EnviroWorks - Putting policy into practice

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					                                   Biannual Environmental Newsletter of the City of Cape Town
THIS CITY WORKS FOR YOU            Published by the City of Cape Town Environmental Resource Management Department, in               Volume 2/08
                                   partnership with City Transport, Spatial Development, Solid Waste, Town Planning and Parks.     December 2008




Putting policy
into practice
Local government has many excellent environmental policies and
strategies, but without a firm commitment to implementation,
these have little value – and sustainability is a mere pipe dream
… Hence the ‘new’ Integrated Metropolitan Environmental
                                                                                                                     See page 32
Policy (IMEP), which instead of being a freestanding policy, will
be integrated with every City function.
                                                                                                       Contents
C
          ape Town has its own social,          the city use financial incentives and
          economic and environmental            disincentives to drive environmental
                                                                                                          1–2 Putting policy into practice
          challenges, and sustainable           behaviour change, and make sure that those
development in our unique context means         who deplete resources pay for doing so.                      2 Message from Councillor
development that delivers environmental,                                                                       Marian Nieuwoudt
social and economic services to all in
a balanced manner, without threatening
                                                Cape Town in the long term                                   3 Message from Piet van Zyl
the viability of the natural, built and         We can talk about sustainability, write                        Message from Osman
social systems upon which these                 about sustainability and even believe that                     Asmal
services depend.                                we set an example of sustainability, but                  4–5 News and staff
     This is why the Department of Envi-        researchers note that unless the metro
ronmental Resource Management (ERM)             includes the following in its long-term                   6–7 Local Action for
has recommended a new City of Cape              development strategy, our city will never                     Biodiversity (LAB)
Town environmental agenda, under which          actually be sustainable …
                                                                                                             8 Urban spatial planning
all relevant and appropriate existing           •	 Clearly defined development parameters
policies and by-laws are to be amended          •	 Focus on city densification as opposed                    9 Environmental
to incorporate environmental principles,            to urban sprawl                                            Management Systems
goals and issues. Core elements of the          •	 Priority attention to transport and
                                                                                                       10–11 Transport
environmental agenda are also to be                 accessibility
incorporated into the City’s Five-Year Plan     •	 A radical shift away from ‘business as                   12 Solid waste
(IDP), City scorecards, key performance             usual’
                                                                                                            13 Air quality
indicators and annual budgets.                  •	 Protect and manage ecologically healthy
     ERM has also recommended that                  and functional open spaces             >           14–19 Environmental education
                                                                                                            20 Event greening
                                                                                                            21 Sustainable livelihoods
                                                                                                       22–25 Biodiversity
                                                                                                       26–27 City greening
                                                                                                       28–30 Energy and climate change
                                                                                                            31 What’s new on our website
Cape Town’s natural heritage is more likely to be preserved, thanks to the                                  32 New publications
City’s new environmental agenda, which ensures that all policies and by-laws
incorporate environmental principles, goals and issues.



                                                                                                                                              1
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




•	 Integrate the Biodiversity Network with long-term City                       Always keeping IMEP in mind
   development plans                                                            Instead of IMEP being a free-standing and independent environmental
•	 Provide quality open spaces and build communities                            policy, every City policy, proposal or report will now need to comply with
•	 Focus on corridors and connectivity                                          IMEP principles. Every report tabled to Council or relevant portfolio com-
                                                                                mittees will carry an IMEP compliance table (shown below).



    Does your report result in any of the following (tick if yes):

    Loss of or negative impact on natural space and/or natural              Loss of or negative impact on the city’s heritage, cultural and
    vegetation, rivers, vleis or wetlands?                                  scenic resources?
    An increase in waste production or concentration, pollution or          Development or any construction within 500 m of the coastline?
    water usage?

    Does your activity comply with the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA)?

     Yes                            No

    Does your report complement and support the City’s approved IMEP strategies (tick if yes)?

    Biodiversity Strategy and Biodiversity
    Network
                                                   Coastal Zone Management Strategy                Energy and Climate Change Strategy       
    Environmental Education and Training
    Strategy
                                                   Heritage Management Strategy                    Air Quality Management Plan

    Integrated Waste Management Strategy            Invasive Species Strategy


    Do the activities/actions arising from your report:

    Enhance Cape Town’s unique environmental assets?                       Negatively impact on Cape Town’s unique environmental assets?




                                  MESSAGE FROM COUNCILLOR MARIAN NIEUWOUDT



                                  D
                                             uring these past few months, Cape Town has stepped up its focus on building a greener city.
                                             Not only greener in terms of renewable energy and energy efficiency (see page 28), but also
                                             greener in the more ‘traditional’ sense – trees!

                                  As part of Arbor Month, we have planted more than 700 trees, and by the time the Soccer World Cup
                                  kicks off, we will have planted at least 2010 trees.

                                Greening is not simply about making our city and our communities look better for beauty’s sake. A city
    filled with indigenous trees absorbs more greenhouse gases, encourages us to feel pride in our unique biodiversity, provides bet-
    ter public open spaces and therefore better neighbourhoods and communities, and offers an outlet for recreation and relaxation
    – creating the kind of city we all want to live in.

    Of course renewable energy and energy efficiency are also particularly important, which is why as a City we’re proud of our
    Smart Living guide (see page 19). We have updated this handbook during the last few months, and look forward to seeing more
    residents and visitors live the ‘smart’ way as we build a sustainable future together.

    With best wishes




    Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt
    Mayoral Committee Member: Planning and Environment




2
MESSAGE FROM PIET VAN ZYL


                          O
                                     ur directorate, together with the rest of the City, is particularly proud that Cape Town was recently
                                     named as a ‘2020 Global Sustainability Center’ by the Ethisphere Institute. The Ethisphere Institute,
                                     based in New York City, recognises the cities that plan for sustainable growth of their population and
                          economy, while considering the environment and future generations. Hundreds of cities were considered, and
                          this is a tremendous honour for Cape Town.
                              Global Sustainability Centres are large, international cities that have demonstrated a strong, dedicated com-
                          mitment to long-term sustainability without sacrificing economic potential and quality of life.
                              The other top ten cities are Toronto, Hyderabad, Singapore, Abu Dhabi, New York, London, Frankfurt,
                          Curtiba and Melbourne.
                              The Ethisphere Institute, which is dedicated to the research and promotion of profitable best practices in
governance, business ethics, compliance and corporate social responsibility, says the cities were chosen because they are large, cosmopoli-
tan and economically significant centres that are preparing for the future, today.
    To determine which cities qualified, the Institute considered several factors including economies and populations – qualifying cities had
to have a population over 600 000. Cultural activities, universities and international acclaim were also taken into account to make sure
the global sustainable centres were relevant and significant around the world.
    They also needed a plan in place to shift to an environmentally sustainable path so that by 2020 they will be sustainability role models.
    Cape Town has received acclaim for its energy plan to help meet the growing energy needs of the city. This includes aiming to have
10% of homes using solar power by 2020, as well as to have 10% of the city’s energy consumption coming from renewable sources in
the same timeframe. Among Cape Town’s strengths is it being a top tourist destination in the world.
    We would like to thank everyone in Cape Town, whether or not you work for the City of Cape Town, for your contribution to making
our city a place to be proud of.




Piet van Zyl
Executive Director: Strategy & Planning


                       MESSAGE FROM OSMAN ASMAL


                       S
                                  ince the last edition of Enviroworks (May 2008), the Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy (IMEP) Re-
                                  view has been approved by Council. The Policy forms the foundation for an environmental management strat-
                                  egy for the City of Cape Town and was originally adopted in 2001, with the review approved in June this year.
                               In line with Council’s commitment to IMEP, the Environmental Resource Management Department has initiated
                          working discussions with a number of City departments including Housing, Specialised Technical Services, Com-
                          munity Services and Finance. Interviews with various departments have indicated that in the past issues of the
                          environment have been poorly integrated into other Departments work. The review of IMEP will ensure that there
                          is a more holistic approach where environmental considerations are integral to City policies across all departments.
     Together with the Finance Directorate a process plan is being formalised that will define the greening of the City’s procurement process.
In partnership with the Specialised Technical Services Department, and the Health, Finance and Transport Directorates, the City has made its
first major impact in terms of ‘greening’ the procurement process. The City’s tender for large vehicles was amended to include various envi-
ronmental efficiency specifications that would result in better performing vehicles from a financial, as well as environmental perspective.
     A motivation is currently being prepared for the greening of the offices at 44 Wale Street, the head office of the Environmental Resource
Management Department. The creation of an environmentally efficient office through retrofitting and refurbishing will be in line with the com-
mitments made by the City through the IMEP Review, such as the City’s commitment to reduce its own resource consumption and improve
resource efficiencies by at least 30% within a 24 month period. The City also releases its draft Green Building Guidelines during this quarter.
     The City continues to build on work initiated around greening of the City’s office buildings and facilities and looks forward to being a
leading stakeholder through its actions.
     Best regards




Osman Asmal
Director: Environmental Resource Management



                                                                                                                                              3
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     news and staff
    CITY OF CAPE TOWN
    ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE
    MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT
                                                                          What are ERM’s
    BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT
    MANAGER: JULIA WOOD                                                     NINE STAFF MEMBERS have embarked on an Environmental Edu-
    •	 Nature	Reserve	Management
                                                                            cation (EE) Learnership, where they will learn to implement envi-
    •	 Biodiversity	Strategy	Co-ordination
    •	 Monitoring	&	Evaluation                                              ronmental learning programmes in their individual work contexts.
    •	 Protected	Area	Status                                                    Each of these staff members have changed careers, from a
    •	 Alien	Invasive	Species	Co-ordination                                 technical field to an environmental education field, and will
    Tel 021 511 2041 or e-mail julia.wood@capetown.gov.za
                                                                            benefit from the programme that enables them to make a mean-
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND HERITAGE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT                         ingful contribution to environmental change through education.
    ACTING MANAGER: CLIVE JAMES                                                 The EE Learnership, taught by WESSA (Wildlife and Environment
    •	 Environmental	Impact	Assessments
                                                                            Society of South Africa), is equivalent to a first-year university course.
    •	 Heritage	Resource	Management
    •	 Local	Heritage	Improvement	Projects                                  BELOW: Front, left to right: Lewine Walters, Esmay Swarts,
    •	 Outdoor	Advertising	and	Signage	Control                              Paul Arends, Velile Dingaan, Haricharan Ramblass, Gaynor
    •	 Environmental	Monitoring	of	EIA	and	HIA	Conditions	and	Outdoor	      Daniels, Sally Hey, Patrick Dowling; Back, left to right:
         Advertising
                                                                            Lindie Buirski, Joint Xingashe, Mlindazwe Gxakuma,
    Tel 021 400 3620 or e-mail clive.james@capetown.gov.za
                                                                            Jerome September, Sandra Hustwick, Alexander Forbes.
    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    MANAGER: KEITH WISEMAN
    •	 Environmental	Review	Coordination
    •	 Heritage	Resource	Management
    •	 Environmental	Management	Systems	&	Audit	Protocol
    •	 Environmental	Law,	Monitoring	&	Enforcement
    Tel 021 487 2283 or e-mail keith.wiseman@capetown.gov.za

    ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY AND PARTNERSHIPS
    ACTING MANAGER: GREGG OELOFSE
    •	 Environmental	Policy	&	Strategy	
    •	 Environmental	Performance	&	Information
    •	 Strategic	Co-ordination	(Poverty	Alleviation	&	Extended	Public	
                                                                          CAPE TOWN TO GET
         Works Programme)                                                 EVEN MORE BEAUTIFUL
    •	 Project	&	Partnership	Development
    •	 Coastal	Co-ordination	&	Coastal	Zone	Management                    When Cape Town looks significantly more elegant in 2010,
    •	 Strategy	Development	&	Coordination	                               it’ll be partly due to the work of intern Abigail Joustra, with
    Tel 021 487 2239 or e-mail gregg.oelofse@capetown.gov.za              Lorraine Gerrans of Green Goal 2010 (see page 18).
    CAPACITY BUILDING, ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING               Joustra was involved with the 2010 Green Goal Mouille Point
    MANAGER: VACANT
                                                                          Student Landscape Design Competition (held in January),
    •	 Environmental	Education
    •	 Training                                                           where landscape design and architecture students from the
    •	 Communication	&	Advocacy		                                         University of Cape Town and the Cape Peninsula University
    •	 Sustainable	Livelihoods                                            of Technology produced conceptual designs to landscape and
    •	 Public	Awareness                                                   furnish the Mouille Point Promenade and beachfront area.
    •	 Greening
                                                                          Joustra collected competition entries and organised the
    MAJOR PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS
                                                                          judging and awards ceremony.
    MANAGER: STEPHEN GRANGER
    •	 Table	Mountain	National	Park	Liaison/Partnership                   The winning designs will be sent to the appointed consult-
    •	 2010	World	Cup:	Environmental	Workstream/Green	Goal                ants on the Mouille Point Promenade upgrade project, for
    •	 ICLEI	(Local	Governments	for	Sustainability)	Liaison/Partnership
                                                                          incorporation into the final design.
    •	 Local	Action	for	Biodiversity
    Tel 021 487 2236 or e-mail stephen.granger@capetown.gov.za            A new 2010 project, in which Joustra was also involved, is
    RESOURCE CONSERVATION                                                 the beautification and decoration of Cape Town. “We are
    MANAGER: VACANT                                                       compiling a discussion document on the beautification and
    •	 Energy	&	Climate	Change						                                      decoration of the city for the 2010 events, and aim to identify
    •	 Clean	Development	Mechanism	                                       key areas and issues that need to be addressed,” says Jous-
    •	 Renewable	Energy	Projects
    •	 Cleaner	Production	&	Sustainable	Procurement
                                                                          tra. “This includes both infrastructure upgrades, tree planting
    Tel 021 487 2319                                                      and identifying ways to decorate the city with banners and
                                                                          other displays during the event.”




4
interns up to this year?
Chances for bikes in Cape Town                                                                                  ‘Smart
                                                                                                                living’ goes
W
             hat can we do to get more bicycle
             traffic in Cape Town? Why is so
             little being done to promote bikes
as transport – and what is the best ‘first step’
to get more commuters onto bikes?
                                                                                                                corporate
    These are some of the questions occupy-
ing the minds of ERM interns Martin Krings
                                                                                                                Although it’s true that ‘smart
and Abigail Joustra.                                                                                            living’ starts at home, it
    Krings, who is from Germany, arrived in
                                                                                                                continues at work.
Cape Town to see road congestion, air pol-



                                                                                                                M
lution, lack of access by the urban poor and                                                                                ore than 400 staff members at




                                                                                                GAIL JENNINGS
energy shortages … and wondered why one                                                                                     businesses around Cape Town
of the obvious solutions, bicycles, was being                                                                               have participated in ‘smart living’
given little attention.                                                                                         training workshops, which aim to encour-
    “The need for more extensive bike use in                                                                    age corporates to conserve resources both
Cape Town is obvious, but bikes are a rare picture in the city,” he says.                                       at home and at work.
    “The idea of our study is therefore to assess the overall chances and obstacles for                             Participating businesses were the Spur,
bicycle traffic as one of the elements of public transport in Cape Town,” he adds.                              Fairfield Tours, the Vineyard Hotel and the
    Together with Joustra he is undertaking a qualitative assessment of relevant stake-                         Handy Man. Each group received a copy of
holders’ experiences, attitudes toward, and opinions about biking in Cape Town, and will                        the SMART Living Handbook and attended
use this research as a foundation for a pilot project.                                                          workshops on changing environmental
Is Cape Town ready for a bike rental system such as the Paris Velib (above), which                              behaviour patterns.
put 20 000 bikes onto the streets almost overnight.                                                                 The City also assisted the participating
                                                                                                                businesses to develop or review their envi-
                                                                                                                ronmental policies and establish environ-
  GROWING AN ENERGY EFFICIENCY NETWORK                                                                          mental committees or forums.

  What are the chances of an energy efficiency learning network working in Cape Town?
      When intern Martin Krings is not planning to get more bikes on the road, he’s                              For more information, e-mail
  thinking about other ways in which to reduce Cape Town’s carbon footprint …                                    Grace Stead on grace@steadfast-
      Energy Efficiency Networks have been successful in Europe – where 15 to 20                                 greening.co.za.
  businesses meet regularly to share ways in which to reduce their carbon emissions.
      A local pilot project, which is gaining support from the City’s Electricity Department,
  would include the top 20 energy consumers in Cape Town and will give the energy
  efficiency network the spark it needs.




  How much paper do you use each week?
  Samornay Alkaster and Alicia Ndlovu are two interns working closely with Gregg
  Oelofse (Environmental Policy and Strategy) to conduct a resource survey within
  the City.
  The survey will eventually include water and electricity, but right now the team is
  investigating how much paper City employees use, and what for …




                                                                                                                                                            5
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




    local action for biodiversity
Cape Town pioneers next phase of
international biodiversity project




ICLEI invites local governments to join LAB
Under the auspices of ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability),   are now initiating a new phase in which many more local govern-
21 pioneer local governments from around the world – includ-          ments will benefit from cooperation, exchange, knowledge transfer,
ing Cape Town – have been participating in the urban biodiversity     the availability of guiding and training material, relations with the
project Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB).                          scientific community and targeted advocacy efforts. Cities globally
    As the three-year pioneering phase of LAB draws to a close,       are now invited to join a new LAB project starting in March 2009.
ICLEI and IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature)       LAB was pioneered in 2006 with the aim of improving




6
                                            Cape Town
                                            commits to Global
                                            Biodiversity Practise
OPPOSITE: LAB’s 21 pioneering                                                                               LEFT: Elisa Calcaterra
local governments from all corners                                                                          (IUCN Countdown 2010)
of the globe.                                                                                               with Deputy Mayor
                                                                                                            Grant Haskins and
biodiversity management at local                                                                            Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt
government level. LAB is an ICLEI                                                                           from Cape Town after
initiative in partnership with the IUCN,                                                                    they signed the
Countdown 2010, the South African                                                                           Countdown 2010
                                                                                                            Declaration.
National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)
and RomaNatura.
     South Africa is regarded as a
biodiversity hotspot and a world leader
in planning and managing biodiversity.
Cape Town has been host to the ICLEI
Africa Secretariat, the LAB project’s
operational centre since its inception
in 2006.



                                            I
     Says Stephen Granger, Chair of the        n September, the second international         2010 and signing its declaration.
LAB Steering Committee and Manager             LAB Workshop in Durban saw the signing           The following are the five steps in the
of Major Programmes and Projects               ceremony for the Durban Commitment, a         LAB project process, which participant cities
(ERM): “LAB will raise the profile of       groundbreaking international commitment          follow:
biodiversity in cities by launching five    that forms part of the LAB project process
new biodiversity projects in each of
the 21 LAB cities by June 2009. This
                                            and which was developed and founded by
                                            the 21 pioneers themselves.
                                                                                             1   ASSESS: Prepare a Biodiversity Re-
                                                                                                 port to assess the state of biodiver-
                                                                                             sity in the city
amounts to 100 new biodiversity                 The Durban Commitment is a commit-
projects in urban areas around the
world – a substantial benefit to the
planet’s resources.”
                                            ment and model by local government, for
                                            local government and the communities they
                                            serve, to protect and enhance biodiversity at
                                                                                             2   COMMIT: High-level political com-
                                                                                                 mitment to biodiversity targets

     LAB’s goals include facilitating the
sharing of lessons (challenges, suc-
                                            the local level.
                                                It recognises that biodiversity is the       3   PLAN: Prepare a Local Biodiversity
                                                                                                 Strategy and Action Plan (LBSAP)
                                                                                             indicating priorities over 10 years
cesses, views, experiences) between         variety of life on earth on which human


                                                                                             4
local governments from around the           wellbeing is dependent, and that it provides         COMMIT: Political commitment to
world with the aim of improving             ecosystem services that underpin all of our          the LBSAP
biodiversity management; and rais-          communities’ needs.
ing the profile of biodiversity, both
within local governments (for example
by helping to make various depart-
                                                In addition, the signatories will entrench
                                            their commitment to global biodiversity by
                                            becoming a formal partner of Countdown
                                                                                             5   DO: Implementation of five new
                                                                                                 biodiversity interventions within
                                                                                             the city
ments and councillors aware of its
importance) and of local government
(for example by showcasing a local           For more information, contact Kate Berrisford, Local Action for Biodiver-
government through its achievements
                                             sity, ICLEI Africa Secretariat, on 021 487 2070, e-mail lab@iclei.org or visit
                                             www.iclei.org/lab.
in biodiversity management).




                                                                                                                                        7
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




    urban spatial planning




Dense cities = better neighbourhoods
The City is preparing a densification strategy that aims to protect our valuable natural resources and
biodiversity, as well as create a city that’s safer, has improved public transport, and offers more
housing choices for different income groups and lifestyles.



W
             e all want a city that’s efficient, safe and sustainable,   What is densification?
             and that offers high-quality public spaces and access to
                                                                         Densification simply means making more efficient use of our limited
             good public transport, services and recreation.
                                                                         urban space – in other words, finding space for more people to live and
    And this is only possible in a city that’s dense and compact.
                                                                         work in Cape Town. We can do this by sub-division and consolidation,
    Cape Town, at the moment, is quite the opposite – it has under-
                                                                         and by building townhouses, second dwellings (‘granny flats’) or second
gone fast and continuous low-density development, better known
                                                                         storeys, semi-detached houses, double-storeys, low-rise apartments and
as urban sprawl.
                                                                         where appropriate, higher-rise flats (see above).
    Urban sprawl is a threat to the long-term sustainability of Cape
Town. As a city grows outwards, good agricultural land is destroyed,
                                                                         Why do we need to densify?
along with valuable biodiversity, natural areas and scenic views.
    A sprawling city also means long travel distances to work as         •	 Density helps make better neighbourhoods.
well as places of education, recreation or other services. Public        •	 Density offers more housing choices and accommodates
transport is not viable in spread-out cities, as the population densi-      different kinds of lifestyles.
ties are too low and there are not enough potential passengers;          •	 Density makes better use of the City’s limited resources and cuts
however, because spread-out cities rely on private vehicles, there’s        infrastructure costs.
always traffic congestion and poor air quality.                          •	 Density helps protect the environment. By concentrating people in
    Cities like Cape Town, where a large proportion of the city is de-      the urban environment, natural spaces and habitats are conserved.
signed on a ‘one plot, one house’ model, don’t offer many choices        •	 Density makes neighbourhoods more safe, as there are more ‘eyes
of housing types and living environment.                                    and ears’ on the streets; criminals prefer quiet, desolate places.
                                                                         •	 Density supports more transport options, because there are
    Low-density cities seldom have a vibrant sense of neighbour-
                                                                            enough people to make public transport viable.
hood and community; they’re also less safe.
                                                                         •	 Density offers a better lifestyle for people who can’t drive, such
    And on top of it all, low-density cities are more expensive and
                                                                            as elderly, very young or disabled people.
inefficient when it comes to delivering services and providing in-
                                                                         •	 Density builds communities, with better access to schools, work,
frastructure; they waste resources and limit access to opportunities
                                                                            parks and services.
and facilities.


