Crop Profile for wild blueberry in Canada by dfsdf224s

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									Crop Profile for Wild Blueberry in Canada




                    Prepared by:

           Pesticide Risk Reduction Program

               Pest Management Centre

          Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada




                      May, 2005
Crop Profile for Wild Blueberry in Canada

Pest Management Centre
Pesticide Risk Reduction Program
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
960 Carling Avenue, Building 57
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0C6
CANADA

This profile is based on a report prepared on contract (01B68-3-0044) by:

Steve Howatt
Atlantic Agritech, Inc.
265 New Glasgow, Hunter River RR#3
Prince Edward Island, Canada
C0A 1N0

The authors recognize the efforts of the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA),
provincial pest management representatives, industry specialists and growers in the gathering
of information that was required, and the review and validation of the content of this
publication.

Product trade names may be included and are meant as an aid for the reader to facilitate the
identification of products in general use. The use of these trade names does not imply
endorsement of a particular product by the authors or any of the organizations represented in this
publication.

Information on pesticides and pest control techniques are provided for information purposes
only. No endorsement of any of the pesticides or pest control techniques discussed is implied.

Information contained in this publication is not intended to be used by growers as a production
guide. Provincial publications should be consulted by growers for this information.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is complete and
accurate. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada does not assume liability for errors, omissions, or
representations, expressed or implied, contained in any written or oral communication associated
with this publication. Errors brought to the attention of the authors will be corrected in
subsequent updates.

Information for many of the tables in this crop profile is incomplete. It has been collected and
will be published in an updated version of the crop profile on this website in the near future.




                                                 2
                                                     Table of Contents
General Production Information ..................................................................................................... 5
  Production Regions ..................................................................................................................... 5
  Cultural Practices......................................................................................................................... 5
Production Issues ............................................................................................................................ 6
  Abiotic Factors Limiting Production........................................................................................... 8
  Key Issues.................................................................................................................................... 8
    Temperature Extremes ............................................................................................................. 8
    Pollination ................................................................................................................................ 8
Diseases .......................................................................................................................................... 9
  Key Issues.................................................................................................................................... 9
  Major Diseases ............................................................................................................................ 9
    Monilinia Blight (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi) .................................................................... 9
    Botrytis blight (Botrytis cinerea) ........................................................................................... 10
    Red Leaf (Exobasidium vacinii)............................................................................................. 11
  Minor Diseases .......................................................................................................................... 11
    Witches’ broom (Pucciniastrum goeppertianum).................................................................. 11
    Godronia Canker (Godronia cassandrae).............................................................................. 12
    Phomopsis Canker (Phomopsis vacinii)................................................................................. 13
Insects and Mites .......................................................................................................................... 16
  Key Issues.................................................................................................................................. 16
  Major Insects and Mites ............................................................................................................ 17
    Blueberry Fruit Fly (Rhagoletis mendax)............................................................................... 17
    Blueberry Flea Beetle (Altica sylvia) ..................................................................................... 17
    Blueberry Spanworm (Itame argillacearia)........................................................................... 18
    Blueberry Leaftier (Croesia curvalana)................................................................................. 19
    Blueberry Case Beetle (Neochlamisus cribripennis) ............................................................. 19
    Blueberry Thrips (Frankliniella vaccinii and Catinathrips kainos) ...................................... 20
  Minor Insects and Mites ............................................................................................................ 20
    Blueberry Sawfly (Neopareophora litura)............................................................................. 20
    Blueberry Stem Gall Wasp (Hemadas nubilipennis) ............................................................. 21
    Whitemarked Tussock Moth (Orgyia leucostigma)............................................................... 22
Weeds............................................................................................................................................ 26
  Key Issues.................................................................................................................................. 26
  Major and Minor Weeds............................................................................................................ 28
    Annual Grasses and Broadleaves ........................................................................................... 28
    Perennial Grasses (including sedges and rushes), Broadleaf and Woody Weeds.................. 28
Vertebrate Pests ............................................................................................................................ 34
  Birds........................................................................................................................................... 34
  Deer ........................................................................................................................................... 34
  Bear............................................................................................................................................ 35
  Coyote........................................................................................................................................ 35
References used in this document................................................................................................. 36
IPM / ICM resources for production of wild blueberry in Canada............................................... 36




                                                                         3
                                                           List of Tables
Table 1. Canadian wild blueberry production and pest management schedule.............................. 7
Table 2. Degree of occurrence of diseases in Canadian wild blueberry production....................... 9
Table 3. Disease control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry
   production............................................................................................................................... 14
Table 4. Availability and use of disease management approaches for Canadian wild blueberry
   production............................................................................................................................... 15
Table 5. Degree of occurrence of insect pests in Canadian wild blueberry production ............... 16
Table 6. Insect control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry
   production............................................................................................................................... 23
Table 7. Availability and use of insect pest management approaches for Canadian wild blueberry
   production............................................................................................................................... 25
Table 8. Degree of occurrence of weed pests in Canadian wild blueberry production ................ 26
Table 9. Weed control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry
   production............................................................................................................................... 30
Table 10. Availability and use of weed pest management approaches for Canadian wild
   blueberry production .............................................................................................................. 33
Table 11. Research contacts related to pest management in Canadian wild blueberry production
    ................................................................................................................................................ 38




                                                                          4
  Crop Profile for Wild Blueberry in Canada
The wild, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, V.angustifolium f. nigrum, V.
myrtilloides) is a member of the Ericaceae, or Heather family and is native to North America.
Native Americans encouraged its growth by periodically burning blueberry fields, which would
quickly grow again with new plants. The first European settlers found them to be similar to types
of berries that grew in their homeland: blaeberry in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries
in Denmark, blabar in Sweden, or bickberren and blauberren in Germany.

Lowbush blueberries have received much attention in recent years due to their health attributes.
The fruit is rich in antioxidant compounds that fight free radicals that are associated with cancer,
heart disease and premature aging.

                        General Production Information
                                                         78,608 metric tonnes
           Canadian Production (2003)
                                                            22,269 hectares
              Farm gate value (2003)                          $115 million
                                                        0.44 kg/person (raw)
          Domestic consumption (2001)
                                                     0.49 kg/person (processed)
                    Export (2001)                       20,291 metric tonnes
                   Imports (2001)                       19,410 metric tonnes
         Source(s): Statistics Canada
         All figures include lowbush and highbush blueberries combined.

Production Regions
The production of lowbush blueberries on a commercial scale is limited to a rather small area in
eastern Canada and the north-eastern United States, in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland & Labrador, Quebec and the state of Maine.

Cultural Practices
Lowbush blueberries are a perennial succession crop. Old, abandoned field go through a series of
changes from grass to shrubs, leading eventually to acidic soils that favour the growth of
blueberry plants. The plants grow wild in areas of sandy, gravely, well drained soils with acidity
levels of 4.2-5.0 that are generally unsuitable for other types of agriculture. Acid rain has
stimulated the growth of natural stands in some inland areas by reducing the pH level of the soil.
The bush spreads through slow-growing, underground stems called rhizomes, and farmers may
spend a lifetime in developing fields that will produce high yields.

Blueberries will grow faster if the ground is undisturbed, so producers manage fields only by
pruning, fertilizing, reducing weeds and controlling pests and diseases. Mowing or burning is
necessary to encourage the growth of new stems from underground rhizomes. From time to time,
blueberry fields are completely mowed. This eliminates all weeds and gives the blueberry plants
a competitive advantage during re-growth due to their extensive root system. The crop needs to
grow for two years before it can be harvested, making it a common practice to divide fields so
that only half of the acreage is harvested in any one year. Until the mid-1980’s, the entire crop
was harvested by hand or by raking. Today, fields in rough terrain are still hand raked, but most
of the crop is mechanically harvested (up to 80% in some areas), an innovation that has
revolutionized the wild blueberry industry. In established fields, modern practices yield between
0.5 and 10 tonnes per hectare. Land that was formerly farmed is ideal. Previously forested or
brush land may take up to 10 years before blueberry plants produce income.

The harvested crop is marketed as "wild blueberries” since lowbush blueberries are produced in
fields made up of managed native plants and are not planted. This is in contrast to the highbush
(cultivated) blueberry, which is planted and maintained similarly to other berry crops.

