Consumer Studies Grade 12 by sdsdfqw21


Grade 12
                             Table of Contents

                                                                      Page number
Module 1
Unit 1
Chapter 1   Consumer complaints                                            4
Chapter 2   Claims for misleading descriptions in food
Unit 2
Chapter 1   Taxes, interest rates and inflation                           14
Unit 3
Chapter 1   Nutrition, malnutrition and dietary related
Unit 4
Chapter 1   Anaemia                                                       29
Chapter 2   Food allergies                                                33
Chapter 3   Lactose intolerance and milk/casein allergy                   38
Chapter 4   Adverse and food reactions                                    39
Unit 5
Chapter 1   Eating disorders                                              41
Unit 6
Chapter 1   Genetically engineered/modified foods                         44
Unit 7
Chapter 1   Foods and nutrition: Chemical preservatives
            and food additives
Chapter 2   Nutrition and HIV/Aids                                        53
Unit 8
Chapter 1   Ownership of property: Rent or buy                            55
Chapter 2   Estate agents                                                 57
Chapter 3   Mortgages and interest rates                                  59
Chapter 4   Affordability                                                 61
Chapter 5   Building a house                                              64
Unit 9
Chapter 1   Household Equipment                                           66
Chapter 2   Responsible use of water, electricity and
            municipal services related to housing and                     69
            household equipment

Module 2
Unit 1
Chapter 1   The role of appearance in the world of work                   74
Chapter 2   The influence of socio-economic factors when
            choosing clothing
Chapter 3   Needs-analysis and wardrobe for the world of
            work (a)
Chapter 4   Needs-analysis and wardrobe planning for the
            world of work (b)
Chapter 5   Needs-analysis and wardrobe planning for the
            world of work (c)

              Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                 Page 2 of 164
Unit 2
Chapter 1   Social meaning of appearance during social
Unit 3
Chapter 1   The fashion cycle                                         91
Unit 4
Chapter 1   How brand names influence us when we buy
Unit 5
Chapter 1   The effect of clothing imports on the South
            African clothing industry

Module 3
Unit 1
Chapter 1   Determining costs                                         106
Chapter 2   What do you need for accounting?                          110
Chapter 3   A simple bookkeeping system                               111
Unit 2
Chapter 1   Menu planning                                             113
Chapter 2   Combination of food items on the menu                     119
Chapter 3   Menu item production implementation                       123
Chapter 4   Effective food cost control                               128

Unit 3
Chapter 1   Purchasing, ordering, receiving and storing               137
Chapter 2   The standardised recipe                                   141
Chapter 3   Production schedules                                      148
Unit 4
Chapter 1   Needlework equipment                                      151
Chapter 2   The ideal working place                                   158
Unit 5
Chapter 1   Possible products for production teams                    161
Chapter 2   Compile and implement a plan for the
            production and marketing of a product
Chapter 3   Evaluate the sustainable profitability of the

              Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                 Page 3 of 164
 Unit 2
Activity 1
                                                                                            SUBJECT FRAMEWORK: YEAR PLAN