 For more information, contact Norah Walker on e-mail norah.walker@capetown.gov.za or visit
 www.capetown.gov.za/en/sdf.




8
    environmental management systems
To comply … or not to comply
Both compliance and non-compliance with environmental legislation has its risks, whether its
resource loss or development delays. The City’s new Environmental Management Systems and
Audit Unit is set to manage these risks.


T
       he environment of the Western Cape            with associated penalties. Yet, compliance       the service provider for the preparation of an
       is probably its greatest economic and         can result in delays and other impacts,          Aspects and Impacts Register.
       social asset, and this places a special re-   particularly where complex decisions are             ERM is implementing a number of
sponsibility on local government to preserve it.     required, objections are received from           strategic environmental projects in order to
     From economic development to tour-              affected communities, or in cases where in-      improve the City’s compliance and ensure
ism, conferencing to quality open spaces,            sufficient skills and resources are available.   the sustainability of service delivery. These
the natural environment is what makes the                Ultimately, these risks and impacts can      include the development of an Aspects and
city the special place it is.                        be managed by the establishment of an            Impacts Register for Utilities Departments
     And of course, the City’s mandate is also       Environmental Management System (EMS).           (Electricity Services; Solid Waste Services
to provide services and infrastructure on a sig-     The EMS provides the core structure by           and Water and Sanitation as a start), and
nificant scale to the citizens of Cape Town.         which	the	industry	and/or	environment	           the appointment of a service provider to
     One of the strategic goals of Cape Town         interaction is managed, and enables organi-      assist in the formulation of an Environ-
is to be a sustainable city. This shows a            sations to come to grips with the environ-       mental Compliance Strategy for capital
commitment to ensure that developments               mental obligations in a structured manner.       programmes and project planning.
meet the needs of the present generation                 In order to achieve this, the City has           The City has also identified a short-
without compromising those of the future             created the position of Head: Environmental      age of EMS and audit skills among its own
generation – which is why the City must              Management Systems and Audit. Funding            staff, and is providing training to Water and
always act or conduct its business in a way          from National Treasury has been obtained         Sanitation, Solid Waste, Electricity and ERM
that complies with environmental legislation         for the development of a broader Environ-        staff. This will form an important milestone
(e.g. our Bill of Rights as well as the National     mental Compliance Strategy, and includes         in the development of the City’s Environ-
Environmental Management Act (NEMA)                  funding for the training of City staff in        mental Compliance Strategy.
and local by-laws).                                  relevant aspects of environmental legislation
                                                                                                      BELOW: Our built and natural
     Non-compliance with environmental               and compliance, including environmental          environments are the city’s greatest
legislation, procedures and guidelines can           auditing and Environmental Management            assets, and it is local government’s
result in significant impacts and liabilities,       Systems (EMS). The City has also appointed       duty to care for them.




 For more information, contact Linda Ndlela, Head: Environmental Management Systems and Audit, on
 021 487 2840, or e-mail Linda.Ndlela@capetown.gov.za.




         9                                                                                                                                        9
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     TransporT

Cape Town to implement
Integrated Rapid Transit System




I
   n August 2008, the City of Cape Town         an extension up the Atlantis Corridor to in-      in the Peninsula, many thousands also
   approved the initial phase of an ambi-       clude the communities of Mamre, Atlantis,         travel by bus and minibus taxi.
   tious integrated rapid transit system that   Doornbach and Du Noon.                                The disadvantages of the current public
will change the face of public transport.           This will be expanded in the full Phase       transport services are:
    The decision was prompted by the            1 to include Century City and Montagu             •	 They are concentrated in the morning
recognition that the current fragmented         Gardens and four more links from the                 and afternoon peak hours, with limited
and unplanned public transport services are     airport to areas such as Bellville, Strand, the      services during the day or late in the
unsustainable – creating daily hardship for     southern suburbs and Table View                      evening.
thousands of residents, especially poorer       via Century City.                                 •	 There are no scheduled services and
communities living far from the centre of           After building on the requirements for           there is no integrated ticketing system
economic activity, and hampering economic       2010, the priority will be to link the densely       between the various modes.
growth and development.                         populated Metro Southeast, which includes         •	 There are major safety issues, with
    As a host city for the 2010 FIFA            Mitchells Plain and Khayelitsha, to destina-         especially women and children feel-
World CupTM, Cape Town has contractual          tions across the Peninsula.                          ing vulnerable when they use public
obligations to meet in terms of transport.          Within a period of 10 to 12 years, the           transport.
Funding made available to cities for this       City’s vision is to establish an integrated       •	 Regulation and law enforcement are
event will be used to fund the initial phase    rapid transit network across the city that           inadequate.
of the system to ensure a lasting legacy        will place over 75% of the population             •	 There is no integrated planning of
for Cape Town commuters from the major          within 500 m of a high-quality public                public transport services.
investment in infrastructure ahead of the       transport system.
World Cup.                                                                                        Part of this transformation process is to draw
    The initial phase of the transport system                                                     lessons from successful examples in countries
includes a service between the Cape Town
                                                Why the need for change?
CBD and the airport, throughout the inner       In Cape Town a large percentage of the            ABOVE: Unlike the current bus system,
city and surrounding areas, and through         population relies on public transport. While      the rapid transit vehicles will be articu-
to the Green Point Stadium precinct, with       rail is the backbone of commuter transport        lated, and operate in dedicated lanes.




10
                                                       Bike-commuter lanes
                                                       proposed alongside
in South America and Asia, and increasingly in
                                                       BRT route
North America and Europe, for Bus Rapid
Transit Systems. Cape Town is one of four South



                                                       T
African cities implementing these road-based                   he City of Cape Town is to build a route between Cape Town Station and
systems that prioritise public over private                    Milnerton that is dedicated to public transport as well as bicycles.
vehicles and offer commuters a fast, modern,                       The proposed route forms part of the City’s vision for improving the travel
comfortable, safe and affordable way to                times and safety of public transport passengers and cyclists, especially on heavily
move around the city.                                  congested routes.
    Finally, growing congestion on roads and               It is expected that this will save 10 to 15 minutes travel time during peak periods
concerns around air quality and long-term              for public transport passengers, and will provide cyclists with a safe route.
sustainability mean that change is inevitable              The proposed public transport route (busway) and bicycle way will run between
if our cities are to meet the needs of residents       Cape	Town	railway	station	and	the	R27/Milner	Road	intersection	in	Paarden	Eiland.
in the coming decades.                                     The location of the bus way and cycle way together with landscaping in the dis-
                                                       used rail siding through Paarden Eiland will also result in an attractive environmental
                                                       improvement of this area.
What is Bus Rapid Transit?                                 The City is also planning to construct cycle lanes on Koeberg Road and the R27
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-quality              as far as Blaauwberg Road and beyond. It is estimated that 5 000 public transport
bus-based transit system that delivers fast,           passengers per hour in the peak direction would immediately benefit from these
comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility          improvements during peak periods, and it is hoped that the demand for public
with segregated right-of-way infrastructure,           transport, rather than for private car travel, will increase in future.
rapid and frequent operations, and excellence
in marketing and customer service.
     BRT has virtually all the performance and
comfort of a modern rail-based transit system,
                                                       RIGHT: In early 2008, consultants,
but at a fraction of the cost – typically four to
                                                       including highly respected inter-
20 times less than a tram or light rail transit sys-   national experts with experience
tem and ten to 100 times less than a rail system.      in delivering BRT systems, were
     The BRT was successfully implemented in           contracted to develop the opera-
Latin American cities, such as Curitiba, Bogotá        tional and business plans for the
and Sao Paulo, and now there are similar sys-          Cape Town system.
tems in Brisbane, Los Angeles, Ottawa, Rouen,          Two of these experts were
Beijing, Delhi, Jakarta, Nagoya and Taipei.            Enrique Peñalosa (left), econo-
     The most defining feature of BRT is its focus     mist and former Mayor of Bo-
on customer service. Dedicated median busways          gotá, Colombia; and Oscar
provide customers with dramatically reduced            Edmundo Diaz (back), Institute
travel times. Because the vehicles move quickly        for Transport Development
in peak hour, more people are encouraged to            Policy pictured here with Gail
                                                       Jennings (right), Enviroworks.
switch from private car-use to public transport,
                                                       While mayor, Peñalosa promot-
which makes the whole system far more viable.
                                                       ed a city model giving priority
     The dedicated lanes also reduce operating
                                                       to children and public spaces
costs so that fares are quite affordable. Special      and restricting private car use,
attention is also given to safety and security         building hundreds of kilometres
through the presence of security personnel             of pavements, bicycle paths,
and the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV)        pedestrian streets, greenways
cameras.                                               and parks.




                                                                                                                                          11
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




   solid waste
Turn your waste into worth
In Cape Town, there’s no such thing as waste. For almost any item
you throw away, there’s someone else waiting to use it. And now
all you need to do is to register on www.capetown.gov.za/iwex
and find out who wants what.


T
        he City of Cape Town has launched a new, free online system for waste generators
        and waste users to exchange waste.
            IWEX (Integrated Waste Exchange) is available to businesses, individuals, institu-        WHY USE IWEX?
tions, schools, NGOs or community groups – anyone and everyone, in fact.                              •	 IWEX can turn your fixed costs
    Operating on the principle that ‘one person’s garbage is another person’s gold’, IWEX                for waste storage, transport
facilitates the re-use of waste, thereby conserving energy, minimising resource use and                  and disposal, into savings.
reducing the pressure on landfill space.                                                              •	 IWEX can give your company a
    More than 80% of the waste we currently generate in Cape Town goes to landfill, so its               competitive edge in the
potential economic value can never be realised. From July 2006 to June 2007, Cape Town                   sustainable use of resources.
disposed of 2,8 million tons of waste, and this figure is increasing by more than 6% per              •	 IWEX can unlock a market for
year!                                                                                                    your unwanted materials.
    The City of Cape Town has only three landfill sites still in operation – Vissershok, Coastal      •	 IWEX can uncover a supplier
Park and Bellville South. These are filling up fast, with two of them having only enough                 of materials who offers the
space for another ten years or less.                                                                     perfect input material for your
    A new regional landfill site is planned for the City of Cape Town, but this will be situ-            business, at a competitive price,
                                                                                                         lowering raw material or input
ated over 40 km further away than the current sites, considerably increasing the costs to
                                                                                                         costs.
dispose of the waste. In addition, when we send waste to landfill, we can end up contami-
nating groundwater and the natural environment.                                                       •	 IWEX can improve your com-
                                                                                                         pany’s environmental and social
    IWEX is an efficient, cost-effective way to avoid these environmental impacts and
                                                                                                         responsibility image.
increased costs by conserving energy, minimising resource use and reducing the need for
landfill space.


