Dissertation on Impact of Information Technology in Education Sector Transparency and by cpd60066


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									Transparency and Accountability in the
Education Sector in Eastern European
and Central Asia Countries

Indra Dedze
Education Support Program (ESP)
Open Society Institute (OSI)
Oktober 6. utca 12
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary

e-mail idedze@osi.hu

Presented at IWGE Meeting
June 12 – 15, Rome
      Challenges in Higher Education
• Increase of the role and demand for
  higher education,
• Establishing an European area of higher
  education by 2010 (Bologna process),
• Development of private higher education
  institutions and their competitiveness with
  the state universities,
• Access to higher education, study loans,
  study fees Increasing the role and
  demand of HE.
                   Admissions Fraud
Phenomena Actor                          Deeds
Bribery             Potential students, Bribe examination committee
                    Parents             members to pass entrance
Private tutoring    Potential students, Hire private tutor who sits on
                    Parents             admission exams
Using               Parents, Officials   An official uses his influence to
connections,                             get a relative/ acquaintances
influence                                child admitted to the university
Using fake          Potential students   Presenting fake documents: -
credentials                              false high school transcripts,
                                         fake letters of recommendation,
                                         fake admission letters
Hire people to      Potential students   Hire people to pass Test for
pass entrance                            English as Foreign Language
exams                                    (TOEFL) or Graduate Record
                                         Examination (GRE)
Academic Dishonesty (I)
Study Process (I)
Phenomena Actor               Deeds
Cheating on        Students   Crib sheets, agreed codes, using
exams                         information technology, etc.
Plagiarism         Students   Ready made term papers;
                              Custom written papers for fee;
                              Hires a ghostwriter;
                              Handle in another student’s course
Plagiarism         Teachers Duplicate own data in several papers;
                            Plagiarize from other professors;
                            Translate other professors books;
                            Plagiarize from students
Falsification of   Students Cite articles that they had not read;
data or            Teachers Fabricate fraudulent data;
bibliography                Falsify data
Academic Dishonesty (II)
Study Process (II)
Phenomena           Actor            Deeds
Covering up         Administration   International students pay fee
students                             it is not beneficial to punish
misconduct                           them;
                                     Complicated procedures for
                                     formal charges;
                                     Time consuming to trace
                                     plagiarism, gather evidence
Inappropriate       Teachers         Inappropriate teaching
behaviors, piracy                    behaviors;
                                     Textbooks from black market
                                     distributed in class
Invalidate the      Administration   Invalidate the results of low
results of students                  scoring students to attain
                                     credential and improve
Academic Dishonesty (III)
Phenomena        Actor         Deeds
Cheat on final   Students      Try to bribe examination
exams                          committee member in
                               order to pass final exam
Plagiarism       Students      Hires a ghostwriter to
                               write a dissertation, final
                               Submit another student’s

Diploma Mills    Individuals   Obtain a fake diploma
                               on the black market
                               without attending
• Supporting Fraud:
   – Plagiarism:
       • Term paper writing
       • Selling ready made term papers
       • Custom written term papers for fee from closed subscribers
         only pages
       • Offers ghostwriter online or in person, etc.
   – Selling illegal textbooks
   – Producing fake credentials
       • False high school transcripts
       • Fake letters of recommendation
       • Fake admission letters

• Preventing Fraud:
   Software and the Internet sites that is trying
   to match texts from course papers, highlighting
   the parts of the text that might be copied
• The level of corruption reached 30 billion
  rubles (about 1 billion USD) in 2003 which
  are spent on bribes to enter universities or
  to pay fees to entrance courses that are
  “requested” by entrance committees
• This amount on average increases 7-10%
  per year
• To enter elite universities, the level of bribes
  increases 15-20% in 2004
• 70% of parents admit that there is a need
  to pay for entrance in school/ university,
  but about 60% of parents are able to pay,
• Children from wealthy families enter more
  prestigious specialties – journalists,
  architects, but children from low income
  families enter less prestigious specialties –

                       Source: Rosijskaja Gazeta 16.08.2005
• About 27% students admitted that
  cheating takes place during the exams
• Most often used forms of cheating:
   – Crib sheets – 72%
   – Finding out exam questions prior
     exam – 7%
   – Talking with peers during exam – 6%
• Only 10% feel guilty after cheating
  during the exam

               Source: Riga Stradins University, 2004
• Demand for bribes,
  discrimination by gender
• Arrogance of professors
  during the exams
• Appearance of nepotism in
  HE – employment of close