Most of the wild blueberry crop is sent to processing plants to be frozen using Individually Quick
Freezing (IQF) technology. The berries may then be sold frozen or further processed into
products such as pies, yogurt, ice cream, jams and syrups. Less than 5% is sold fresh at local
markets.

Production Issues
Production losses are often attributed to climatic conditions, such as frost during the bloom
period or during harvesting, extended hot and dry weather during the summer, extremely cold
and windy conditions during the winter, or cold and windy spring when snow cover is lacking.
Any of these factors can potentially cause over 50% crop loss and reduce crop quality. Poor
pollination is limiting factor in many production regions, as is the availability of workers during
the periods of harvesting and freezing of the crop.




                                                 6
Table 1. Canadian wild blueberry production and pest management schedule
 Time of Year                  Activity                                               Action
                               Plant care                                              Pruning
      April
                           Weed management                                             Pruning
                               Plant care                                             Pollination
                          Disease management                             Monitoring and spraying if necessary
      May
                       Insect & mite management                          Monitoring and spraying if necessary
                           Weed management                                             Limited
                               Plant care                                             Pollination
                          Disease management                             Monitoring and spraying if necessary
      June
                       Insect & mite management                          Monitoring and spraying if necessary
                           Weed management                                             Limited
                               Plant care                           Leaf tissue sampling (tip dieback – prune year)
                                Soil care                             Soil sampling (same time as leaf sampling)
       July               Disease management                             Monitoring and spraying if necessary
                       Insect & mite management                          Monitoring and spraying if necessary
                           Weed management                                             Limited
                                                                      Harvest (prune later in season or in spring)
                               Plant care
                                                                    Leaf tissue sampling (tip dieback – prune year)
                                Soil care                             Soil sampling (same time as leaf sampling)
     August               Disease management                                           Limited
                       Insect & mite management                                        Limited
                           Weed management                                             Limited
Adapted from the Highbush Blueberry Crop Profile, BC Crop Profiles 2002-2004, BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries
Source(s): Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries.




                                                           7
Abiotic Factors Limiting Production

Key Issues
•   There is a need to develop technologies that reduce input costs and increase yields.
•   Compliance with requirements of international markets regarding improved quality and
    reduced chemical use in blueberry production is needed to promote export.
•   A tracking system for fruit marketing should be established so that fruit being sold and
    exported can be traced back to the field of origin to determine production practices used.
•   New technologies for sanitizing the leaf litter after mowing need to be developed to reduce
    pressure by insects and diseases and reduce the use of pesticides. This is an increasing
    problem as fields are mainly pruned by mowing rather than by burning.

Temperature Extremes
Frost and cold temperatures during bloom (June) and prior to harvest later in the summer can
cause yield losses. Cold and windy conditions during the pollination season can also impact
yields. During winter and spring, upper parts of plants can be desiccated by winter kill caused by
cold temperatures, drying winds and insufficient snow cover during the winter months. Trees can
be planted to reduce wind and keep snow from blowing off fields. On the other hand, dry, hot
summers can reduce yields by as much as 50% and affect the quality of the remaining fruit.
Recently, irrigation has been explored as a possible solution to this problem.

Pollination
Pollination is important for successful blueberry production. Poor pollination may result from
adverse weather conditions or a low number of pollinators. Many native bee species pollinate
lowbush blueberries; however in some years their populations are low and growers need to resort
to the use of rented pollinators (e.g. honeybee, alfalfa leaf cutter bee). In some areas, sufficient
numbers of managed pollinators are unavailable.




                                                 8
Diseases
Key Issues
•    Additional research is required to improve the knowledge on various blueberry diseases that
     are not well understood, such as red leaf, leaf spot, phomopsis canker and powdery mildew.
•    Establishment of thresholds for diseases is needed to improve the efficacy of control
     measures and reduce the use of chemical fungicides.
•    There is a need to register bio-fungicides for the control of Monilinia and Botrytis blights
     during fruiting years. The chemical fungicides that growers are currently using reduce the
     marketability of the fruit.
•    New products need to be registered for the control of powdery mildew.


Table 2. Degree of occurrence of diseases in Canadian wild blueberry production
                                                                                    Degree of occurrence
               Major Diseases                                   QC                NB        PE         NS                             NF
               Monilinia blight                                   D                 E                 E                 E             NDR
                Botrytis blight                                   D                 E                 E                 E             NDR
                  Red leaf                                        E                 E                 E                 E             NDR
    Leaf spot (Septoria,Powdery mildew)                                             E                                                 NDR
               Minor Diseases                                   QC                NB                PE                NS              NF
               Witches broom                                      D                 E                 E                 E             NDR
               Godronia canker                                    D                 E                 E                 E             NDR
             Phomopsis canker                                     D                 E                 E                 E             NDR
Widespread yearly occurrence with high pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with high pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with high pest pressure
Widespread yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Pest not present
NDR - No data reported
E – established
D – invasion expected or dispersing
Source(s): Provincial crop management specialists



Major Diseases


Monilinia Blight (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi)

Pest Information
Damage: Monilinia blight is common in many production areas and can be destructive in
    seasons with extended wet periods. Fields with heavy soil or poor drainage are prone to the
    disease. The pathogen infects leaves, blossoms and fruit, causing leaves to wilt and blossom
    clusters to shrivel. Infected fruit shrivel and harden several weeks before harvest, developing
    into black fungal masses known as “mummy berries”.
Life Cycle: The fungus overwinters in the form of mummy berries. The duration of wet periods
    and temperature has a profound effect on infection. Field frost, even for an hour, dramatically
   increases the susceptibility of buds to infection. During bud break, mummy berries germinate
   to produce apothecia structures that develop primary spores (ascospores). Under cool and wet
   conditions, these spores infect the vegetative parts of the plant, with symptoms appearing in
   10-20 days. Secondary spores (conidia) produced on the diseased tissues are then carried by
   wind or pollinating insects to infect new plants. Fruits remain symptomless until they are
   almost mature, at which time they drop to the ground and the fungus completes its life cycle.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Several fungicides are available for the control on Monilinia blight. The
    decision to spray depends almost entirely on the past history of the disease in a particular
    field. If growers have experienced a problem with Monilinia blight in the past, they should
    apply chemical controls.
Cultural Controls: The practice of pruning by burning helps destroy mummy berries. Flail
    mowing does not destroy the mummies and results in increased levels of the disease.
Alternative Controls: A strategy has been developed based on air temperature and leaf wetness
    that rates the likelihood of infection during different periods of time. Monitoring temperature
    and leaf wetness, and spraying only when the risk of infection is high are recommended
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Monilinia Blight
1. There is a need for continued work on forecasting and predicting outbreaks of this disease.

Botrytis blight (Botrytis cinerea)

Pest Information
Damage: Botrytis blight can be a serious problem during bloom. The pathogen attacks blossoms,
    fruit and leaves and leads to the development of grey mould on infected tissues.
Life Cycle: The infection cycle of B. cinerea on lowbush blueberry is not fully understood. The
    fungus overwinters on infected weeds. In the spring, the pathogen produces spores that are
    blown by wind to blueberry blossoms. The number of disease cycles and the severity of
    infection are associated with the number of wet periods during bloom and shortly thereafter.
    Later, infected petals may drop and establish new infection sites. Infected leaves change
    colour and develop grey mould that contaminates fruit through direct contact. Early-
    blooming blueberry clones are the first to be infected and they are the source of spores for
    later flowering clones. Spore population reaches a peak during spring and remains high
    through the summer, even though blueberry tissues are no longer susceptible. Few spores are
    produced on blueberry debris from the previous year, making weeds an important source of
    initial inoculum. Frost and herbicide damage increase the susceptibility of the weeds and the
    blueberry bushes to the disease.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Fungicides are applied if the disease is evident at mid bloom and wet
   conditions are predicted. Sprays are conducted at 7-10 day intervals if damp weather persists
   through the bloom period.
Cultural Controls: Pruning by burning every second or third crop cycle reduces overwintering
   inoculum of B. cinerea. Weeds within and around blueberry fields should be controlled.
   Potential host weeds include bunchberry, sheep sorrel, goldenrod, pearly everlasting,
   Potentilla spp., and some grasses.