SOME OF THE TYPES OF WASTE THAT ARE AvAiLABLE ON iWEX
Acids                             Metal sludges
                                                                                       The IWEX Catalogue
Alkalis                           Metals                                               Once you have logged onto the IWEX site, you’ll be able
Batteries                         Motor oils/greases
                                                                                       to click on a specific type of wanted material to see if
Builder’s rubble                  Oils and waxes – food and other
                                                                                       someone wants the specific material you have to offer.
Carpets                           Paints/coatings
                                                                                       Once you have found the customer for your specific
Cartridges                        Paper/cardboard
                                                                                       material in the catalogue, you’ll be able to get the con-
                                  Pesticides/herbicides/agricultural
Chemicals                                                                              tact details of the customer.
                                  chemicals
Compostable wastes                Pharmaceutical wastes                                     In the table on the left are examples of the types of
                                  Plastics/composite packaging                         ‘waste’ available for exchange. All you need to do is to
Computers/electronics (e-waste)
                                  (e.g. Tetrapak)                                      register, and ‘advertise’ your unwanted ‘waste’ or list
Dyes/Inks                         Solvents                                             the waste materials you would like to obtain. The waste
Fluorescent tubes/CFLs            Textiles/leather                                     is then posted onto the IWEX Catalogue, which is
Furniture                         Tyres/rubber                                         updated daily. Available waste must be based in Cape
Glass                             White goods (e.g. stoves, fridges, etc.)             Town, although waste collectors may be from any
Industrial/other equipment        Wood                                                 part of the country.




 For more information on IWEX, contact Dorah Mulidzi on 021 400 4529 or e-mail iwex.administrator@capetown.gov.za




12
   air quality

Air pollution feels the sting
in Cape Town
Residents can breathe more easily since the
                                                                             “Good morning Cape Town! You’re listening to Good
addition of seven new ‘Green Scorpions’ to the                               Hope FM …
City Health team.                                                            “It is time to rise and shine. It’s cold outside, and the
                                                                             brown haze hasn’t budged at all! That’s 24 consecutive



S
       ix members of the City’s Specialised Health Services (Air             days of smog. At this rate we will break last year’s record
       Quality) and one member of the Noise Control Unit attended            – 167 days with pollution exceeding internationally
       a three-week Environmental Management Inspectorate (EMI)              accepted levels …”
certificate course at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology
recently. The course was presented by various lecturers under the
auspices of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
     The EMI is a network of environmental enforcement offi-
cials sourced from different government departments (national,
provincial or municipal). The inspectorate, known as the ‘Green
Scorpions’, was created in terms of the National Environmental
Management Act, No 107 of 1998 (NEMA).
     EMIs must monitor compliance with and enforce the specific
environmental legislation they have been mandated to enforce in
their designations by the Minister or relevant provincial Member of
                                                                             City Health’s Air quality Management Unit has produced
the Executive Council (MEC). The EMIs will be able to perform their
                                                                             a DVD for high schools, businesses and anyone who’s
duties once they have been appointed by the MEC, which is likely
                                                                             interested, about the causes of poor air quality in Cape
to be in mid 2009.
                                                                             Town, what the City is doing about it, and how we can
     “We as municipal officials will have to be appointed by the MEC
                                                                             all help …
and not by the Minister of Environmental Affairs,” says Dave Arnott
                                                                             The DVD is narrated by DJ Suga from Good Hope FM,
of the City’s Air Quality Unit. “Should we be successful in obtaining
                                                                             Ravi Pillay, Manager: Air quality, Specialised Health
the certificate, we will be empowered to enforce any authorisation
                                                                             Services, and Cllr James Vos.
issued under the mandated legislation, including permits, licences
(listed activities) and EIA authorisations (records of decision pertain-
ing to air quality).”                                                      compliance, and siezing of evidence), investigation (inspection
     The ‘Green Scorpions’ have a range of powers that may be              and/or	removal	of	articles	or	substances),	and	enforcement	(search	
used in routine inspections (such as entering premises to ascertain        and seizure of premises, containers, vessels and vehicles).




 5
                                                                               “With the establishment of the EMI, we as environmental
                                                                           enforcement officials will for the first time be part of a national
              THINGS YOU CAN DO                                            network sharing intelligence and experience, and will have stand-
              TO IMPROVE AIR qUALITY                                       ardised training and procedures,” says Arnott.
              Reduce, re-use, recycle                                          “Being part of the national EMI network, we will break through
              Buy local produce                                            the traditional barriers of separation between various levels of gov-
                                                                           ernment and government institutions, as we are charged with the
              Walk, cycle or take public transport
                                                                           protection of different aspects of the environment.
              Be energy efficient                                              “This may include involvement and interaction with park rang-
              Keep your car in good working order                          ers; air quality officers; and marine, coastal enforcement, pollution
                                                                           and waste enforcement officials.



 For more information, contact Niel Rossouw on 021 590 1419 or e-mail niel.rossouw@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                            13
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     environmental education
YES Programme celebrates
10th anniversary on
World Environment Day

                                                                                                   YES has traditionally been a week-
                                                                                              long event held at a central venue during
                                                                                              World Environment Week in June, but in
                                                                                              late 2007 it expanded to a year-long pro-
                                                                                              gramme that takes place across the whole
                                                                                              city.
                                                                                                   The YES team from ERM works with
                                                                                              a wide range of partners (more than
                                                                                              130 organisations) to present interactive,
                                                                                              curriculum-based lessons and activities
                                                                                              to learners.
                                                                                                   YES focuses on all aspects of sustain-



T
       he hugely successful Youth Environ-   held at the River Club in Observatory,           able development by linking themes to
       mental School (YES) Programme,        where the very first YES programme was           major commemorative days and weeks.
       which started in 1999 with 2 000      hosted as part of the Cape Metropolitan          Key themes are wetlands, air quality, water
learners, has increased its reach to more    Festival of the Environment in 1999.             and sanitation, waste, GIS, biodiversity, en-
than 60 000 learners in the decade since         YES is an ongoing, extensive, inte-          ergy and climate change, heritage, tourism,
its inception.                               grated youth capacity-building programme,        marine and coastal management, sustain-
     And if there’s any doubt about its      achieving the goals of environmental             able transport, and HIV and Aids.
extraordinary success, simply page through   education and awareness through a variety
this issue of Enviroworks to learn more      of projects, activities, resources and oppor-
about its programmes and projects.           tunities. YES is open to all schools (learners
     The 10th anniversary celebration was    and educators) in Cape Town.

ABOVE: Representatives from various organisations recognised for their out-
standing contribution to environmental education were (back, from left) Weston
Barwise, Debra Michaels, Ally Ashwell, Lucille Boonzaaier, Rene Simpson, Daphne
Kayster, Irene Toerien, Pakama Matotie, Lindie Buirski, (front, from left) Brian
Foster, Thembi Nomkala, Dawn Glover, Andreas Groenewald, Anton Fortuin, Nikki
Hoal and Andrea Gordon.
RIGHT: Lindie Buirski (centre) was presented with an award for her inspiration and
dedication to the YES Programme since its inception. With her are Daphne Kayster
(Metrorail) and Esmay Swart (YES team).


 For more information about the YES Programme, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building,
 Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail lindie.buirski@capetown.gov.za.




14
Cape Town youth take                                                                            The modern Ms Cape Town’s a saver
                                                                                                She makes sure that nothing is lost

charge of their future                                                                          She gets off her arse,
                                                                                                Saves all paper and glass
                                                                                                And turns kitchen waste into compost!
At the City’s third Youth Conference on Sustainable Development
                                                                                                 MONDALE HigH SCHOOL:
in August, learners from secondary schools in Cape Town made                                     `BECOMiNg A RECYCLiNg HOME’
recommendations on the power of choice and how to start living smartly.

                                                                         at the school have been centralised to form one more efficient
                                                                         kitchen, and the swimming pool is solar heated. The learners
                                                                         have also reduced their use of paper through an online syllabus
                                                                         and electronic work.
                                                                              Macassar High School learners are concerned about the sand-
                                                                         mining activities in their neighbourhood, which contribute to loss
                                                                         of biodiversity. There is no rehabilitation, no monitoring, and illegal
                                                                         selling of topsoil, the learners say, so they have implemented and
                                                                         monitored a rehabilitation project at the Mac Sand Mining site. In
                                                                         particular, they are monitoring the indicator species of Pelargoniums



T
       he conference, with the theme of ‘Smart Living’, focused not      (wilde malva), Helicharysum (kooigoed), Chrysanthemoides monil-
       on the negative impact of our lifestyles, but instead promoted    ifera (bitou), Carpo Brotus Spp (sour fig), Condropelatium tectorum
       positive actions that support sustainable living.                 (thatching	reed/restio/dektriet),	and	P. rigida (gonnabos).
    The schools presented solution-oriented projects based on the             Mondale High School conducted a waste audit among 120
Smart Living themes of water, energy, waste and biodiversity, using      households in Portland, Mitchells Plain, with an excellent response
posters and or presentations.                                            from 85 households. They have subsequently raised awareness
    Opening the conference, Cllr Grant Haskin, Deputy Mayor of           about the recycling of organic household waste through compost-
the City of Cape Town, said he hoped schools would “use the              ing, worm gardens and organic vegetable gardening – and came up
conference as a platform to share their ideas and initiatives, address   with the ‘inspiring’ limerick above. Read it and you’ll never forget
their concerns, and take responsibility for their lifestyles, so that    to recycle again.
there is a future for the generation that will follow”.                       The Youth Conference is part of the City’s commitment to the
    Some of these ideas and initiatives included Bishops’ plan to        United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
set up a car-pool system for parents; using a GPS to map routes;         (2005-2014) and falls under the banner of the City’s YES Programme.
and the use of solar laptop chargers. Already the four kitchens


 SIX PROJECTS WERE PRESENTED
 AT THE CONFERENCE:
 Bishops Diocesan College: Going for Green – energy
 consumption at Bishops
 Somerset College: Rehabilitation of the school dam and river
 Mondale High School (pictured right): ‘Becoming a
 recycling home’
 Macassar High School: Loss of Biodiversity in the
 Macassar Sand Dunes as a result of sand mining
 Bishops Diocesan College: What a Waste – a recycling journey            ABOVE: Maarten de Wit from UCT handing the African Cor-
                                                                         ridors Game to Monique Peterson, Joretha Houlies, Navelle
 Mpetha High School (pictured above): Oscar Mpetha
                                                                         Abrahams and Garreth le Roux from Mondale High School
 Energy Murals
                                                                         and Lindie Buirski from the City of Cape Town.