        Source: Student Survey in Macedonia, 2005
The amount of bribe is determined
by the following factors:
 • The prestige of university
 • Gender of the applicant (males
   need to pay up to 30% more, as
   they could avoid to be called
   to serve the army)
 • Wealth of parents (wealthy
   families could be demanded to
   pay double high bribe)
 • The place of living (entrants
   from other CIS countries need
   to pay double)
 • Relationship of parents of the
   applicant and the bribe taker
   (“friends” pay less)
        Source: журнала «Экономика России: ХХI век», 2005
The number of students in Kyrgyzstan
admits that their university is bribable:
 1.    68,0% - Kyrgyz Technical University
 2.    67,5% - Kyrgyz Agrarian University
 3.    64,9% - National State University
 4.    62,0% - Bishkek State University
 5.    59,6%- Medicine Academy
 6.    59,0% - Kyrgyz State University of
       Construction and Architecture
 7.    51,0% - Kyrgyz Slavonic University (Russian)
 8.    49,5% - International University in Kyrgyzstan
 9.    34,3% - Kyrgyz Sate physical culture and
       sport Academy
 10.   5,1% - American University-Central Asia

                  Source: Independent Ebert Fund, 2006
Corrupt situations occur in following
  • 90% during the examinations
  • 6% receiving a document from
    the university administration
    (dean or rector)
  • 2% to get a “right” topic for the
    course or diploma paper or get
    to know the question of the
    exam ahead of the time
  • 2% to transfer to another
    department, course or specialty

             Source: Independent Ebert Fund, 2006
   The reasons of corruption in Higher
   Education Georgia
• Extremely low quality of teaching and learning,
• Poverty among majority of teachers and
• Lack of technical equipment and facilities
  (including libraries)
• Insufficient professional skills among trained
• Disjunction between the higher educational
  system and labor market,
• High level of unemployment among young
• Low standards of moral values and norms of
• Proliferation of corruption in all structural levels
  of the system,
• Drawbacks in existing legislation on Education
Source: Rostiashvili, K. Corruption in Higher Education system of Georgia, 2004
Problems with transparency and accountability in
the system of education     – Georgia:
• Overloaded school programs push parents to pay or use
  personal contacts to get a child through the school. This
  leads to the practice that a student perceives that the
  only success in the life is to bribe the official.
• Good schools contribute to corruption by using personal
  contacts (for example by letting students to crib the
  answers for the test).
• Preparing and lobbying textbook for approval
• Corruption in vocational education.
• Price of entrance exams ranges from 200 to 1500
• Corruption in higher education,
• Unclear financial allocation norms, misappropriated
  school funds (1/6 of Georgian education budget in 2002
  was stolen)
• Money collected from parents (study conducted in
  December 2002 by IPF fellow)
• Few formal rules regarding school management
   Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • Low teacher salaries force them to engage in private
    tutoring, often their own students. Parents report
    threats if they do not hire a teacher, their child will not
    get a good grade
  • Appointments of school directors are politicized, no
    clear rules. Teachers and principals are hired on the
    basis of connections, social group affiliations, not
    professional qualifications.
  • Poor and rural students suffer under conditions of tight
    budget constrains.
  • School buildings repair and maintenance,
  • Supply and distribution of textbooks,
  • Examination and diplomas
  • Funding and information system
Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • The government has developed
    Anti-Corruption Strategy and
    timetable for its implementation
  • The main source of corruption it the
    system of examination:
    -   school leaving exams,
    -   the university entrance exams,
    -   post graduate entrance exams.

Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • Low teacher salaries leads to private
    tutoring practice
  • Appointment of school principals might be
    based on Nepotism,
  • Production of textbooks,
  • Funding policy
  • Examinations and diplomas – sharp
    increase of private institutions lead to
    decrease of quality, decrease of access
    of low income students.
  • Corruption at entrance exams. A survey
    carried out in 2002 demonstrated that the
    examination system is imperfect and
    needs to be restructured.

Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • Lack of transparency in the flow
    of financial resources
  • Lack of transparency in the
    collection and usage of fees
    paid by parents
  • The problems with equity and
    transparency in access raised
    by new national testing system
    for university entrance

Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • The weakness of existing monitoring
  • The lack of transparency in allocation
    bonuses for teachers
  • The collection of illegal fees at pre-
    university level
  • The centralization of process of
    administration of exam organization,
  • Distortions in the implementation of
    payment mechanisms for producing
    school textbook, which involved huge
    amount of international aid.

Source: ESP OSI, 2004
  • Lack of transparency in the flow of
    financial resources
  • The impact of teacher absenteeism
  • The collection of illegal fees at pre-
    university level
  • The lack of objectivity in pupil’s
  • The problems with equity and
    transparency in access raised by new
    national testing system for university
  • The promotion of “academic
    honesty” in various NGO programs

Source: ESP OSI, 2004
Hypothetical Financial Flows of Parental Informal Payments to Education (PIPES)

Principals       Organizing “receptions” for school inspectors, presents to local
                 governments to get benefits for the school, private gain

                       Contributing to classroom supplies presents to
                       principals, private tutoring, private gain

                     Contributing to school/ classroom maintenance, security
                     guards, presents to teachers, buying out students from last
                     grades in secondary school, etc.
                                                    Transferring        Graduating
       Entering                                     between             school (good
                                                                        marks)         Entering
       first grade                                  levels                             university

  Grades     1           Primary schooling                9         10 Secondary schooling

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