                                                10
Alternative Controls: Monitoring of early flowering clones for infections by B. cinerea helps
    determine if sprays are necessary.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Botrytis Blight
1. There is concern over the wide host range of the pathogen and the serious losses it causes in
    lowbush blueberry crops. The host range of B. cinerea includes berry crops, weeds, cereals,
    vegetable crops, ornamentals and forage crops. In lowbush blueberry fields in Nova Scotia,
    losses of 30-35% have been recorded due to Botrytis blight.

Red Leaf (Exobasidium vacinii)

Pest Information
Damage: Red leaf is a widely distributed fungal disease, but in most fields it has a low incidence
    that seldom exceeds 5%. The disease has a systemic distribution within the plant tissues, and
    results in reduced plant vigour and yield. Infected plants may fail to flower and do not
    produce much fruit. By midsummer, infected leaves drop and the disease becomes
    inconspicuous. Symptoms reappear on the same plants each year until they weaken and die.
Life Cycle: The fungus overwinters in the shoots and rhizomes of blueberry plants, infecting new
    sprouts as they arise from the mother plant. Infected leaves turn red and the fungus develops
    spore-bearing structures on their lower surface. The role of the spores in spreading the
    disease is unknown. It is assumed that field infections through spores only take place under
    extended wet conditions because spores can cause infections under controlled environments,.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: In fields where red leaf is considered a problem, diseased plants should be
    eradicated by spot spraying with a recommended herbicide in the sprout year. However, even
    a low incidence of red leaf is often sufficient for the distribution of the disease throughout the
    field. Consequently, any attempt to spray infected plants will result in unacceptable damage
    to nearby healthy plants.
Cultural Controls: The practice of burn pruning does not control rhizome infections but may
    destroy new infections in the shoots that have not yet progressed into the rhizome.
Alternative Controls: None identified. Growers have made little attempt to control red leaf
    because the incidence of the disease is generally low.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Red leaf
None identified

Minor Diseases


Witches’ broom (Pucciniastrum goeppertianum)

Pest Information
Damage: The disease exists in low incidence in Nova Scotia, resulting in negligible yield losses.
   Plants develop broom-like masses of shoots with few or no leaves and do not produce fruit.


                                                 11
    Symptoms appear the year following infection and persist for many years, producing new
    infected growth each spring.
Life Cycle: From mid May to late June, rust spores (teliospores) are developed on infected shoots
    and germinate to produce another type of spores (basidiospores). These spores are carried by
    wind to balsam fir trees that serve as an alternate host and where another type of spore
    (aeciospores) is formed. These spores are then wind-blown back to the blueberry plants
    where they germinate on leaves and stems, stimulating the production of lateral buds that
    develop into the characteristic, broom-like swollen shoots. This phase takes place during mid
    to late summer. Finally, teliospores are formed on the swollen, broom-like shoots of
    blueberry plants and overwinter there. The brooms are perennial and produce new growth
    each spring, serving as sources of the fungus for many years. As infected plants have been
    reported in areas remote from balsam fir, basidiospores produced on blueberry may directly
    infect other blueberry plants without the need for and alternate host. However, this
    hypothesis is yet to be confirmed.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Infected blueberry plants are killed with a systemic herbicide to prevent the
    spread of the disease.
Cultural Controls: Infected blueberry plants are grubbed out. Due to the systemic nature of the
    disease in crowns and rhizomes, burning or flail mowing does not eliminate the disease.
    Removal of the alternate host (balsam fir) within 400-500 yards of blueberry fields may be
    effective, but may not be practical as yield losses from the disease are very small.
Alternative Controls: None identified.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Witches' Broom
None identified

Godronia Canker (Godronia cassandrae)

Pest Information
Damage: Godronia canker was not considered a major problem in blueberries until a recent
    survey in Nova Scotia. The survey showed that the disease is present in almost all fruiting
    fields, with an average infection rate of 13%. Infections during late May to early June cause
    tip dieback, stem lesions and dieback of stem parts above the lesion. This is a yield reducing
    disease, and it is believed that there is a direct correlation between the percentage of infected
    stems and crop losses. Infections during mid-summer (July) lead to the production of
    undersized fruits.
Life Cycle: The fungus overwinters in cankers on stems and crowns of infected plants as
    pycnidia. Infectious conidiospores from the pycnidia of infected plants are released and
    splashed onto healthy canes by rain. The disease cycle starts at about bud-break in the spring
    but new infections continue to occur throughout the growing season each time it rains, until
    the fall. Conidiospores infect current year canes as well as 1- and 2-year old canes. Lesions
    of Godronia canker grow larger year by year, and may ultimately girdle the stems.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available
Cultural Controls: Pruning and destroying infected branches is the main control for Godronia
   canker. Monitor of fruiting fields for Godronia is done in early July. Burning as a pruning

                                                 12
    method destroys diseased stems that act as sources for new infections. Mowing should not be
    done before burning.
Alternative Controls: None identified.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Godronia Canker
None identified

Phomopsis Canker (Phomopsis vacinii)

Pest Information
Damage: Phomopsis canker is found in sprouting fields from late July until the end of
    September. Disease lesions appear as elongated, flattened cankers on the base of stems,
    causing the stems to fall off. Phomopsis can be devastating to bushes in low areas where
    winter injury and spring frosts are a problem. However, the disease is not as common in
    fruiting fields, where it might be confused with Godronia.
Life Cycle: The infectious conidiospores are spread by splashing rain during the growing season
    from bud break through September. Injuries from mechanical damage, winter stresses, or
    spring frost are necessary for phomopsis infection because wounded tissues serve as entry
    points for conidiospores. Wounds from mechanical harvesting or pruning may also facilitate
    infections. Stems infected in the growing season will wilt during the summer months.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: Monitoring of fields for Phomopsis in done in early September of the sprout
    year. Pruning by burning is assumed to reduce disease incidence. Careless pruning,
    cultivating, and fertilization late in the summer should be avoided to minimize mechanical
    injury to the plants. Keeping the plants well watered through prolonged periods of dry
    weather in the summer and avoiding stress also helps to prevent this disease.
Alternative Controls: None identified.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant varieties available.

Issues for Phomopsis Canker
Not identified




                                              13
Table 3. Disease control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry production
                                                                                                            Performance
                                                  Mode of            PMRA
 Control product                                                                    Diseases, pests          of product
                                                  action –          status of
(active ingredient /       Classification2                                           or group of            according to                          Notes
                                                 resistance          active
    organism)1                                                                      pests targeted         recommended
                                                   group3         ingredient4
                                                                                                                 use5
                                Amide
      Triforine                                        3                R             Monilinia blight             AP            Not commonly used
                              fungicides
                               conazole                                                                                          Export problems: Common tolerance levels
    Propiconazole             fungicides               3                R             Monilinia blight             AP           are required for Atlantic Canada and Eastern
                                                                                                                                US blueberry production.
                              (triazoles)
                             phthalimide
       Captan                                         M2               RE             Botrytis blight              A
                              fungicides
                           dithiocarbamate
       Ferban                                         M2                R             Botrytis blight              A
                              fungicides
                            benzimidazole
    Thiophanate                                                                                                    AP
                               precursor               1                R             Botrytis blight                            Potential for the development of resistance
      methyl
                              fungicides
1
  Common trade name(s), if provided brackets, are for the purpose of product identification only. No endorsement of any product in particular is implied.
2
  Chemical classification according to “The Compendium of Pesticide Common Names”, see http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/class_pesticides.html
3
  The mode of action group is based on the classification presented in the Pest Management Regulatory Agency Regulatory Directive DIR99-06, Voluntary Pesticide
Resistance-Management Labelling Based on Target Site/Mode of Action
4
  R-full registration (non-reduced risk), RE-under re-evaluation, DI-discontinued, BI-full registration (biological), RR- full registration (reduced risk), OP-full
registration (organophosphate replacement), NR-not registered. Not all end-use products will be classed as reduced-risk. Not all end use products containing this active
ingredient may be registered for use on this crop. Individual product labels should be consulted for up to date accurate information concerning specific registration
details. The information in these tables should not be relied upon for pesticide application decisions. The following website can be consulted for more information on
pesticide registrations: http://www.eddenet.pmra-arla.gc.ca/4.0/4.0.asp
5
  A – Adequate (the pest control product (PCP), according to recommended use, maintains disease below economic threshold OR provides acceptable control), AP –
Provisionally adequate (the PCP, while having the ability to provide acceptable control, possesses qualities which may make it unsustainable for some or all uses), I –
Inadequate (the PCP, according to recommended use, does not maintain disease below economic threshold OR provides unacceptable control)
Source(s): Provincial crop and pest management specialists.
Table 4. Availability and use of disease management approaches for Canadian wild
blueberry production