 For more information, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit,
 on 021 487 2839 or e-mail lindie.buirski@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                           15
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




   environmental education
                                       ‘SMART LiviNg’ YES
                                       DRAMA FESTivAL 2008

                                           T
                                                 his winter, learners from 11 schools      resources. And never before has sustain-
                                                 took the stage with dramatic stories      able living looked so stylish, so glamor-
                                                 to tell about waste management,           ous, and so possible.
                                           water conservation, energy efficiency and           In preparation for this festival, schools
                                           biodiversity conservation at the City’s first   attended creative workshops at the Art-
                                           ever YES Drama Festival.                        scape Theatre Complex on script-writing,
                                               Held in the Arena Theatre at the            acting and technical stage skills.
                                           Artscape Theatre Complex, the environ-              The Smart Living Handbook was used
                                           mental drama festival was designed to           as a resource for the schools to develop
                                           explore the messages in the Smart Living        their scripts and explore solutions to envi-
                                           Handbook, which encourages people to            ronmental challenges particularly relevant
                                           live smartly and sustainably by making          to the community in which they live and
                                           wise choices about their environment and        go to school. Schools were asked to focus




ABOVE: Learners from Scottsdene High were awarded Most Promising Production at the Yes Drama Festival with their play,
‘Cholera...not gorilla!’ They were also the winners of the Best Novice award at the Artscape High Schools Drama Festival with
this play. OPPOSITE TOP: ‘Biodiversity’ by learners from Malibu High. Benefit Gaabusi (left) won the Best Performer award.
OPPOSITE BOTTOM: Cllr Marian Nieuwoudt with the winners.




16
   AND THE WINNERS WERE …

   Most Promising Production – Scottsdene High

   Best Supporting Performer – Yandisa Magagana
   (Simanyene)

   Best Performer (joint award) – Benefit Gaabusi (Malibu
   High) and Nonceba quku (Isilimela)

   Best Script – St Cyprian’s

   Judges Award – Table View in recognition of a script
   that explored the environmental issues particularly
   well

   Best Production – Immaculata

   The following two schools were chosen to join the
   Artscape High Schools Festival – St Cyprian’s and
   Scottsdene (Immaculata was already entered)

   The following two schools were chosen to perform at the
   Youth Conference on Sustainability – Malibu High and
   Chris Hani

    The judges asked that Islamia College receive a spe-
    cial letter congratulating them on their efforts and
     commitment.



on one of the four themes presented in
the handbook.
    The 11 participating schools (by invita-
tion only) were Chris Hani Secondary,
Immaculata (RC) Secondary, Isilimela Com-
prehensive, Islamia College, Malibu High,
Rhodes High, Scottsdene High, Simanyene
High, St Cyprian’s, Table View High and
Tuscany Glen High.
    The five judges were Abduraghmaan
Adams, a theatre and film actor, playwright,
director and drama educator; Ina Bruce,
Curriculum Advisor for the subject Dramatic
Arts at the Western Cape Education Depart-
ment; Luke Ellenbogen, resident director
and lighting designer for Theatre for Africa;
Dr Glenda Raven of the C.A.P.E. Bioregional
Programme, an environmental educationist
and trainer; and Mzwakhe ‘Sticks’ Mdidimba,
the Indigenous Arts Manager for Artscape.


 For more information, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building, Training & Education Unit,
 on 021 487 2839 or e-mail lindie.buirski@capetown.gov.za.
 For more information on the YES Programme and to download a copy of the Smart Living Handbook, visit
 www.capetown.gov.za/environment.




                                                                                                              17
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




  environmental education

Putting knowledge into action
Hout Bay schools waste no time in making their planet a more beautiful place.




                                                        N
                                                                  ine schools from Llandudno and Hout Bay celebrat-
                                                                  ed World Environment Day in June by showing off
                                                                  their knowledge of the environment and sustain-
                                                        able living, and exhibiting artworks they had made with
                                                        recycled materials.
                                                             After weeks of preparation, the six primary and three
                                                        high schools put their knowledge to the test as they
                                                        competed for first place in the Sentinel Schools EnviroQuiz,
                                                        organised by the Sentinel News newspaper and the 3Rs
                                                        environmental awareness group.
                                                             Since the beginning of May, learners had been studying
                                                        the City of Cape Town’s Smart Living Handbook as well as
                                                        articles written by Hout Bay-based environmentalists, such
                                                        as Guy Preston, on topics such as sustainable living, waste
                                                        management, biodiversity and water.
                                                             Llandudno, Ambleside, Oranjekloof, Hout Bay Interna-
                                                        tional, Kronendal and Sentinel primary schools entered the
                                                        quiz. But it was Llandudno Primary that walked off with the
                                                        first prize in the junior quiz; Ambleside was the runner-up.
                                                        In the senior quiz, Hout Bay International won first; runner-
                                                        up was Hout Bay High.
                                                             Contestants in the EnviroArt competition, in which
                                                        schools were challenged to make sculptures or useful items
                                                        from waste materials, really wowed the judges, but it was
                                                        Oranjekloof’s huge plastic mural and book artwork that
                                                        won them first place in the junior art section.
                                                             They won R1 000, with joint runners-up Dominican
                                                        Grimley and Llandudno Primary each taking home R500.
                                                             Hout Bay High won first place in the senior section.
                                                             In her opening speech at the event, Chantal Erfort, the
                                                        quizmaster and Acting Editor of Cape Community newspa-
                                                        pers (which publishes Sentinel News), told the learners that
                                                        “the future of our beautiful planet depends on the knowl-
                                                        edge you arm yourself with, but more importantly, how you
                                                        put that knowledge into action”.



                                                        Top left: Hout Bay High, Sentinel High, Hout Bay
                                                        International, Ambleside, Dominican Grimley and
                                                        Llandudno schools all participated in the inaugural
                                                        Sentinel News Enviroquiz in May 2008.
                                                        Left: The Enviroquiz also promotes recycling initiatives
                                                        at school in Hout Bay, and learners exhibited art-from-
                                                        waste at the quiz evening.
                                                        SOURCE: SENTINEL NEWS, HOUT BAY PHOTOGRAPHS: QUINTON DAVIS




18
    smart living
Never too late to live smartly
Think you’re too old to learn? Too set in your habits to change your ways? This is
an extract from the Smart Living Handbook, which the learners (left) studied for
their enviroquiz …

Conduct a mini audit of water use in your home (page 84)
How much water is your household using? Where do you use the most water in your home? Are there areas where you could make water
savings? Increase your knowledge and awareness of water use in your home through the exercise below.


WATER AUDiT AT YOUR HOME
Activity                      Average litres of water      Number of times activ-   Total water used by a        Number of people in the Total household water
                              used per activity (litres)   ity done each day        person each day (litres)     household               consumption per day


Example: Wash hands           1,5 litres                   3 times a day            1,5 litres x 3 times a day   4 people                4,5 litres x 4 people = 18
and face                                                                            = 4,5
Wash hands and face           1–3

Bath                          80–150

5-minute shower               80

Teeth cleaning (tap on)       4

Toilet flushing               6–21

Drinking (cup)                0,25

Washing dishes (hand)         18 single basin
                              36 double basin
Dishwasher                    17–45

Washing machine               80
(one 3 kg load)
Hand washing (1 tub load)     40

Leaking/dripping tap         30–60
(1 drop/ second each day)
Food garden (per m2 per day) 4

Cooking (meal for 5 people)   3

Using the garden hose         600
for an hour

Think about where you use the most water every day. Explore this chapter for helpful advice on better water choices you could be making.
    Work out what your consumption breakdown looks like. This will make you see where your biggest areas of water use are and will help
you to make choices about where water efficiency improvements can be made in your home. Often as much as 35% to 50% of household
water is used for non-essential purposes, such as watering gardens and filling pools.



 For more information about the Smart Living Handbook, e-mail smart.living@capetown.gov.za. To download
 your own copy, visit www.capetown.gov.za/environment.



                                                                                                                                                                      19
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     event greening
2010 FiFA World Cup aims to score ‘green’ goals           TM




                                                   TARgET AREA                                  PROjECTS
                                                   Energy conservation and                      1. Determine the carbon footprint of the 2010 event
                                                   climate change                               2. Identify and implement carbon offset project(s) in Cape Town/
                                                   Minimise the event’s carbon footprint        Western Cape
                                                                                                3. Energy-efficient technologies in stadiums and training venues, at




T
        he Host City Cape Town is implementing                                                  fan parks, PVAs and other facilities

        an official 2010 FIFA World CupTM green-   Water                                        1. Identify alternative sources of water to irrigate the Green Point
        ing programme to make the soccer world     Minimise the use of potable water and        Common
                                                   promote conservation of water resources      2. Install water-saving devices in the stadium and training venues
cup as environmentally responsible as possible.
     The programme, called Green Goal 2010, is     integrated waste management                  1. Operational waste minimisation in the stadium, fan parks, PVAs
supported by the Department of Environmental       Reduce, re-use and recycle waste             and training venues
                                                                                                2. Green Goal branding of recycling bins and waste minimisation
Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), FIFA and the Local
                                                                                                signage
Organising Committee (LOC) in collaboration                                                     3. Recycling drop-off centres in the CBD and Atlantic Seaboard
with the host cities. It draws on Germany’s
                                                   Transport, mobility and access               1. Develop bicycle and pedestrian facilities
2006 FIFA World CupTM experience, in which         Promote energy efficient and universally     2. Develop public transport infrastructure
the organisers focused on reducing the event’s     accessible means of transport that also      3. CBD bicycle services
greenhouse gas emissions by increasing energy      minimise air pollution                       4. Eco-taxis
efficiency and using renewable energy wherever     Landscaping and biodiversity                 1. Indigenous gardening training programme for Urban Park staff
possible.                                          Promote indigenous landscaping and           2. Biodiversity showcase garden at Green Point Urban Park
     Host City Cape Town has developed an          enhance biodiversity                         3. Student landscape design competition for Mouille Point
                                                                                                beachfront and promenade
action plan to implement the Green Goal pro-
                                                                                                4. City beautification and tree planting campaign
gramme, with indicators, milestones, budgets,
                                                   ‘green’ building and sustainable             1. Green Point Urban Park and ECO Centre
potential partners, timelines and targets for 41
                                                   lifestyles                                   2. Undertake and monitor Green Review for Green Point and
projects in nine target areas. The action plan     Promote environmental awareness,             Athlone stadiums
focuses on stadium and citywide greening           sustainable lifestyles and environmentally   3. Cape Town green map
initiatives, carbon reduction and offset, water    efficient building practices                 4. Green Goal volunteers and training programme
conservation, sustainable transport, integrated                                                 5. Green Goal soccer club competition
                                                                                                6. Soccer and environment educational poster and guide
waste management, biodiversity awareness
                                                                                                7. Green Goal short films
raising, green procurement processes, responsi-                                                 8. Anti-littering and waste recycling campaign
ble tourism and environmental awareness and                                                     9. Drink tap water campaign
communication. The themes and projects are                                                      10. Green procurement for 2010 FIFA World CupTM events
elaborated in the table on the right.                                                           11. Green building handbook and toolkit
     The action plan was developed following a                                                  12. Greening of 2010 FIFA World CupTM events

series of workshops and discussion forums with     Responsible tourism                          1. Code of responsible conduct for visitors
                                                   Promote responsible tourism for 2010         2. Environmental accreditation system for accommodation sector:
experts, stakeholders and interested parties
                                                   and beyond                                   GreenStaySA
from government, the private sector and civil                                                   3. Responsible tourism awareness and training
society. The workshop series was sponsored         green goal communication                     1. Green Goal workshop series
by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, a Host City       Communicate the Green Goal message to        2. Green Goal brand development and activation
Green Goal contributor.                            residents and visitors                       3. Briefing for potential Green Goal funders
                                                                                                4. Green Goal marketing and communication
                                                                                                5. Green Goal Ambassadors
                                                                                                6. Green Goal project website and online media resources
                                                                                                7. Green Goal 2010 exhibition
                                                                                                8. Green Goal 2010 awards


