CSVR 2003 Report_All-72_.indd by sdsdfqw21


									centre for the study of violence and reconciliation

                   annual report 2003
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) is an
independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1989. For the past fif-
teen years, CSVR has worked to prevent violence in all its forms, heal its
effects, and build sustainable peace and reconciliation in South Africa
and internationally. Our enduring commitment to human rights and to
deepening democracy, reflect the core values of the organisation.

An interdisciplinary organisation, CSVR works in thematic areas related
to peace and reconciliation, transitional, criminal and social justice,
victim empowerment, gender-based violence and youth issues. CSVR
is information-driven through rigorous research, but is rooted in com-
munities through pilot interventions and direct work with marginalised
and excluded groups. These areas of work help us to give voice to
constituent communities as well as informing our policy innovation,
advocacy and public education initiatives.
• Executive Director’s Message .....................................2

• Programme Reports

Criminal Justice Programme ....................................................6
Transition and Reconciliation Programme...............................14
Victim Empowerment Programme ..........................................22                                    1
Gender-based Violence Programme ........................................28
Integrated Peace Building Programme ...................................34
Youth Violence Prevention Programme...................................40

• Human Resources ........................................................46

Staff List .............................................................................49

• Publications .................................................................50

• Financial Report .........................................................58

• Donors ...........................................................................60

Graphic design & illustration: Soweto Spaza cc (Ellen Papciak-Rose) inthestudio@mac.com
Bird on front cover made by Ithuteng Tin Workshop, Botswana. *part of designer’s personal craft collection
    c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                     and Fault-lines
                                                     of Democracy:
                                                     a (mixed) message
                                                          from the
                                                        CSVR Director

                                                              Graeme Simpson
                                                              Executive Director

    As we turn our backs on the year 2003, South Africa nears the end of a dynamic first
    decade of democracy. The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR)
    has played a proud role in this historic evolution, both in the fraught negotiation period
    that led up to the first democratic election, and in consolidating democracy and build-
    ing a human rights culture in the decade thereafter. CSVR is now fifteen years old!
                                                          annual rep or t 20 03 • E XECUT I VE DIREC TOR ’ S ME S S AGE

                                                          We believe that from a critical and independent posi-   the disintegration of states – so prevalent in other
                                                          tion, we have used the last ten years to both part-     parts of our continent and the world.
                                                          ner and provoke our new democratic government in            But we also cannot afford to be complacent about
                                                          driving the process of transformation, violence pre-    the depth or completeness of our transformation.
                                                          vention and the building of sustainable reconcilia-     This resistance to complacency should stimulate
                                                          tion. Throughout this period, through our research,     and not stifle our critical appraisal of what still
                                                          policy and advocacy interventions and community-        needs to be done and of the fault-lines that still
                                                          based pilot programmes, we have learned unique          exist in our society and our region, which threaten
                                                          and internationally relevant lessons about violence     future victimisation or perpetration of violence.
                                                                                                                  In particular, we should be dissatisfied with an
                                                          in transition and the durability or risks to peace
                                                                                                                  approach to reconciliation which stops conveniently
                                                          and reconciliation in emerging democracies. For all
                                                                                                                  suspended at an ideological or party political level,
                                                          these reasons, this is an appropriate time to share
                                                                                                                  rather than broaching the tough issues of social
                                                          in the celebrations of our country’s fledgling democ-
                                                                                                                  justice, development and redress in our country.
                                                          racy. No matter what the problems we may still face
                                                          as a country and as a region, we ought not to take      Future Fault-lines
                                                          for granted the extraordinary processes of change
                                                          that spared us the potential levels of violence – and    The peace of which we feel so proud, must be seen
                                                                                                                   in an appropriate context. It remains incomplete and
Paul Weinberg - South Photographs / africanpictures.net

                                                                                                                   vulnerable: as long as people are dying at the hands
                                                                                                                   of violent criminals; as long as women continue to
                                                                                                                   be victimised on a scale that in other contexts might
                                                                                                                   be described as a crime against humanity; whilst ref-
                                                                                                                   ugees and forced migrants are being re-traumatised
                                                                                                                   by our xenophobia; as long as former combatants
                                                                                                                   feel betrayed and frustrated by their inadequate so-
                                                                                                                   cial reintegration; whilst guns remain readily avail-
                                                                                                                   able in our militarised society; and as long as the
                                                                                                                   devastating experiences of poverty and relative dep-
                                                                                                                   rivation (dramatically exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                   pandemic) continue to fracture our society along
                                                                                                                   the lines of those who have and those who don’t.
                                                                                                                       In many ways, South Africa’s democracy has
                                                                                                                   given new shape to a politics of exclusion which
                                                                                                                   is not inherently redressed by the formal political
                                                                                                                   equality of representative electoral processes.
                                                                                                                   Whether these experiences of marginalisation are
                                                                                                                   based upon the enduring politics of race, class or
                                                                                                                   patriarchy; or the experiences of uneven regional
                                                                                                                   development and the limitations of state service
                                                                                                                   delivery; or whether they are shaped by patterns
                                                                                                                   of cultural, linguistic, ethnic or religious exclusion
                                                          The dawn of a new democracy: former State               – these identity-based perceptions map another
                                                          President Nelson Mandela casts his ballot for            range of fault-lines for future conflict that may
                                                          the first time in 1994                                    threaten sustainable peace in the decade or more
                                                                                                                   that lies ahead.
    c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

         Most importantly, whatever the achievements              commitments through NEPAD, South Africa’s facili-
     of our embryonic democracy, it is clear that the             tative role in Burundi and the temporary cessation
     benefits of economic citizenship have yet to reach            of mayhem and plunder in the Democratic Republic
     those most in need. In the context of a black eco-           of Congo, we ought not to celebrate our decade
     nomic empowerment discourse that services the                of democracy too vocally, whilst remaining silent
     exclusive needs of a small elite – these experiences         on the retreat of democracy and the human rights
     of sustained social and economic injustice under-            violations taking place in Zimbabwe. As the Zimba-
     pin high levels of frustration which present risks of        bwean government once again betrays its liberation
     both violent politics and crime.                             tradition through imitating the Apartheid regime’s
         These are the fault-lines that threaten durable          methods in its unveiled attack on civil society
     peace in South Africa. They are the social problems          organisations in that country, it is self-evident
     that should worry self-satisfied politicians and tem-         that durable peace in the region demands that the
     per their celebration, lest it becomes an arrogance          South African government abandon its politics of
     which assumes that these historic gains are irre-            acquiescent ‘diplomacy’.
     versible. Or that the loss of life, opportunity and               Beyond the confines of the sub-continent too,
     talent in our society will not impact on the peaceful        the prospects of durable global peace were dealt
     quality of our collective democratic experience. In          some extraordinary blows during the year under
     this context, we should Graeme Williams - South Photographs / africanpictures.net       review. As the armoured
     undoubtedly be indignant                                                                columns of US and Brit-
     that the ANC government                                                                 ish troops rolled into
     appears more concerned                                                                  Iraq, they did so over the
4    to corner electoral pow-                                                                mortally wounded bod-
     er through courting the                                                                 ies of multi-lateralism
    ‘New’ National Party – its                                                               and the mechanisms of
     morally and politically                                                                 intergovernmental con-
     bankrupt former adver-                                                                  straint. Over and above
     sary – than it is with pro-                                                             the invasion itself, the
     moting real reconciliation                                                              Bush government’s mod-
     through embracing cred-                                                                 elling of an “end justifies
     ible organisations and                                                                  the means” approach to
     social movements with         Protesting socio-economic injustice – People counter-terrorism, has
     the interests of the black marched from the township of Alexandra to the done irreparable dam-
     working class at heart.       wealthy suburb of Sandton during the WSSD                 age to the civil liber-
                                                                                             ties and human rights
     Regional and Global Issues                                   norms and standards it claims to be defending.
                                                                  In the Islamaphobia which this counter-terrorism
     2003 also presented some seminal challenges in               strategy invokes on a global scale, in the breeding
     the regional context that should be instructive of           ground for future suicide bombers which it in fact
     the danger in assuming that our national democ-              promotes, and in the manner in which the abuse
     racy exists in isolation. Both in terms of economic          of prisoners is rationalised or becomes normative,
     development and in terms of human rights norms               these developments in the past year threaten us all.
     and standards, durable peace and human security              They threaten not only the integrity of the United
     demand that we go beyond boasting national solu-             Nations, but also the credibility of important mul-
     tions to problems which are regional in character.           ti-lateral innovations in Africa, in the form of the
     Notwithstanding the fragile peace in Angola, the             African Union, the NEPAD peer review mechanisms
     innovation in linking development to human rights            and the protocols of SADC.
annual rep or t 20 03 • E XECUT I VE DIREC TOR ’ S ME S S AGE

Reflection and Future Strategy                            other societies in transition. They also provide
                                                         unique insights for the international development
 For all these reasons, the past year has been one       agencies, humanitarian aid agencies, human rights
 of reflection rather than just celebration for CSVR.     movements and transitional justice advocates, at
 After a decade of democracy, CSVR has taken a           a time when the global situation is calling out for
 step back to assess our organisational contribution     leadership from the South. For all these reasons, we
 and impact and to reflect on the new and endur-          believe that CSVR is uniquely placed to connect the
 ing challenges that face South Africa in the next       local to the global and we consequently believe that
 ten years. Through our “fault-line analyses” and our    we have a growing role in contributing to reciprocal
 assessments of the external environment, we have        learning and strategic partnerships in our region,
 understood better the limitations of constitutional     on our continent and internationally.
 change, the continuity and change in the charac-            CSVR’s integrated approach to victim empower-
 ter and patterns of violence and social conflict in      ment, to gender violence, to the residual impact
 our country, and the critical need to build human       of trauma and collective memory, to transitional,
 security as a path to addressing the root causes of     criminal and ultimately social justice, and to work-
 violence in all its forms. All this has helped CSVR     ing with marginalised groups such as ex-combat-
 to forge a new strategic path which emphasises the      ants, refugees, youth, prisoners, the families of the
 role we can play at the nexus between conflict and      ‘disappeared’, women and children, etc., all offer a
 development, both in South Africa and on the inter-     unique approach to building durable peace. This
                                                         integrated approach offers multiple entry points
 national stage. In doing this we have not changed
                                                         which need to be defined and prioritised from below
 our core values – embedded in our commitments to
 democracy and human rights – but we have identi-
                                                         if they are to optimally contribute to the transfor-
                                                         mation of conflict.
 fied a new set of hurdles that face our society in an
 ever-changing global and regional context. Amidst
 our own celebration of what we have contributed to
                                                           4 For all these reasons, we believe that
 South Africa’s democracy over the past decade, we
                                                            CSVR is uniquely placed to connect the
 have sought to recognise the substantial risks that
                                                           local to the global and we consequently
 have not been overcome, as well as the opportuni-
                                                            believe that we have a growing role in
 ties for change that may contribute to making our
                                                            contributing to reciprocal learning and
 peace and reconciliation more durable.
                                                           strategic partnerships in our region, on
     CSVR’s resultant vision for the next decade is
                                                              our continent and internationally.
 reflective and self-critical, but ambitious in our
 commitment to share and integrate our lessons,         A Debt of Gratitude
 gleaned both from our failures and our successes.
 Our commitment to community level interven-            Amidst all the changes and challenges that have tak-
 tions and to learning from below; our undertak-        en place over the past year, thankfully there are some
 ing to address the needs of the most marginalised      things that stay the same. Foremost amongst these
 of people through rendering them audible rather        are the donors and partners of CSVR, who continue
 than speaking on their behalf; our passionate pur-     to invest in our innovation. To them, as always, we
 suit of an agenda for institutional transformation,    remain eternally (and consistently) grateful. Equally
 equity and the building of new relationships, both     important are the talented and dedicated staff who
 in our own organisation as well as in our society      are the lifeblood of this organisation and who have
– all these commitments indicate that we are firmly      given their all to give substance to everything that
 rooted in the local experiences of the South. At       is in this report.
 the same time, we believe that these experiences           About them, at least, there is nothing mixed in
 provide unique lessons – if modestly offered – for     this message.
    c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                    The Criminal Justice Programme
                                                   brings together projects concerned
                                                    with building a more democratic,
                                                   accountable and effective criminal
                                                  justice system. By critically engaging
                                                  with the institutions of the criminal
                                                     justice system, the Programme
                                                    contributes through research and
                                                   training projects to improving the
                                                    functioning of these institutions.

                                                            Amanda Dissel
                                                          Programme Manager
annual repor t 2003 • CR IMINAL JUST ICE PROGR AMME

criminal justice programme
The criminal justice system has a critical role to play in newly democratic countries.
A historic erosion of credibility and functioning of these institutions coupled with a
frequent rise in crime during the transition period presents an obstacle to rebuilding
structures concerned with crime and justice. At the same time, increased insecurity
often prompts citizens to call for the rolling back of human rights in response to
crime, at a time when a culture of respecting rights is only just taking root. The work
of the Criminal Justice Programme seeks to strengthen the capacity of these institu-
tions, simultaneously building their effectiveness whilst consolidating democratic
principles of policing and justice. The Programme is particularly concerned with the
policing and correctional sectors, and has in the past year expanded on previous
crime prevention work in metropolitans to include work on urban safety in the rural
parts of metropolitan areas.


                                                                                                Eric Miller / africanpictures.net
The Criminal Justice Program-
me’s policing work aims to
contribute to the development
of professional public policing
agencies that operate with
integrity and are guided by the
principles of the South African
Constitution. In particular, the
CJP researchers explore key
challenges confronting polic-
ing policy development and
its implementation. As one
characteristic of democratic
policing is civilian oversight,
                                   Building good police – community relations is an important
much of the current focus is on
                                   component of democratic policing
internal and external account-
ability systems and structures.
    c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

    The Police Integrity Management Project                    CJP’s work in past years has highlighted that
                                                           the organisational factors that allow for ongoing
    During 2003 a number of public opinion surveys         poor service delivery and misconduct in the police
                                                           are the same factors that allow for the emergence
    continued to highlight the perception of police as
                                                           and spread of police corruption. During 2002 the
    the most corrupt government department. While
                                                           CJP developed a ‘Police Integrity Management
    the SAPS had since 1996 identified ‘combating and
                                                           Framework’ through a combination of both its lit-
    preventing corruption’ as one of its national pri-     erature and field research at the Hillbrow station.
    orities, there was no coherent policy in place to      This framework was designed to provide strategic
    ensure that this objective could be effectively pur-   guidance to local level police commanders towards
    sued and evaluated. This was compounded by the         improving both the performance and conduct of
    closure of the SAPS Anti-Corruption Unit in 2002.      their personnel.