School:                                                                                Year:                                                                                    Term/Weeks:
                     Grade 10: Module 1                                                                       Grade 11: Module 1                                                                         Grade 12: Module 1
 Duration of                     Learning                                               Duration of          44           Learning                                                Duration of       40          Learning
                  9 hours                      10.1                                                                                      11.1; 11.2; 11.3; 11.4                                                                 12.1; 12.2
   module:                      outcomes:                                                 module:          hours         outcomes:                                                 module:         hours       outcomes:
     Learning                                                                                Learning                                                                                Learning
                     Assessment standard                       Content                                           Assessment standard                      Content                                      Assessment standard                           Content
    Outcomes                                                                                Outcomes                                                                                Outcomes
10.1:               10.1.1: Explain the rights   What does consumer behaviour          11.1: Management         11.1.1: Explain             Consumer practices and              12.1:                12.1.1: Investigate and          Customer complaints.
Management of       and responsibilities of      mean?                                 of the consumer          consumer protection         consumer service.                   Management of        evaluate channels for            Claims for misleading descriptions
the consumer        consumers.                   The rights and responsibilities of    role: The learner is     policies and practices.     Guidelines for consumer             the consumer         consumer complaints.             in food labelling.
role: The learner   10.1.2: Assess the impact    the consumer.                         able to demonstrate      11.1.2: Explain the         protection.                         role: The learner    12.1.2: Analyse the              Nutrition, malnutrition and dietary
is able to          of marketing strategies on   Advertising – a marketing strategy.   knowledge of             household budget as an      Policies and legislation.           is able to           implication of taxes,            related diseases
demonstrate         consumer buying              Packaging and shop layout – a         responsible              instrument for managing     Consumer organisations.             demonstrate          interest rates and inflation     Anaemia.
knowledge of        behaviour.                   marketing strategy.                   consumer practices       financial resources.        The household budget: Spending      knowledge of         on the management of             Food allergies.
responsible                                      Marketing strategies on the           and to effectively                                   patterns in South African           responsible          available funds for              Dairy – Lactose intolerance and
consumer                                         Internet.                             address consumer                                     households.                         consumer             acquiring food, clothing,        milk/casein allergy.
practices and to                                                                       issues.                                              Sources of income and               practices and to     housing and furnishings.         Adverse food nutrition.
effectively                                                                            11.2:                    11.2.1: Compare a           expenditures.                       effectively                                           Eating disorders.
address                                                                                Knowledgeable            young adult’s daily food    Steps in setting up a budget.       address                                               Genetically engineered foods.
consumer issues.                                                                       Consumer                 intake with the             Control and record expenditures.    consumer issues.                                      Foods and nutrition: chemical
                                                                                       Choices: The             nutritional requirements    Determine costs.                    12.2:                12.2.1: Suggest                  preservatives and food additives.
                                                                                       learner is able to       using food composition      Hidden costs.                       Knowledge-able       guidelines for the               Nutrition and HIV/Aids
                                                                                       make                     table, and recommend        What do you need for accounting?    consumer             prevention of nutritional        Ownership of property: Rent or
                                                                                       knowledgeable            necessary                   Simple accounting systems.          choices: The         and food-related health          buy?
                                                                                       consumer choices         improvements.               Nutritional guidelines and food     learner is able to   conditions.                      Estate agents.
                                                                                       about food, clothing,    11.2.2: Explain the         pyramid.                            make                 12.2.4: Explain the              Mortgages and interest rates.
                                                                                       housing and              nutritional needs of        Nutrients and their functions.      knowledgeable        financial and contractual        Affordability.
                                                                                       furnishings within a     consumers from              Read the label.                     consumer             responsibilities of the          Building a home.
                                                                                       given socio-             different age groups        Takeaways – what are we really      choices about        occupants for different          Household equipment.
                                                                                       economic and             and with different          eating?                             food, clothing,      housing options and              Responsible use of water,
                                                                                       cultural context.        energy requirements.        Nutrient needs of consumers from    housing and          investigate and report on        electricity and municipal services
                                                                                                                                            different age groups.               furnishings within   the different role players       related to housing and household
                                                                                                                                            The body’s energy requirements.     a given socio-       in accessing housing.            equipment.
                                                                                                                                            Food outlets in the local           economic and         12.2.5: Compare and
                                                                                                                                            community.                          cultural context.    evaluate the choice of
                                                                                                                                            Which store is the best to buy                           household equipment,
                                                                                                                                            food from?                                               and explain the financial
                                                                                                                                            Guidelines for choosing and                              and contractual
                                                                                                                                            buying food products.                                    responsibilities in buying
                                                                                                                                            What information appears on the                          furniture and household
                                                                                                                                            food label?                                              equipment.
                                                                                                                                            Food spoilage and food poisoning:
                                                                                                                                            What are pathogenic micro
                                                                                                                                            Hygiene in restaurants.
                                                                                                                                            Proper refrigerator temperatures
                                                                                                                                            and defrosting.
                                                                                                                                            Eating out or on the road.