 For more information,
                                                   Monitoring, measurement and                  1. Procedures and methodologies
 contact Lorraine Gerrans on
                                                   reporting                                    2. Targets and baseline studies
 021 400 5465 or e-mail
                                                   Monitor, measure and report on progress      3. Annual reports and legacy report
 lorraine.gerrans@capetown.gov.za.                 with the implementation of Green Goal




20
   sustainable livelihoods

Orchid growers find paradise
                                                                 S
                                                                         ince its launch, the Londolozani Orchid Legacy Project has evolved
                                                                         and is on its way to becoming a fully-fledged Sustainable Livelihoods
                                                                         initiative.
                                                                      Although the number of project beneficiaries has decreased, the level
                                                                  of ownership has increased and the project is set to benefit many poor
                                                                  people directly. Two of the women working on the project have put their
                                                                  entrepreneurial skills to work and as a result a new project has emerged,
                                                                  called the Umyezo Plant Project (‘umyezo’ means paradise).
                                                                      Umyezo grows and markets South African and African orchids (many of
                                                                  our indigenous orchids are endangered). Initial training in orchid propaga-
                                                                  tion methods was conducted by Michael Tibbs of the Cape Orchid Society
                                                                  and The Exotic Plant Company (TEPC).
ABOVE: Joyce Dladloti and Nikiwe Madalane from the
Londolozani Orchid Legacy Project holding up one of                   These dramatic changes came about shortly after a project evaluation,
the orchids they have propagated.                                 which taught some significant lessons. To ensure sustainability, for example,
                                                                  the transport costs needed to be reduced; hence the project is moving from
the Helderberg Nature Reserve to the College of Cape Town’s Gugulethu Campus, much closer to where the participants live.
    Project participants needed more specific training. The ladies will now be trained to hand-pollinate and germinate the seed pods in part-
nership with Erica Primary School in Belhar, where an orchid project teaches primary school learners about orchid growing.


The Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening
Programmes Unit is conducting research on
the role of social capital in the creation of
sustainable livelihoods, working with the
Siyazama Community Allotment Gardening
Association (SCAGA) as a case study. The latter
is an initiative of Abalimi Bezekhaya, a partner
in the Aachen-CCT LA21 Partnership.
This food gardening project addresses current
challenges facing the poor, particularly food in-
security. It enables poor people, especially women,
to produce good-quality, organic vegetables
close to where they live, in this way saving on
travelling costs as well as food purchase costs.
The vegetables they produce are not solely for
consumption, though; the urban farmers also sell
their vegetables at local markets, thus finding a
way to fund their other household requirements.
RIGHT: One of the women who works at SCAGA,
previously known as the Powerline Project on
marginal city-owned land in Khayelitsha.


Both programmes are part of ERM’s newest unit for Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening Programmes, which aims to
improve the quality of life of Cape Town’s most vulnerable communities.
The Sustainable Livelihoods approach addresses many of the millennium developments goals by creating an enabling platform
for people to benefit from Cape Town’s environmental resources, and not only make a living wage, but also create a sustained
quality of life.


 For more information, contact Jacques du Toit, Head: Sustainable Livelihoods and Greening Programmes, on
 021 487 2229 or e-mail jacques.dutoit@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                           21
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     biodiversity management




     Clearing up the crime and grime
New facilities, better roads, committed fieldworkers and international partnerships are all helping to
draw more visitors to the False Bay Ecology Park.


                                           “I
                                                      really love my work here,” says        food on the table,” she adds, showing a
                                                      False Bay Ecology Park field           keen understanding of the economic value
                                                      worker Felicia Rochelle Meyer. “I      of environmental work.
                                           love my group, and I always go home feel-              The team members all cite hyacinth-
                                           ing like I’ve done something.”                    clearing as their favourite work activity,
                                               Felicia is one of seven field workers         especially when the weather is hot, but add
                                           who’re participating in a programme run           that there is nothing like the adrenalin rush
                                           by the Cape Town Environmental Education          of fire-fighting. “It’s quite an experience,”
                                           Trust, under contract to the City. Based in       says Grant Abraham Revell.
                                           Zeekoe	 lei,	they	work	on	alien-clearing,	
                                                    v                                             The fieldworkers, along with the Park’s
                                           as well as general facilities maintenance,        four new visitor control officers, have
                                           building, tiling and litter clean-ups, and re-    without doubt made a positive impact on
ABOVE: (from left) Fieldworkers            ceive lifeskills training at least once a week.   the area.
Jonathan Marthinus Fisher, Ricardo             “It all started with the hyacinths,” says          The visitor control officers patrol the
Fortune, Crystal April, Berenice Joyce     Elizabeth Abrahams, who has worked                area on foot and by quad bike, and have al-
Zimri, Felicia Rochelle Meyer, Elizabeth   on alien-clearing contracts at the Park           ready arrested 12 people for illegal activities
Abrahams and Grant Abraham Revell          for many years. When the time came for            within the Park. The number of people who
(in front).                                the City to select workers for this new           visit the Park has grown enormously, thanks
TOP: Luqmaan Jabaar gets to work           programme, “they liked us old hyacinth            to this increased safety and improved clean-
clearing hyacinths from the vlei.          workers,” she laughs, ‘’as we had already         liness. From July to September, over 16 000
                                           shown what we could do.”                          people visited the park (10 000 to ‘braai’
                                               “It’s true these are alien plants, but        and picnic), compared to 17 000 visitors
                                           they put work into our hands and therefore        over the whole of the previous year.




22
                                               A platform to
                                               make a difference
                                               Y
                                                        oung adults from the United Kingdom are gaining a new perspective on their
                                                        own life circumstances by volunteering at False Bay Ecology Park and its neigh-
 LOOK WHAT ENDS                                         bouring communities.
 UP IN THE VLEI …                                   Platform2 is a programme that enables 18–25 year old volunteers for ten weeks in
                                               a number of developing countries including South Africa, Ghana, India and Peru. It is
 Every year, before the winter rains,
                                               aimed at young adults who are culturally or financially disadvantaged, and would not
 the False Bay Ecology Park team
                                               otherwise have had the chance to volunteer their time and enthusiasm.
 lowers the water level of Zeekoevlei
                                                    Based at the Park, the 12 volunteers from Platform2 participate in conservation
 to flush out contaminated and
                                               work with the fieldworkers, and spend one day a week at a community project.
 polluted water, as well as enable                  Four weeks into the programme, the volunteers are still talking about how different
 litter clean-ups resulting mainly             Cape Town compares to their expectations. They were pleasantly surprised to find elec-
 from dumping in and adjacent to the           tricity and good accommodation, but are horrified by the living and learning conditions
 Lotus and the Little Lotus Rivers.            of young children in the nearby community.
 This autumn the team found a                       Julie Anne Lennox: “It makes us so sad to see what is almost normal here –
 veritable ‘shopping list’ of discarded        children who are so disadvantaged they might never have improved lives.”
                                                     “Back home, children in those situations would make national news,” says Laura
 items: two fridges; 18 parts of motor
                                               Brumford.
 vehicles; four shopping trolleys;
                                                    “But we still love your country,” says Ishfaq Kahn. “We’ll go home and promote the
 four baths; one washing machine;
                                               project, pass on our new skills, and re-think our own situations at home.”
 plus enough rubbish to fill 9 000
                                                    The programme is funded by the UK Department for International Development
 black bags.                                   (DFID), Christian Aid, Islamic Relief and British Universities North America Club (BUNAC).



    The Park, on the other hand, has made
a positive impact on its workers. “When I
started off working here, I was just all for                                                     LEFT: (from left) Volunteers Emma
myself,” says Grant. “Here, I’ve learned to                                                      Corbett, Sara Webb, Kirstie Arrol,
work with others, and nature – and have                                                          Harmieda Begum, Iftikaar Hussain,
learned to give back to the community.”                                                          Laura Brumford, Julie Anne
    The 1 200 hectare False Bay Ecology                                                          Lennox and Ishfaq Khan.
Park includes the Cape Flats Wastewater
Treatment Works, the Rondevlei Nature
Reserve,	the	Zeekoevlei	Nature	Reserve,	
the Coastal Park Landfill Site, and a
contiguous coastal strip. The craft and         Did you know that there are more than 23 ‘user-groups’ who enjoy the
culture centre of the Cape Flats Devel-         False Bay Ecology Park? There’s something for everyone, from cycling,
opment Association (Cafda), adjacent            picnicking and walking to sailing, power-boating, model aircraft flying,
to Rondevlei, is integral to the vision of      fishing and birding.
the Park. The Park is home to one of the        To find out if the Park caters for your particular pastime, telephone
most important wetland bird habitats in         021 706-2404.
South Africa.



 For more information, contact Joanne Jackson, Head: Project Development and Partnerships,
 on 021 487-2184 or e-mail joanne.jackson@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                     23
                  Volume 2/08 • December 2008




                    biodiversity alien invasive species
                  New plan to control invasive alien species
                  Invasive alien species are one of the biggest threats to the loss of biodiversity in Cape Town – a fate
                  the City’s new Alien Invasive Species Strategy hopes to counter.



                                                                        A
                                                                                  lthough there are many initiatives to conserve and
                                                                                  manage the unique biodiversity within the boundaries of
                                                                                  Cape Town, critical areas are being lost at a faster rate than
                                                                        conservation measures can counter.
                                                                             The biggest threats are land transformation and invasive alien
                                                                        plant species.
                                                                             Although the City covers an area of only 2 400 km2, it contains
                                                                        nine of the 24 of South Africa’s critically endangered ecosystems (as
                                                                        defined by the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity
                                                                        Act of 2004), with six endemic vegetation types, of which three are
                                                                        critically endangered.
LOUISE STAFFORD




                                                                             Invasive alien species (IAS) include animals (vertebrates and inver-
                                                                        tebrates), plants (woody and weeds) and microbes. IAS invade ter-
                                                                        restrial habitats, fresh water, marine areas and forests. Invasive alien
                                                                        plants are regarded as the second biggest threat to biodiversity – the
                                                                        biggest threat is habitat loss due to development and agriculture.


