure
         Explain the effect of smoking, diet & exercise on circ system.
         Outline the structure & function of the Lymph System including:
         lymph nodes/vessels
         Name 3 functions of the Lymphatic System.
         State blood composition, including role of blood cells/platelets/plasma
         Explain blood grouping: (A,B,AB,O) and the Rhesus factors.


H3.2.3   Blood Cells (Ext)                                                                     H     G/Lines pg 56
         Give a detailed treatment of red blood cells including: no nucleus/mito
         Classify white blood cells as lymphocytes/monocytes

H3.2.4   Heartbeat Control                                                                     H     G/Lines pg 56
         State existence & location of SA and AV nodes
         Explain the heart cycle (Systole/Diastole).

     3.2 Prac: Prep & examine dicot stem                                                       O&H   G/Lines pg 54 S.M p87-90

     3.2 Prac: Dissect, display & identify sheep's heart                                       O&H   G/Lines pg 55 S.M. p91-96

     3.2 Prac: Investigate effect of exercise on breathing rate                                O&H   G/Lines pg 55 S.M. p97-102
                      UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM
                      3.3 TRANSPORT & NUTRITION
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                                  Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.3.1     Nutrition in Flowering Plants                                                          O&H       G/Lines pg 57-58
                      State the autotrophic nature of plants.
                      Describe the uptake of water including root hairs/cortex/xylem/osmosis/
                      diffusion/root pressure/transpiration/stomata
                      Describe the uptake of minerals including: solubility/transport from roots by water.
                      Describe the uptake of CO2 including: respiring cells/stomata
                      Describe the transport of PHS products including: phloem sieve tube cells

            3.3.2     Modified Plant Food Storage Organs                                                     O&H       G/Lines pg 58
                      Name 1 example of root, stem,leaf modifications as food storage organs.

            3.3.3     Nutrition in Humans                                                                    O&H       G/Lines pg 58
                      Define the term: Heterotrophic.
                      Define the terms: Omnivore/Carnivore/Herbivore
                      Explain the term and the need for, Digestion.
         Explain the need for a digestive system.
         Define the following terms: ingestion/digestion/absorption/egestion,
         as they relate to the human digestive system.




3.3.4    Human Digestive System                                                                            O&H   G/Lines pg 59
         Describe the macrostructure and function of the alimentary canal & glands
         in the digestion and transport of nutrients.
         Explain the mechanical breakdown and transport of food incl teeth, peristalsis, stomach.
         Explain the term: Chemical Breakdown including : bile/role, production site, pH
         & location of action & products of Amylase, a protease & a lipase enzyme.
         Name 2 functions of symbiotic bacteria.
         Explain the benefits of Fibre
         Outline the basic structure & function of the small & large intestine.

3.3.5    Blood Transport of Nutrients                                                                      O&H   G/Lines pg 59
         Describe the composition of blood fluid as a transport system of nutrients, the
         absorption of nutrients from the villi, transport through the hepatic portal vein to the liver.
         State the function of the Liver.
         Outline the transport of nutrients to cells, and the transport of wastes to the kidney.

3.3.6    Balanced Human Diet                                                                               O&H   G/Lines pg 60
         Explain the concept of a balanced diet, variety & moderation.
         Relate the concept of a balanced diet to age/sex/activity.
         Relate variety to a selection of food groups.

H3.3.7   Cohesion-Tension Model                                                                            H     G/Lines pg 60
         Explain attractive forces of water molecules as it relates to Cohesion.
         Explain the role of cohesive properties of water.
                      Explain the role of transpiration for this model.
                      Outline the work of Dixon/Joly.




                      UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM
                      3.4 BREATHING SYSTEM & EXCRETION
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                                        Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.4.1     Homeostasis                                                                                  O&H       G/Lines pg 61
                      Define the term: homeostasis.

            3.4.2     Necessity for Homeostasis                                                                    O&H       G/Lines pg 61
                      Explain the need for homeostasis.

            3.4.3     Structure of Exchange System in Flowering Plants                                             O&H       G/Lines pg 61
                      Explain the role of the leaf (stomata) & stem (Lenticel) to gas exchange.

            3.4.4     Breathing System in Humans                                                                   O&H       G/Lines pg 62
                      Outline the macrostructure & function of the breathing tract in humans.
                      Outline the essential features of the alveoli & capillaries (as surface) for gas exchange.
                      Describe the mechanism of the breathing system in gas exchange in humans.
                      Outline a breathing disorder: Cause/prevention/treatment (Asthma/Bronchitis)

            3.4.5     Plant Excretion                                                                              O&H       G/Lines pg 62
                      Outline the role of leaves as an excretory organ of plants.
3.4.6    Excretory System in Humans                                                                    O&H   G/Lines pg 63
         Explain the role of the excretory system in homeostasis.
         State the function, location, products of the skin/lungs/urinary system.
         Outline the basic macrostructure & function for urinary excretory sys:
         (Kidney/Ureters/Urinary Bladder/Urethra)
         Explain the role of Kidney in regulating body fluids.
         Identify the site of filtration, reabsorption in the cortex, in the medulla & renal pelvis.
         Describe pathway of urine from kidney to urethra