                                                                                        Grade 12 Consumer Studies Teacher’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                                                                                                     Page 50 of 102
Learning                                          Learning                                                                          Learning
           Assessment standard   Content                           Assessment standard                       Content                           Assessment standard   Content
Outcomes                                         Outcomes                                                                           Outcomes
                                           11.3: Responsible       11.3.1: Apply the             The standardised recipe suitable
                                           use of resources:       criteria of safety, quality   for mass production.
                                           The learner is able     and pricing to evaluate       Converting a household recipe
                                           to demonstrate          food outlets in the local     into a standardised recipe.
                                           consumer                community.
                                           responsibility          11.3.2: Explain the
                                           towards the             effect of pathogenic
                                           sustainability of the   organisms on food
                                           environment, the        spoilage and safety.
                                           community and self
                                           through the
                                           judicious use of
                                           11.4: Production        11.4.1: Apply theoretical
                                           and marketing of        knowledge and
                                           food, clothing and      demonstrate the
                                           soft furnishing         necessary skills to
                                           products: The           produce quality
                                           learner is able to      products by using basic
                                           apply knowledge         methods and
                                           and demonstrate         techniques.
                                           the skills necessary    11.4.2: Adapt recipes
                                           to produce quality      or patterns to make
                                           consumer products       them suitable for small-
                                           and to apply            scale production.
                                           entrepreneurial         11.4.3: Calculate the
                                           knowledge and           cost of products in
                                           skills to market        terms of human and
                                           these products.         other resources used.

                                            Grade 12 Consumer Studies Teacher’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                                                          Page 51 of 102
                      WORK SCHEDULE: Module 1

  Week:     Module
   Date      Unit
                               Outcomes and                                       Assessment
started:    and/or     Time                                Content
                                Assessment                                          Tasks
   Date    chapter
 ended:    numbers
            Module      4½         12.1.1        Customer complaints              Investigation
               1       hours                     Claims for misleading             Assignment
             Unit 1                              descriptions in food labelling
            Chap. 1
  Week:     Module
   Date      Unit
                               Outcomes and                                       Assessment
started:    and/or     Time                                Content
                                Assessment                                          Tasks
   Date    chapter
 ended:    numbers
            Module       3         12.1.2          Taxes, interest rates and      Investigation
               1       hours                               inflation
             Unit 2
            Chap. 1
  Week:     Module
   Date      Unit
                               Outcomes and                                       Assessment
started:    and/or     Time                                Content
                                Assessment                                          Tasks
   Date    chapter
 ended:    numbers
            Module       2         12.2.1                                          Interview
               1       hours                      Nutrition, malnutrition and     Assignment
            Unit 3                                 dietary related diseases
            Chap. 1
  Week:     Module
   Date      Unit
                               Outcomes and                                       Assessment
started:    and/or     Time                                Content
                                Assessment                                          Tasks
   Date    chapter
 ended:    numbers
            Module       8         12.2.1                 Anaemia                  Interview
               1       hours                            Food allergies            Assignment
             Unit 4                              Dairy – Lactose intolerance
            Chap. 1                               and milk/casein allergy
              -4                                   Adverse food nutrition
  Week:     Module
   Date      Unit
                               Outcomes and                                       Assessment
started:    and/or     Time                                Content
                                Assessment                                          Tasks
   Date    chapter
 ended:    numbers
            Module    1 hour       12.2.1                                         Assignment
               1                                       Eating disorders           Discussion
             Unit 5
            Chap. 1

             Grade 12 Consumer Studies Teacher’s Book Module 1 – 3
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Unit number:      2
Chapter                    Duration      3         Planned                Actual
number:                    of module:    hours     date:                  date:

Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards:

Taxes, interest rates and inflation

Read the information
Work in pairs and plan a 3 day menu including only zero rated tax food items.
Do calculations
Analyse two advertisements

Brown bread
maize products
milk products and eggs
fruit and vegetables
vegetable oil.


                               For assessment by the teacher:

                      Grade 12 Consumer Studies Teacher’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                        Page 60 of 102

  Learning and
Teaching Support
 Material (LTSM)


Taxes, interest rates and inflation

1.     Read through the following information and complete the activities that

A.     Tax

       Tax is unavoidable. Income tax is the contribution which most of society
       makes towards covering the costs of certain services rendered by the state.
       Therefore taxpayers should not avoid or evade paying tax. Examples of
       services which benefit society are its police, defence force and road
       construction and maintenance.

I.     Tax avoidance
       When a taxpayer legally reduces his tax liability e.g. retirement annuities and
       trust funds.