                                                                   Monilinia blight

                                                                                      Botrytis blight

                                                                                                        Red leaf
                                 Practice \ Pest



                 tillage
                 residue removal / management
                 water management
   Prevention




                 equipment sanitation
                 row spacing / seeding depth
                 removal of alternative hosts (weeds/volunteers)
                 roguing / spot spray
                 mowing / mulching / flaming
                 resistant varieties
                 planting / harvest date adjustment
                 crop rotation
   Avoidance




                 trap crops - perimeter spraying
                 use of disease-free seed
                 optimizing fertilization
                 reducing mechanical damage / insect damage
                 thinning / pruning
                 scouting - trapping
                 records to track pests
   Monitoring




                 field mapping of weeds
                 soil analysis
                 weather monitoring for disease forecasting
                 grading out infected produce
                 use of thresholds for application decisions
                 biological pesticides
                 pheromones
   Suppression




                 sterile mating technique
                 beneficial organisms & habitat management
                 pesticide rotation for resistance management
                 ground cover / physical barriers
                 controlled atmosphere storage
                 forecasting for applications
no indication that the practice is available/used
available/used
available/not used
not available
Source(s): Information in the crop profile for individual pests
Insects and Mites
Key Issues
•   New, effective and safe products with lower toxicity to pollinators are needed to be
    registered to replace organophosphate insecticides.
•   There is a need to develop and register biological controls for blueberry maggot, blueberry
    flea beetle and spanworm (e.g Spinosad, an insecticide with good potential for the control of
    several major insect pests).
•   There is concern over the potential loss of organophosphate insecticides to control blueberry
    flea beetle and blueberry maggot, while there are no replacement products registered.
•   New control products for isolated outbreaks of blueberry leaf beetle, cutworm and strawberry
    rootworm need to be registered.
•   The development and improvement of thresholds for insect pests are needed to increase
    efficiency and reduce the use of insecticides.
•   There is a need for increased field scouting for insect pests by increasing the number of
    trained workers and promoting the practice.
•   The industry requires an entomology chairperson to co-ordinate research and extension work
    on insect pests and control methods.



Table 5. Degree of occurrence of insect pests in Canadian wild blueberry production
                                                                               Degree of occurrence
            Major Insects                                  QC                NB        PE          NS                                 NF
          Blueberry fruit fly                               D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
         Blueberry flea beetle                              D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
         Blueberry spanworm                                 D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
          Blueberry leaftier                                D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
        Blueberry case beetle                               D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
           Blueberry thrips                                 D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
            Minor Insects                                  QC                NB                 PE                 NS                 NF
          Blueberry sawfly                                  D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
       Blueberry stem gall wasp                             D                  E                  E                 E                 NDR
Widespread yearly occurrence with high pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with high pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with high pest pressure
Widespread yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Pest not present
NDR - No data reported
E – established
D – invasion expected or dispersing
Source(s): Provincial crop management specialists




                                                                   16
Major Insects and Mites


Blueberry Fruit Fly (Rhagoletis mendax)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry fruit fly is recognized as the most important insect pest of lowbush
    blueberry. Although direct losses of fruit are of minimal economic importance, there is a zero
    tolerance for fruit fly larvae in most major markets. The presence of larvae at low levels on
    harvested fruit greatly reduces the commercial value of the crop. The pest consumes the inner
    parts of the berry, resulting in the shrivelling and premature dropping from the plant.
Life Cycle: Adult flies emerge from soil from late June to early August, living for approximately
    30 days. Females can each lay up to 100 eggs, usually leaving only one egg per berry. Larvae
    develop inside fruits, causing them to shrivel and drop prematurely. A small portion of the
    infested berries remain on the plant and are harvested. The pupa is formed in the soil and
    typically emerges the following year, with some emerging 2-4 years later.
Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Insecticides are applied within 7-10 days once the action threshold is
    reached. A second spray is occasionally necessary. Registered products include dimethoate,
    phosmet, malathion, azinphos-methyl and carbaryl. Dimethoate is not recommended, as it is
    not used in the United States and can affect export.
Cultural Controls: Dividing fields into crop and non-crop sections should be avoided as the
    majority of adult flies emerge during the non-crop year in a two-year cropping system.
    Debris from winnowing piles should be destroyed or buried, especially if field cleaning is
    done. Heavily infested berries should not be left unpicked, but disposed of to reduce re-
    infestation. Weed control around the outer edges of the field forces the fruit fly to lay eggs
    away from the field and decrease overall fly population.
Alternative Controls: An integrated strategy is required for the management of this pest.
    Monitoring is done using yellow coloured sticky traps placed in the outer margin of the field.
    Traps should be checked three times a week and records should be kept throughout the
    season. The action threshold has been set at one captured fly due to the intolerance for the
    pest on the export market. Monitoring continues after the threshold has been reached to allow
    for the evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide sprays and to indicate the need for a
    second spray application.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Blueberry Fruit Fly
1. The low tolerance for larvae in export markets, makes blueberry fruit fly a quarantine pest.
2. There is an immediate need to replace the organophosphates that are currently being used
    with safer and pollinator-friendly products that control this insect.

Blueberry Flea Beetle (Altica sylvia)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry flea beetle can cause severe defoliation if it is present in large numbers.
   Both adults and larvae feed on blueberry foliage. Most outbreaks occur in the crop year
   during bloom and if not controlled can cause crop losses.

                                               17
Life Cycle: The eggs of the flea beetle overwinter in leaf litter and hatch in May when the leaves
    begin to unfold. The larvae go through three instars before pupating in the soil. Adults
    emerge from pupae in late June, lay eggs in late July and are present until late August.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Trichlorfon is registered for the control of blueberry flea beetle. As most
    outbreaks occur during the bloom period, safety of pollinators should be taken into account
    and sprays need to be timed so that beneficial insects are not harmed.
Cultural Controls: Fall or spring burning will help control the flea beetle population, as the eggs
    overwinter in the leaf litter. Most outbreaks occur in mechanically-pruned fields.
Alternative Controls: In both crop and sprout fields, weekly samplings using a sweep net should
    be done. Although an action threshold has not been established, 3-5 larvae per sweep should
    prompt a subsequent check for signs of defoliation and may signal the need for control
    measures.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Blueberry Flea Beetle
1. Additional research is needed on the control of this pest.
2. There is a need to register a product that is less toxic to pollinators. The only product
    currently in use is an organophosphate (trichlorfon) which is toxic to pollinators.

Blueberry Spanworm (Itame argillacearia)

Pest Information
Damage: Caterpillars of several species of spanworm moths feed on the foliage of lowbush
    blueberry. Plants can be completely defoliated if the outbreak is severe. In fields that are
    sprouting, the pest can consume back the new growth. In the past, these insects have been
    kept under control as the overwintering eggs were destroyed by burning. Recently, mowing
    has been replacing burning and the number of spanworm outbreaks has increased.
Life Cycle: The pest overwinters as eggs in the litter around the base of plants. The eggs hatch
    and larvae emerge when the new sprouts begin to grow in late May. The larvae are most
    actively feeding on leaves and buds at night. During the day, the larvae drop to the ground
    and hide in leaf litter. Feeding continues until late June or early July at which time they
    pupate in the soil. Adult moths emerge from pupae in late July and lay eggs on leaves or on
    the ground.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Insecticide treatments are necessary when the level of spanworms exceeds
    the action threshold. Registered insecticides include trichlorfon and phosmet, but these are
    rarely used due to fluctuations in the field populations of this pest.
Cultural Controls: Burning can reduce the number of spanworms in the field.
Alternative Controls: Several species of parasitic wasp attack the blueberry spanworm and help
    to control the population. Weekly monitoring is done during May and June using a sweep
    net. Action thresholds have been set at 7 spanworms per 25 sweeps on sprout fields and 12
    spanworms per 25 sweeps on crop fields.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available..