                                                                        Impact of invasive alien plants
                                                                        The species currently covering the largest surface areas in Cape
                                                                        Town are Port Jackson, Rooikrans and Kikuyu grass. The control of
                                                                        invasive alien plants places a huge burden on the already struggling
                                                                        economy and costs the country millions every year.
                                                                             The Working for Water Programme alone spends more than
                                                                        R400 million annually while the City spends about R8 million con-
                                                                        trolling invasive alien plants (see above left, clearing Port Jackson).
                                                                             The most damaging species, such as the Australian acacias
                                                                        (Black wattle, Longleaved wattle and Port Jackson) and some pines
                                                                        (Pinus pinaster, P. radiata and P. halepensis) transform ecosystems
                                                                        by using excessive amounts of resources, change the nitrogen com-
                                                                        position,	promote	and/or	suppress	fire	(see	left,	during	and	after	
                                                                        a fire fuelled by alien invasive species), stabilise sand movement,
                                                                        promote erosion, and accumulate litter.
                                                                             Research shows that dense stands of Port Jackson (Acacia
                                                                        saligna) cause a decline of soil-stored seed banks of indigenous
                                                                        plants, leading to local extinction of species.


                                                                        Invasive alien animals
                                                                        Examples of invasive alien animals specific to the City include the
                                                                        invasive Indian house crow and mallard ducks.
LAUREN WALLER




                                                                        The house crow (opposite top)
                                                                        The house crow (Corvus splendens) is indigenous to the Indian
                                                                        sub-continent, Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia and southern China.




                  24
It was introduced in Africa in the late 1800s, and was already
considered	a	pest	in	Zanzibar	by	1917.	It	spread	from	Zanzibar	to	
Africa mainland by ship, and was recorded in Durban in 1972 and




                                                                                                                                                   DINI GUDLINDLU
in Cape Town in the 1980s.
     But why are house crows a problem? Because they are omni-
vorous and will eat insects, small vertebrates, birds’ eggs, fledglings,
seeds … almost anything, in fact. As a result, they are a serious
threat to other species.
     In addition, they are aggressive scavengers and feed on carrion,
crops, refuse and human faeces. They are known to store food
once they have eaten their fill, and carry diseases such as salmo-
nella, entamoeaba, dysentary, cholera and typhoid.
     At least eight species of animal intestinal parasites are known
to be harboured by the house crow, while disease-causing
organisms can also be transmitted passively via their feet, bills
and bodies. They often deposit infected organic matter into water
as well as open-air food stalls and markets. They roost near clin-
ics, food and meat vendors in informal settlements, specifically
Nyanga. It’s no surprise, then, that they are regarded as a health
risk.


  The Biodiversity Management Branch is responsible for
  the conservation of biodiversity within the City’s bounda-
  ries. One of the important aspects of this branch’s work                 The mallard duck (above)
  is to ensure that biodiversity and nature become part of                 The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) plays havoc with indigenous
  ordinary, ‘everyday’ life.                                               waterfowl worldwide, and threatens a significant number of
  More specifically, this branch is responsible for conserv-               indigenous waterfowl species in South Africa, such as the yellow-
  ation planning, biodiversity management and invasive                     billed duck (Anas undulata), red-billed teal, Cape shoveller and
  alien species management and control. However,                           African black duck.
  managing biological invasions in an urban environment                         Mallard ducks are an introduced species from the northern
  is complex.                                                              hemisphere, and cause severe ‘genetic pollution’ of the endemic
  The City’s new framework for invasive alien species                      yellow-billed duck through cross-breeding.
  provides a platform for collaboration between partners,                       In fact, they are known to breed with about 45 other species
  improved planning and prioritisation, and implementing                   of waterfowl, and the hybrids of mallard ducks and yellow-billed
  best practice.                                                           ducks are fertile and can produce even more hybrid offspring.
  But without support from you and the City’s decision-                         Mallards also out-compete indigenous birds for resources such
  makers, implementing the framework will not be as                        as food, nest sites and roosting.
  successful as it could be.                                                    If this continues, only hybrids will occur, and in the long term
                                                                           this will result in the extinction of the indigenous species.



 For more information, contact Louise Stafford, Invasive Alien Species Coordinator, Biodiversity Management
 Branch on 021 514 4162, or e-mail louise.stafford@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                              25
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




     city greening

From ‘gloom’ to ‘bloom’
The once dreary Civic Centre in Delft has been transformed
                                                                                                              BEFORE
into a vibrant indoor garden.


                                                   T
                                                          he Delft Civic Centre is not merely a building with no human activity
                                                          and connection. It’s a service centre, the face of the City of Cape
                                                          Town, a place where public representatives have their offices, and
                                                   from which they serve the greater Delft community.
                                                       “Sadly, however, this important facility was being vandalised,” says
                                                   Councillor Frank Martin (far left). “We decided that something had to be
                                                   done – and a beautification initiative, linked to environmental education,
                                                   seemed like a good solution.”
                                                       Cllr Martin roped in the local school and the YES Programme, and ap-
                                                   plied for a ward allocation of R40 000 for the greening venture.
                                                       “It’s for us to take ownership of our facilities,” he says. “Through this
                                                   project, our working environment looks so much better, it’s as if it has had
                                                   a face-lift – and our whole community is proud of our Civic Centre now.”




 For more information about the YES Programme, contact Lindie Buirski, Head: Environmental Capacity Building,
 Training & Education Unit, on 021 487 2839 or e-mail lindie.buirski@capetown.gov.za.




City lights up to raise awareness of
                                                          A
                                                                  lmost 800 trees were planted in Cape Town in celebration of
                                                                  Arbor Month in September. The City’s tree-planting initia-
                                                                  tive was part of local government’s commitment to promote
                                                          healthy neighbourhoods and beautify the urban environment.
                                                              Plants act as natural filters to clean our air by reducing carbon
                                                          emissions, thus mitigating some of the effects of climate change.
                                                              The wild plum (Harpephullum caffrum) is the common tree of
                                                          2008, and the bladder-nut tree (Diospyros whyteana) is the rare
                                                          (uncommon) official tree of the year.
                                                              A few wild plum trees were planted in the Strand area. The
                                                          bladder-nut tree is not suitable for planting in the Western Cape




26
Greening comes to Heinz Park
community
I
   n Heinz Park, a relatively poor community in the Southern
   District of Cape Town, Arbor Month was celebrated with
   the planting of 30 ficus trees.
The Heinz Park community is active in improving their sur-
roundings. One such community member is Rose Claasen,
who told media and guests at the event about the history of
Heinz Park. She has been involved in many of the develop-
ments that have taken place in the area, such as the Nobuhle
Women’s Organisation, which runs a community food garden
next to the park. Community partnerships such as this one
with City Parks assists in reducing vandalism in parks through
community involvement.




                                                                       ABOVE: Joseph Nhose, Area Manager, and Cllr Shehaam Sims,
                                                                       Mayoral Committee Member for Community Services.
                                                                       LEFT: Pupils from Heinz Park Primary School looking on as
                                                                       Rodnick Minnies, one of the workers in the area, demon-
                                                                       strates how to plant a tree. The children were accompanied
                                                                       by their teachers who wanted them to see the ceremony as
                                                                       part of the school’s environmental awareness programme.




trees for Arbor Month
region due to the different soil types in the Peninsula. The City      festivities kicked off with special lights in Adderley Street and from the
therefore planted other species of indigenous trees such as Ficus      main entrance to the Company’s Garden down Government Avenue.
rubignosa (fig) and Acacia xanthoploea (fever tree) and Acacia         These lights are similar to the lights put up in the festive season.
karoo (sweet thorn) best suited to the soil of a specific area.            City Parks adopted a theme of ‘Healthy parks, healthy people’
    South Africa first celebrated Arbor Day in 1983. So positive was   for Arbor Month, and ensured that some of the trees were planted
the reaction that the authorities extended the celebration period      in parks, cemeteries and other council facilities such as civic centres
to create Arbor Week. Schools and businesses were encouraged to        and libraries.
participate and contribute to the greening of the country, and to
recognise the advantages of trees in improving air and water quality   FAR LEFT: Cllr JP Smith with Cllr Belinda Walker, Mayoral
and as a renewable source of food, shelter and fuel.                   Committee Member for Corporate Services and Human
    With the theme ‘Plant a tree for life’, Cape Town’s Arbor Month    Resources.




                                                                                                                                             27
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




    energy and climate change

Cape Town leads by example
                                                               Cities must manage their own energy futures
                                                               to protect their economies, infrastructure and
                                                               vulnerable communities.



                                                               in the cities, this is where the   Mitigation; Adaptation and Climate Proofing;
                                                               responsibility of leading the      and Communication and Education.
                                                               way in reducing carbon emis-
                                                               sions will rest. Thus the City
                                                               has to prepare itself to take
                                                                                                  Energy Action
                                                               on this new role of managing       The City intends to lead by example by
                                                               and implementing the actions       tackling energy efficiency in its buildings,
                                                               required to ensure a sustain-      fleets, water and sewerage operations
                                                               able energy future.                and other facilities. It is already running
                                                                                                  information and education programmes for
                                                                                                  City staff and for schools through its YES
                                                               Strategic focus                    Programme. During this past year it has
                                                               area: Energy for a                 been involved in:
                                                               Sustainable City                   •	 Climate change risk assessment
                                                                 ERM is the custodian of the         research;
                                                                 Energy and Climate Change        •	 Introducing fuel efficiency as a criterion


E
        nergy plays a central role in the eco-    Strategy (2006). The second State of En-           in its fleet tenders;
        nomic development, social welfare         ergy Report for the City was completed in
                                                                                                  •	 Energy efficiency projects in the
        and environmental sustainability for      2007, and in 2008 the City adopted Energy
                                                                                                     City’s buildings;
a city. Climate change and the global and         for a Sustainable City as one of its eight
                                                                                                  •	 Concluding its power purchase
local energy crisis, clearly marked by the        strategic focus areas.
                                                                                                     agreement for wind power from the
rapidly increasing oil and coal prices, as well
as South Africa’s electricity supply short-
                                                  Energy Committee                                   Darling Wind Farm;
                                                                                                  •	 Developing a Solar Water Heater
ages, have heralded a new era in which            To give expression to this new focus area,
                                                                                                     by-law;
cities must take a proactive role in manag-       a Section 80 Energy Committee has been
ing their energy futures to safeguard their       established, which must address energy          •	 Kuyasa energy efficiency in low-cost
economies, infrastructure and vulnerable          security, carbon mitigation and climate            housing project;
communities.                                      change impacts. (A Section 80 committee         •	 The installation of solar water
     The reality of climate change means          is an advisory committee to an executive           heaters in facilities in the City’s
that industrialised developing countries          mayor).                                            nature reserves; and
such as South Africa are highly likely to             The Energy Committee will work through      •	 Developing Draft Green Building
soon be required to meet carbon emission          four workstreams: Energy and Climate               Guidelines (pictured above left) which
reduction targets. As most energy is used         Change Strategy; Energy Security and Carbon        are now available for public comment.



 For more information contact Sarah Ward, Manager: Energy and Climate Change, on 021 487 2124/2200
 or e-mail Sarah.Ward@capetown.gov.za. To download a copy of the State of Energy Report 2007 and of the
 Energy and Climate Change Strategy, or for tips on how to be more energy efficient yourself, visit
 www.capetown.gov.za/environment.