II.    Tax evasion
       When a tax payer illegally reduces his tax liability e.g. by not declaring his full

III.   Direct and Indirect Taxes
       Direct Tax – examples are income and property tax.
       Indirect Tax – This is the tax levied on consumer goods. Examples are VAT
       (value added tax); excise duty (tax on cigarettes and alcohol); and import tax
       (on imported goods).

       Income Tax – who pays taxes?
(i)    Every individual who receives a taxable income (in excess of a specific
       amount) is liable to pay income tax. The Minister of Finance decides on these
       tax thresholds. The tax year begins 1 March and ends the last day of February
       each year.
(ii)   Every individual who receives interest and foreign dividends in excess of a
       specific amount, is liable to pay income tax.

IV.    Income Tax Systems

(i)    PAYE (Pay As You Earn)
       PAYE is the tax deducted from the salary or wage of an employee. The
       employer pays this amount to the Receiver of Revenue (SARS). Part-time
       workers are also liable for this tax.

                  Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                    Page 14 of 164
(ii)    Provisional tax
        This tax is levied when income is irregular. The employee pays an estimated
        amount of tax twice a year – at the end of August and February each year.

(iii)   SITE (Standard Income Tax on Employees)
        This tax applies to those whose annual income does not exceed R60 000 and
        who do not have allowances.
        The employer calculates the SITE after the following deductions:
•       Pension Fund contribution
•       Retirement Annuity Fund contribution
•       Medical Aid contributions (from a registered medical scheme)
        Then the employer issues the employee with a tax certificate (IRP 5
        Certificate) as proof of payment of SITE or PAYE on his/her behalf. The IRP
        5 form must be submitted with the income tax return from SARS.

(iv)    VAT (Valued added Tax)
        This tax is levied on goods and services at the time of sale. The consumer pays
        the seller/service provider who must return the VAT money collected from
        consumers to SARS. Currently South Africa’s VAT is 14%. Some items are
        exempted from VAT and some are zero-rated VAT items.

(a)     Exempted Items
        There are goods or services on which VAT is not charged e.g. Financial
        services, Transportation (road and rail), state-owned educational services.

(b)     Zero – rated items
        There are goods and services which are taxed at a 0% rate e.g. brown bread;
        maize products and rice; milk and milk products; eggs; fruit and vegetables;
        vegetable oil; petrol.

B.      Interest rates
        Interest is what you pay when you borrow money or buy on credit. Interest can
        be seen as a cost or expense in the case of money loaned, or as negative
        interest. It can be seen as an income when money is loaned to others at a cost.
        (Positive interest).

       Simple Interest           Daily interest         Compound Interest
Calculated on original amount    Calculated on daily Calculated on original
and paid at end of investment    balances, e.g. current amount and interest earned
period, e.g. Investment of       accounts               combined:      Interest  is
R20 000 for 1 year at 10% p.a                           calculated on interest.
= R20 000 + (R20 000 x 10%)
= R20 000 + R2 000 = R22

                  Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
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C.    Hire Purchase/instalment sale agreements
      The consumer receives financing for purchasing goods such as furniture or
      vehicles from a banking institution over a period of between 3 and 54 months.
      A deposit is required and the purchaser takes immediate possession of the
      goods, although the seller retains ownership rights until full and final payment
      has been made. The longer the term, the more interest is incurred. It is
      important to know whether interest is fixed or varying. If it is varying, the
      interest rate should be linked to the prime lending rate.

D.    How to avoid paying interest
      Buy cash or Lay-bye on 6 months interest-free options.
      If you use your overdraft facility or credit card; or if you purchase your goods
      on hire purchase agreements, or borrowing money you will have to pay high
      interest rates.
      If the above cannot be avoided, make a larger than expected down payment or
      pay off more than you are expected to each month. Do not skip payments.

2.    Work in pairs and plan a 3 day menu for a family including only zero-rated tax
      food items. This must be a vegetarian style menu. The menu may consist only
      of the following: brown bread, maize, maize products, rice, milk products and
      eggs, fruit and vegetables and vegetable oil.

3.    Your teacher will discuss simple, daily and compound interest rates with you
      further; thereafter you must calculate the questions in your workbooks. Look
      at these two advertisements and analyse them.
3.1   Find at least two things that are misleading in these advertisements.

                Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
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3.2    Calculate how much you actually save on each item if you pay cash for them,
       as opposed to taking the 24 months option.
3.3    Which other credit options could be used to purchase these two items?
3.4    Choose the one you think is the most favourable credit option and explain
4.     Do the following calculations in your workbook, using simple interest: On 1
       January 2007, Sipho purchased household furniture to the value of R10 000.
       The interest of his credit agreement is 10% per annum on all overdue
       accounts. Calculate the amount Sipho has to pay on 31 December that same
5.     Read through the following information and complete the activities which

E.     Inflation
       CPI inflation is inflation related to consumer goods. CORE inflation excludes
       food and energy prices. CPIX is used to measure inflation in South Africa.

       Inflation is a sustained increase in the average price of all goods and services
       produced in an economy during a certain period. The most widely reported
       measurement of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI), whose function it
       is to compare prices (excluding food and energy prices) between certain
       For example, about 25 years ago, R1 bought 2ℓ of milk. Calculate what
       percentage of 2ℓ it can buy today. Basically, inflation means a rise in prices.
       The cost of food and services continually increases, lowering the value of the
       rand so that it buys less than it did before.

I.     Causes of inflation
(i)    Long-term causes:
       When the money supply grows at a faster rate than goods and services can be
       produced/manufactured, inflation results.

(ii)   Short-term causes:
       The result of shocks to the economy (e.g. food and energy price shocks), that
       in turn, cause all other prices to escalate.

II.    Inflation cycle
       Consumers have an effect on the inflation and interest rates.
       Due to rising inflation the Reserve Bank increases the interest rates.

                  Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
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       Money is now expensive

       Consumers borrow and buy less
       Then the Rand is strengthened.

III.   The National Credit Act no.34 of 2005
       The National Credit Act (NCA) is a new South African law that came into
       effect on 1 June 2007.

       The legislation provides greater consumer protection in all transactions where
       consumers apply for and/or are granted credit by any company/institution. The
       NCA applies only to new credit agreements entered into on or after 1 June
       2007. It does not include credit agreements with companies, close corporation
       and partnerships that have an asset value or annual turnover of over R1
       million/entities of this type that enter into agreements in excess of R250

       If a consumer cannot meet their existing credit payments the NCA will assist
       the consumer by providing debt counselling with a state appointed debt
       counsellor. The state counsellor will analyse your financial situation and either
       reject your request (if he believes you can meet your current payments), or he
       will make a recommendation to the credit providers as to how you can
       realistically repay them. If accepted, this new arrangement will then be
       approved to borrow additional money until you have repaid your credit
       providers in full.

IV.    Complaints Process

       You have the right to resolve a complaint by way of alternate dispute
       resolution if you are not satisfied with the response you receive from the credit
       provider by filing your complaint with the National Credit Regulator or
       making an application to the National Consumer Tribunal.

       You should always contact the local branch of the credit provider first.
       However, you may also contact:

(a)    The National Credit Regulator on 0860 627 627 or visit the website at
(b)    The Credit Information Ombudsman on 0861 662 837
(c)    The Banking Ombudsman on 0860 800 900 or visit the website at

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                      ‘If the credit furniture retailers want to survive, they are going
                      going to have to focus much more on selling desirable, well-
                      priced merchandise, and less on income from financial services.

                            -Shane Watkins, executive director of Peregrine Capital


The National Credit Act obliges banks, retailers and others who offer credit to
consumers to ensure that potential customers can afford to buy goods or services on
credit. The terms of the Act, the full cost of buying something on credit has been
revealed. This includes interest charged and other fees. For example, if an item is
advertised at a cash price of R4, 799, a retailer can no longer advertise ‘or only Rx per
month’, but must show that the actual total cost of the item (at 25% interest) is R6

It is hoped that displaying the large difference between the cash and credit prices will
discourage consumers from buying unnecessary items on credit. The aim of the Act is
not to put a stop to credit. The aim of the Act is not to put a stop to credit – very few
people can afford to pay cash for arouse, for example – but to deter consumers from
buying items that they can’t afford.

Soon after the introduction of the National Credit Act on I June 2007, there were
substantial decreases in the sales of cars, property and retail goods. Sales were also

Lower as a result of the longer and more careful credit checking processes which
banks and retailers now have to follow. South Africa has recently experienced a
consumer boom. This has had positive effects in results of job creation as a result of
the increased demand for goods and services. The consumers’ boom also relied
heavily on credit, encouraging second levels of household debt. It also led it a n
increased demand for imported goods to the extent that South Africa was importing
more than it was exporting, exacerbating the trade deficit.