    CJP researchers (from left to right): Themba Masuku, Lulama Gomomo, Gareth Newham, and
    Millicent Maroga pose next to Johannesburg Area Commissioner Reddy (left) and Provincial
    Commissioner Naidoo (far right) at the Hillbrow ‘Top Cop’ Award Dinner.
annual repor t 2003 • CR IMINAL JUST ICE PROGR AMME

    In 2003 the CJP sought to expand on and               of police power for personal gain, the extent to
consolidate this work through the following               which these types of misconduct are understood
initiatives:                                              to be against SAPS regulations, perceptions of
                                                          the disciplinary system’s response to these types
= On the invitation of the Johannesburg Area Com-         of misconduct and the willingness of police mem-
  missioner, the CJP team led by Project Manager          bers to report such misconduct.
  Gareth Newham, designed and conducted two
  day-long internal management workshops with
  senior SAPS Johannesburg Area and Station lev-       Highlights
  el commanders and Community Policing Forum
  Board executive representatives. The outcomes        = The Project Manager of the Police Integrity
  of the workshops were captured in a document           Management Project was invited by the Western
  entitled, ‘Towards Enhancing Leadership and Man-       Cape provincial Department of Community Safety
  agement: The Report of the SAPS Area Johannes-         to assist with the conceptualising of an anti-
  burg Police Management Imbizos’. The report was        corruption strategy for police agencies.
  accepted by the Johannesburg Area Commission-        = In November, the CJP designed and facilitated a
  er as a strategic management document and dis-         SAPS Johannesburg Area Police Anti-Corruption
  tributed to all participants and key stakeholders      Summit at which the outcomes of the integrity
  including the Gauteng Provincial Commissioner          project were presented to and discussed by
  and the MEC for Safety and Liaison.                    approximately 100 key stakeholders.
= The Police Integrity Management Project was          = The SAPS Johannesburg Commissioner under-
  then implemented in the following three priority       took to use CSVR research as part of the stra-       9
  police stations: Alexandra (township), Hillbrow        tegic planning process for the Johannesburg
  (inner-city) and Sandton (suburban). Qualita-          Police Area.
  tive and quantitative research was undertaken
  in each station in consultation with the Johan-
  nesburg Area Commissioner and each of the
                                                               4 CJP’s work in past years has
  participating station management components.
                                                             highlighted that the organisational
  Over 60 in-depth interviews were conducted                factors that allow for ongoing poor
  with senior, middle and junior station managers,           service delivery and misconduct in
  union representatives and Community Policing              the police are the same factors that
  Forum members, and 1000 survey questionnaires             allow for the emergence and spread
  were distributed.                                                  of police corruption.
= At the request of the SAPS Johannesburg Area
  Commissioner, survey findings from the project
  were presented to a meeting of all commissioned      The Witness Management Project
  officers (approximately 400 police members
  holding the rank of Captain and above) in the        In the South African criminal justice system, over
  Johannesburg police area.                            50% of cases referred by the police to the pros-
= A draft report was compiled presenting the find-      ecuting authority are subsequently withdrawn. Pre-
  ings of the ‘Police Integrity Measurement Sur-       vious research conducted by the CSVR identified
  vey.’ The report highlights key police organisa-     poor ‘witness management’ as one of the contrib-
  tional characteristics that serve to facilitate or   uting factors to this situation. Activities in the
  prevent police corruption. The survey measures       Witness Management Project seek to address these
  the extent to which police members perceive the      weaknesses and contribute to the strengthening of
  relative seriousness of different types of abuse     national prosecutorial capacity.
                                                            c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                            = Managed by David Bruce, research was undertak-     Work with Young Offenders
                                                              en towards the development of a ‘Witness Man-
                                                              agement Handbook’ designed to provide both         This project seeks to pilot and evaluate develop-
                                                              uniformed police members and detectives with       mental interventions for young offenders.
                                                              useful information and good practices when
                                                              working with witnesses to criminal incidents.      Highlights
                                                            = Quantitative research was conducted into the
                                                              experiences of witnesses who appear in court.      = Introduced a restorative justice and gender
                                                              This component of the project was undertaken in      component into our workshops with young male
                                                              collaboration with Business Against Crime (BAC),     offenders.
                                                              who were particularly interested in the experi-    = Completed our intervention programme with
                                                              ences of customers of court service delivery as      16 young sentenced offenders at Johannesburg
                                                              no such survey had previously been carried out.      prison. We continued to offer follow-up work
                                                                                                                   on a monthly basis with the participants. Dur-
                                                            Penal Reform Work                                      ing this period we also ran specific workshops
                                                            The Criminal Justice Programme engages in pilot        around communication and interpersonal skills,
                                                            interventions, research and policy development         anger management, and relationships. The
                                                            focused on understanding prison culture with a         young men were interested in sharing the skills
                                                            view to contributing towards penal reform policy.      they had learned with other inmates, and conse-
                                                            Psychotherapeutic life skills interventions run by     quently the focus was on very practical, and less
                                                            Lindiwe Mkhondo and Kindisa Ngubeni were also          threatening activities.
10                                                          provided for young convicted prisoners.              = We were approached by Van Ryn Place of Safety,
     John Robinson - The Media Bank / africanpictures.net

                                                            During 2003 the prison population reached a new high of 187,000 inmates; raising further con-
                                                            cerns about overcrowding of prisons and its consequences
annual repor t 2003 • CR IMINAL JUST ICE PROGR AMME

   an institution for children at risk, and asked to    oners are released after serving their sentences.
   assist with programmes for youngsters in their       One of our aims is to contribute to the prevention of
   custody. In addition to children held in com-        sexual violence in male offender institutions. Fol-
   pliance with the Children’s Court, Van Ryn also      lowing ground-breaking research on sexual violence
   holds a small number of awaiting trial children.     carried out in 2002, Sasha Gear and Kindisa Ngubeni
   Training for child care workers is planned for       continued to present these findings in a number of
   early 2004.                                          forums, including to a network of youth care insti-
                                                        tutions. In November CJP hosted a stakeholder
            4 The Criminal Justice                      workshop on sexual violence in prisons. The objec-
         Programme engages in pilot                     tives were to facilitate a conversation on prevent-
          interventions, research and                   ing sexual violence in prison, to begin a mini audit
        policy development focused on                   of skills and experience in responding to sexual
         understanding prison culture                   violence in offender institutions, and for CSVR to
         with a view to contributing                    develop a network of potential resource organisa-
         towards penal reform policy.                   tions/individuals for the pilot project.

Prison Gangs
                                                        = Held discussions with Lawyers for Human Rights
For almost a century the ‘numbers gangs’ have             towards developing protocols for dealing with
dominated prison culture in South Africa, often           complaints of sexual violence in prison.
manifesting in violent gang wars between gangs          = Ongoing attempts were made to assist a prison         11
or violence targeted at, and sometimes abetted by,
                                                          rape victim with accessing very scarce psycho-
prison warders. However in the last decade, the
                                                          logical services necessary for him to both bring
growth and adaptation of street gangs has inevita-
                                                          criminal charges against the perpetrator and for
bly impacted on the nature and organisation of the
                                                          his mental health. The programme has also had
prison numbers gangs. Research was conducted in
                                                          ongoing liaisons with Lawyers for Human Rights
Pollsmoor prison looking at the history and trajec-
                                                          who are assisting him to bring charges.
tory of the gangs, and making recommendations
                                                        = Sasha Gear’s publication ‘DaaiDing’ – dealing
for the effective management of prison gangs in
                                                          with sexual violence in prisons – was reprinted
order to develop strategies aimed at reducing pris-
                                                          after ongoing requests for the report exceeded
on violence.
                                                          the 500 copies originally printed.
    Also during this year, researcher Jonny Stein-
berg (winner of the 2003 Alan Paton Award for his
book ‘Midlands’), spent a lengthy period of time at                 4 One of our aims is to
Pollsmoor prison conducting interviews with pris-               contribute to the prevention of
oners and accompanying a warder on his duties in               sexual violence in male offender
prison. Steinberg identified one particular prisoner             institutions. Following ground-
through which the history of gangs and experiences                breaking research on sexual
in prison will be told, and followed this prisoner on            violence carried out in 2002,
his release from prison.                                       Sasha Gear and Kindisa Ngubeni
                                                                  continued to present these
Sexual Violence in Prisons                                      findings in a number of forums,
                                                                   including to a network of
Prison culture and violence in prison can have an                   youth care institutions.
enormous impact on society, particularly once pris-
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Civilian oversight over prisons                            The project worked with three metropolitan
                                                            areas: Ekhuruleni, Tshwane and eThekweni. In
     Under apartheid, prisons were notoriously closed       Tshwane we focused on crime prevention, and a
     institutions operating away from the public eye.       report was compiled entitled “We Are Living In a
     However, the last decade has seen the develop-         Forgotten Place”: Safety In the Cross-Border Parts
     ment of several structures to oversee and monitor      Of The City Of Tshwane. In eThekweni the project
     conditions in prison and the treatment of prisoners.   is concerned with the integration of traditional
     Despite this, media reports and the hearings of the    leaders into the Council, and particularly their role
     Jali Commission have continued to expose allega-       in relation to domestic violence. Interviews were
     tions of serious corruption, maladministration and     conducted with traditional leaders, supplemented
     abuses in prison. The mechanisms of civilian over-     by participant observation of traditional courts,
     sight appear weak in the face of these enormous        and the full report is to be completed in 2004.
     challenges. This year, Amanda Dissel was commis-           The Criminal Justice Programme has collabo-
     sioned by the Civil Society Prison Reform Initia-      rated with CSVR’s Gender Programme to assess the
     tive (CSPRI) to conduct research on the impact of      safety and security needs of women in two of the
     several civilian mechanisms of oversight, including    metropolitan areas. Specifically this joint project
     the Portfolio Committee on Correctional Services.      has conducted in-depth research at courts in two of
     The research concluded that these structures are       the metropolitan areas looking at implementation
     often weak, and their uncoordinated and un-strate-     of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA). The analysis
     gic approach undermines their ability to effectively   will enable us to identify usage of the DVA, aware-
12   probe reports by the Department of Correctional        ness of the DVA and blockages in the various sys-
     Services (DCS) or to make meaningful policy con-       tems. The comparison between the two courts – one
     tributions. It recommends several mechanisms to        predominantly servicing a rural area - will allow us
     strengthen their capacity and role.                    to contrast women’s access to justice at both sites
                                                            and identify the unique barriers rural women face
     Rural Safety                                           in accessing justice, as well as those barriers expe-
                                                            rienced by all women, regardless of geographical
     When the local government demarcation process          location.
     was completed it resulted in the incorporation of
     large rural areas into what were predominantly         Highlights
     urban areas. This poses new challenges for local
     authorities who tend to only have experience in        = A gender analysis was conducted of safety poli-
     urban crime prevention. Moreover, rural areas are        cies and plans utilised by the metros. Based on
     usually under resourced – both in human resources        this analysis, we have developed a number of
     and economic terms – resulting in inequality within      criteria to assess not only how policy-makers
     the metros.                                              understand safety, but also the extent to which
         The Rural Safety Project is concerned with the       they have integrated gender into their under-
     awareness and development of crime prevention            standings of safety in five different policies and
     activities suitable to the rural parts of urban          official documents.
     metropolitan areas. It also seeks to highlight         = CSVR was invited to be a founding member and
     and address inequality in resource allocation,           participant in the Alliance for Crime Prevention
     particularly along gender lines, and to explore          (ACP), a network of organisations that aim to
     traditional mechanisms for dealing with gender-          increase understanding of crime prevention
     based violence in the rural areas.                       initiatives.
annual repor t 2003 • CR IMINAL JUST ICE PROGR AMME


The CJP team: (from left to right) Back row: Gareth Newham, Anthony Altbeker. Middle row: David
Bruce, Lulama Gomomo, Kindiza Ngubeni, Themba Masuku, Amanda Dissel. Front row: Bilkees
Vawda, Millicent Maroga, and Sasha Gear.

Future Directions                                    = Handbooks are being created on both good wit-
                                                       ness management by the police, and police integ-
= Jonny Steinberg’s research on the history of         rity management.
  gangs in Cape Town will be released in 2004 as a   = Research will begin on diversity within the SAPS.
  trade book. Also published will be a monograph
                                                       4 In eThekweni the project is concerned
  on prison gangs, which will be made available
                                                       with the integration of traditional leaders
  to NGOs, academics and the Department of
                                                        into the Council, and particularly their
  Correctional Services.                                  role in relation to domestic violence.
= We will be entering into an exciting partnership
  with the Department of Correctional Services at
  Boksburg prison to identify the scope and extent
  of sexual violence in the youth prison, and then
  to work with staff towards developing strate-
  gies for reporting, responding to and preventing
  sexual violence.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                     The Transition and Reconciliation
                                                          Programme explores the
                                                     relationship between conflicts of
                                                     the past, reconciliation, violence
                                                    prevention and justice, in order to
                                                     contribute to building sustainable
                                                    reconciliation and the prevention of
                                                     conflict, violence and intolerance
                                                        in South Africa and beyond.

                                                              Polly Dewhirst
                                                            Hector Ramoleta

                                                       Acting Programme Managers

transition and reconciliation
TRP has moved beyond the evaluation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
in South Africa to explore new challenges and threats to reconciliation in a post-
TRC South Africa. Significant research projects were initiated this year on issues of
race, citizenship and identity, access to information and institutional transformation.
Work was also done to promote alternative and integrated approaches (punitive
and restorative) to justice in transition, with a particular focus on the provision of
reparations for survivors of violence, intervention work around disappearances and
victim-offender mediation.

This year also saw the programme consolidating

                                                                                          Rob White - iAfrika Photos / africanpictures.net
and growing its focus beyond South Africa’s border,
conducting innovative comparative international
work with the dual aims of sharing the lessons of
the South African transition process and learning
from other countries grappling with issues of
reconciliation and transitions to democracy.

Amnesty and Accountability Project

The Amnesty and Accountability Project researched
the impact the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
amnesty process had on victims and perpetrators
of gross human rights violations and designed
appropriate mediation tools and other support
services, to continue and deepen the process of
inter-personal and community reconciliation.

Gideon Nieuwoudt was arrested this year in
the first case of a post-TRC prosecution of
those denied amnesty by the Commission
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                              = Various victims were assisted in accessing infor-
                                                                mation about the status of their reparations.
                                                              = A report on victims’ experience of the amnesty
                                                                process has been finalised for publication in a
                                                                book to be published in 2004 (Has the TRC Deliv-
                                                                ered: Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa,
                                                                edited by Audrey Chapman and Hugo van der
                                                                Merwe, University of Pennsylvania Press).
                                                              = Project staff held a meeting with the Deputy
                                                                Minister of Defence in which she was briefed on
     Families of the disappeared lend each other                research findings and the plans for future inter-
     support – photos of the ‘disappeared’ form a               vention. She expressed strong support for these
     wall of memory in the background                           initiatives.
                                                              = Project team members Nelisiwe Makhubu, Sasha
                                                                Gear, Serame Masitha and Boitumelo Kekhana
         Interviews were conducted with key stakehold-          were invited to join a study tour to the USA to
     ers in the amnesty process, providing rich informa-        examine American veteran programmes. The
     tion about victim and applicant perspectives of the        Deputy Minister also joined the tour and is keen
     amnesty process not reflected anywhere else in the          to follow up some of the lessons learned there
     literature on the TRC. Cases that were appropriate for     through collaborative projects between govern-
     mediation were identified, and in the most urgent           ment and civil society.
16   cases mediated dialogue was facilitated. Simulta-
     neously the project facilitated a three day train-       Race and Citizenship in Transition Project
     ing workshop in victim offender mediation skills,
     directed at dealing with unresolved issues stemming      The Race and Citizenship in Transition project seeks
     from amnesty cases. The training was conducted           to examine relationships of violence, conflict and
     by mediation expert Carl Stauffer, with additional       reconciliation at two levels; namely, individual
     input from CSVR staff Hugo van der Merwe, Boitu-         and group identities, and between citizens and
     melo Kekana, Nelisiwe Makhubu and Simon Vilakazi.        institutions. The project explores contemporary
     Topics covered three main areas: the amnesty proc-       relationships within the context of transitional
     ess; trauma; and restorative justice.                    justice and, as such, has a specific focus on the
         Following this workshop, trainees and AAP            TRC and its impact on identity, reconciliation, the
     staff spent considerable time identifying potential      consolidation of citizenship, and racial violence.
     mediation cases and laying the foundations for the           In 2003, the project focused on these issues
     process with selected victims and perpetrators. A        through various research endeavours:
     pilot mediation was embarked upon, completed,
     and videotaped for future research and educational       = Researcher Bronwyn Harris explored trends and
     purposes.                                                   patterns in prejudice, racial violence and hate
                                                                 crime in post-apartheid South Africa.
     Highlights                                               = CSVR commissioned the Media Monitoring Project
                                                                (MMP) to set up a database of hate crimes report-
     = Numerous victims and ex-combatants were re-              ed in the written South African press across the
       ferred to much needed counselling services. Ad-          period January 1994 – June 2002. The database
       hoc assistance was also provided to interviewees         reveals certain patterns and trends in media
       and their families to facilitate access to educa-        reporting on the topic and provides a useful
       tional opportunities and other social services.          resource for future work.

= Researcher Nahla Valji analysed racism and transi-
  tion through a comparative study of the Guatema-
  lan and South African Truth Commission processes.
= Research intern Moloko Malakalaka reviewed the
   TRC Special Hearings on Children and Youth.