H3.4.7   Carbon Dioxide                                                                                H     G/Lines pg 64
         Explain how CO2 is a controlling factor in stomata & breathing sys                                  C:Carbon Diox on Gas Exch(U3SM)

H3.4.8   Nephron                                                                                       H     G/Lines pg 64
         Outline the structure & associated blood supply & draw a diagram.
         Explain urine formation, including: Bowman's capsule/glomerulus/                                    Syll p36
         proximal convol tubule/Loop of Henle/distal convol
         tubule/pelvis/bladder
         Outline the sites & action of reabsorbing glucose/amino acids/salts/water
         State that reabsorbing water occurs in the collecting duct & is under the influence of ADH.
                      UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM
                      3.5 RESPONSE TO STIMULI
REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                            Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.5.1     Structures for Responses                                                         O&H       G/Lines pg 65
                      Outline the Chemical or Hormonal Sys/Nerves/Sense organs/
                      Skeletal/Muscular/Immune

            3.5.2     Responses in Flowering Plants                                                    O&H       G/Lines pg 65-66
                      Explain the term: growth regulation.
                      Define the following terms: tropisms, phototropism, geotropism/
                      thigmatropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism.
                      Name examples of phototropism & geotropism.
                      Define the term: growth regulator.
                      Outline the transport of regulators via the vascular system.
                      Explain the term: Combined Effect
                      Explain the term: Growth Promoter.
                      Explain the term: Growth Inhibitor
                      Name 4 methods of anatomical/chemical adaptations that protect plants.
                      State 2 examples of the use of plant regulators.

            3.5.3     Responses in Humans                                                              O&H       G/Lines pg 66-71
                      Outline the nervous system components: CNS & PNS                                           C:Body SysFolder(U3SM)
                      Outline the structure & function of the neuron including:                                  C:Control Grwth in Humans.U#SM)
                      axon, myelin sheath, Schwann cell, neurotransmitter vesicles & synaptic cleft.             C:Parkinsons Disease.U3SM
Outline impulse movement & synapse.                                                                        C:Responses Hormone.U3SM
Explain activation & inactivation of neurotransmitter.
Explain the role & position of 3 types of neurons: sensory/motor/inter
Outline the senses with the brain as an interpreting centre.
Explain the senses with a study of the ear and eye.
Outline corrective measures for short/long sightedness or hearing.
Outline the CNS, brain & spinal cord.
State location & function of cerebrum/hypothalamus/pituitary gland/cerebellum/medulla oblongata
Label &/or draw diagrams of spinal cord(X section) indicating white matter, gray matter, central canal,
3 layer protective tissue-meninges. Dorsal & ventral roots of the spinal cord.
Outline disorders from NS disorders: paralysis/Parkinson's including:
Cause/Prevention/Treatment
Outline PNS including the location nerve fibres & cell bodies.
State the role, structure & mechanism of the Reflex arc.
Define the term: hormone.
Outline the Endocrine System.
Compare nerve action, distinguishing between exocrine & endocrine glands.
State the location of the principal glands in the human.
Outline for each gland, one hormone & its' function.
Explain 1 Hormone giving a description of its deficiency symptoms, excess symptoms & corrective measures.
Name 2 examples of hormone supplements & their use.
Describe the structure & function of the muscoskeletal system.
Name components of axial skeleton as: (skull/vert/ribs/sternum)
State the position & function of discs in vertebrae.
State the components of the appendicular skeleton: pectoral/pelvic girdle & limbs
Outline the macroscopic anatomy of a long bone including: medullary cavity, compact bone, spongy bone and cartilage.
State the function of the following: cartilage/compact bone/spongy bone-including red & yellow marrows).
Classify, locate & state the function of joint types:
(Immovable/slightly/free-moving/synovial)
Outline disorders from: arthritis/osteoporosis, include
Cause/Prevention/Treatment
Outline the role of cartilage & ligaments.
Outline the role of tendons.
Outline the general relation of muscle to skeleton.
State an example of an antagonistic pair of muscles.
Outline the Defence System including skin/mucous membranes
            of breathing,repro,digest.
            Outline the nature & role of phagocytic white blood cells.
            Outline the Specific Defence System, including antigen/antibody response
            Define the term: Induced Immunity
            Explain the terms: Vaccination & Immunisation

3.5.4       Viruses                                                                                              O&H   G/Lines pg 71
            Identify the problem of definition.
            State that there is a variety of shapes.
            Outline the basic structure of viruses.
            Explain the process of viral reproduction.
            State 2 harmful, 1 beneficial example of viruses.

H3.5.5      Auxins                                                                                               H     G/Lines pg 71
            Outline a study of auxins as a plant growth regulator under the headings:
            Production Sites/Function/Effects
            Compare action of auxins to hormones.