28
‘No regrets’ about future planning
                                                                                  Climate change will have significant social,
                                                                                  economic and environmental impacts on Cape
                                                                                  Town, unless the City understands these
                                                                                  implications, and develops ways to adapt.

                                                                                  rise: the ‘no regrets’ option and ‘additional’ options, which plan
                                                                                  ahead for ways in which to counter sea-level rise events.

                                                                                  The DOs and DON’Ts of the ‘no regrets’ option
                                                                                  The City should not:
                                                                                  •	 reclaim additional land;



O
           ne of the ways in which the City is planning for a hotter,             •	 further degrade wetlands and estuaries; and
           colder and wetter future, is by investigating what might               •	 further degrade dune cordons and systems.
           happen if sea levels rise as predicted, and the size and fre-
quency	of	storms	increases	(see	Enviroworks	Volume	1/08,	page	10).                The City should:
    In May 2008, the City’s coastal management research team presented            •	 maintain drains and stormwater systems;
the results from the third and fourth phases of its Sea-Level Rise Risk Assess-   •	 incorporate sea-level rise scenarios into future planning decisions;
ment to the Planning and Environment Portfolio Committee for discussion.          •	 incorporate sea-level rise risks into disaster management strategies;
    The risk-analysis phase of the study identified three scenarios.              •	 decentralise strategic infrastructure so that a single event does
                                                                                     not disable core services;
Scenario 1:                                                                       •	 prioritise poverty alleviation and improve living conditions, as
A 2,5 m increase in sheltered environments, a 4,5 m increase in                      this makes communities more resilient to disasters;
exposed environments, and a 6,5 m increase in very exposed environ-               •	 identify communities and locations that are particularly vulner-
ments. This scenario would see 25,1 km2 covered by the sea (1% of                    able to climate change; and
the Cape Metro’s total area of 2 499 km2), although for a short time.             •	 adopt and enforce legislation about coastal zone development.
This scenario has a 95% chance of taking place in the next 25 years.
                                                                                  In addition …
Scenario 2:                                                                       Under the ‘additional options’, the study recommends that the City
A 4,5 m sea-level rise event, which would see 60,9 km2 (2% of the                 build sea walls, groynes, revetments and dolosse only where appro-
total Metro area) covered by sea for a short period. This scenario 2              priate. Physical sea defences are no longer considered ‘best practice’
has an 85% probability of occurring in the next 25 years.                         to manage sea-level rise, as they constitute mal-adaptation and am-
                                                                                  plify risks. Instead, the City should protect, conserve and rehabilitate
Scenario 3:                                                                       existing dune systems, estuaries and wetlands, as well as protect and
A 6,5 m sea-level rise linked to the melting of the Greenland and West            monitor kelp beds along the coast (and leave kelp on the beaches
Antarctic ice shelves. This rise would be permanent, and would cover              rather than remove it as part of waste management).
95 km2 of land around the Cape coastline (4% of the total area of land                 Institutional options must include clear management, budgets
under the City’s jurisdiction). Until recently, this scenario was consid-         and responsibilities within City structures, to ensure the necessary
ered unlikely in this century, but that has since changed. However,               institutional expertise and capacity to manage the coastal zone.
scenario 3 only has a 20% chance of occurring in the next 25 years.

The risk-reduction phase of the study focussed on two strategies                  ABOVE: Flooding of Beach Road in the Strand after the storm
that would significantly lower the risk and the costs of the sea-level            on the 30 August 2008.



 For more information on any coastal management projects, contact Gregg Oelofse, Acting Manager:
 Environmental Strategy and Partnerships, on 021 487 2239 or e-mail gregg.oelofse@capetown.gov.za.




                                                                                                                                                       29
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




    energy and climate change
New State of Energy Report released
Cape Town takes a close look at its energy profile
Unless we take energy efficiency and renewable energy more seriously, Cape Town will not be
able to meet its future energy demands.




T
       he City has released the first revision                                      report reflects an increase in the number
       of its State of Energy Report, making                                        of informal households that do not use
       it the first city in South Africa to have                                    electricity as their main energy source.
been through a cycle of two such studies.                                               Although coal-fired electricity accounts
The first study was completed in 2003.                                              for 28% of Cape Town’s total energy
    This State of Energy Report details the                                         consumption, it generates 66% of the total
energy profile of Cape Town, including                                              carbon emissions.
energy policy and demand and supply op-                                                 Electricity is still the primary energy
tions, and considers issues such as energy                                          source in both the commercial (63%) and
security, energy access and climate change.                                         industrial (82%) sector.
The report was released in August at a                                                  In Cape Town, the demand for
meeting of the City’s new dedicated                                                 energy is most affected by population
Energy Committee.                                                                   growth (an increase in population results
    “The high rate of liquid fuel use in                                            in an increase in the household con-
the city is a direct result of the geographic                                       sumption of energy), economic growth
sprawl of our city and inadequate public                                            (as the economy grows, more industries
transport,” says Committee Chairperson                                              demand more energy), and addressing
Councillor Marian Nieuwoudt, Mayoral                                                the housing backlog (more houses mean
Committee Member for Planning and                                                   more electricity connections – unless
Environment and Chair of the City’s Energy                                          alternative energy sources such as solar
Committee.                                                                          energy and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
    Cape Town still has an unacceptably                                             for cooking are used for water heating
high carbon emission profile of 6,4 tons                                            and cooking respectively).
of CO2 per person per year. The norm in                                                 The report concludes that clearly, the
Western Europe is 4,5 tons, and in the rest                                         future supply of energy to Cape Town
of Africa 0,6 tons.                                                                 needs to be more diverse and comple-
    “The City has undertaken to lead by                                             mented by energy-saving measures if the
example and to work with residents to                                               future demand for energy is to be met.
reduce the city’s carbon footprint, and                                             The report recommends improved energy
the State of Energy Report provides a                                               efficiency (in City-owned buildings and
practical blueprint for all future energy                                           operations, as well as in the residential,
conservation programmes,” says Council-                                             commercial and industrial sectors), and
lor Nieuwoudt.                                     ABOVE: Pages from the State of   increased renewable energy (solar energy,
    Compared to the 2003 study, the latest         Energy Report                    wind power and energy from waste).



 For more information contact Sarah Ward, Manager: Energy and Climate Change, on 021 487 2124/2200
 or e-mail Sarah.Ward@capetown.gov.za. To download a copy of the State of Energy Report 2007 and of the
 Energy and Climate Change Strategy, or for tips on how to be more energy efficient yourself, visit
 www.capetown.gov.za/environment.




30
    www.capetown.gov.za/environment

WWW is where you want to be
ERM’s website is updated every few weeks, with sustainable living tips, policies and
projects, photographs and publications. And by the time you read this, there’ll be even more
that’s new on the web.


  UPDATING YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SKILLS
  Did you know that if you’re a qualified and registered Western Cape Education
  Department (WCED) educator, you may register for FREE for the City’s EduNet programme,
  part of the YES Programme).
      You’d know this if you visited www.capetown.gov.za/environment, and looked
  under the What’s New section.
      EduNet has been established to provide a ‘one-stop shop’ for environmental
  educators to:
  •	 obtain resources such as posters, leaflets, lesson plans, books and information on
      environmental issues;
  •	 receive invitations to workshops and special outings;
  •	 get information on upcoming events, campaigns and competitions;
  •	 share information with other educators;
  •	 showcase projects and more.
  To become a member, educators must complete the registration form by hand
  (available on the website), and fax it to 021 487 2255.


Ponder where to live in Cape Town
In August, daily and weekly newspapers reported on a possible rise in sea-level in
Cape Town (see page 28), and struck fear and anxiety into quite a few residents and
readers. To read the City’s sea-level report, visit www.capetown.gov.za/environment,
and follow the links to ‘Publications’, and ‘Reports and Scientific Papers’.



                                           Calculate your carbon footprint
Every time you switch on a light, drive your car, run water or put out       footprint using the resources and links on ERM’s website – follow
your rubbish, you’re making a decision that affects the environment.         the links and read about energy efficiency at home.
Natural resources – water, coal, oil, land and fresh air – will run out          You’ll be asked to think about things such as your:
if we use them faster than they can replenish themselves. There are          •	 type of home – flat, semi-detached or free-standing home;
many indications that this is already happening. Each person living on       •	 lifestyle – heating, air conditioning, appliances and lighting
earth has a carbon footprint, and produces carbon emissions directly             setup;
or indirectly, which have a combined negative long-term effect on            •	 habits – switching off lights and appliances, recycling,
                             the environment.                                    showering or bathing;
                                  The good news is that you can make         •	 technology – solar heating, photovoltaic (PV) panels or
                              a difference. Every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of         renewable energy;
                              electricity you don’t use saves over a kilo-   •	 use of public transport;
                              gram of carbon dioxide that would other-       •	 personal travel with your car (yearly mileage) and aeroplane
                               wise be released into the atmosphere.             (yearly air miles); and
                                    You can calculate your carbon            •	 business travel with your car and aeroplane.


                                If you missed the last issue of Enviroworks (Volume 1/08, May 2008), visit www.capetown.gov.za/
                                environment, and follow the links to ‘Publications’. The full copy is a PDF document of 3,1 megabytes.




                                                                                                                                            31
Volume 2/08 • December 2008




New publications
Turn the pages to
find Cape Town’s
network of amazing
urban biodiversity




                                                                           T
                                                                                 his beautiful, colourful and comprehensive booklet
                                                                                 showcases the City’s 24 nature reserves and
                                                                                 natural areas.
                                                                           In this first decade of the 21st century, more than 3,5 million
                                                                           people have made a home in Cape Town, within the Cape
                                                                           Floristic Region.
                                                                           Yet, as more people are drawn here because of the city’s
                                                                           biodiversity-based economic and recreational opportunities,
                                                                           less of this biodiversity remains. As more land is used for
                                                                           housing, facilities and farming, less of the natural vegetation
                                                                           can be found amid the urban and agricultural sprawl.
                                                                           The City of Cape Town – as the local government responsible
                                                                           for this region – is determined to preserve this biodiversity
                                                                           to meet national and local conservation targets through a
                                                                           Biodiversity Network, a representative set of sites with core
                                                                           conservation areas linked by corridors.
                                                                           Each of the City’s 24 nature reserves, which form part of this
                                                                           network of representative sites, are featured in this publica-
                                                                           tion, with details of opening hours, entry fees, facilities and
                                                                           activities, and the type of fynbos conserved.
                                                                           Nothing, however, compares with visiting these nature
                                                                           reserves for yourself!



                                                                            To download a copy of this publication, visit
                                                                            www.capetown.gov.za/environment and follow the
                                                                            links to ‘Publications’ and ‘Brochures and Booklets’.


             ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Publisher: City of Cape Town – Communication Department; Production Coordinator: Amina Taylor;
            Writer: Gail Jennings; Environmental Resource Management: Michelle Preen and Shona Young; Photographer: Bruce Sutherland;
                                          Design: Cornelle Ellis; Proofing: The Language Studio; Printer: Forms


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