The project also piloted an intervention programme
with secondary school learners in which Community
Facilitator, Brian Molewa, and Researcher, Oupa
Makhalemele, ran in-school working groups with
learners in four secondary schools. These groups
                                                       Brian Molelwa explores issues of violence with
explored the ways in which youth engage with the
                                                       learners at a Johannesburg secondary school
apartheid past and how they integrate this his-
tory into current understandings of reconciliation,
citizenship, identity and conflict. By early 2004,
the information learned from these groups will be
developed into popular educational materials that
can be used by teachers, learners and educators
within secondary school settings.

= In September, Bronwyn Harris made a presenta-
  tion on hate crime in South Africa, at a seminar
  hosted by the South African Human Rights Com-
                                                       These learners were born during South Africa’s
  mission. This forum discussed various ways to
                                                       transition to democracy; yet issues of race,
  deal with racist incidents, particularly violent
  crimes, as well as engaged with the South Afri-
                                                       identity and conflict continue to resonate
  can public on the topic.
= In November, Nahla Valji was invited to deliver a
  lecture based on her comparative work between
  South Africa and Guatemala at John Jay College,
  New York, USA. She was hosted by the Historical
  Memory Project in the Latin American Studies
  Department, which has a specific background in
  the Guatemalan Truth Commission.

             4 The project explores
       contemporary relationships within
       the context of transitional justice
     and, as such, has a specific focus on
      the TRC and its impact on identity,              Pule Rampa facilitates a focus group in Sharp-
      reconciliation, the consolidation of             eville aimed at creating a community-centred
        citizenship, and racial violence.
                                                       model for memorialisation
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Symbolic and Financial Reparations
     Project                                                a c t i v i t ie s
                                                            = Ereshnee Naidu conducted an in-depth qualita-
     The reparations project seeks to monitor and assess      tive study to understand some of the current
     government’s implementation of symbolic and              initiatives around memorialisation that are
     financial reparations; evaluate the impact of repara-     undertaken by government, civil society and
     tions on victims; and understand the role of memo-       communities that have experienced violent con-
     rialisation as a form of symbolic reparations and        flict. The research focused primarily on the role
     the challenges that are presented to both govern-        of memorialisation as a form of symbolic repara-
     ment and civil society in developing a community         tions and its potential as a peacebuilding vehi-
     based approach to memorialisation.                       cle. The final report will be published in 2004.
         Reparations are an essential element in the        = Following the symbolic reparations research
     process of healing and reconciliation; representing      Ereshnee Naidu with the assistance of Pule
     a needed form of justice and acknowledgement. The        Rampa, conducted a needs assessment with the
     adoption of a comprehensive reparations policy that      Khulumani group in Sharpeville to understand
     addresses the need for justice as well as furthers       the needs of survivors with regards to memory
     the developmental goals of the new state, will go        and memorialisation. Sharpeville is historically
     far to achieving a sustainable reconciliation under-     significant in that it was the site of the 1960
     pinned by social justice.                                Sharpeville Massacre, which many historians
         Since the closure of the Truth and Reconcilia-       argue was the turning point in the South Afri-

18   tion Commission in 1998, government has delayed          can struggle for democracy. Additionally, the
                                                              region experienced prolonged political violence
     payment of final reparations, arguing that this can
     only be done once the TRC final report had been           and conflict in the 1980’s and early 1990’s, and
     completed. On 15 April 2003 at the tabling of the        despite attempts at reconciliation, the commu-
     TRC report in Parliament, President Thabo Mbeki          nity remains politically divided.
     announced that all victims who were identified by       = This needs assessment will form the basis of a
     the TRC were to be given a once off payment of           community-based intervention and a community
                                                              centred model for memorialisation that will be
     R 30 000. This amount fell far short of both the TRC
                                                              developed in 2004.
     and civil society’s recommendations or expecta-
                                                            = Oupa Makhalemele conducted an in-depth
     tions. It indicated the need for ongoing advocacy
                                                              qualitative study to determine how financial
     and analysis of the reparations debates in South
                                                              reparations impact on the lives of victims. The
                                                              information informed both our ongoing lobbying
                                                              work as well as fed into our understanding of the
                                                              role of reparations in victim empowerment. The
                                                              final report will be published in 2004

                                                            = Research from this project has informed various
                                                              lobbying activities this year related to repara-
                                                              tions. These include CSVR’s participation in a
                                                              reparations consultation meeting hosted by the
     Using memory work as one element to healing              Office of the President, CSVR’s submission on
     a violent past                                           reparations (financial and symbolic) to the Par-
                                                              liamentary Ad Hoc Committee on Reparations;

   participation in a national reparations confer-      In 2003 the following activities were carried out:
   ence for civil society; and numerous radio inter-
   views and media articles.                            = The project continued to facilitate and provide
= Khulumani Support Group has requested that the          trauma counselling for monthly support groups
   pilot community intervention be rolled out into        for families of disappeared – the Buyela Khaya
   other regions in which their members operate.          group in the East Rand and the Siyani Khumbula
= Researcher Oupa Makhalemele presented the               group in Soweto. The impact on these groups
   findings of his research at an international            was evaluated by researcher Serame Masitha.
   conference on reparations in Canada entitled         = Social work intern Yolelwa Mbanjwa conducted
  ‘Searching for Justice: Comprehensive Action in         interviews and produced her own research report
   the Face of Atrocities’                                on the impact of disappearances of husbands on
                                                          wives as part of her course work for the Social
   4 The adoption of a comprehensive rep-                 Work Honours programme at the University of
   arations policy that addresses the need                Witwatersrand.
    for justice as well as furthers the devel-          = Investigator Ollie Mahopo continued his inves-
   opmental goals of the new state, will go               tigations into over 50 cases. Although some
   far to achieving a sustainable reconcilia-             investigations have proved temporarily unsuc-
       tion underpinned by social justice.                cessful, the project gained valuable experience
                                                          of the challenges of working with perpetrators.
                                                          This is being written up into case studies.
Continued Truth Recovery Project
This project aims to provide continued truth recovery   Highlights                                            19
and healing for victims of gross human rights viola-
tions (with a particular focus on the families of the   = On 21 March 2003 the Siyani Khumbula support
disappeared) by: empowering families of the disap-        group participated in a public service to mark
peared through support groups and trauma counsel-         the official closure of the TRC and the handing
ling; ongoing documentation of disappearance cases;       over of its final two volumes. The group brought
conducting investigative case studies to identify         all of the photographs of the disappeared and
and advocate for best practices for post-TRC truth-       displayed them on the floor of the cathedral
seeking activities; and building stronger networks to     where the service was held. In perhaps the most
take long-term truth-seeking strategies forward.          powerful moment of the service TRC Chairper-
                                                          son Desmond Tutu asked all of the survivors of
                                                          human rights violations to place items related
                                                          to their suffering on the altar for cleansing.
                                                          Although the families that took part in the serv-
                                                          ice found it helpful, the event brought about
                                                          a feeling of sadness as it officially marked the
                                                          closure of the truth commission’s investigations
                                                          into disappearances.
                                                        = Project Manager Polly Dewhirst represented
The provision of psycho-social support to fam-            Southern African organisations at a Linking
ilies of the disappeared forms an essential               Solidarity conference in Arusha, Tanzania. This
component of the Continued Truth Recovery                 conference drew participants from all over the
Project                                                   continent working on the issue of enforced dis-
                                                          appearances and culminated in the establishment
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

        of the African Network against Disappearances
        (better known by its French acronym RADIF).            4 The project seeks to carry forward
        Polly Dewhirst was appointed as the Vice Presi-         the TRC's recommendations around
        dent of the Interim Committee of RADIF.                   continued access to information
                                                                relating to human rights violations
     Access to Information in the                              and the need for continued initiatives
     Wake of the TRC                                             around truth seeking and justice.

     The purpose of this project is to ensure that the
                                                           International Learning Exchange
     doors to the past publicly opened by the TRC do
     not shut simply because the Commission's statu-       The Transition and Reconciliation Programme con-
     tory mandate has come to an end. More specifically,    tinues to receive requests for input from govern-
     the project seeks to carry forward the TRC's recom-   ments and civil society organisations in countries
     mendations around continued access to informa-        undergoing a transition to democracy. In order to
     tion relating to human rights violations and the      formalise a learning exchange, as well as consoli-
     need for continued initiatives around truth seeking   date partnerships with civil society organisations in
     and justice.                                          these countries, a user-friendly multimedia resource
         The aims of this year-long project were to        package including research reports, booklets, and
     conduct research into the state of post-TRC access    videos has been developed. The package, which
     to information and truth-seeking initiatives.         is being developed by Senior Researcher Carnita
                                                           Ernest, addresses ten themes: mobilising civil soci-
20   = Dr. Dale McKinley produced a comprehensive          ety; psycho-social support; victim empowerment;
       report focusing on the legislative context of       reparations; memorialisation; justice and account-
       access to information, the TRC Archive and          ability; documentation of human rights violations;
       broader challenges and opportunities. The report    engaging perpetrators and ex-combatants; institu-
       also contained a list of practical recommenda-      tional transformation; and reconciliation.
       tions for government and civil society on how to
       take access to information work forward.            Highlights
     = The project co-hosted a successful workshop
                                                           = Carnita Ernest presented her research at the “Sub-
       with the South African History Archives and
                                                             regional Conference on Building Effective Civil
       the University of the Witwatersrand Graduate
                                                             Society Participation in National Reconciliation
       School for Humanities and the Social Sciences
                                                             and Transitional Justice Processes” in Ghana.
       entitled Information for Justice: Using Access
                                                           = Dr. Hugo van der Merwe presented at the Inter-
       Legislation for Human Rights. The workshop
                                                             national Centre for Transitional Justice/ Centre
       brought together over 90 national participants        for Democratic Development-Ghana conference
       and was addressed by keynote speaker William         “Truth Commissions and NGOs: The Essential
       Ferrogiarro, Director of the National Security        Relationship” held in Italy.
       Archive in Washington, DC, who shared his           = CSVR hosted 2 interns, Mai Bhone Kyaw and
       extensive experience in using the Freedom             Khaing San Wint, human rights activists from
       of Information Act (FOIA) for human rights            Burma from October to December 2003. The
       investigations.                                       interns assisted in the development of the
                                                             Documentation of Human Rights Abuses module
                                                             for the educational package and wrote up their
                                                             own experiences which will be used as case
                                                             studies in the module.

Violence in Transition Project II                        = A website will be developed which will provide
                                                           an overview of the transitional justice processes
In 2003 TRP received funding to extend the work of         employed by various countries, providing quick
the Violence in Transition Project (VTP). This project     and easily accessible information.
explores the false dichotomy created between             = Further victim-perpetrator mediations will be
political violence of the past and social and crimi-       conducted, along with follow-up interviews
nal violence in the present. The implications of this      with participants to evaluate the impact of the
binary and the interplay with policies adopted to          process.
address questions of justice in the past and present     = Research will be conducted into the newly formed
are explored more fully in a ground breaking report        Equality Courts – assessing their strengths and
published by Executive Director Graeme Simpson             weaknesses to date and making recommendations
this year entitled “‘A snake gives birth to a snake…'      for the future.
Politics and Crime in the Transition to Democracy in     = In-depth case studies will be conducted on racially
South Africa”.                                             motivated violence in select communities.
                                                         = Current work on prejudice and discrimination will
                                                           be expanded to include an explicit focus on hate
Continuing the work of the first phase, VTP II draws
                                                           crime and terrorism.
on this theoretical paradigm in relation to the
following specific case studies:
                                                         In 2004, TRP will increasingly integrate its work
                                                         with that of the Youth, Victim Empowerment, Crimi-
= KwaZulu Natal Peace Process
                                                         nal Justice, Gender and Africa Programmes. Key
= The Impact of Weapons: A Case Study of
                                                         themes for future work include:                         21
= Trauma in Transition, with a specific focus on
                                                         = Ex-Combatants
                                                         = Race, Identity and Violence
= Violence and Social Movements
                                                         = Transitional Justice Research and Networking
= Kathorus: Youth Attitudes towards violence,
                                                           in Africa
  criminal justice and the TRC before and
                                                         = Memory and Memorialisation
  after 1994
                                                         = Peace-building
                                                         = Institutional Transformation
Preliminary research points to ground breaking
findings which are expected to be released in 2004.
Also undertaken will be community interventions,
                                                                    4 Also undertaken will be
                                                               community interventions, including
including a pilot weapons collection which will
                                                                a pilot weapons collection which
take place in the violence-ridden community of
                                                                  will take place in the violence-
Richmond in KwaZulu Natal.
                                                                 ridden community of Richmond
                                                                         in KwaZulu Natal.
Future Directions

= CSVR has been approached to undertake the
  community facilitation component in the devel-
  opment of a Kliptown ecomuseum. This multi-
  million rand project will be based in Kliptown, a
  historically significant township in Soweto.
= Ongoing investigations will be conducted into
  disappearance cases.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                         The Victim Empowerment
                                                           Programme works to
                                                              deepen current
                                                             understandings of
                                                         trauma, with a particular
                                                           focus on its changing
                                                         presentation and impact
22                                                       in transitional societies.
                                                          Trauma resulting both
                                                           from political conflict
                                                          and criminal activity is
                                                          exacerbated by poverty.
                                                        Left unaddressed, trauma
                                                       pervades human experience
                                                         and identity and poses a
                                                          barrier to development.

                                                                Naomi Hill
                                                           Programme Manager
annual rep or t 20 03 • V IC T IM EMP OWER MENT PROGR A MME

victim empowerment programme
Since its inception in 1989 CSVR has played a pivotal role in the evolution of Victim
Empowerment in South Africa. Initially, therapeutic service delivery to victims was
provided through the unit known as the Trauma Clinic, and this was one of the corner
stones of the organisation’s founding mandate. Over the years, direct service delivery
has been strengthened by the development of theoretical understandings of violence
and trauma as well as programmes aimed at augmenting the capacity of the sector. To
reflect this broader perspective, the Clinic repositioned itself in 2001 as the Victim
Empowerment Programme, allowing it to consolidate its growing theoretical and
practical work on victimisation.

                                                                                                   John Robinson - The Media Bank / africanpictures.net

Ten years into a new dispensation, South Africa continues to experience unacceptably high levels
of violence in all its forms. Trauma, left unaddressed, can have serious social consequences at
both the individual and societal level
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                             nities to engage in combat for lengthy periods.
                                                             Upon returning, many find it difficult to rebuild
                                                             relationships and reintegrate into society. This
                                                             situation is exacerbated by the current economic
                                                             climate of slow growth and high unemployment
                                                             which increases their susceptibility to living in
                                                             poverty. In most instances, ex-combatants’ trau-
                                                             matic experiences have not been addressed, either
                                                             during or after combat. As a result many continue
                                                             to suffer the effects of traumatic stress such as
     VEP staff receive training on client tracking           depression, interpersonal problems or susceptibil-
     systems                                                 ity to substance abuse.
                                                                 The key objective of our work with ex-combat-
     The programme seeks to alleviate the effects of         ants during the course of this year was to contribute
     violence through a variety of responses, includ-        to the sustainable reintegration of ex-combatants
     ing direct service delivery, training and capacity      into civilian life so as to support the rebuilding of
     development, research and advocacy. The relation-       South Africa’s social fabric. The programme sought
     ship between the Clinic and CSVR’s five other pro-       to develop an understanding of trauma in relation to
     grammes has resulted in a creative interplay of         this marginalised group and to implement appropri-
     theory, analysis and practice that has ensured that     ate models of intervention based on a psychological
     CSVR’s approach to victim empowerment is highly         and educational assessment of participants.
24   relevant to the South African reality, as well as the
     increasingly regional focus on victims of conflict.      Highlights
         The work of the programme is located within
     a framework of reconciliation and violence              The programme continued to partner with Tech-
     prevention. Whilst dealing with trauma and              nikon South Africa (TSA) and incorporated learn-
     violence of political, human rights, gender-based       ing from the joint-pilot project of 2001/2002 into
     and criminal nature, it has a particular focus on       Phase Two of the Tswelopele Reskilling and Reinte-
     marginalised groupings who require specialised          gration Pilot Programme. Ingrid Matla, Boitumelo
     interventions such as ex-combatants and refugees.       Kekana and Busisiwe Kwinda were responsible for
     In these populations trauma is infused with issues      this project. Research psychologist Serame Masitha
     of identity, prejudice, exclusion, memory and social    coordinated the research process. The project laid
     justice. The programme strives to explore the           the groundwork for training programmes that will
     interface of these issues with trauma and violence      facilitate the reintegration of ex-combatants and
     in transitional contexts.                               enable them to advocate for and contribute to
                                                             social reconstruction. The role of the programme is
                                                             to address the psychosocial needs of this popula-
     a c t i v i t ie s                                      tion so that learners are able to benefit fully from
                                                             the educational programme and be ready to enter
     Ex-combatants                                           the labour market on its completion. It is believed
                                                             that accessible and appropriate psychosocial sup-
     Demobilised ex-combatants are generally consid-         port services for veterans will play a critical role
     ered a vulnerable or marginalised grouping in soci-     in assisting ex-combatants to achieve their optimal
     ety. Many suffer dislocated pasts having left family,   social and economic engagement, and consequently
     community and economic or educational opportu-          realise their contribution to social stability.
annual rep or t 20 03 • V IC T IM EMP OWER MENT PROGR A MME

   A report was produced documenting the three              This year, the programme has worked with
phases run by the programme; namely the assess-         asylum-seekers from Somalia, Democratic Republic
ment, life skills and psychosocial support phases.      of Congo, Ethiopia, Angola, Rwanda, Burundi and
The latter two were produced in manual format as a      Sudan. There was also a notable escalation in
contribution to sectoral capacity building.             clients from Zimbabwe.

