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Grade 5 Teacher’s Guide Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009 ARTICLE 1: STRING OF BANDERITAS B. Development Activity 1. Activity: Group the pupils into smaller I. LEARNING OBJECTIVES cooperative learning groups. Have the pupils Cognitive: To rename dissimilar fractions to similar make buntings or banderitas following a certain fractions condition, just like in the story. Psychomotor: To write dissimilar fractions as similar 2. Present three or more fractions and their fractions corresponding color. Affective: To demonstrate enthusiasm for helping 3. When the pupils are done with the activity, have out in a task them discuss the strategy they used to solve the To demonstrate appreciation for the real- problem. As a class, evaluate the output of each life applications of the skill group. 4. Discuss the strategy presented in the story—re- II. SUBJECT MATTER naming the fractions to similar fractions using Renaming Dissimilar Fractions to Similar Fractions the least common denominator. Recall ﬁrst how to ﬁnd the missing term in a pair of equivalent III. MATERIALS fractions. Lead pupils to realize that renaming Flash cards, number line or fraction model (to be dissimilar fractions to similar fractions is projected or posted on the board), some objects/ﬂags/ just renaming each fraction using a common bunting materials denominator. 5. The teacher may use the number line or fraction IV. REFERENCE models to demonstrate conceptually what Math Talino, Grade 5, Volume 14, Issue 2, SY 2008- happens when fractions are renamed to similar 2009 fractions. 6. Present some more exercises. V. TEACHING STRATEGIES 7. Valuing: Elicit from pupils other applications A. Opening Activity of the skill of renaming dissimilar fractions to 1. Do mental computation drill on a previous similar fractions. lesson. (Possible skill: solving for the missing C. Generalization/Summary term in a pair of equivalent fractions, comparing This article tackles the steps in renaming fractions, solving for the least common multiple dissimilar fractions to similar fractions. Before of a pair or set of numbers.) 1 2 changing dissimilar fractions, say 2. Discuss the story. Ask some comprehension 3 and 5 , to similar fractions, you have to get the least common questions. multiple of the denominators 3 and 5 ﬁrst—that a. What is the Singkaban Festival? would be15. b. Where is it held or celebrated? D. Assignment c. When is it celebrated? Answer the exercises at the end of the article. d. How is it celebrated? e. What did Carlito want to help with eagerly VI. EVALUATION and enthusiastically? Change the following pairs of dissimilar fractions f. Valuing: Do you help out with tasks eagerly to similar fractions: and enthusiastically? Why or why not? g. What math ideas did Lolo Indo suggest 1. 5 7 and 4 5 ( 25 35 and 28 35 ) Carlito to use to solve the math problem posed by Kuya Allan? 2. 7 8 and 2 3 ( 21 24 and 16 24 ) 5 1 Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009 3. 4 5 and 8 9 ( 36 and 40 ) 45 45 math lessons. What made Hero excited and enthusiastic? VII. QUESTIONNAIRE (d) Valuing: What makes you excited and Rename the dissimilar fractions to similar enthusiastic about learning? Would you fractions. say Hero’s reason for excitement and 3 1. 7 and 3 2 9 14 , 21 21 ( ) enthusiasm for his math lessons is a good and valid one? Why or why not? B. Development Activity 1 7 19 2. 8 , 2 and 40 , ( 5 140 19 , 40 40 40 ) 1. Have the pupils recall when a particular fraction is said to be in lowest term. 3. 1 2 and 5 17 17 10 , 34 34 ( ) 2. Present several fractions on the board. Have pupils identify which fractions are in lowest 2 9 1 4. 3 , 10 and 1 5 20 27 ( , ,1 30 30 30 6 ) terms and which are not. 3. Using the strategies presented in the story, discuss how to rename fractions to lowest terms. VIII. OTHER STRATEGIES 4. Analysis: Would reducing a fraction to its lowest Dissimilar fractions may also be renamed to similar term change its value? Why or why not? fractions using any common denominator, one of which 5. Concept Analysis: What happens when a fraction may be arrived at by multiplying the given denominators. is reduced to lowest term? Why doesn’t its value Have the pupils discuss the merits of using the LCD. change when the term is made smaller? 