Issues for Blueberry Spanworm
None identified
                                                 18
Blueberry Leaftier (Croesia curvalana)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry leaftier is found in low numbers in many blueberry-growing areas and
    may occasionally become a serious problem. Severe damage is caused by young larvae
    feeding on developing flower buds, with up to 20% of the buds being affected. Older larvae
    cause damage by feeding on leaves and flowers. Defoliation can be close to 100% if the
    outbreak is severe. The pest is rarely of economic concern.
Life Cycle: The pest overwinters as eggs on leaf litter around blueberry plants. Eggs hatch from
    April to May and larvae emerge in July. Larvae feed on buds, young leaves and flowers and
    form a protective shelter from leaves and silk when molting. Larvae pupate within these
    shelters during June. Adult moths emerge from the pupae in early to late July and lay eggs on
    the leaf litter during late July to early August.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Deltamethrin is used to control the larval stages. The application is timed
    according to flower bud development stage, which corresponds to egg hatch in the field.
Cultural Controls: Burning can help reduce moth numbers in the sprout year.
Alternative Controls: Pheromone traps for adults can be used to determine if a field requires a
    spray to control larvae the following spring.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Blueberry Leaftier
Not identified

Blueberry Case Beetle (Neochlamisus cribripennis)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry case beetle can cause considerable damage to lowbush blueberry fields.
    Both adults and larvae feed on leaves and if present in large numbers can cause severe
    defoliation. Adults feeding on the bark of stems cause the most serious damage, resulting in
    drying and winter kill. Damage is most serious in sprout fields, or second crop fields, where a
    major portion of the crop can be lost during large outbreaks. Damage is not serious during
    the crop year in a two-year rotation, as plants are pruned anyway.
Life Cycle: The pest overwinters as adults in the leaf litter below the blueberry plants. Adult
    beetles emerge in May and lay eggs in mid-June. The eggs hatch in about 10 days and
    emerging larvae feed mostly on the leaves of blueberries. Larvae go through three instars and
    pupate in late July and early August. The egg, the larva and pupa are each enclosed in a bell-
    shaped case. The pupae stage lasts from 4 to 5 weeks, and emerging adults of the second
    generation remain active until November..

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Insecticide treatment may be required if population increase significantly.
    The larval stage is the easiest to control. Insecticides should only be used when absolutely
    necessary in order to minimize the adverse effects on beneficial organisms.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: Several species of wasp are parasites to the pest. Usually, pest populations
    are kept low by the parasites and control is not necessary. Weekly sampling with an insect
                                                19
   sweep net is most important in sprout fields, where adult activity in the fall can cause the
   most severe damage. Although action thresholds have not been established, a level of 20
   larvae per sample should prompt control measures
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Blueberry Case Beetle
Not identified

Blueberry Thrips (Frankliniella vaccinii and Catinathrips kainos)

Pest Information
Damage: Damage from thrips has been reported in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward
    Island and Newfoundland. Thrips feed on leaves, causing them to wrap around the stem. In
    sprout fields, damage is only visible the following spring on leaves that remain attached to
    the plant. In crop fields, growing leaves do not unfold normally and resemble enlarged buds.
    Most infestations are localized, but sometimes large infestations of several hectares can
    occur. Infected plants are more susceptible to winter injury and produce less fruit. Yields
    may be reduced by 50% or more.
Life Cycle: The two species attacking wild blueberries are similar in appearance and life cycle.
    The adult females of the second generation overwinter in the soil and emerge from the
    ground in April and May. Females lay eggs in leaf tissues from May to June. Emerging
    larvae and adults feed on blueberry leaves by sucking sap, causing the leaves to curl. These
    curled leaves provide shelter for the thrips population. The pre-pupa and pupa stages are
    inactive. Adults of the first generation appear in late July and a second generation starts two
    weeks later.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Registered products to control thrips include permethrin and malathion.
Cultural Controls: It is recommended to burn curled leaves as soon as they are noticed in the
    spring. Burning later in the summer is less effective as the thrips may have left the plants.
Alternative Controls: Inspections for thrips presence and damage should begin in early June.
    Infested areas should be treated the following spring, when the plants are small and the
    overwintered adults first appear.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Thrips
Not identified

Minor Insects and Mites


Blueberry Sawfly (Neopareophora litura)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry sawfly larvae feed on leaves and may cause defoliation if present in
   large numbers. Infestations are usually confined to isolated areas within a field.


                                                 20
Life Cycle: Adult sawflies lay eggs in May inside developing leaf whorls. Larvae feed on young
    and mature foliage until late June. Then they move to the ground litter, spin cocoons and
    overwinter. Pupation takes place the next spring and adults emerge within two weeks.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Trichlorfon is registered to control the blueberry sawfly. As most outbreaks
    occur during the bloom period, safety of pollinators should be taken into account and sprays
    need to be timed to avoid harm to beneficial insects.
Cultural Controls: Fall or spring burning will help control the sawfly population, as the eggs
    overwinter in the leaf litter. Most outbreaks occur in mechanically-pruned fields.
Alternative Controls: Several parasitic wasps (Ichneumon) are active in blueberry fields and help
    to keep the populations of sawfly low. Parasites may not control an outbreak early enough to
    reduce economic damage. Weekly samplings in crop fields using a sweep net should be done.
    Although no action threshold has been established, 3-5 larvae per sweep should prompt a
    check for signs of defoliation and may indicate that control measures are needed.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Blueberry Sawfly
Not identified

Blueberry Stem Gall Wasp (Hemadas nubilipennis)

Pest Information
Damage: The blueberry stem gall is caused by a chalcid wasp of the family Pteromalidae. Galls
    appear as irregular growths on the stems of the plant. Tissue at the tip of the stem is
    destroyed, stopping the formation of fruit buds on infected stems. If this damage occurs
    during the vegetative cycle, yield can be reduced during the following year. The build up of
    galls over several years can lead to a more serious impact. The mechanism of the effect of
    galls on yield is not well understood. Galls can also break off the stem during harvesting,
    pass through the processing line and end up as foreign objects in the finished product. This
    type of damage has become more of a concern in recent years.
Life Cycle: Adults are almost all females. They emerge from galls from May to June before the
    buds break, and lay eggs in developing shoots. The process of egg laying induces abnormal
    tissue growth, resulting in a chamber formed around each egg. Eggs hatch in two weeks and
    larvae feed inside the chamber, further stimulating the growth of the plant tissue. Eventually
    a gall is formed around several feeding larvae. The larvae overwinter inside the gall, pupate
    the following spring and new adults emerge from the galls. Most of the galls (up to 70%) are
    found on stems within the leaf litter, and only a few of them are formed on stems above the
    surface.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: Burning of the plants may have some effect.
Alternative Controls: There are a number of species of wasps, including the parasitic wasps, that
    use the galls formed by the blueberry stem gall wasp. The effect of these wasps on stem gall
    wasp populations is not known, although high levels of parasitism (more than 50%) have
    been recorded.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

                                                21
Issues for Blueberry Stem Gall
Not identified

Whitemarked Tussock Moth (Orgyia leucostigma)

Pest Information
Damage: The whitemarked tussock moth is primarily a forest pest, but is a general feeder and
    can attack any type of vegetation. Larvae feed on the foliage of wild blueberry and can
    completely defoliate large portions of a field. The damage can take place at a critical time of
    development in the growth of both crop and sprout fields. Outbreaks are sporadic, with a
    history of outbreaks every 20 years that last from 2 to 3 years at a time in Nova Scotia. The
    caterpillars are covered with easily dislodged hairs that can cause irritation and possible
    allergic reactions in humans when they come in contact with the skin. In addition, the hairs
    can become airborne and may cause problems if inhaled.
Life Cycle: The pest overwinters in the form of egg masses, hatching in late June to mid-July.
    First instar caterpillars feed on the upper surface of leaves and can easily be dispersed by
    wind. After 6 weeks of feeding, the caterpillar pupates in a loosely spun cocoon on the host
    plant or in cracks and crevices. The pupal stage lasts for about 2 weeks and adults emerge
    from mid-August to September. Females lay eggs in masses of 50-100 which are protected
    by a coating of white foam. Eggs are normally laid on or near the cocoon from which the
    female emerges. Wingless females limit the dispersal of adults and extension of infestation.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Spraying should be delayed until larval dispersal is complete. Registered
    products include trichlorfon, rimsulfuron and nicosulfuron.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: The population of the moth is normally kept in check by a number of
    parasites and a viral disease. Monitoring the hatching of caterpillars must be conducted on
    both crop and sprout fields in early July to time the spray applications. The potential for
    caterpillar populations in the following year can be estimated by scouting in late September
    and October for egg masses in field and in wooded field margins. There are no formal
    thresholds established for the whitemarked tussock moth. Monitoring of the feeding patterns
    should be conducted, and an immediate action is recommended when apparent feeding
    damage is observed. The bacterium Bacillus thuringinesis subspecies kurstaki, strain HD-1 is
    registered as a biological control for this pest. Workers in fields heavily infested with the
    caterpillars need to be cautious to wear protective clothing and dust filters to avoid contact
    with hairs that are easily dislodged from the body of the insect.
Resistant Cultivars: There are no resistant cultivars available.