       4 The key objective of our work                        4 As with migrants of all types in
        with ex-combatants during the                          South Africa, asylum-seekers are
     course of this year was to contribute                    vulnerable to harassment by state
       to the sustainable reintegration                       officials, increased levels of crime
      of ex-combatants into civilian life                     victimisation due to their visibility,
      so as to support the rebuilding of                        and general acts of xenophobia
          South Africa’s social fabric.                         and violence. Through research
                                                               and service delivery, this project
                                                              fulfils a niche role in the network
Asylum-Seekers and Refugees                                    of organisations and government
                                                                   departments working with
Asylum-seekers and refugees exposed to the trauma               asylum-seekers in Gauteng, and
of violent conflict in their countries of origin and            is one of very few organisations
during flight are rendered vulnerable to its associ-             providing psychosocial support
                                                                     services to this group.
ated social, economic and human costs. Driven by
violence and poverty to seek safety in other parts,
they are often ill-received as they are perceived
as presenting a challenge to the security of host       Interventions
countries and unwanted competition for limited
social goods. As with migrants of all types in South    Projects targeted specifically at refugee populations
Africa, asylum-seekers are vulnerable to harassment     were headed by Marivic Garcia, Boitumelo Kekana
by state officials, increased levels of crime victimi-   and Frances Spencer in conjunction with social work
sation due to their visibility, and general acts of     students. Activities in this field were conducted
xenophobia and violence.                                at the individual, group and community levels to
   Through research and service delivery, this          ensure maximum impact. They included:
project fulfils a niche role in the network of organi-
sations and government departments working with         = Individual work with traumatised individuals.
asylum-seekers in Gauteng, and is one of very few       = Group work with refugee women of the Rwandan
organisations providing psychosocial support serv-        community at the Bienvenue Shelter. A parenting
ices to this group. Case studies conducted by the         programme was also run alongside a children’s
programme documented learning about the treat-            programme dealing with trauma, abuse and
ment of trauma in this population and its inter-          violence prevention.
face with identity, thereby improving the quality       = Community level projects were held with youth
of service delivery. The project functions from the       and community groups in the Rwandan commu-
premise that the integration and adjustment of ref-       nity aimed at rights education, life skills devel-
ugees into South African society cannot be reduced        opment and trauma awareness and identification.
to a legal process alone, but relies also on provi-       These capacity development initiatives strove
sion of psychosocial support in response to past and      to support refugees in developing the advocacy
present trauma.                                           skills to promote and realise their rights.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Highlight                                               turbing nature of much of the case material, staff
                                                             are supported throughout the year by a supervision
     = A further project worked to promote reconcilia-       and debriefing programme. Most staff participated
       tion amongst refugee and South African youth          in skills development programmes to augment their
       within schools by working with learners, parents      capacity to deal with the complex nature of trauma
       and educators to increase the integration of          presented.
       refugee children. By focusing on race and xeno-
       phobia in this way it is hoped to instill a culture   Capacity Building and Training
       of human rights among young people which will
                                                             Demand for training in trauma management and
       in turn promote reconciliation.
                                                             counselling remained high in 2003. Training was
                                                             provided at different levels, including to volun-
     Trauma Counselling
                                                             teers, front line workers in state departments
                                                             and professionals specialising in trauma treat-
     Permanent and sessional staff led by Gloria Hlophe      ment. The majority of training was provided in
     as Acting Clinical Coordinator provided counsel-        Gauteng (where major training contracts included
     ling/therapy to victims of trauma and abuse on          the Department of Health), with the exception
     an individual and family basis. Clients travel from     of a year long capacity development process in
     throughout the province, and from primarily poor        Limpopo and North West Provinces. In both these
     socio-economic communities, to access CSVR’s free       provinces services to victims of violence and trau-
     professional services. The client base provides         ma are largely undeveloped and fragmented. The
26   a wealth of information regarding the nature of         training component was followed by supervision
     trauma and the recovery process, and remains our        workshops during which support was offered to
     most powerful site of learning. Because of the dis-     the new trainees.

                                                                                                    work and
                                                                                                    life skills
annual rep or t 20 03 • V IC T IM EMP OWER MENT PROGR A MME

                                                          4 This provides an ideal opportunity for
= CSVR this year was positioned as the lead NGO           CSVR to house its expertise within a state
  partner in a Department of Social Development             structure, thereby contributing to the
  initiated national training programme for inte-          state’s capacity to render these services
  grated victim empowerment training.                       and strengthen its own sustainability.

Ikhaya Lethemba One-Stop Centre
                                                        Future Directions
The Trauma Clinic component of the programme has
played a pioneering role in the victim empowerment      Within the broad framework of Victim Empowerment,
sector over the last decade. In 2002 the organisation   CSVR has prioritised the following elements over
                                                        the next five years:
was approached by the Gauteng Department of Social
Development to provide trauma counselling services
                                                        = Evaluating victim empowerment service delivery
at the Ikhaya Lethemba One-stop Centre. This is an
                                                          (including developing tools for data gathering
initiative of the Gauteng Department of Safety and
                                                          and analysis);
Liaison; the lead partner in an interdepartmental
                                                        = Linking monitoring to policy and advocacy
collaboration of the Departments of Social Develop-
ment, Justice and Health to provide integrated serv-
                                                        = Developing capacity to address and prevent
ices under one roof to victims of violence. CSVR’s
                                                          trauma at community and professional levels;
involvement was solicited for its expertise in trauma
management, counselling and training. A partner-
                                                        = Developing a research strategy focusing on           27
                                                          the changing face of trauma in post-conflict
ship of non-governmental organisations will provide
a continuum of services to victims from intake to in-
                                                        = Developing African partnerships to define
depth therapy for complex trauma of violence, the
                                                          appropriate responses to trauma and violence as
latter being CSVR’s niche role.
                                                          well as exchange lesson learning.
    After much consideration and a year of negotia-
tions a decision was taken in late 2003 to locate       Additionally, the opportunities and increased
part of the Trauma Clinic within Ikhaya Lethemba,       resources provided by Ikhaya Lethemba will allow
which is due to open doors for service delivery in      the organisation to expand its own capacity,
March 2004. This provides an ideal opportunity for      thereby enhancing the future sustainability of
CSVR to house its expertise within a state struc-       its direct services. The Trauma Clinic will be in a
ture, thereby contributing to the state’s capacity      position to increase its case load, access a rich
to render these services and strengthen its own         research base, operate within and contribute to
sustainability. Most trauma counselling will, by        state policy regarding one-stop service delivery,
the end of 2004, be situated at Ikhaya Lethemba,        deliver high quality services to victims, and foster
whilst other victim empowerment projects will inte-     sustainability of its work by embedding expertise
grate with other thematically based projects in the     within the government sector.
    The role that CSVR envisages it can play in
Ikhaya Lethemba includes counselling, training,
research and advocacy. Because CSVR promotes
integrated programming, the work undertaken at
Ikhaya Lethemba will interface with the research
and projects run by other CSVR programmes.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                    The Gender Programme focuses on
                                                    combating and challenging gender-
                                                    based violence, whilst at the same
                                                  time recognising that women and girls
                                                  are diverse and differently advantaged
                                                    or disadvantaged in relation to one
                                                  another. As a consequence, we empha-
                                                   sise the rights and needs of marginal-
                                                  ised groups such as girls and women in
                                                   conflict with the law, adolescent girls,
                                                   women with disabilities, rural women
                                                  and homeless women, amongst others.

                                                               Lisa Vetten
                                                           Programme Manager

gender-based violence programme
In designing the Gender Programme’s projects, it has been necessary not only to take
women’s diversity into account but also their very different contexts; challenging us
to identify and implement a range of solutions addressing the complexity of women
and girls’ lives. Compartmentalised approaches to the problems of sexual coercion and
domestic violence can leave problems addressed in parts, rather than as a whole, and
ignores complexities, such as the relationship between HIV/AIDS and violence against
women for example. The Gender Programme works in a holistic way that encompasses
women’s health and health care systems, the criminal justice system, and more recent-
ly, interventions in development, housing and social security arenas. Also prioritised
are interventions to prevent such violence, and build the capacity of civil society                                                                  29
organisations in this field.

Our key activities include developing, promoting

                                                                                         Graeme Williams - South Photographs / africanpictures.net
and publicising research that will help people un-
derstand the causes and effects of gender-based
violence. This is done through:

= Developing and running education and training
= Working in partnerships with other NGOs and
  government departments at all levels;
= Making recommendations and conducting advo-
  cacy around policy and laws. In particular we
  focus on policies and laws that aim to improve
  how victims and survivors of gender-based vio-
  lence are treated.

Through our focus we are also helping CSVR as a
whole to integrate gender questions and issues in
all its projects.

South Africa’s current levels of violence
against women would, in a war context, likely
be characterised a crime against humanity
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     a c t i v i t ie s                                      = Completion of a guide entitled Health and Hope
                                                               in our Hands: Preventing and treating HIV or AIDS
                                                               in the aftermath of rape or woman abuse. This
     Gender-based Violence and Women’s                         practical guide aims to help counsellors and
     Health                                                    health care workers address both issues in their
                                                               daily service work instead of treating them as
     The negative consequences of rape and domestic            distinct, unrelated phenomena.
     violence on women’s health have been well-
     documented internationally. Yet the South African
     health sector has been generally slow to see itself
     as an important part of an integrated response to       = The follow up training of nurses, initially trained
     gender-based violence. Local research suggests that       in November 2002 on screening for domestic
     women are more likely to tell health workers about        violence, culminated in a mini-conference where
     the violence in their lives, than they are to report      nurses who had attended the initial training and
     such abuse to the criminal justice system. Early          at least one follow-up workshop were presented
     detection of such violence would not only improve         with certificates of attendance in acknowledge-
     the quality of women’s lives, but could well prevent      ment of their work. The certification ceremony
     the escalation and worsening of such violence.            was filmed by the SABC and broadcast as part of
     Health care workers are clearly a vital first point of     news coverage of the campaign 16 Days of Activ-
     contact as well as referral.
                                                               ism to End Violence Against Women.
        In addition, evidence is emerging from both
                                                             = Lisa Vetten, Gender Programme Manager con-
30   Tanzania and South Africa of a compelling link
                                                               tinued to represent the CSVR on the steering
     between domestic violence and HIV/AIDS; with
                                                               committee of SAGBVHI, and was also part of the
     HIV/AIDS being both a cause and consequence of
                                                               national technical committee responsible for
     such abuse. Given the disproportionate impact of
                                                               drawing up the Department of Health’s National
     AIDS on South African women, this is a link we
                                                               Management Guidelines for Sexual Assault.
     cannot ignore.
         Over the past year, key initiatives in the health
     sector included:                                               4 ...evidence is emerging from
                                                                   both Tanzania and South Africa of
     = Workshops for voluntary counselling and testing            a compelling link between domestic
       (VCT) counsellors in Soweto, Orange Farm and the               violence and HIV/AIDS; with
       Vaal. These workshops focused on training VCT               HIV/AIDS being both a cause and
       counsellors to screen their patients for domestic         consequence of such abuse. Given the
       violence so as to prevent their imposing inap-             disproportionate impact of AIDS on
       propriate interventions upon women – such as                  South African women, this is
       insisting that women disclose their status to vio-                a link we cannot ignore.
       lent partners, or bring them in for HIV-testing.
     = Completion of an evaluation of the pilot training
       programme, Screening Women for Experiences            Addressing Gender Based Violence
       of Domestic Violence: A Case Study of the             through the Criminal Justice System
       Implementation of Screening Guidelines in the
       Alberton Health District. These findings were          The criminal justice system remains the major driver
       also presented at the second South African            behind most initiatives to address violence against
       Gender-based Violence and Health Initiative           women in South Africa. At the same time, it contin-
       (SAGBVHI) Conference in May.                          ues to mete out discriminatory, victimising respons-

es to women, often failing to uphold and entrench       Highlights
women’s rights. Our work with the criminal justice
system focuses on documenting and describing such       = In 2003, legal researcher Hallie Ludsin completed
ill-treatment and then taking measures to prevent         the report South African Criminal Law and Bat-
its recurrence. To this end, we have focused not only     tered Women who Kill, a companion to an earlier,
on women as victims but also women as offenders.          comparative study entitled Legal Defences for
Being a very small group (less than 3% of the prison      Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusers. A national
population), their needs are often overlooked or          two-day workshop was held in August to discuss
treated as being identical to those of men. Women’s       and finalise the recommendations put forward in
use of violence is often motivated by very different      the two research reports. Attendance included
reasons to those of men, warranting a different set       two judges, a representative from the National
of rehabilitative responses. Violence is also present     Prosecuting Authority, and members of the Legal
in women’s prisons and, although not as overt as          Aid Board.
the violence in men’s prisons, cannot be ignored.       = An opportunity to develop and test the report’s
                                                          recommendations arose unexpectedly in Octo-
       4 Our work with the criminal                       ber 2003 when Judge Satchwell approached
           justice system focuses on                      both the CSVR’s Gender Co-ordinator as well
      documenting and describing such                     as the Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS)
        ill-treatment and then taking                     to provide expert testimony in the matter of
      measures to prevent its recurrence.                 S v Engelbrecht on domestic violence and its
                                                          effect upon women who kill their abusive part-
                                                          ners. CALS subsequently entered the matter as
The Justice for Women Campaign                            an amicus curiae and the case has been set down
                                                          for April 2004.
This campaign challenges the imprisonment of            = On the strength of our work, we were asked to
survivors of domestic violence through advocacy           contribute a chapter to a book about women’s
on three fronts: reforming both legal defences to         imprisonment internationally. The chapter enti-
murder as well as sentencing guidelines/provi-            tled The Justice for Women Campaign: Incarcer-
sions; establishing some form of review mechanism         ated Domestic Violence Survivors in Post-Apartheid
to allow for the early release of women who have          South Africa, co-authored by Lisa Vetten and Kai-
killed abusive partners; and providing a variety of       lash Bhana will be published in 2004.
legal and other support services to women assisted
by the Campaign.                                        A further component of our work in women’s
                                                        prisons is research investigating violence in the
                                                        lives of women and girls in conflict with the law
                                                        generally. Over 200 interviews were completed at
                                                        Heidelburg, Pretoria and Johannesburg women’s
                                                        prisons in 2003, with the remainder to be finished
                                                        in 2004.