6. Do exercises. The teacher may group the pupils into their cooperative learning groupings. ARTICLE 2: ENTHUSIASTICALLY MOTIVATED Provide each group of pupils with a set of cards with higher term fractions and their correspond- I. LEARNING OBJECTIVES ing lowest term forms. Have the pupils play a Cognitive: To reduce fractions to lowest terms memory game. Psychomotor: To write a fraction in its simplest form C. Generalization/Summary Affective: To demonstrate enthusiasm for learning This article tells us when a fraction is said to be in lowest term and how to reduce a fraction to its II. SUBJECT MATTER lowest term. A fraction is in lowest term if the great- Lowest Term Fractions est common factor, or GCF, of the numerator and the denominator is 1. To write a fraction in its simplest III. MATERIALS form, divide the numerator and the denominator by Flash cards, cards with fractions for memory game their GCF. D. Assignment IV. REFERENCE Ask the pupils to answer the exercises at the Math Talino, Grade 5, Volume 14, Issue 2, SY 2008- end of the story. 2009 VI. EVALUATION V. TEACHING STRATEGIES Write the fraction in simplest form. A. Opening Activity 1. Do mental computation drill on a previous lesson. (Possible topic: renaming equivalent 1. 25 30 (5) 6 fractions.) 2. Discuss the story. Ask some comprehension 2. 18 36 (1) 2 questions. (a) What problem did Hero have in the 3. 20 32 (5) 8 story? (b) Whom did Hero ask for help? VII. QUESTIONNAIRE (c) Kuya Ian commented that he had never seen Rename each fraction to its lowest term. Hero this excited and enthusiastic about his 1. 36 48 (3) 4 5 2 Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009 2. 51 85 (3) 5 fractions to similar fractions (related story in the magazine). 3. 100 150 (2) 3 4. Present fraction models to illustrate further the process of addition of dissimilar fractions. 4. 60 24 ( 2 or 2 2 ) 5 1 5. Review regrouping as necessary (the fraction models would come in handy when the pupils encounter improper fraction with wholes). 6. Do worksheet with a learning partner. ARTICLE 3: TUNA C. Generalization/Summary This article discusses the steps in adding I. LEARNING OBJECTIVES dissimilar fractions. To add dissimilar fractions, do Cognitive: To add fractions the following: Psychomotor: To write neat solutions 1. Rename dissimilar fractions to similar Affective: To demonstrate appreciation for the real fractions. life applications of the skill 2. Add the similar fractions. 3. Regroup when necessary, and write the answer II. SUBJECT MATTER in simplest form. Addition of Dissimilar Fractions D. Assignment Ask the pupils to answer the exercises at the III. MATERIALS end of the story. Flash cards, fraction models, worksheets VI. EVALUATION IV. REFERENCE Add the following: Math Talino, Grade 5, Volume 14, Issue 2, SY 2008- 1. 5 6 +2 3 4 (2 19 or 3 12 ) 12 7 2009 6 2. 4 + 5 7 1 14 (9 13 ) 14 V. TEACHING STRATEGIES A. Opening Activity 3. 5 8 +6 3 9 (6 69 or 6 23 ) 72 24 1. Do mental computation drill on a previous lesson (renaming to similar fractions, solving for the missing term in a pair of equivalent VII. QUESTIONNAIRE fractions). Add. Write the answer in simplest form. 2. Discuss the story. Ask some comprehension questions. 9 1. 7 + 7 = d 16 3 8 14 15 16 ( ) a. Who went to visit Michael and his family? 3 2. 12 + 11 = e 7 6 1 23 25 42 ( ) b. What did Uncle Dodong leave for Michael and his family? 3. 1 3 + 5 12 =f 9 12 4 ( or 3 ) c. Which place is dubbed as the Tuna Capital of the Philippines? Where is this province VIII. OTHER STRATEGIES or city? The pupils may do cooperative learning activity. d. When is the Tuna Festival? Divide the pupils into groups of four. Provide each pupil B. Development Activity in the group with a questionnaire. The pupil is to solve 1. Present a problem or exercise involving addition the item in his or her notebook. After a speciﬁed time, of fractions with like denominators. each questionnaire is to be passed to the next person in the 2. Using the models, elicit from pupils how to add group. This goes on until all members of the group have the fractions with like denominators. solved all four questions. Then the answers are checked. 