Issues for Whitemarked Tussock Moth
Not identified




                                                22
Table 6. Insect control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry production

                                                                                                      Performance
                                              Mode of
 Control product                                          PMRA status                                  of product
                                              action –                    Pests or group of pests
(active ingredient /     Classification2                     of active                                according to      Notes
                                             resistance                          targeted
    organism)1                                             ingredient4                               recommended
                                               group3
                                                                                                           use5

                          aliphatic amide
    Dimethoate         organothiophosphate      1B            RE             Blueberry fruit fly          AP
                            insecticides

                           phthalimide                                       Blueberry fruit fly          A
      Phosmet                                   1B            RE
                           insecticides                                     Blueberry spanworm            A

                          benzotriazine                                                                               Use
                                                                                                           P
 Azinphos -methyl      organothiophosphate      1B            RE             Blueberry fruit fly          A          restricted in
                           insecticides                                                                              PEI
                            carbamate
      Carbaryl                                  1A            RE             Blueberry fruit fly          A
                           insecticides
                             aliphatic                                       Blueberry fruit fly          AP
     Malathion         organothiophosphate      1B            RE
                           insecticides                                       Blueberry thrips            A

                                                                            Blueberry spanworm            AP

                          phosphonate                                       Blueberry flea beetle         AP
    Trichlorfon                                 1B            RE
                          insecticides
                                                                         Whitemarked tussock moth
                                                                              Blueberry sawfly            AP
                         pyrethroid ester
    Deltamethrin                                 3             R             Blueberry leaftier           A
                           insecticides



                                                                   23
                                                                                                                                   Performance
                                                       Mode of
 Control product                                                       PMRA status                                                  of product
                                                       action –                                Pests or group of pests
(active ingredient /         Classification2                              of active                                                according to              Notes
                                                      resistance                                      targeted
    organism)1                                                          ingredient4                                               recommended
                                                       group3
                                                                                                                                        use5
                             pyrethroid ester
     Permethrin                                            3                   R                   Blueberry thrips                       A
                               insecticides

      Bacillus                   biological
                                                                              RR             Whitemarked tussock moth                     A
    thuringinesis               insecticide
1
  Common trade name(s), if provided brackets, are for the purpose of product identification only. No endorsement of any product in particular is implied.
2
  Chemical classification according to “The Compendium of Pesticide Common Names”, see http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/class_pesticides.html
3
  The mode of action group is based on the classification presented in the Pest Management Regulatory Agency Regulatory Directive DIR99-06, Voluntary Pesticide
Resistance-Management Labelling Based on Target Site/Mode of Action
4
  R-full registration (non-reduced risk), RE-under re-evaluation, DI-discontinued, BI-full registration (biological), RR- full registration (reduced risk), OP-full
registration (organophosphate replacement), NR-not registered. Not all end-use products will be classed as reduced-risk. Not all end use products containing this active
ingredient may be registered for use on this crop. Individual product labels should be consulted for up to date accurate information concerning specific registration
details. The information in these tables should not be relied upon for pesticide application decisions. The following website can be consulted for more information on
pesticide registrations: http://www.eddenet.pmra-arla.gc.ca/4.0/4.0.asp
5
  A – Adequate (the pest control product (PCP), according to recommended use, maintains disease below economic threshold OR provides acceptable control), AP –
Provisionally adequate (the PCP, while having the ability to provide acceptable control, possesses qualities which may make it unsustainable for some or all uses), I –
Inadequate (the PCP, according to recommended use, does not maintain disease below economic threshold OR provides unacceptable control)
Source(s): Provincial crop and pest management specialists




                                                                                    24
Table 7. Availability and use of insect pest management approaches for Canadian wild
blueberry production




                                                                                                                  Blueberry span worm



                                                                                                                                                             Blueberry case beetle
                                                                                          Blueberry flea beetle
                                                                    Blueberry fruit fly




                                                                                                                                        Blueberry leaftier



                                                                                                                                                                                     Blueberry thrips
                              Practice \ Pest




                 tillage
                 residue removal / management
   Prevention




                 water management
                 equipment sanitation
                 row spacing / seeding depth
                 removal of alternative hosts (weeds/volunteers)
                 mowing / mulching / flaming
                 resistant varieties
                 planting / harvest date adjustment
                 crop rotation
   Avoidance




                 trap crops - perimeter spraying
                 use of disease-free seed
                 optimizing fertilization
                 reducing mechanical damage / insect damage
                 thinning / pruning
                 scouting - trapping
                 records to track pests
   Monitoring




                 field mapping of weeds
                 soil analysis
                 weather monitoring for disease forecasting
                 grading out infected produce
                 use of thresholds for application decisions
                 biological pesticides
                 pheromones
   Suppression




                 sterile mating technique
                 beneficial organisms & habitat management
                 pesticide rotation for resistance management
                 ground cover / physical barriers
                 controlled atmosphere storage
                 forecasting for applications
no indication that the practice is available/used
available/used
available/not used
not available
Source(s): Information in the crop profile for individual pests



                                                                   25
Weeds
Key Issues
•    A replacement product for hexazinone is needed to be registered.
•    Additional research on hexazinone is necessary to determine reduced application rates and
     provide decision making tools to avoid unnecessary applications.
•    Scouting services for weeds are required.
•    There is a need for introducing and accepting weed mapping and site-specific weed
     management techniques.


Table 8. Degree of occurrence of weed pests in Canadian wild blueberry production
                                                                 Degree of occurrence
               Annual grasses                     QC          NB         PE         NS            NF
                  Witchgrass                       E           E           E         E           NDR
              Annual broadleaf                    QC          NB         PE         NS            NF
                   Fleabane                                    E           E                     NDR
                  Cow wheat                        D           E          D          D           NDR
                 Sheep-sorrel                     D            E                     E           NDR
             Perennial Grasses                    QC          NB         PE         NS            NF
                 Black sedge                      D            E           E                     NDR
                   Bulrush                        D            E           E         E           NDR
                  Woodrush                                     E          D                      NDR
                  Browntop                                     E          D          E           NDR
             Creeping bentgrass                                E          D          E           NDR
              Sweet vernal grass                               E          D           E          NDR
               Poverty oat grass                               E           E         E           NDR
                 Hairy fescue                                  E           E         D           NDR
             Kentucky bluegrass                                E           E         E           NDR
    Perennial broadleaf and woody weeds           QC          NB         PE         NS            NF
                 Bristly aralia                    E           E          D          E           NDR
           Sheep laurel (lambkill)                 E           E           E         E           NDR
                    Willow                         E           E           E                     NDR
                  Hardhack                         E           E           E         E           NDR