                                                        Monitoring the Domestic Violence Act

‘Justice for Women Now!’ campaign banner                In conjunction with the Criminal Justice Programme,
                                                        we are currently monitoring the implementation of
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     the DVA at two sites: Alberton, based in an urban       Preventing GBV
     part of the East Rand, and Themba court in Moretele,
     a rural area in Tshwane.                                Men’s killing of their intimate female partners (or
                                                             intimate femicide) and violence against adolescent
     Challenging Rape                                        girls have been the two areas on which we have
                                                             concentrated our preventive work.
     US intern, Danielle Motelow undertook a study of            In 2003 we completed our census of intimate
     the processing of rape and indecent assault cases       femicide cases in Gauteng during 1990 - 1999. Our
     against adults and children at Boksburg Regional        review of police and court dockets yielded a total
     Magistrates’ Court in 2002. The case study pointed      of 941 cases for this period. We also completed
     to a number of deficits within the criminal justice      14 interviews with men in prison for killing their
     system. In particular, victims and their families       partners. Both studies A Ten Year Retrospective
     are still left to wait in the same space (contrary      Analysis of Intimate Femicide in Gauteng and “I
     to Department of Justice policy). Analysis of court     wanted her to be different from the rest”: Selected
     transcripts found both magistrates and prosecutors      key themes emerging from interviews with men who
     failing to apply rules of evidence and procedure to     killed intimate female partners were also presented
     testimony around the complainant’s previous sexual      at the SAGBVHI conference. Gun control and the
     history. The case study also found numerous delays      abuse of alcohol emerged as two important areas
     and postponements being granted at the accused’s        of intervention, as did the police who were over-
     behest, arguably resulting in prejudice and incon-      represented amongst the men who killed their wives
32   venience to the complainant and other witnesses         or girl-friends.
     and ultimately the withdrawal of matters. Overall,          Our second prevention project focused on 12
     the study pointed to weaknesses not only within         and 13-year old girls at Nageng Primary School
     the law itself but in how it was interpreted and        in Vosloorus on the East Rand. Twenty-seven
     applied, as well as in the administration of justice.   girls attended the weekly workshops held over a
                                                             period of three months. Fifteen boys also joined
     Highlight                                               the programme within its last month. The project
                                                             encouraged both girls and boys to think of a gender
     = The Gender Programme actively engaged with            inequitable practice at the school that they wanted
       the Sexual Offences Bill once the Portfolio Com-      to change. The unfair division of school cleaning
       mittee on Justice released the draft Bill for pub-    responsibilities (which overwhelmingly fell to the
       lic comment. A half-day workshop was convened         girls) was selected and learners decided to put on
       for organisations in Gauteng with the purpose         two plays for the school showing their concern
       of outlining the proposed legislation as well as      about the situation and demonstrating how they
       discussing possible responses to it. A submission     wanted to see it change.
       endorsed by Lawyers for Human Rights, People
       Opposing Women Abuse (POWA), ADAPT, Nisaa                         4 Gun control and the
       Institute for Women’s Development, Centre for                    abuse of alcohol emerged
       Applied Legal Studies (CALS), Lifeline Vaal Tri-                as two important areas of
       angle and Nicola Christofides was subsequently                 intervention, as did the police
       submitted to the committee. The submission                      who were over-represented
       drew on some of the findings from the Boksburg                  amongst the men who killed
       study. Both the Bill and the study will strongly                 their wives or girl-friends.
       feature in advocacy work in 2004.

Supporting and Strengthening the                        Project (SHEP) and the CBOs Concerned Persons
Violence Against Women Sector                           Against Abuse (CPAA), Golden Triangle Women’s
                                                        Group, Ngata, Letsego and Maintenance Legal Serv-
An effective and vibrant civil society movement is      ice (MLS).
crucial to addressing gender violence. Such a move-         By the end of the year, the capacity assessment
ment not only plays a key role in providing serv-       had been undertaken and draft work plans prepared.
ices and other assistance to women and girls in the     In 2004 we will begin implementing the OD
aftermath of violence, but also advocates for the       interventions as well as the training around gender,
betterment of women and girls’ lives through the        rape and domestic violence.
realisation of their Constitutional rights.
    Access to intellectual and material resources is           4 An effective and vibrant civil
essential to the effectiveness of such a movement.             society movement is crucial to
However, prior research by the Gender Programme                  addressing gender violence.
found such resources to be unevenly distributed
amongst organisations. These varying levels of
knowledge, skill, experience and resources encour-      Future Directions
age fragmentation, territoriality and competitive-
                                                        In 2004 the Gender Programme:
ness, contributing to the gender violence sector’s
tendency to function as a disparate clustering of       = Will continue to engage in advocacy centred on
service organisations, rather than an effective           the Sexual Offences Bill;
movement for social change (although this is not to     = Through the Justice for Women Campaign will
dispute the existence of isolated advocacy or net-        be actively involved in the Ferreira Case – a test   33
working successes).                                       case on sentencing for battered women accused
    Ensuring that community-based organisations           of killing abusive partners;
are effective and sustainable is important for a        = Will begin implementing organisational develop-
number of reasons, including that such organisa-          ment training for CBOs in the violence against
tions are often closely linked to many of South Afri-     women sector;
ca’s poorer communities. Funding such organisa-         = In an ongoing effort to approach the issues of
tions is one means of ensuring that resources reach       gender based violence holistically, the programme
disadvantaged and marginalised groups of women.           has begun exploring the relationship between
    While the Gender Programme had been regularly         socio-economic circumstances and gender based
meeting with two CBOs to assist them to become            violence. An emphasis on economic empower-
viable, it was evident that our input was not             ment, development and social security is thus
enough. Further, the high volunteer turnover              our newest focus. A literature review has been
that resulted in people needing to be trained             undertaken to better understand what role wom-
every six months was neither a cost-effective nor         en’s economic circumstances and (in)dependence
strategic intervention. It was clear to us that both      may play in the development and continuation of
organisations required sustained assistance with          abusive relationships. The literature review will
organisational development (OD) if they were to get       inform our own research for 2004.
beyond operating in a purely survivalist way.
    Acting on these various considerations, the
Gender Programme instituted a capacity-building
partnership in mid-2003 with the NGOs Nisaa Insti-
tute for Women’s Development, People Opposing
Women Abuse (POWA), Tshwaranag Legal Advocacy
Centre (TLAC) and the Sexual Harassment Education
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                      CSVR is working in partnership
                                                     with local civil society initiatives
                                                      in countries in Africa that are
                                                      emerging from or continue to
                                                     experience violent conflict. These
                                                    partnerships are aimed at building
                                                    a multi-disciplinary and systematic
                                                        approach to peace-building.
34                                                     Drawing on over a decade of
                                                    expertise in South Africa, projects
                                                      in the region integrate trauma
                                                     healing, conflict transformation,
                                                      early warning, violent conflict
                                                      prevention, restorative justice
                                                       and reconciliation in pursuit
                                                           of sustainable peace.

                                                              Bea Abrahams
                                                              Tracy Vienings

                                                           Programme Managers
                                                       annual report 2003 • INTEGRATED PEACE BUILDING PROGRAMME

                                                       integrated peace building programme

                                                       Millions of Africans remain at risk in areas of conflict on the continent. Refugees con-
                                                       tinue to flee violence, invariably compounded by unprecedented levels of poverty, and
                                                       continue to seek refuge in safer parts of their own countries or neighbouring countries.
                                                       Countries emerging from bloody internal and regional wars struggle to re-build fragile
                                                       infrastructures while at the same time heal relationships and build peace. Whilst there
                                                       is a stated commitment on the part of the international community, humanitarian
                                                       agencies and national governments to find solutions to the impact of conflict - such
                                                       as the spiralling refugee crises, the successful re-integration of ex-combatants, the
                                                       delicate process of reconciliation – all in the context of urgent development and infra-    35
                                                       structure reconstruction – it is clear that no lasting solution can be found unless the
                                                       wars that result in these conditions are stopped.
Guy Tillim - South Photographs / africanpictures.net

                                                                                                                                     of infra-
                                                                                                                                     ships and
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

         Violent conflicts however will not be resolved
     unless the root causes, and particularly historical     a c t i v i t ie s
     legacies of inequitable access to political, social
     and economic power, are adequately addressed. In        Strengthening Community Based Recon-
     countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo,
                                                             ciliation and Peace Building Project in
                                                             Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique
     Sudan, Liberia, and others, it appears that govern-
     ments, rebel groups and their international spon-
                                                             CSVR embarked on a project aimed at strengthen-
     sors have a greater preoccupation with securing
                                                             ing peace-building initiatives by providing support
     control over natural and mineral resources and the
                                                             to key partners in Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozam-
     proliferation of small arms than with the welfare of
                                                             bique. Through a value based approach that builds
     their own people. Entrenched material interests not     on existing work, the project provides space and
     only exacerbate and prolong conflict, but are likely     resources to enable partners to strengthen rela-
     to continue fomenting violence and insecurity in        tionships within their country and create links
     new post-conflict forms, despite the existence of        across the region. This space also allows partners
     a formal political peace. CSVR also recognises that     to share analyses and thinking around key fault-
     development and reconstruction do not necessar-         lines for potential violence and the strengths and
     ily build peace: such interventions may even cause      weaknesses of current initiatives to address them.
     further conflict and therefore need to be designed,          A process of consultations laid groundwork and
     implemented and monitored in a manner which is          informed the content of a regional training course
     conflict sensitive.                                      that addressed identified knowledge and skills. The
36       CSVR’s work in Africa was born out of our com-      course also strategised around further in-country
     mitment to understanding these shifting patterns        and regional follow-up processes. The project works
     of violence in societies emerging from political        to draw in existing regional networks as well as
     conflict. Consisting of a number of complementary        identify space for community based initiatives to
     projects, our work aims to enhance the capacity of      link to opportunities at regional and continental
     civil society organisations in targeted African coun-
     tries to develop and advance community-driven ini-
                                                             Capacity Development and Training for
     tiatives aimed at building peace. This is achieved
                                                             Urban-based Refugees in Gauteng
     through the establishment of strategic partnerships
     that place a premium on mutual capacity develop-
                                                             This project represented a proactive strategy to
     ment, information exchange, and the sharing of
                                                             enhance the awareness of refugees living in South
     skills and experiences. Working in partnership with
                                                             Africa of their civil, political, and socio-economic
     local initiatives is integral to CSVR’s belief that a   rights as enshrined in the South African Constitution
     lasting peace can only be achieved if it is embraced,   and the Refugee Act of 1998. An informed refugee
     driven and implemented by local stakeholders, civil     constituency is not only better placed to advocate
     society formations and local peace practitioners.       for their own rights and protection, but will also
                                                             be empowered to access services in the health,
            4 Violent conflicts however will                  education, social welfare and criminal justice field,
             not be resolved unless the root                 thus contributing to a better quality of life.
           causes, and particularly historical                   Over a period of a year, Programme staff Millan
            legacies of inequitable access to                Atam, Jeanne Izabiliza, Ereshnee Naidu, Bea Abra-
              political, social and economic                 hams, and John Chisanga, conducted more than 20
            power, are adequately addressed.                 rights-based workshops with refugee communities,
                                                             NGO service providers and key government depart-

ments to deepen existing levels of

                                                                                                                 John Liebebberg - South Photographs / africanpictures.net
knowledge about the circumstances
that force people to flee, psycho-
logical trauma they often encounter
along these journeys, and the specific
needs of refugees – particularly refu-
gee women.
    To complement these advocacy in-
itiatives, a Service Directory on sex-
ual and gender based violence (SGBV)
was produced, alongside a Training
Manual for Health Workers and Front-
line Personnel servicing refugee com-


= Workshops on trauma awareness
  and conflict transformation for
  refugees imparted skills relevant
  to the specific needs of this pop-
  ulation. Increased knowledge of                                                                                                                                            37
  the root causes of conflict and
  the skills to engage in non-violent
  conflict resolution will ensure that
  South Africa does not become a
  repository for transferred conflict,
  as well as capacitating exiles to
  build and promote peace; ensuring
  they can make a valuable contribu-
  tion to their countries upon their
  return.                                 A soldier poses on his tank during the conflict in Angola. Suc-
= A manual was piloted on refugee         cessful reintegration of ex-combatants is a critical element in
  access to health services in Cape       building a durable peace

Strengthening the Capacity                   provision of training for Zimbabwean service providers strength-
of Service Providers in                      ened the capacity of project staff to effectively deal with com-
Zimbabwe                                     plex trauma, including human rights abuse and torture, in order
                                             to enhance their services to individuals, communities and groups
In partnership with Oxfam America,           of victims, focusing specifically on the special needs of women.
the Programme worked to enhance              Strategies were also developed for documenting human rights
the capacity of non-governmental             violations and for capitalising on the rich experiences of Zimba-
service providers in Zimbabwe dealing        bwean and African based networks working for peace, justice and
with victims of political violence. The      human rights.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

         Complementing these initiatives, relationships   More Highlights
     were actively nurtured with a host of national,
     regional, continental and international organisa-    = CSVR assisted in strengthening the effectiveness
     tions concerned with the rapidly deteriorating         of Ghana’s National Reconciliation Commission.
     human rights and humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe.      Programme leader Bea Abrahams conducted
     Through these partnerships we developed a coordi-      training workshops with community leaders and
     nated advocacy and lobbying onslaught to increase      members of the Commission’s counselling unit,
     popular awareness about the unprecedented politi-      Kumasi. The objective was to assist with the
     cal, social and economic rights violations taking      development of a national strategy to mobilise
     place in Zimbabwe.                                     victims for the reconciliation process, increase
                                                            awareness of truth and justice seeking processes
              4 The provision of training for               and set up victim support services.
               Zimbabwean service providers               = Work was carried out in the Ituri region of the
           strengthened the capacity of project             Democratic Republic of Congo to strengthen the
          staff to effectively deal with complex            capacity of organs of the Ituri Interim Admin-
         trauma, including human rights abuse               istration to promote conflict transformation,
          and torture, in order to enhance their            reconciliation and peace-building. Millan Atam
        services to individuals, communities and            and Bea Abrahams co-facilitated – along with
         groups of victims, focusing specifically            the African Initiatives Programme in Kenya, and
              on the special needs of women.                the London-based Forum for Early Warning and
                                                            Early Response – a ten-day capacity development
38                                                          workshop to impart conflict transformation skills
     Highlights                                             and enhance the capacity of structures within
                                                            the Ituri Interim Administration.
     = Strategic alliances were forged with regards to    = Strategic relationships were forged and strength-
       addressing the situation in Zimbabwe. These          ened with relevant African-based partners and
       included networks with Amnesty International’s       networks. Of particular note, CSVR was made
       Human Rights Defenders Programme, the US-            a member of Amnesty International’s Human
       based Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, the        Rights Defender Programme and was granted
       Zimbabwe Advocacy Campaign, as well as an array      Observer Status with the African Commission on
       of Zimbabwe-based networks. These networks           Human and People’s Rights. Participation in this
       made significant advances in putting the Zimba-       forum will provide an important opportunity not
       bwe issue on regional and international agendas.     only to raise awareness of the worsening situa-
     = Service providers were assisted in developing        tion in Zimbabwe, but indeed to highlight the
       a comprehensive client referral and tracking         need for adherence, respect and realisation of
       system to improve service delivery, client           human rights in the entire sub-region.
       support networks and networks among different
       categories of service providers.                        4 Strategic relationships were forged
     = Assistance was also provided with the devel-                and strengthened with relevant
       opment of a system to document the nature                African-based partners and networks.
       and types of sexual and gender-based violence,        ...CSVR was made a member of Amnesty
       human rights violations, and torture experienced       International’s Human Rights Defender
       by Zimbabwean women. It is envisaged that, in           Programme and was granted Observer
       the event of a political settlement in Zimbabwe,       Status with the African Commission on
       the documentation system could support com-                   Human and People’s Rights.
       munity-led truth and justice-seeking processes.
                                                       annual report 2003 • INTEGRATED PEACE BUILDING PROGRAMME
Richard Smith - Peace and Development Platform (PAD)

                                                                                                                                              of peace
                                                                                                                                              in a country
                                                                                                                                              from conflict       39

                                                       Future Directions                                      development actors to ensure that development
                                                                                                              is conducted strategically, does not cause fur-
                                                       = CSVR will build on its “Strengthening Community      ther conflict in the region, and that is closely
                                                         Based Reconciliation and Peace Building Project”     linked to processes of reconciliation, peace and
                                                         in Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to create         justice.
                                                         a strong platform of civil society peace activists
                                                         who will not only play a key role in building         4 ...CSVR will engage more with the
                                                         peace in their own countries but will also begin       regional mechanisms of peace and
                                                         to consolidate a civil society regional capacity      human security, playing a lobbying
                                                         to engage in peace and human security issues            and advocacy role in the African
                                                         across the region.                                          Union, SADC and NEPAD.
                                                       = Relying on these strong regional civil society
                                                         partnerships, CSVR will engage more with
                                                         the regional mechanisms of peace and human
                                                         security, playing a lobbying and advocacy role in
                                                         the African Union, SADC and NEPAD.
                                                       = Additional partners will be identified with whom
                                                         we can expand and strengthen the project. This
                                                         will include partners in additional countries
                                                         within the SADC region and beyond.
                                                       = CSVR through its partnerships and strengthen-
                                                         ing of civil society networks will engage with
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                      The Youth Programme works to
                                                  empower the youth of South Africa to
                                                   proactively deal with situations that
                                                  compromise them and put them at risk
                                                   of violent behaviour. This is done by
                                                  ensuring active connections with their
                                                    communities, fostering a sense of
                                                  peace with themselves and promoting
                                                    a comprehensive approach to their
                                                  development in all spheres – including
                                                      family, community and schools.