H3.5.6      Plant Growth Regulators & Animal Hormones (Ext)                                                      H     G/Lines pg 71
            Explain the mechanism of response to 1 ext stimulus.
            Describe the feedback mechanism of 1 animal hormonal system.

H3.5.7      Human Immune System (Ext)                                                                            H     G/Lines pg 72
            Outline the role of lymphocytes(B and T cells)                                                             C:Defense Folder(U3SM)
            Explain the role of B cells in antibody production & T cells as helpers/killers/suppressors/memory

H3.5.8      Growth & Development in Bones                                                                        H     G/Lines pg 72
            Explain the role of osteoblasts in bone growth & bone cell replacement.
            Explain the process of terminating development of adult height.
            Outline the process of bone renewal & the role of calcium in bone.

        3.5 Prac: Effects of I.A.A. Growth Regulators on Plants                                                  O&H   G/Lines pg 66 S.M.p103-107
                      UNIT 3: THE ORGANISM
                      3.6 REPRODUCTION & GROWTH                                                                                       C:ReproFolder.U3SM)

REGISTER/ Sub-Unit OUTCOMES                                                                                                 Options   Other Resources/G/lines
DATE               By the end of this unit students should be able to:

            3.6.1     Reproduction in Flowering Plants                                                                      O&H       G/Lines pg 73-75
                      Sexual:
                      State the structure & function of the floral parts including:(Sepal, petal,stamen,carpel) inc diag.
                      State that: Pollen grain produces male gamete.
                      State that: Embryo sac produces an egg cell & polar nuclei.
                      Define the terms: pollination, self-pollination
                      Outline methods of pollination including: cross-pollination (inc wind& animal) & self pollination.
                      Define the term: fertilisation.                                                                                 Syll p41
                      Outline seed structure & function of following: testa, plumule
                      radicle, embryo, cotyledon attachments.
                      Explain embryo & food supply (endosperm or seed leaves)
                      Classify plants as monocotyledon or dicotyledon & distinguish between them.
                      Make reference to non-endospermic seed.
                      Outline fruit formation.
                      Outline seedless fruit production by genetic variety of plants & growth regulators.
                      Outline fruit & seed dispersal with examples of wind/water/animal/self
                      Explain & emphasise the need for dispersal
                      Define the term: dormancy.
                      State advantages of dormancy.
                      Explain dormancy in agricultural & horticultural practice.
                      Define the term: Germination.
                      Explain the factors necessary, role of digestion and respiration in germination.
                      Outline the stages of seed development
                      State that vegetative propagation is asexual reproduction.
         Name 1 example of vegetative propagation from stem, root, leaf, bud.
         Compare reproduction by seed and by vegetative reproduction.
         Outline 4 methods of artificial propagation in flowering plants.

3.6.2    Sexual Reproduction in Humans                                                                           O&H   G/Lines pg 76-77
         Outline the general structure of the reproductive system (Male & Female).
         State the functions of the main parts of the reproductive system.
         Outline the role of meiosis to produce sperm & ova (egg) cells.
         Define the term: secondary sexual characteristics.
         Outline the role of oestrogen, progesterone & testosterone.
         Outline the menstrual cycle: events & outline the role of oestrogen and progesterone.
         Explain copulation.
         Outline the nature of birth control including natural, mechanical, chemical and surgical methods.
         State the location of fertilisation.
         Outline infertility.
         State 1 cause of male infertility from: low sperm count, low sperm mobility, endocrine gland failure.
         State the availability of corrective measures.
         State 1 cause female infertility including; fallopian tube blockage, endocrine gland failure.
         State the availability of corrective measures.
         Explain implantation, placenta formation & function.
         Outline the birth process.
         Explain In-vitro fertilisation & implantation.
         Outline milk production & breastfeeding including biological benefits.

H3.6.3   Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Ext)                                                           H     G/Lines pg 78
         Outline pollen grain development from microspore mother cells including:
         Meiotic division, mitotic division, generative & tube nuclei production, formation of pollen grains.
         Outline embryonic sac development including: megaspore mother cell,
         meiotic division, cell disintegration, mitotic division in the production of 8 cells
         of embryo sac, one of which is the egg cell.

H3.6.4   Human Embryo Development (Ext)                                                                          H     G/Lines pg 78
         Outline the sequence of development from fertilised egg, morula, blastocyst, existence of
         amnion, placenta formation from embryonic & uterine tissue.
         Explain the term: germ layer.
         Name the 3 germ layers & the associated organs/systems developed.
         Outline the development of the embryo up to third month.


H3.6.5   Sexual Reproduction in Humans (Ext)                                      H     G/Lines pg 79
         Detailed study of the menstrual cycle & hormonal control
         Outline 1 menstrual disorders from: endometriosis or fibroids. Examine
         Cause/Prevention/Treatment

     3.6 Prac: Effects of water, oxygen and temperature on Germination            O&H   G/Lines pg 75 S.M. p108-110

     3.6 Prac: Use Starch agar to Show Digestive Activity during Germination      O&H   G/Lines pg 75 S.M. p111-115

				
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Description: Disorders Associated with the Excretory System document sample