At the same time, however, increased demand has led it higher prices and a rise in the
inflation rate. In an attempt to curb inflation, the Reserve Bank raised interest rates.

Those retailers who are most affected by the new Act believed that sales will recover
once the new system is firmly in place. They should also benefit from reduced bad
debts as the consumers who have been granted credit in terms of the Act should be in
a position to pay them back.
                                                                 Business Times, 26 June 2007

                  Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
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5.1   As a class discuss what you think happens if consumers do not borrow and
      buy less, but continue to make use of credit options.

6.    Work in small groups and complete this assignment on hire purchases.
      Calculate, then compare your answers with other groups in the class. Do the

6.1   The Ndlovu family bought a vehicle on hire purchase agreement. The cost was
      R100 000. It had to be paid over a period of 4 years in equal monthly
      instalments. The fixed interest was charged at 18% p.a. They paid a 10%
      deposit. Calculate the monthly payments.
6.2   Building a house costs R200 000. How much would that same house cost to
      build a year later if the inflation rate were 9, 5% per annum.
6.3   R10 000 is invested for a period of 5 years compound interest. How much will
      the investment be worth at the end of 5 years?

7.    Discuss in small groups and write the following answers in your workbooks:
7.1   Why do you think it was necessary to introduce and implement the NCA?

                Grade 12 Consumer Studies Learner’s Book Module 1 – 3
                                  Page 20 of 164



Taxes, interest rates and inflation

1.     Read through the information with the learners.

2.     Divide the learners into pairs and have them plan a 3-day menu for a family,
       including only zero-rated tax food items. This must be a vegetarian style
       menu. The menu may consist of the following only: brown bread, maize,
       maize products, rice, milk powders and eggs, fruit and vegetables and
       vegetable oil.

3.    Discuss positive and negative interest rates with learners. Allow the learners to
      compare simple, daily and compound interest rates and then complete the task
      in their workbooks.
3.1   On their own the learners compare simple and compound interest.
3.1.1 Save R200 and Save R1 000- misleading. Interest rate at 25% does not
      mention spacing whether it is simple/daily/compound interest.
3.1.2 Total payable R2 834,08 (24 months) Total payable R 9 631,42 (24 months)
                  R1 999,00                              R6 999,00
      Cash price            saved           Cash price               saved
                   R835,08                               R2 632,42

3.1.3 Credit card, access bond, overdraft
3.1.4 Access bond – least interest, if no access bond, credit card – interest slightly
      less than 25% (budget facility).

4.     The learners do the calculations on simple interest in their workbooks.
       Possible answer:
4.1    R10 000
       R10 000 + (R10 000 × 10%)
       = R10 000 + R1 000
       = R11 000

5.     Read through the information and the article with the learners.
5.1    Possible answer: Inflation rate rises.

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6.    Learners work in groups and calculate 6.1 to 6.3
6.1   Possible answer:
      100 000
      10 000 – deposit of 10%
      90 000 + 12% (10 800) × 4 years
      90 000 + 43 200
      133 200 ÷ 48 months
      = 2 775 per month
      The Ndlou family’s monthly payments are R 2 775.

6.2   Possible answer
      R200 000 × 9, 5%
      = 200 000 + 19 000
      = R219 000
      The house would cost R 219 000 per annum.

6.3   1st year 10 000 × 10% (1 000) .: 11 000
      2nd year 11 000 × 10% (1 100) .: 12 100
      3rd year 12100 × 10% (1 210) .: 13 310
      4th year 13 310 × 10% (1 3310) .: 1 464,10
      5th year 14 641 × 10% (1 464,10)
      After 5 years it will be worth R16 105,10

7.    The learners work in groups and write answers in their workbooks.

7.1   Wild spending of consumers, a weak rand, lots of consumers in debt (buying
      on credit) and too easy to get credit. If NCA was not established to control
      credit services, then consumers in debt will be badly affected as they get
      deeper and deeper into debt. Those that are saving money will be advantaged.
      To encourage saving and discourage debt.

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