                                                             Dorothy Mdhluli
                                                           Programme Manager

youth violence prevention
In a context of high levels of violence in South African society, youth are simultaneously
a marginalised grouping – bearing the impact of unemployment, poverty and restricted
opportunities – as well as a critical constituency in ensuring democratic values and
the creation of a culture of non-violence. The Youth Violence Prevention Programme
seeks to build the resilience of youth, ensuring that they are not vulnerable to
becoming either victims or perpetrators of violence, but instead are able to realise
their full potential.


                                                                                                 David Larsen - The Media Bank / africanpictures.net

Youth are simultaneously a population at risk of victimisation and perpetration of violence as
well as a critical constituency in the creation of a culture of non-violence
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     a c t i v i t ie s
     Safe Start

     Safe Start, led by Senior Social Worker Mosley Leb-
     eloane and Community Facilitator Muzi Tshabalala,
     sought to train unemployed young people with
     some tertiary education as trainers and mentors on
     violence prevention for pre-adolescent and adoles-
     cent children. The trainers were then paired with        Charlotte Hulley, Ereshnee Naidu and Oupa
     a group of learners from Grades 6 – 9, identified         Makhalemele debrief on school grounds after
     by their teachers as being susceptible to problem-       a focus group with learners
     atic behaviour. The overarching objectives of the
     project were to:                                         Highlights

     = reduce the possibility of both the youth and           During the training, significant growth was evident
       school-going children becoming involved in             in the youth workers’ approach to issues. Personal
       interpersonal violence and crime;                      stories were shared of how improved communication
     = facilitate the active involvement of young people      skills were enhancing their family situation. Whilst
       in education;                                          evaluating the training, youth worker participants
42   = improve the self-esteem and integrity of the young     noted the following:
       people by assisting them to play a meaningful
       role in society.                                       = The project was rated as an excellent opportunity,
                                                                and one which would benefit all youth in
     65 youth workers were recruited from Soweto and            Kathorus as it is likely that each of them has
     Katlehong based on criteria including leadership in        either witnessed or participated in violence in
     the community, literacy, and the absence of any            their lives.
     criminal record. They then underwent an intensive        = Training contributed towards rebuilding a positive
     training programme on violence prevention,                 self-image that had often been destroyed by a
     learning skills in facilitation, listening and             hostile living environment.
     presenting, problem-solving, and anger and trauma        = Participants noted an increasing consciousness
     management.                                                of the role they occupy as models and mentors in
         In a parallel process, the project produced two        their community – forcing them to think carefully
     manuals to ensure maximum reach and impact.                before engaging in problematic behaviour.
     The first, a draft manual entitled ‘Smart Skills for      = Safe Start was particularly praised for offering an
     Youth Workers’ was work-shopped by the youth               opportunity to acquire life skills not offered in
     workers in order to solicit their suggestions and          formal institutions.
     recommendations. The second manual aimed at
     empowering parents whose children had been               For the 560 school-going learners who were
     identified by target schools and participants in the      referred to the programme there was initially, and
     project. It is envisioned that each group of parents     understandably, resentment on their selection as
     will participate in a six-session module on parenting    they understood it to be based on their ‘problem’
     skills. The content is similar to that of the learners   behaviour. This in a way contributed to an aggressive
     but pitched at an adult level. Both manuals will be      attitude and served as a self-fulfilling prophecy;
     finalised and published in the first half of 2004.         encouraging them to display the negative behaviour

attributed to them. However the experience of          national debates on the provision of antiretroviral
participating in a small group environment with        treatment and, like the majority of South Africans,
an attentive facilitator gave the learners a sense     were particularly concerned about ongoing delays
of belonging. Those who initially stayed away in       in the national rollout campaign.
response to being labelled by other children found         Having completed the series of workshops
themselves coming back to the session because of       facilitated by the CSVR staff, participating learners
the positive atmosphere created.                       were tasked with facilitating similar workshops in
                                                       their own schools, allowing the learners (trainers)
         4 Safe Start was particularly                 to share their new skills with fellow learners. The
      praised for offering an opportunity              process was shaped and supported by teachers and
        to acquire life skills not offered             the CSVR staff.
             in formal institutions.

Sexual Violence Education Manual                       Of the nine high schools that participated in the
                                                       project, four independently initiated creative
This draft training manual, entitled Looking Forward   projects to bring to the attention of learners in
Together, was developed by researcher Bheki Zulu,      their schools the urgency of the matter. Three of
printed and distributed to nine high schools in        the schools organised debates where they discussed
Soweto where learners workshopped its initial          amongst themselves the reality of sexual violence
                                                       on their premises. This venture received unqualified
contents. The objectives of these sessions were to:
                                                       support from the teaching staff in those schools.
= Ascertain whether the training material was          The fourth school put together a drama on sexual
  adequate for a high school population;               violence and thereafter organised a school concert
= Enable learners to identify gaps in the manual;      attended by all learners at the school. CSVR record-
= Assist groups in the schools to initiate their own   ed the performance on video for their archives as
  projects dealing with sexual violence;               well as for future educational purposes.
= Empower the selected group of learners with
  appropriate skills in dealing with sexual issues;
= Foster a sense of ownership amongst the learners
  for the project;
= Update the CSVR’s own findings and knowledge
  on sexual violence in schools.

It was confirmed through the enthusiasm and
participation of the learners in the workshops that
they could identify with the issues in the provided
material. The language was simple and easily                  4 Learners were well informed
accessible as was the layout of the material.                  of current national debates on
    Learners however noted that the manual said                the provision of antiretroviral
little about HIV/AIDS, a key concern for youth. They        treatment and, like the majority of
further elaborated that some of their colleagues who         South Africans, were particularly
were victims of sexual violence had been infected           concerned about ongoing delays in
with the virus and were struggling to come to terms            the national rollout campaign.
with it. Learners were well informed of current
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Justice for All - The Rights to Know

     Justice for All tells the stories of young people
     and others, who are finding out about life’s choices
     the hard way. The resources (outreach material),
     developed by the programme’s educationalist
     Charlotte Hulley, are based on the popular SABC TV
     drama series, Justice for All 3, broadcast in 2004.
     CSVR developed the illustrated resource manual for
     teachers in the Justice for All pack which consists of:
     activity worksheets for learners; colour posters for
     classroom display and discussion; and a 90-minute
     video with excerpts from the TV drama series.


     Justice For All Teacher’s Manual

        The integrated package of learning and teaching
     support materials are designed to be used in Life
     Orientation, Language and Social Sciences classes
     to assist Senior Phase learners face real-life issues
     such as ‘What is sexual harassment?’ and ‘Is taking
     the law into your own hands ever justified?’. Themes
     are presented in a way which prompts learners to
     explore questions of rights and responsibilities, as
     well as educating them on the Constitution, the law,
     the role of the courts, and youth access to legal and     Justice For All ‘Identity’ poster
     social resources.

Oupa Makhalemele and Bheki Zulu consult with former Chairperson of the Youth Commission and
CSVR Board Member Steve Mokwena

Highlights                                              Future Directions

= The outreach materials have been endorsed by          = A project on anti-racism in schools will be piloted
  the National Department of Education and all            in former model C schools in Gauteng.                 45
  products now also carry their logo.                   = Public education materials on human rights will
= The material is to be distributed nationally to all     be developed for viewing on national television
  nine provinces.                                         and distribution to all schools.
                                                        = Continued training of young people to train
The Advanced Certificate of Education in                   pre-adolescent children identified to be at risk
Human Rights and Values in Education                      of violent behaviour on violence and crime
CSVR was approached by Wits University to play          = Research will be conducted on sexual violence
a tutoring role in the Advanced Certificate of             amongst youth, and enabling schools and
Education in Human Rights and Values in Education         government to develop appropriate protocols for
(ACE) – a distance learning programme for teachers        reporting.
with a residential period of approximately two
weeks every school term. Charlotte Hulley took
                                                                      4 ‘Is taking the law
on this project, providing tutorial responsibilities
                                                                      into your own hands
that included: writing course material; selecting
                                                                         ever justified?’
appropriate readings for the group; lecturing and
facilitating a tutorial group; assigning and marking
assignments; and student support.
    Participants in ACE are teachers of both senior
and primary phase, district officers and individuals
working in the Department of Education. Involvement
in tutoring for this group has provided a further
opportunity to contribute to and encourage a
culture of human rights in South Africa’s schools.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                                                      From a human resources point
                                                        of view, CSVR continues to
                                                     occupy a preeminent position in
                                                      the non profit sector. CSVR has
                                                      developed highly sophisticated
                                                         HR management systems
                                                      that match the best practices
                                                         available in the country.

                                                              Shamila Singh
                                                          Human Resources and
                                                         Administration Manager
annual rep or t 20 03 • HUMAN RE S OURCE S DEPARTMENT

human resources
The retention of skilled personnel is critical to our ability to deliver high quality
products and services in the areas of violence prevention, reconciliation and peace-
building. In part, this retention of skills is achieved through a valuing of our people
as our major asset. The Centre therefore attempts to offer competitive remunera-
tion and attractive benefits, a unique approach to self-care, and an enabling culture
of nurturance.

Our combined staff boast a broad multi-disciplinary      ability to match salaries and benefits offered in the
array of skills and specialisations, and the organisa-   private, governmental and international NGO sectors,
tion prioritises knowledge-sharing and the develop-      by the end of 2003, CSVR did inevitably lose some
ment of cross cutting skills in research, advocacy,      of our valuable staff. However, the reduction in
policy development, community development, coun-         the organisational staff complement from 65 to 59
selling and training.                                    staff members was also carefully managed through
    CSVR offers its people stimulating work assign-      the alignment of skills acquisition and retention
ments and innovative approaches to staff capacity        to project work priorities. We also continued
building and skills development. CSVR staffers are       to supplement our permanent staff complement
consequently highly mobile and marketable and this       through the employment of a number of sessional
represents an important societal contribution for        workers, volunteers and interns.
our organisation.                                            Being a racially and culturally diverse organisa-
    Partly as a result of this positive mobility and     tion, CSVR has actively promoted an organisational
partly due to funding constraints impacting on our       understanding of diversity and gender. This year,

An afternoon of drumming – CSVR staff enjoy a teambuilding outing
               c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

               staff participated in a three day workshop on diver-
               sity and prejudice with the objective of empowering
               staff to better engage these issues in both their
               interpersonal relationships as well as their profes-
               sional work.
                   Additionally, an external consultant was con-
               tracted to give specialist advice on mainstreaming
               gender and the manifestations of discrimination
               more generally in core areas of our work, as well as
               in the organisation more broadly.
                   In the year under review, the management
               team and the CSVR equity committee developed
               a cohesive strategy and implementation plan to
               understand and promote diversity and sustainable
               transformation in the organisation; including ini-
               tiatives for skills transfer such as through a “Lead-   Admin staff Xoliswa Ntintili and Rosey Sesinyi
               ership Learnership Programme” and through various       keep the organisation running smoothly!
               mentorship strategies.

                                                                       at national and international conferences and work-
                                                                       shops. The Centre’s income generating sustainabil-
              The racial and gender composition
48            of the full-time staff during 2003
                                                                       ity programme also plays a pivotal role in creating
                                                                       the opportunity to learn new skills or to enhance
              was as follows:                                          current skills through participation in national and
                                                                       international contract work.
                                                                           Current human resources systems will continue
                    Black     White     Black      White    TOTAL      to be updated in line with trends in the industry
                     Men       Men      Women     Women                and state policy. Particular attention will be paid
        Board of                                                       to developing a fully fledged skills development
                      3         1          1         2      7          programme aligned to the organisation’s equity plan
 Management                                                            that allows for the retention of key staff and further
                      2         2          4         5      13         creates the opportunity for succession planning,
     Professional                                                      multi-skilling and career path development options.
                     11         6         17         7      41
                      2         0          7         0      9
         Interns      5         1          2         3      11

                  CSVR prides itself in being a “learning organisa-
               tion”. Our approach to staff development is not only
               based on traditional methods of course attendance,
               but includes giving staff the opportunity to devel-
               op invaluable skills through the presentation of        CSVR’s end of the year party
               research and intervention findings and attendance
annual rep or t 20 03 • HUMAN RE S OURCE S DEPARTMENT

staff list for 2003 Name Department Title
Afeefa Rigney                            Graeme Simpson                             Nomvula Mahlangu
Finance Accounts Assistant               Executive Director                         Admin Office Assistant
Alicia Zill                              Hector Ramoleta                            Nelisiwe Makhubu
Gender Administrator                     Transition and Reconciliation              Transition and Reconciliation Researcher
Alice Kgotleng                           Senior Community Facilitator               Ollie Mahopo
Youth Trainer                            Helen Hajiyiannis                          Transition and Reconciliation
Amanda Dissel                            Victim Empowerment Researcher              Community Facilitator
Criminal Justice Programme Manager       Hloai Molapisi                             Oupa Makhalemele
Anthony Altbeker                         Finance Bookkeeper                         Transition and Reconciliation Researcher
Criminal Justice Researcher              Hugo vd Merwe                              Phetsile Magagula
Bea Abrahams                             TRP C/Town Project Manager                 Finance Senior Bookkeeper
Peace Building Programme Manager         Janine Rauch                               Polly Dewhirst
Bheki Zulu                               City Safety Project Manager                Transition and Reconciliation Project Manager
Youth Researcher
                                         Jabu Sibeko                                Portia Mthembu
Bilkees Vawda                            Transition and Reconciliation Researcher   Gender Administrator
Youth Senior Administrator
                                         Jonny Steinberg                            Pule Rampa
Boitumelo Kekana                         Criminal Justice Researcher                Admin Admin Assistant
Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor
                                         Kailash Bhana                              Puleng Montsho
Brian Molewa                             Gender Educationalist/Trainer/Researcher   Admin Administrator
Youth Community Facilitator
Bronwyn Harris                           Kenneth Collis                             Rosey Sesinyi
                                         Admin IT Technician                        Admin Accounts Assistant
Transition and Reconciliation
Senior Researcher                        Kindiza Ngubeni                            Ruth Prinsloo
Busisiwe Kwinda                          Criminal Justice Community Facilitator     Gender Administrator
Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor     Lindiwe Mkhondo
                                         Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor
                                                                                    Sadiyya Haffejee                                49
Busisiwe Mahontsi                                                                   Gender Researcher
PA to Director Personal Assistant        Lazarus Kgalema                            Sasha Gear
Carnita Ernest                           Victim Empowerment Project Manager         Criminal Justice Researcher
Transition and Reconciliation            Lisa Vetten                                Serame Masitha
Senior Researcher                        Gender Programme Manager                   Transition and Reconciliation Researcher
Caron Kgomo                              Lucy More                                  Shamila Singh
Criminal Justice Senior Administrator    Finance Finance Manager                    Human Resources and Admin
Chantal Holland                          Lulama Gomomo                              Human Resources/Admin Manager
Gender Community Facilitator             Criminal Justice Researcher                Simon Vilakazi
Charlotte Hulley                         Marivic Garcia                             Transition and Reconciliation Researcher
Youth Senior Educationalist              Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor       Sizwe Phakathi
Collet Ngwane                            Millan Atam                                Transition and Reconciliation Researcher
Gender Researcher                        Peace Building Community Facilitator       Sophie Mulaudzi
David Bruce                              Millicent Maroga                           Victim Empowerment Receptionist
Criminal Justice Senior Researcher       Criminal Justice Junior Researcher         Themba Masuku
Dorothy Mdhluli                          Moloko Malakalaka                          Criminal Justice Senior Researcher
Youth Programme Manager
                                         Transition and Reconciliation Researcher   Tracy Vienings
Ebrahim Fakir
Criminal Justice Senior Researcher
                                         Mosima Selemela                            Acting Deputy Director

Ereshnee Naidu
                                         Admin Receptionist                         Tshegofatso Leeuw
Transition and Reconciliation            Mosley Lebeloane                           Gender Junior Researcher
Senior Educationalist/Researcher         Youth Community Facilitator                Towera Sichinga
Frances Spencer                          Mpho Matlhakola                            Gender Senior Administrator
Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor     Victim Empowerment Senior Administrator    Xoliswa Ntintili
Francois Abrahams                        Muzikayise Tshabalala                      Transition and Reconciliation Administrator
Human Resources HR Intern                Youth Community Facilitator                Yvette Geyer
Fusi Seng                                Nahla Valji                                Youth Senior Educationalist
Finance Junior Bookkeeper                Transition and Reconciliation Researcher   Yolelwa Mbanjwa
Gareth Newham                            Naomi Hill                                 Transition and Reconciliation
Criminal Justice Project Manager         Victim Empowerment Programme Manager       Community Facilitator
Gloria Hlophe                            Nomfundo Mogapi                            Zandile Nkabinde
Victim Empowerment Clinical Supervisor   Victim Empowerment Trauma Counsellor       Finance Bookkeeper
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     publications 2002/2003
     Posel, D. and Simpson, G. (Eds.), (2002). Commissioning the Past: Understanding South Africa’s
     Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

     Steinberg, J. (2002). Midlands, Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

     Chapters in Books
     Abrahams, N. Martin, L. and Vetten, L. (2003). ‘An Overview of Gender-based Violence in
     South Africa and South African responses’ in Crime, Violence and Injury Review. The Medical
     Research Council.