                                                26
(Tableau 8, Continued)
                                                                                          Degree of occurrence
  Perennial broadleaf and woody weeds                                 QC               NB         PE         NS                        NF
           Trailing blackberry                                         0                E          D          D                       NDR
              Wild raspberry                                           0                E           E         E                       NDR
           Spreading dogbane                                           E                E           E         D                       NDR
             Hay-scented fern                                          E                E           E         E                       NDR
           3-toothed cinquefoil                                        E                E          D           E                      NDR
                 Witherod                                                               E          D                                  NDR
               Tufted vetch                                             D               E          D          D                       NDR
                 Wild rose                                                              E           E         D                       NDR
              Speckled alder                                            E               E           E         E                       NDR
               Bracken fern                                             E               E           E         E                       NDR
               Barrenberry                                              D               E           E         E                       NDR
                 Bayberry                                                               E          D          D                       NDR
               Bunchberry                                               E               E           E         E                       NDR
                Sweet fern                                              E               E           E         E                       NDR
                Pin cherry                                              E               E           E         E                       NDR
                Lion's paw                                                              E          D          D                       NDR
             Tall white aster                                           D               E          D          D                       NDR
            Orange hawkweed                                             D               E          D          E                       NDR
            Canada goldenrod                                            E               E           E         E                       NDR
        Narrow-leaved goldenrod                                         E               E           E         E                       NDR
              St. John's wort                                                           E           E         D                       NDR
                 Fireweed                                               E               E          D          E                       NDR
               Sheep laurel                                             E              D            E                                 NDR
                   Alder                                                E                           E                                 NDR
Widespread yearly occurrence with high pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with high pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with high pest pressure
Widespread yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Localized yearly occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure OR widespread sporadic occurrence with low to moderate pest pressure
Pest not present
NDR - No data reported
E – established
D – invasion expected or dispersing
Source(s): Provincial crop and pest management specialists




                                                                   27
Major and Minor Weeds
The majority of weeds in lowbush blueberry fields are perennials. Annual and biennial weeds
may also be present. Weeds that prefer low pH soils and a similar habitat to that of blueberries
thrive when not controlled.

Annual Grasses and Broadleaves

Pest Information
Damage: Annual weeds can cause significant problems in wild blueberry production, resulting
    from their fast growth and ability to compete for necessary resources. Crop losses in terms of
    growth and yield can be very high if annual weeds are not controlled. Broadleaf weeds can
    be significantly higher than the blueberry plants and can compete more intensively for light,
    water and nutrients. Annual weeds can be difficult to eliminate from infested fields and are
    most effectively managed prior to seed-set due to their prolific seeding.
Life Cycle: Annual weeds complete their life cycle in one year, going from seed germination
    through growth to new seed production. Spring annuals germinate in the early spring and
    grow to produce seeds in the summer or fall of the same year. Winter annuals grow a rosette
    in the fall and produce their seeds early in the following year. Annual weeds are very adept at
    disseminating through the production of a large numbers of seeds.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: Removal of weeds from fence lines, ditches and roadways will help to
    prevent weed establishment in cropping areas. Adhering soil and debris should be cleaned
    from machinery before moving between fields in order to reduce the transport of weed seeds.
    Burning can help control weeds by killing many shallow rooted grasses and preventing the
    spread of weed seeds from mature plants to the soil. Burning also kills many of the weed
    seeds present near the soil surface. Burning frequently results in only partial or erratic
    control.
Alternative Controls: None identified.

Issues for Annual Grasses and Broadleaves
None identified

Perennial Grasses (including sedges and rushes), Broadleaf and Woody
Weeds

Pest Information
Damage: Weeds compete with blueberry plants for resources.
Life Cycle: Perennial weeds are common in blueberry fields and are difficult to control.
    Production practices that promote blueberry growth, such as pruning, also promote growth of
    perennial weeds. Perennial grass weeds can live for several to many years. They reproduce
    by seeds, vegetative means, or both. Most species flower and set seed every year. Seeds
                                                28
    germinate in the spring and grow throughout the summer, expanding their rooting system and
    sending up new plants.
Pest Management
Chemical Controls: Wiping or applying spot treatments of registered herbicides can control
    some perennial grasses that grow higher than the blueberry plants.
Cultural Controls: Mowing and cutting are useful techniques for control of perennial weeds,
    particularly weeds higher than the blueberry plants. Species such as maple, birch and willow
    should be cut back to ground level. Re-growth from the roots is a common occurrence in
    these weeds, therefore the procedure must be repeated several times during the season.
    Cutting weeds every mid-summer helps control bracken fern, sweet fern, bayberry, Prunus
    spp., lambkill, wild rose, and others. Cutting the tops of weeds before seeds ripen can prevent
    seed production and reduce future weed problems. Cutting is labour intensive and does not
    result in permanent control. Burning or mowing alone may promote growth of many
    perennial weeds with extensive underground root systems.
Alternative Controls: The use of biological control agents, such as Chrysolina beetle on St.
    John's wort, can also help suppress weeds. The use of these methods is not compatible with
    most insecticides.

Issues for Perennial Grasses
None identified




                                                29
Table 9. Weed control products, classification and performance for Canadian wild blueberry production.
                                                                                           Performance
                                            Mode of      PMRA
 Control product                                                                            of product
                                            action –    status of   Pests or group of
(active ingredient     Classification2                                                     according to   Notes
                                           resistance    active      pests targeted
   / organism)1                                                                           recommended
                                            group3    ingredient4
                                                                                                use5
                     Phenoxy-carboxylic-                             annual broadleaf          AP
      2,4-D                                    4          RE
                           acids                                    perennial broadleaf         I
                                                                       annual grass            AP
                                                                     annual broadleaf          A
     Atrazine           chlorotriazine         5          RE
                          herbicides                                  perennial grass          A
                                                                    perennial broadleaf        AP

                        benzoic acid                                 annual broadleaf          AP
     Dicamba                                   4          RE
                         herbicides                                 perennial broadleaf        AP




                                                            30
Table 9 (continued)
                                                                                                Performance
 Control product                                   Mode of      PMRA
                                                                                                 of product
     (active                                       action –    status of   Pests or group of
                          Classification2                                                       according to   Notes
   ingredient /                                   resistance    active      pests targeted
                                                                                               recommended
   organism)1                                      group3    ingredient4
                                                                                                     use5
                      aryloxyphenoxypropionic                                annual grass             A
 Fluazifop-p-butyl                                   25          R
                             herbicides                                     perennial grass         A
                                                                             annual grass            I
                                                                           annual broadleaf         A
    Glyphosate           organophosphorus             9          R          perennial grass          I
                             herbicides
                                                                               perennial
                                                                                                    A
                                                                               broadleaf
                                                                             annual grass           AP
                                                                           annual broadleaf         AP
   Hexazinone           triazinone herbicides         5          R
                                                                            perennial grass         AP
                                                                              perennial
                                                                                                    AP
                                                                              broadleaf
                                                                             annual grass           A
                                                                           annual broadleaf         A
     Simazine         chlorotriazine herbicides       5          R          perennial grass         A
                                                                               perennial
                                                                                                     I
                                                                               broadleaf
                                                                             annual grass           A
     Terbacil             uracil herbicides           5          R
                                                                            perennial grass         A

                                                                 31
Table 9 (Continued)
                                                                                                                       Performance
                                                          Mode of      PMRA
 Control product                                                                                                        of product
                                                          action –    status of            Pests or group of
(active ingredient            Classification2                                                                          according to              Notes
                                                         resistance    active               pests targeted
   / organism)1                                                                                                       recommended
                                                          group3    ingredient4
                                                                                                                            use5
    Ttribenuron-           triazinylsulfonylurea                                            annual broadleaf                 A
                                                              2                R
       methyl                    herbicides                                               perennial broadleaf                AP
                                                                                            annual broadleaf                  A
     Triclopyr              pyridine herbicides               4               RE
                                                                                          perennial broadleaf                 A
1
  Common trade name(s), if provided brackets, are for the purpose of product identification only. No endorsement of any product in particular is implied.
2
  Chemical classification according to “The Compendium of Pesticide Common Names”, see http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/class_pesticides.html
3
  The mode of action group is based on the classification presented in the Pest Management Regulatory Agency Regulatory Directive DIR99-06,
Voluntary Pesticide Resistance-Management Labelling Based on Target Site/Mode of Action
4
  R-full registration (non-reduced risk), RE-under re-evaluation, DI-discontinued, BI-full registration (biological), RR- full registration (reduced risk), OP-
full registration (organophosphate replacement), NR-not registered. Not all end-use products will be classed as reduced-risk. Not all end use products
containing this active ingredient may be registered for use on this crop. Individual product labels should be consulted for up to date accurate information
concerning specific registration details. The information in these tables should not be relied upon for pesticide application decisions. The following
website can be consulted for more information on pesticide registrations: http://www.eddenet.pmra-arla.gc.ca/4.0/4.0.asp
5
  A – Adequate (the pest control product (PCP), according to recommended use, maintains disease below economic threshold OR provides acceptable
control), AP – Provisionally adequate (the PCP, while having the ability to provide acceptable control, possesses qualities which may make it
unsustainable for some or all uses), I – Inadequate (the PCP, according to recommended use, does not maintain disease below economic threshold OR
provides unacceptable control)
Source(s): Provinicial crop and pest management specialists




