Dissertation on Technology by dwo12410

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									Dissertation Defense
  Conference Call
      Mark Moran
   Doctoral Candidate
   Dissertation Title
College Student’s Acceptance
              of
Tablet Personal Computerss
     a Modification of the
Unified Theory of Acceptance
and Use of Technology Model
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Discussion & Conclusions
The Unified Theory of Acceptance
     and Use of Technology
• This is a publication distilled from
  Viswanath Venkatesh’s dissertation from
  1998, University of Minnesota.
• Viswanath studied under Fred Davis, the
  publisher of the technology acceptance
  model (TAM) which came from his
  dissertation.
• Dr. Davis completed his dissertation in
  1986 which was the basis for TAM.
        Improved prediction
• UTAUT model was developed to help
  predict new technology implementation.
• Empirical validation showed that the new
  model successfully explained 70% of the
  variance of user acceptance intent
  (Venkatesh et al., 2003).
• Prior to then the models were successful
  predictors between 17 and 50%.
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Discussion & Conclusions
           The survey tool
• The survey is a web based tool created in
  MS FrontPage that was used to gather
  participant responses based on a seven
  item likert scale captured in database.
• The tool can be examined at:
• www.homepage.dsu.edu/moranm/researc
  h
        The participant pool
• The survey was administered to 361
  college students had been using the tablet
  PC for three months to more than a year.
• Students were surveyed in their normally
  schedule classes.
  – Classes were selected to target students who
    received their tablet the prior semester.
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Dissertation Timeline
              Null Hypotheses'
• H01: University students, in the study environment,
  reject the Tablet PC.
• H02: The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
  Technology (UTAUT) does not predict the successful
  acceptance of the Tablet PC
• H03: The constructs of the UTAUT will not demonstrate
  an effect on users acceptance of the tablet PC.
• H04: Computer self efficacy does not impact students
  acceptance of the Tablet PC.
• H05: Anxiety about computer use does not impact
  students’ acceptance of the Tablet PC
• H06: Students use pattern of the Tablet PC does not
  impact their acceptance of the device.
          Alternate Hypotheses'
• Ha1: University students, in the study environment,
  accept the Tablet PC.
• Ha2: The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
  Technology (UTAUT) does predict the successful
  acceptance of the Tablet PC
• Ha3: The constructs of the UTAUT will demonstrate an
  effect on user acceptance of the tablet PC.
• Ha4: Computer self efficacy does have an impact on
  students acceptance of the Tablet PC.
• Ha5: Anxiety about computer use does have an impact
  on students’ acceptance of the Tablet PC.
• Ha6 Students use of the Tablet PC does not impact
  student’s acceptance of the device.
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
  – Changes
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Discussion & Conclusions
                     Sample
• 263 valid responses        Class Status:
  were captured in the         127 freshman, 66
  survey database.             sophomore, 49
• Basic statistics for the     juniors, 16 seniors
  data is summarized         • First Computer Use:
  below for the                96 in elementary, 97 in
  significant groups.            middle school, 37 in
                                 high school, 33 in
                                 college.
Graphical Representation
          Class Status                      First Computer Use

          None
           2%                                College
                                              13%
      Senior
                                                             Elementary
       6%                           High School
                                                                36%
                                       14%
 Junior
  19%
                         Freshman
                            48%
                                                  Middle
                                                   37%

Sophomore
   25%

                                         Length of Tablet PC Use


                                                           Three mo
                                         > 12 mo             13%
                                           28%



                                         12 mo
                                                               Six mo
                                          3%
                                                                38%
                                          Nine mo
                                            18%
     Significant Data Findings
• There were statistically significant
  difference found in two population groups.

• The participants who classified themselves
  as freshman had significant variance with
  the other classifications.
• There were significant differences based
  on first computer use among participants.
             T-test & p-value results
              for grade declaration
Comparison Groups                        T-stat       p-value
---------------------------------------------------------------
Freshman vs. sophomore                   1.67         0.04
Freshman vs. junior                      1.45         0.07
Freshman vs. senior                      1.59         0.06
            T-test & p-value results
     for first computer use declaration
Comparison Groups                        T-stat       p-value
---------------------------------------------------------------
Elementary vs. college                   1.79         0.05
Middle School vs. high school 1.47                    0.07
Middle School vs. college                1.84         0.04
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
  – Changes
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Discussion & Conclusions
• Partial Least Squares is the analytical
  model most commonly used to analyze
  data in TAM and UTAUT publications.
            PLS-Graph of
          Dissertation Model

• The next three slides show the PLS-Graph
  analysis of all the participants.

  – Just the declared freshman participants.