     Altbeker, A. (forthcoming). ‘Guns and Public Policy in SA’, in Dixon, W. and Van der Spuy, E.
     (Eds.), Justice Gaine?: Crime Control in South Africa’s Transition. Cape Town: UCT Press and
     Willan Publishing.

     Bruce, D. (2002). ‘Police Brutality in South Africa’, in Mwanajiti, N., Mhlanga, P., Sifuniso, M.,
     Nachali-Kambikambi, Y., Muuba, M. & Mwananyanda, M. (Eds.), Police Brutality in Southern
     Africa – A Human Rights Perspective. Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development

     Budlender, D., Hicks, J. and Vetten,L. (2002). ‘South Africa: Expanding into Diverse Initiatives’,
     in Budlender, D. & Hewitt, G. (Eds.), Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good
50   Practice. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

     Simpson, G. (forthcoming). ’”A Snake gives birth to a snake”: Politics and crime in the transition
     to democracy in South Africa’, in Dixon, W. and Van der Spuy, E. (Eds.), Justice Gained? Crime
     Control in South Africa’s Transition, Cape Town: UCT Press and Willan Publishing.

     Harris, B. (2002). ‘Xenophobia: A new Pathology for a New South Africa’, in Hook, D. & Eagle,
     G. (Eds.), Psychopathology and Social Prejudice. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

     Newham, G. (2003). ‘Out of Step: Integrity and the South African Police Service’, in Klockars,
     C., Ivkovic’, S., and Haberfeld, M. R. (Eds.), The Contours of Police Integrity. California: Sage

     Newham, G. (2002). ‘Performance Management as a Police Initiative in the South African
     Police Service’, in de Coning, C., Cawthra, G. & Thring, P. (Eds.), Cases in Policy Management: A
     Fieldwork Book of Policy Initiatives in South Africa. Graduate School of Public and Development
     Management (P&DM), Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.

     Palmary, I., Rauch, J. & Simpson, G. (2003). ‘Violent Crime in Johannesburg’, in Tomlinson, R.,
     Beauregard, R., Bremner, L. & Mangcu, X. (Eds.), Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the
     Post-apartheid City, New York: Routhledge.

     Pigou, P. (2002). ‘The Murder of Sicelo Dlhomo’, in Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (Eds.), (2002),
     Commissioning the Past: Understanding South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission,
     Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

     Pigou, P. (2002). ‘False Promises and Wasted Opportunities?: Inside South Africa’s Truth
     and Reconciliation Commission’, in Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (Eds.), (2002), Commissioning
     the Past: Understanding South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Johannesburg:
     Witwatersrand University Press.

     Pigou, P. (2003). ‘Monitoring Police Violence and Torture in South Africa’, in Asatashvili,
     A., Fierro, M.C., and Lozano, M.E. (Eds.), The Case of Torture in Mexico: International seminar
     on indicators and diagnosis on human rights. Mexico: Comisión Nacional de los Derechos
annual rep or t 20 03 • C S VR PUBL IC AT IONS 20 02/20 03

                  Pigou, P. (2003). ‘Perspectives for International Developments: The Case of South Africa’, in Asa-
                  tashvili, A., Fierro, M.C., and Lozano, M.E. (Eds.), The Case of Torture in Mexico: International seminar
                  on indicators and diagnosis on human rights. Mexico: Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos.

                  Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (2002). ‘The Power of Truth: South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Com-
                  mission in Context’, in Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (Eds.), Commissioning the Past: Understanding South
                  Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

                  Simpson, G. (2002). ‘Tell No Lies, Claim No Easy Victories: A Brief Evaluation of South Africa’s Truth
                  and Reconciliation Commission’, in Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (Eds.), Commissioning the Past: Understand-
                  ing South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

                  Van der Merwe, H. (2003). ‘The Role of the Church in Promoting Reconciliation in Post–TRC
                  South Africa’, in Chapman, A. (Ed.), Religion and Reconciliation. USA: Templeton Press.

                  Van der Merwe, H. (2002). ‘National Narrative versus Local Truths: The TRC’s Engagement
                  with Duduza’, in Posel, D. & Simpson, G. (Eds.), Commissioning the Past: Understanding South
                  Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

                  Journal Articles
                  Beiling-Holland, C. & Bhana, K. (2003). ‘Gender - What’s that? Reflections on Developing an
                  Adolescent School-Based Programme Addressing Gender Violence’, Youth Development Network
                  Journal, No 12, July.

                  Bhana, K. (2003). ‘Children Seen and Not Heard: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children                 51
                  Whose Mothers Kill an Abusive Partner’, Women’s Health Project Review, No 45, Winter.

                  Bruce, D. (2002). ‘Stopping Cop Killing – Lessons and Limitations of South African Research’,
                  SA Crime Quarterly, No 2, November.

                  Bruce, D. (2003). ‘Gripes or Grievances? What the Independent Complaints Directorate
                  statistics tell us (or not)’, SA Crime Quarterly, No 4, June.

                  Bruce, D, (2003). ‘Killing and the Constitution – Arrest and the Use of Lethal Force’, South
                  African Journal of Human Rights, 19(3).

                  Dissel, A. (2002). ‘Tracking Transformation in South African Prisons’, Track Two, 11(2).

                  Dissel, A. & Ellis, S. (2002). ‘Prison et Changement Démocratique’, Critique Internationale, 16.

                  Haffejee, S. (2003). ‘Making Disability Matter: Violence against Women with Disabilities’,
                  Amalungelo, November/December.

                  Malakalaka, M. (2002). ‘Human Rights versus Non-Derogable Rights! Where do We Draw the
                  Line?’, Africa Legal Aid Quarterly, October 2001-September 2002.

                  Maroga, M. (2003). ‘Two Sides of the Same Coin? Sector Policing and Community Policing
                  Forums’, SA Crime Quarterly, No 6, December.

                  Newham, G. (2002). ‘Promoting Police Integrity at Station Level: The Case of the Hillbrow
                  Police Station’, Urban Forum, 13(2).

                  Newham, G. (2003). ‘Bad Cops Get a Break: The Closure of the SAPS anti-Corruption Unit’, SA
                  Crime Quarterly, No 4, June.

                  Palmary, I. (2003). ‘Nationalism and Asylum: Implications for Women’, Agenda. No 55.

                  Valji, N., de la Hunt, L., & Moffett, H. (2002). ‘Where are the Women? Gender Discrimination
                  in Refugee Policies and Practices’, Agenda, No 55.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Valji, N. (2003). South Africa: No Justice Without Reparation, online at opendemocracy.net, 2

     Valji, N. (2003). ‘Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa’ Democracia Viva, July/August.

     Vetten, L. (2002). ‘Addressing Gender Bias in the Sentencing of Men and Women Convicted
     of Killing their Intimate Partners’, Gender Research Project Bulletin, Centre for Applied Legal
     Studies, October.

     Vetten, L. (2003). ‘Government Urged to Put its Money Where its Mouth is’, Amalungelo, Vol
     1 August/September.

     Vetten, L. (2003). ‘When the Law Makes the Victim the Villain’, Amalungelo, Vol 2 October/November.

     Research Reports
     Altbeker, A. (2003). Integrated Management at Station Level. Report for the South African
     Police Services.

     Bhana, K. & Hochfeld, T. (2002). ‘Now We have Nothing’: Exploring the Impact of Maternal
     Imprisonment on Children whose Mothers Killed an Abusive Partner. Johannesburg: Centre for
     the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Bruce, D. (2002). The Legal Framework on the Use of Lethal Force in Effecting Arrest - a New Section

     49?. Memorandum produced by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Bruce, D. (2002). Civilian Review: A Proposed Role for Civilian Oversight Committees in Promoting
     Accountability in Municipal Police Departments. Research Report. Centre for the Study of
     Violence and Reconciliation.

     Bruce, D. (2003). Introduction to the ‘Use of Force’ by Police Officers and the Question of
     Accountability. Report written for Lawyers Committee for Human Rights and United Nations
     Development Programme.

     Bruce, D. (2003). Case Study on the South African Police Use of Force Policies and Procedures. Report
     written for Lawyers Committee for Human Rights and United Nations Development Programme.

     Bruce, D. (2003). Proposal on Crowd Management Study. Project in preparation of Programme on
     Belgian Support to the South African Police Service to Improve Service Delivery at Station Level.

     Bruce, D. (2003). Proposal on Crime Prevention. Study Project in preparation of Programme on Bel-
     gian Support to the South African Police Service to Improve Service Delivery at Station Level.

     Dissel, A. & Kollapen, J. (2002). Racism and Discrimination in the South African Penal System.
     Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and Penal Reform
     International: Paris.

     Dissel, A. (2003). Giving a Face to Crime: Report on the Second Phase of a Victim Offender
     Conferencing Project. Restorative Justice Initiative.

     Dissel, A. (2003). A Review of Civilian Oversight over Correctional Services in the Last Decade.
     CSPRI Research Paper Series (4), Cape Town.

     Dissel, A and Muntingh, L (2003). Position Paper on Corrections. Position paper for the Alliance
     for Crime Prevention.

     Gear, S. (2002). ‘Wishing Us Away’: Challenges Facing Ex-Combatants in the ‘New’ South Africa.
     Violence and Transition Series, Vol. 8, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Gear, S. & Ngubeni, K. (2002). Daai Ding: Sex, Sexual Violence & Coercion in Men’s Prisons.
     Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
annual rep or t 20 03 • C S VR PUBL IC AT IONS 20 02/20 03

                  Isserow, M. (2002). Recorded Crime Trends in South Africa’s Metropolitan Cities 2001, Research
                  Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Kgalema, L. (2002). Victim Awareness and Trauma Management in Metro Police Services, Research
                  Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Khan, Z. (2002). Safety and Security Arrangements in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality.
                  Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Ludsin, H. (2003). Legal Defences for Battered Women who Kill their Abusers. Centre for the
                  Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Newham, G., Masuku, T. & Gomomo, L. (2002). The Metropolitan Police Departments of South
                  Africa 2002. Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Newham, G. (2003). Improving Collaboration between the SAPS and Metropolitan Police Agencies.
                  Belgian Government Technical Support Programme to the South African Police Service.

                  Newham, G. (2003). Police Management and Integrity: The Results of a Qualitative Study
                  at Three Johannesburg SAPS Area Police Stations. Centre for the Study of Violence and

                  Newham, G. (2003). Police Attitudes and Corruption: The Findings of the Police Integrity
                  Measurement Survey. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Newham, G. (2003). Sector Policing: A New Approach to Community Policing. Report of the SAPS
                  Area Johannesburg CPF Area Board Workshop on Sector policing.                                        53
                  Newham, G. (2003). The Gauteng Department of Public Safety and Community Liaison. A
                  Department Budget Overview for 2003 – 2004. A report prepared for the Portfolio Committee
                  on Public Safety of the Gauteng Legislature.

                  Newham, G. (2003). Towards Developing a Police Anti-Corruption Strategy for the SAPS
                  Johannesburg Area. A strategy document on proactively tackling police corruption for the
                  SAPS Johannesburg Area Commissioner.

                  Newham, G. (2003). A Report on the Digital Video Conference with Head of the Internal Affairs
                  Bureau of the New York City Police at the United States of America Embassy in Pretoria on 19
                  August 2003. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Ntuli, S. & Bruce, D. (2002). Witnesses in the Criminal Justice System – a Report on Focus Groups
                  with Detectives and Prosecutors at Moroka Police Station and Protea Magistrates’ court in Soweto.
                  Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. (2002). Refugees, Safety and Xenophobia in South African Cities: The Role of Local
                  Government. Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. (2002). Safety and Security Arrangements in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
                  Municipality. Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. & Moat, C. (2002). Preventing Criminality Among Young People: A Resource Book for
                  Local Government. Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. & Ngubeni, K. (2003). ‘We Are Living In A Forgotten Place’: Safety In the Cross-Border
                  Parts Of The City Of Tshwane. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. (2003). Refugees, Rights and Revitalization: Forced migrants and the new
                  Johannesburg. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Palmary, I. (2003). Youth and Crime in South Africa. Position paper for the Alliance for Crime
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Palmary, I. (2003). The Social Sciences in Africa: A Necessity for the Future? Paper prepared for
     the Codesria 30 th anniversary essay competition for young social scientists.

     Palmary, I. (2003). City Policing and Forced Migration. Paper prepared for Wits School of Forced
     Migration Studies.

     Rauch, J. (2002). Thinking Big: The National Urban Renewal Programme and Crime Prevention
     in South Africa's Metropolitan Cities. Research Report, Centre for the Study of Violence and

     Stott, N. (2002). From the SADF to the SANDF: Safeguarding South Africa for a Better Life for All?.
     Violence and Transition Series, Vol. 7, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Taylor, R. (2002). Justice Denied: Political Violence in KwaZulu-Natal after 1994. Violence and
     Transition Series, Vol. 6, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Vetten, L. & Khan, Z. (2002). ‘We’re Doing their Work for Them’: An Investigation into Government
     Support to Non-Profit Organisations Providing Services to Women Experiencing Gender Violence.
     Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

     Newspaper Articles
     Bruce, D. (2002).Time to end impasse on use of lethal force, Business Day, 22 February.
     Bruce, D. (2002). Clarifying the use of lethal force, Business Day, 6 March.
54   Bruce, D. (2002). When is it OK to kill? Sowetan, 17 April.
     Bruce, D. (2002). Thought before lethal force, Sowetan, 28 May.
     Bruce, D. (2003). We need a new anti-terror law, but not this one, Mail and Guardian, 25 April.
     Bruce, D. (2003). Resolving legal grey area on use of lethal force essential. Business Day, 22 May.
     Bruce, D. (2003). More police killed off-duty than on, Sowetan,. 27 May.
     Gear, S. (2002). Sex Behind the Bars, Mail & Guardian, 25-31 October.
     Harris, B. (2002). Understand Racial Violence, Letter to the Editor, Mail & Guardian, 15 March.
     Harris, B. (2002). New Song, Same Old Tune?, City Press, 16 June.
     Harris, B (2003). Law offers hope in fight against racism, Sunday Independent, 12 January.
     Mkhondo, L. (2002). World without love, Sowetan, 16 June.
     Newham, G. (2002). Closing unit sends all the wrong signals, Sowetan, 31 October.
     Simpson, G. (2003). South Africa cannot afford a culture of secrecy, This Day, 10 December.
     Valji, N. (2003). Get the popcorn, grab your seat, the war is on! The Star, March.
     Valji, N. & Dewhirst, P. (2003). Little joy, no rainbow, victimised again, City Press, April 2003.
     Valji, N. & Harris, B. (2003). Vigilantes push us further from justice, Sowetan, 1 July.
     Vetten, L. (2002). The war that’s raging inside our homes, The Sunday Times, 21 July.
     Vetten, L. & Gerntholtz, L. (2002). AIDS-testing rapists is not enough, The Star, 25 November.