3. Present a problem or exercise involving addition Discussion about an item that is answered incorrectly is of unlike or dissimilar fractions. Elicit from encouraged in each cooperative learning group after the the pupils how to turn the fractions given to items have been checked. something they know how to work with (i.e., like fractions). Recall how to rename dissimilar 5 3 Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009 ARTICLE 4: SHOE BARGAIN 4. Do worksheet with a learning partner. I. LEARNING OBJECTIVES C. Generalization/Summary Cognitive: To subtract fractions This article is about subtraction of unlike Psychomotor: To write the equation and solution fractions. To subtract dissimilar fractions, do the neatly following: Affective: To demonstrate appreciation for the use 1. Rename unlike fractions to similar fractions. of the skill in real life applications 2. Regroup when necessary before subtracting the similar fractions. II. SUBJECT MATTER 3. Then reduce the answer to lowest term. Subtraction of Dissimilar Fractions D. Assignment Ask the pupils to answer the exercises at the III. MATERIALS end of the story. Flash cards, fraction models, worksheets VI. EVALUATION IV. REFERENCE Subtract. Math Talino, Grade 5, Volume 14, Issue 2, SY 2008- 2009 1. 5 5 6 –2 3 5 (3 30 ) 7 V. TEACHING STRATEGIES 2. 4 3 – 9 2 7 (3 10 ) 63 A. Opening Activity 1. Do mental computation drill on a previous 3. 9 – 12 12 4 (12 ) 5 lesson (possible drills set: addition of fractions, subtraction of fractions with like denominators, subtracting fractions or mixed numbers from a VII. QUESTIONNAIRE whole). Answer the following: 2. Discuss the story. Ask some comprehension questions. 1. 11 5 – 12 8 =b ( 24 ) 7 a. What is the Sapatos Festival? What is being celebrated during the said festival? 2. 2 3 1 14 – 7 = e 4 (7 12 ) 5 b. Where is the festival celebrated? c. When is the festival celebrated? 2. 2 11 15 2 –1 =h 5 (1 1 ) 3 d. Valuing: Noemi was able to use what she knows of subtraction of fractions from a whole number when mother and daughter VIII. OTHER STRATEGIES were discussing shoe sizes. Where else The teacher may use the idea that addition and sub- do you think is subtraction of fractions traction are inverse operations as springboard to answer needed? the problem opener. B. Development Activity 1. Present a problem or exercise involving The teacher may also introduce the deﬁnition of a ad – bc subtraction of unlike or dissimilar fractions. subtraction of fractions as – c = and have Review how to add unlike fractions. Elicit from b d bd the pupils how to turn the fractions given to the pupils use this to check their answer (which used the something they know how to work with (i.e., LCD method). like fractions just like in addition of unlike fractions). Recall how to rename dissimilar fractions to similar fractions (related story in the magazine). 2. Present fraction models to illustrate further the process of subtraction of dissimilar fractions. 3. Review renaming as necessary. Present a problem involving renaming of a whole before subtracting a mixed number from it. 5 4 Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009 FOR CONSUMERS Answers to Exercises in this Issue The Detective A. 14 shops PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT B. 80 guests or two-fifths Adding Unlike Fractions A. 1 MATH WITHOUT NUMBERS 1. 1 2 Naval Battle 13 2. 24 1 3. 1 6 2 4. 3 1 5. 1 30 1 6. 1 15 B. 1 7. 3 2 km 8. Yes, because 30 is a multiple of 5 and 15. 5 15 20 9. Martin renamed 4 6 as 4 , but it should be 4 . 24 24 23 The correct total is 5 .) 24 Subtracting Unlike Fractions A. 9 5 1. 6. 16 18 2 1 2. 9 7. 1 12 1 1 3. 4 8. 28 1 5 4. 4 9. 1 24 13 5. 24 B. 5 5 10 5 5 10. 9 – = – = 18 18 18 18 5 1 5 3 2 1 11. 6 – 2 = 6 – 6 = 6 or 3 5 5 Vol. 14 No. 2 SY 2008-2009