  – Just the junior & senior participants.
All participants
              Explanation
• The numbers in the middle of the arrows
  represent the contribution of each
  independent construct to the dependent
  constructs.
• The number below the dependent
  constructs is the percent of variation of
  that construct explained by the model.
Freshman only (N = 127)
Juniors & Senior Participants
            PLS Findings
            Behavioral  Use
Model       Intent      Behavior Total
_______________________________________
All         55%         11%       66%
Freshman    63%         22%       85%
Upper Class 49%         7%        56%
               Agenda
• Why the Unified Theory of Acceptance
  and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model.
• The Survey Tool.
• Hypotheses.
• Data Sample
• PLS Model
• Discussion & Conclusions
               Discussion
• The dissertation model supports five of the
  six hypotheses as discussed in the slides
  to follow.
• This whole process has been extremely
  rewarding as it opened a new world of
  behavioral research for this researcher.
• Although this is a very narrow topic the
  area has many problems to analyze.
• This experience has opened the area of
  web based survey that will be highly
  valuable for future research.
• The statistically analysis and PLS-Graph
  knowledge gained will benefit both the
  student and his research in the future.
• The process has changed the way the
  research thinks about addressing a
  problem.
• The learning experience is about the
  journey not the destination.
    University students, in this
environment, accept the tablet PC.
• All participant groups have positive
   behavioral intent and use behavior and
   most construct have a positive contribution
   to the dependent variables.
Group         Behavioral Intent          Use behavior
-----------------------------------------------------------
All                 55%                        11%
Freshman            63%                        22%
Upper Class 49%                                  7%
 The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT) does predict the successful
         acceptance of the Tablet PC.


• All constructs used in UTAUT have a
  positive correlation to behavioral intent.

• Anxiety (- 7%) is not part of UTAUT it was
  added to this study to support investigative
  vigor with attitude toward using technology
  (47%) and self efficacy (12%).
The constructs of the UTAUT will demonstrate an
  effect on user acceptance of the Tablet PC.

• Supported by the same data as the
  previous alternative hypothesis.
Computer self efficacy does have an impact
  students acceptance of the Tablet PC.
• The dissertation model re-introduced this
   construct and found that in the research
   environment this variable does impact
   acceptance.
Group         Self Efficacy Contribution
-----------------------------------------------------------
All                        12%
Freshman                   10%
Upper Class minus 2%
• The contribution of self efficacy will be
  studied more in depth in subsequent
  research with a K12 one-on-one study that
  will be conducted in South Dakota with 30
  pilot schools.
Anxiety about computer use does have an impact
   on student’s acceptance of the Tablet PC.

• The negative contribution of anxiety
  indicate that there is not a contribution to
  the dependent construct behavioral intent.
• Contribution is -7% for the whole
  population and -12% for both the freshman
  and upper class groups.
Students’ use of the Tablet PC does impact
    student’s acceptance of the device.
• Initially I thought that the positive outcome
  of the dissertation model indicated support
  for this statement, but after learning more
  about the PLS-Graph tool I learned that
  you could reverse the arrow of effect and
  when I did that for use behavior I found
  that it did not have a positive contribution
  to behavioral intent.
 The influence of use behavior
• Reversal of the link between the two
  dependent constructs indicated in the
  dissertation model that use does not
  contribute to behavioral intent.
• The freshman and upper classmen model
  does indicate a contribution at 7 & 16
  percent respectively.
  – This phenomena should be further studied.
        Concluding remarks
• During the dissertation process I have
  learned much more than I thought I might.
• Technology acceptance is fundamentally
  about about two features of technology;
  ease of use and usefulness. Initially they
  seem the same but they are not!
• Ease of use is an interface issue and can
  be changed pretty easily.
• Usefulness is based on company
  requirements and is very hard to change
  once a project gets to the users.

• The perception of these characteristics
  can make or break a project.
• Measurement of these before project
  implementation can alert the organization
  to possible problems that can be averted.
• These are multistable preceptions users
  can rarely recognize both but project
  success requires both so management
  needs to be aware before it is too late!
     Usefulness

                  Ease of Use
             Future Research
• The research for this dissertation has opened
  my preceptions of all the possible applications of
  adoption research.
• There are many opportunities to pursue this type
  of behavioral research and grant opportunities
  should be available.
  – Initially I will be colaborating with Dr. Hawkes on the
    K12 project in South Dakota and publishing the
    dissertation results with Dr. El-Gayar at the DSI
    meeting in San Antonio this fall.
• With the time now, and knowledge, not
  available to me I will be pursuing grant
  opportunities and plan to be active in
  publishing the findings of our research in
  the next few years.
• The K12 study with have two data
  samples, one before the pilot study begins
  and a follow-up survey after one year of
  use in the K12 pilot of thirty schools.
  Approximately 250 teachers will be
  involved and we hope for more than 50%
  participation in the survey.

								
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