     Manuals, Videos Etc.
     Preventing HIV after rape. (2002). Available in English, Zulu, Tswana and Afrikaans. Centre for
     the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and the AIDS Law Project.
annual rep or t 20 03 • C S VR PUBL IC AT IONS 20 02/20 03

                  Abrahams, B. (2003). A Training Manual for Health Workers and other Frontline Personnel Working
                  with Refugee Communities. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and the UNHCR.

                  Naidu, E. (2003). Service Directory on Sexual and Gender-based Violence. Centre for the Study
                  of Violence and Reconciliation and UNHCR.

                  Newham G. and Maroga, M. (2003). A Guide to Good Management Practices for Police Integrity
                  at Station Level. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

                  Conference Proceedings and Papers Delivered
                  The following does not include all CSVR staff presentations at various workshops, conferences
                  and seminars, or training workshops as this list is too extensive to reproduce here. Below is a
                  selective representation of staff presentations for the years 2002/2003.

                  Beiling, C. (2002). The Effects of Gender-Based Violence on Learners. Inclusion Conference,
                  Gauteng Department of Education.

                  Bhana, K. (2003). The Impact of Apartheid on Gender-Based Violence in South Africa, presentation
                  to US Peace Corps.

                  Bruce, D. (2003). Winning Respect for Police – Improving Police Performance and Standards
                  of Conduct. Presentation at the Roundtable on Police Reform in Kenya, hosted by the
                  Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), Kenyan Human Rights Commission (KHRC)
                  and Kenyan Police Force (KPF), 24-25 April.
                  Bruce, D. (2003). Requirements for Putting in Place Effective Shooting Incident Review
                  Mechanisms. Presentation at the Independent Complaints Directorate workshop on Police Use
                  of Excessive Force. 29 April.

                  Bruce, D. (2003) The Use of Force and Its Control. Presentation at the Lawyers Committee for
                  Human Rights and United Nations Development Programme Police Accountability Roundtable,
                  December 3-4th, New York.

                  Dewhirst, P. (2002). Post-Conflict Reconciliation: South African Experience, Ceylon Studies
                  Seminar in association with Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies, Discussion Series on the
                  Peace Process, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, March.

                  Dewhirst, P. (2002). Civil Society Experiences of the South African TRC, Panel Discussion
                  on Managing truth and reconciliation in a diverse world, International Bar Association
                  Conference, Durban, South Africa.

                  Dewhirst, P. (2003). Truth Commissions as a Model for Dealing with the Past: Experiences from
                  South Africa, State-of-the-art of Truth Commissions: Workshop for the Expert Public, Marga
                  Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, March.

                  Dissel, A. (2002). Restoring the Harmony: Piloting Victim Offender Conferring in South Africa,
                  paper presented at a conference on Effective Restorative Justice, De Montfort University,
                  Leicester, March.

                  Dissel, A. (2002). Reducing the Use of Imprisonment: A Challenge for Africa. Second Pan African
                  Conference on Penal Reform, Ouagadougou, September.

                  Dissel, A. & Ngubeni, K. (2003). Giving Women Their Voice: Domestic Violence and Restorative
                  Justice in South Africa. Paper presented at the XIth International Symposium on Victimology,
                  Stellenbosch, July.

                  Dissel, A. and Muntingh, L. (2003). Position Paper on the Criminal Justice System and its Role
                  in Crime Prevention. Presentation at the Alliance for Crime Prevention Conference, Cape Town,
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

     Ernest, C. (2002). The Impact of the TRC in the Search for Truth, Justice and Reconciliation in
     South Africa. Paper delivered at the International Workshop for Experts in Human Rights and
     Public Conference, organised by Aprodeh-Peru, Lima, Peru, 21 February.

     Ernest, C. (2002). Restoring their Dignity? Victim/Survivor Participation in the South African Truth
     and Reconciliation Commission. Presentation in a Panel on ‘The role and value of truth and recon-
     ciliation commissions’, International Bar Association’s Annual Conference, Durban, 23 October.

     Gear, S. (2002). Profile of Military Veterans in South Africa. Presentation given to ‘United We
     Serve With Pride’: Advisory Board for Military Veterans’ Leadership Project, Muldersdrift, 29
     November – 6 December.

     Gear, S. (2003). Findings of Research on Sex, Sexual Violence & Coercion in Men’s Prisons. Gender-
     Based Violence Summit, Gauteng Province: A consultative conference, hosted by Commission
     on Gender Equality, Braamfontein, 13-15 October.

     Gear, S. (2003). Some Research Findings on Sexual Violence in Male Prisons. SaySTOP workshop:
     How do we Intervene to Prevent Sexual Offending, Cape Town 27 - 28 November.

     Harris, B. (2003). Spaces of Violence, Places of Fear: Urban Conflict in Post-Apartheid South
     Africa, Conflicts and Urban Violence panel, Foro Social Mundial Tematico, Cartagena, Colombia,
     16-20 June.

     Harris, B. (2003). Hate Crime in South Africa. Race-based crimes, hate-motivated crimes
     and hate speech in South Africa, South African Human Rights Commission, Johannesburg, 3
56   Harris, B. (2003). Race, Identity and Citizenship in a Post-apartheid South Africa. RaceActionNet
     Conference 2003: Networking and developing action against racist attacks …improving policy
     and practice, London, UK, 9 October.

     Kgalema, L. (2002). Reparations in South Africa. Presented at International Centre for
     Transitional Justice workshop, New York, September.

     Kgalema, L. (2002). Examining Victim Perspectives through Transcript Analysis. Presented at
     Research Methodology and Transitional Justice Conference, CSVR, Stellenbosch, November.

     Makhalemele, O. and Molewa, B. (2003). Race in Schools: Schools and Young People Grappling
     with Change. Race and Ethnicity Today, Centre for Policy Studies. Johannesburg, August.

     Makhalemele, O. (2003). Right to Redress: Survivors’ Struggle for Reparations in South Africa.
     Searching for Justice: Comprehensive Action in the Face of Atrocities, York University, Toronto,
     Canada, 4–6 December.

     Masitha, H. (2002). Forgiveness Among Victims of Political Violence: Evidence from South Africa
     and Its Truth and Reconciliation Commission Process. Presented at the American Psychological
     Association Annual Convention: Inter-Group Forgiveness in Settings of Ethnic Conflict:
     International Perspectives, Chicago, 23 August.

     Newham, G. (2002). A Police Station Walkthrough Methodology and Report. Research for Reform:
     An International Meeting on Police Studies and Practices, organised by The Centre for the
     Study of Citizen Security (CESC) of the University of Chile and the Vera Institute of Justice,
     Santiago, Chile, 18 – 19 November.

     Newham, G. (2003). The Gauteng Department of Public Safety and Community Liaison. A
     Department Budget Overview for 2003 – 2004. A Power Point presentation given to the Gauteng
     Legislature Committee on Public Safety, 31 March.

     Newham, G. (2003). The Police Integrity Management Study. Presentation to the plenary of the
     SAPS Johannesburg Area Police Anti-Corruption Summit, Sunnyside Park Hotel, Johannesburg,
     22 November.
annual rep or t 20 03 • C S VR PUBL IC AT IONS 20 02/20 03

                  Palmary, I. (2003). Youth and Crime: an Analysis. Paper prepared for the International Safer
                  Cities Conference, Municipalities at the Cross-roads, Durban.

                  Palmary, I. (2003). Negotiating Nationalism: Women’s Narratives of Armed Conflict. Paper
                  presented at the 30 th Anniversary Sub-regional Codesria conference, Gaborone, Botswana.

                  Simpson, G. (2002). Challenges for Sustainable Peace-building – A Regional Perspective from
                  Southern Africa. Presented at International Workshop: What Kind of Peace is Being Built? –
                  Reflections on the State of Peace building Ten Years After the Agenda for Peace, IDRC, Ottawa,
                  Canada, 30 September.

                  Simpson, G. (2002). Dr Doolittle’s ‘Push-me Pull-you’: The Truth Commission and the Courts in
                  South Africa. International Conference: Truth Commissions and Courts: Towards a Complemen-
                  tary Inter-relationship, Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway
                  Ireland, 4-5 October.

                  Simpson, G. (2002). Uncivil Society: Violence and Reconciliation in the Era of Globalisation
                 – Some Reflections on the South African Experience. Public Lecture at Canadian Institute for
                  International Affairs, Seagram Museum, Waterloo, Canada, 10 October.

                  Simpson, G. (2003). Institutional Reform as Part of Transitional Justice: Reflections on Methods,
                  Failures and Successes within South Africa’s Policing Institutions. International Centre for
                  Transitional Justice, New York, 6 January.

                  Simpson, G. (2003). Access to Information as a Tool of Transitional Justice. Welcoming Address,
                  CSVR/South African History Archives Conference on Information for Justice: Using Access
                  Legislation to Promote Human Rights, University of the Witwatersrand, 10 July.
                  Simpson, G. and Vienings, T. (2003). Building sustainable peace in post-Apartheid South Africa:
                  Reconciliation, Reconstruction and the roots of violence – A Discussion Paper for the Joseph
                  Rowntree Charitable Trust, Johannesburg, 29 October.

                  Van der Merwe, H. (2002). Reparations in South Africa. Presented at International Workshop:
                  Reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations in the context of
                  political transitions, University of Leuven, Belgium, 10 March.

                  Van der Merwe, H. (2002). Assessing Justice in Transitional Justice Mechanisms. Presented
                  at Research Methodology and Transitional Justice Conference, CSVR, Stellenbosch, November.

                  Van der Merwe, H. (2003). The Role of NGOs in Truth Commission Follow-Up. International Centre
                  for Transitional Justice/Centre for Democratic Development Workshop on the Role of Civil
                  Society in Truth Commissions, Bellagio, Italy, November.

                  Valji, N. (2003). Race and the TRC. Race and Ethnicity Today, Centre for Policy Studies.
                  Johannesburg, August.

                  Valji, N. (2003). Post-Truth Commission South Africa. Lecture given at John Jay College of
                  Criminology, New York, New York, November.

                  Vetten, L. (2002). Cultural Dynamics and Misconceptions on Domestic and Sexual Assaults within
                  South African Society. Domestic Violence and Assault: Managing the Risk conference, Hosted
                  by the Dinamik Institute for Health Professional Development,

                  Vetten, L. (2002). Addressing Burnout and Vicarious Traumatisation Amongst Magistrates
                  Hearing Matters Relating to Gender Violence. Magistrates’ Conference, Law, Race and Gender
                  Unit, University of Cape Town.

                  Vetten, L., Ngwane, C., and Isserow, M. (2003). Patterns and Trends in Intimate Femicide
                  in Gauteng: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study. South African Gender-based Violence and Health
                  Initiative (SAGBVHI) conference, May.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n


                                                         Operating Fund • 3,018,970
                                                        Sustainability Fund • 329,721
                                                         Project Funds • 15,788,778

                 Alice Koopedi                           Operating Fund • 3,294,204
                                                        Sustainability Fund • 256,855
             CSVR’s Financial Department
           was headed by Lucy More in 2003.
                                                         Project Funds • 16,183,680
           Beginning in 2004, this position
                                                        Capital Expenditure • 159,173
              was taken over by our new
           Financial Manager Alice Koopedi.                Deficit for the Year

                                                      Transfer from General Reserve

                                                      Balance at Beginning of Year

                                                         Balance at End of Year
annual repor t 2003 • CSVR F INANCIAL REPORT

financial report
In 2003 CSVR was able to increase its revenue through income generating activities,
interest and donor contributions, to just over R19,1-million for the year, excluding
deferred income for 2004. This represents an improvement on the previous year’s fund-
raising efforts in respect of our project funds, but only matches the amount raised in
2001. However, our expenditure during 2003 did exceed income for the year by just
over R756 000. In the absence of dedicated Core donations, this meant that CSVR had
to draw on its limited general reserves to cover this deficit. Nonetheless, CSVR did
carry over a positive balance of just under R3-million into 2004.

The organisation is still on a sound financial footing,   = Secondly, the organisation has still not managed
with a limited general reserve, and has received           to secure dedicated donor support to cover its
a clean bill of health from our auditors. However,         core costs. For an organisation of this size, the
there are two factors which provide some cause for         consequent drain on limited reserves is highly
concern for the future:                                    problematic. In spite of more efficient cost recov-
                                                           ery from projects to cover overhead expenses,
= Much of CSVR’s donor income is derived in foreign        the reduction of CSVR’s reserves is unsustainable
  currency and the trend in 2003, (which continued         in the medium term.
  through the first half of 2004) was a significant
  strengthening of the South African Rand against        Notwithstanding these problems, CSVR’s frugal
  the US dollar and other foreign currencies. On         spending, rigorous accountability and commitment
  some projects, the projected exchange loss (com-       to excellence in financial management, all bode well
  pared to our original budgets) to the end of 2004      for our sustained donor credibility into the future.
  will be as much as 20%, even assuming that this
  trend does not continue. The exchange rate that
  applied in mid 2002 (when much of our budgeting
  for 2003 was done) was R10,27/$1.00 (June 2002).
  However this steadily dropped to R8.54/$1.00 by
  the beginning of 2003. By December 30 2003, the
  rate was down to R6,58/$1.00. The consequence
  of this trend is that even if CSVR is able to sus-
  tain our existing donor commitments, we will still
  lose substantially in Rand terms. This will present
  significant challenges in the course of 2004.
     c e n t r e f o r t h e s t ud y o f v i o l e n c e a nd r e c o n c i l i a t i o n

                        American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                                            Atlantic Philanthropies
                         Australian Agency for International Development (Aus Aid)
                                      Belgian Development Cooperation
                                              Bread for the World
                                       Charles Stewart Mott Foundation
                       Conference, Workshops and Cultural Initiative Fund (CWCI – EU)
                              Department for International Development (DFID)
                                      Diakonia – Southern Africa Region
                                Foundation for Human Rights in South Africa
                                          Heinrich Böll Foundation
                                 International Development Research Centre
                                   Development Cooporation Ireland (DCI)
                                     National Development Agency (NDA)
                                          Open Society Foundation
                                                Oxfam America
                                                   Oxfam GB
                                         Oxfam Netherlands (NOVIB)
60                                           Royal Danish Embassy
                                           Street Kids International
                            Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
                      Templeton Foundation (US – Via the University of North Carolina)
                                             The Ford Foundation
                                             Themba Lesizwe (EU)
                                               Tides Foundation
                             United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
                                United Nations High Commission for Refugees
                         United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture (UNVF)
                                   United States Institute of Peace (USIP)
                                         USAID via CREA South Africa
                                            Weltfriedensdienst e.V

             CSVR has received funding to do specific projects in partnership with
                government involving the following government departments:

                                Department of Community Safety (Gauteng)
                                    Department of Education (Gauteng)
                                 Department of Education (Northern Cape)
                                     Department of Health (Gauteng)
                               Department of Social Development (Gauteng)
                                     Department of Welfare (Gauteng)
                             Gauteng Legislature Committee of Public Safety
                         South African Police Services – Crime Prevention Division
                                         Umsobomvo Youth Fund
                     CSVR works to prevent violence in all its forms,
            heal its effects, and build sustainable peace and reconciliation
                           in South Africa and internationally.

                                              PO Box 30778, Braamfontein 2017, South Africa
                                             Telephone +27 11 403 5650 • Fax +27 11 339 6785
                                                 E-mail info@csvr.org.za • www.csvr.org.za

                                                     Honorary Patron: Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Board Members: Mr. Steve Mokwena, Prof. Jacklyn Cock, Prof. Gillian Eagle, Mr. Frank Meintjies, Mr. Jody Kollapen, Ms. Leila Patel and Mr. Graeme Simpson

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