                                                                                32
Table 10. Availability and use of weed pest management approaches for Canadian wild
blueberry production




                                                                   Annual grasses and

                                                                    Perennial grasses
                                                                    and broadleaves
                                                                      broadleaves
                              Practice \ Pest



                 tillage
                 residue removal / management
                 water management
   Prevention




                 equipment sanitation
                 row spacing / seeding depth
                 removal of alternative hosts (weeds/volunteers)
                 roguing / spot treatment
                 mowing / mulching / flaming
                 resistant varieties
                 planting / harvest date adjustment
                 crop rotation
   Avoidance




                 trap crops - perimeter spraying
                 use of disease-free seed
                 optimizing fertilization
                 reducing mechanical damage / insect damage
                 thinning / pruning
                 scouting - trapping
                 records to track pests
   Monitoring




                 field mapping of weeds
                 soil analysis
                 weather monitoring for disease forecasting
                 grading out infected produce
                 use of thresholds for application decisions
                 biological pesticides
                 pheromones
   Suppression




                 sterile mating technique
                 beneficial organisms & habitat management
                 pesticide rotation for resistance management
                 ground cover / physical barriers
                 controlled atmosphere storage
                 forecasting for applications
no indication that the practice is available/used
available/used
available/not used
not available
Source(s): Information in the crop profile for individual pests
                                                                   33
Vertebrate Pests


Birds

Pest Information
Damage: Several species of birds feed on ripening fruit and can significantly reduce crop yield
    before harvest.
Life Cycle: The most important birds include seagulls, crows, robins and blackbirds.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: Many producers use propane bangers, electronic noisemakers, balloons, or
    other noise making devices to reduce fruit damage birds. Some species become used to these
    deterrents and will still cause significant reductions in crops. Small acreage producers with
    heavy bird pressure can use netting to stop birds from reaching the plants.

Issues for Birds
None identified

Deer

Pest Information
Damage: Deer can cause significant crop losses where populations are high and blueberry fields
   are small and isolated. Deer feed on leaves throughout the summer and on fruits as they
   mature. Most importantly, in the early spring of the fruiting year, deer migrate to the center
   of the fields where snow has disappeared and graze on the blueberry twigs, chewing off the
   tops of the vines that carry most of the fruit buds that would otherwise develop into the
   current year’s crop.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: Some products are sprayed around the perimeters of fields in an attempt to
    deter deer away, but success is spotty at best. In a very few cases fences have been erected,
    but this is expensive and in most fields not practical. Often, growers live with the damage
    and crop loss.

Issues for Deer
None identified


                                               34
Bear

Pest Information
Damage: Bears cause most of their damage during the bloom period in June. Honeybee hives
   that are used to increase pollination in the fields can attract bears. If the bears get to the
   honeybee hives, they destroy or severely damage the hive bodies and the colonies. This type
   of damage is very costly to both the grower of the blueberries and the beekeeper. Bear also
   feed on mature fruit, and destroy plants when sitting or laying in fields.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: Fencing of beehives is a must in most fields to reduce the damage from
    bear. Properly installed fencing systems are usually very effective.

Issues for Bear
None identified

Coyote

Pest Information
Damage: When populations are high, coyotes can consume significant quantities of blueberry
   fruits. The presence of coyote will reduce the damage caused by deer.

Pest Management
Chemical Controls: None available.
Cultural Controls: None identified.
Alternative Controls: None identified.

Issues for Coyote
None identified




                                               35
References used in this document

Delbridge, R., D Rogers. 2002. Wild blueberry insect and disease management schedule.
Agricultural Development Institute.

Lowbush blueberry growers guide. 1993. University of Maine.

Statistics Canada, Agriculture Division, Horticultural Crops Unit. Fruit and Vegetable
Production 2003.

Statistics Canada. Canada’s blueberries, wild, uncooked, steam or boil in water sweetened or not,
frozen.

Statistics Canada. Canada’s blueberries, wild, fresh. Exports to all countries.

Statistics Canada. Food consumption in Canada 2002. Catalogue no. 32-229-XIB

Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre
http://res2.agr.ca/kentville/index_e.htm

Blueberries: an industry overview - New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture
http://www.gnb.ca/afa-apa/40/05/4005115e.htm

Inventory of Canadian Agri-Food Research for blueberries in 2002.
http://res1.agr.ca/pls/icarweb/icarqueryeng.d_commod?p_language=E&p_year=2002&p_level1=
01000000&p_level2=01030000&p_level3=01030200&p_level4=01030205

Wild Blueberry Association of North America
http://www.wildblueberries.com/

Wild Blueberry Producers Association of Nova Scotia
http://www.nswildblueberries.com/

Wild Blueberry Research Centre
http://www.nsac.ns.ca/envsci/research/blueberry/centre/
http://www.nsac.ns.ca/wildblue


IPM / ICM resources for production of wild blueberry in
Canada

Delbridge, R., D Rogers. 2002. Wild blueberry insect and disease management schedule.
Agricultural Development Institute.

Lowbush blueberry growers guide. 1993. University of Maine.
                                            36
NB Wild Blueberry Produciton Guide – NBDAFA

New Brunswick guide to weed control in lowbush blueberry.
http://www.gnb.ca/0171-10-017110020-e.asp

Wild Blueberry Producers Association of Nova Scotia
http://www.nswildblueberries.com/

NBDAFA wild blueberry factsheet
http://www.gnb.ca/0171/10/017110index-e.asp.

Tree Fruit Production Guide
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 2001.




                                              37
Table 11. Research contacts related to pest management in Canadian wild blueberry production

     Name           Organization        Pest type   Specific pests                             Type of research

                    University of                      Abiotic
   D. Murr
                    Guelph, ON
                                            -                         Integrated crop management / postharvest physiology
                                                      disorders
                    University of
   F. Tardiff
                    Guelph, ON
                                        Weeds            All          Integrated weed management / herbicide resistance

                       AAFC
  G. Patterson
                 Charlottetown, PEI
                                            -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management / yield monitoring tools
                    Nova Scotia
  G. Sampson     Agricultural College   Weeds            All          Integrated weed management / biological control
                    (NSAC), NS
                    Nova Scotia
  G. Stratton    Agricultural College       -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management / nutrition
                    (NSAC), NS
                    Nova Scotia
  G. Brewster    Agricultural College       -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management / soil
                    (NSAC), NS
                 AAFC Bouctouche,
   J. P. Privé
                       NB
                                            -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management

                 University of Prince                                 Integrated crop management / floral, fruit, and pollination
   J. Kemp
                 Edward Island, PEI
                                            -        Agronomy
                                                                      biology
                    University of
   J. Proctor
                    Guelph, ON
                                            -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management / physiology

                       AAFC                         Physiological
 K. Sanderson
                 Charlottetown, PEI
                                            -                         Integrated crop management / nutrition
                                                      disorders
                  AAFC Kentville,
   K. Jensen
                       NS
                                        Weeds            All          Integrated weed management
                    Nova Scotia
   L. Eaton      Agricultural College       -        Agronomy         Integrated crop management / mineral nutrition
                    (NSAC), NS


                                                                     38
   Name              Organization          Pest type        Specific pests                    Type of research

                Nova Scotia Agricultural
  N. Crowe
                 College (NSAC), NS
                                               -            Agronomy             Food processing / storage,

  P. Kevan      University of Guelph, ON       -            Agronomy             Pollination biology

                                                          Monilinia and
P. Hildebrand     AAFC Kentville, NS       Diseases                              Integrated disease management
                                                       Botrytis foliar blights

                                                          Monilinia and
 J. Traquair      AAFC London, ON          Diseases                              Integrated disease management
                                                       Botrytis foliar blights
                Nova Scotia Agricultural                                         Integrated crop management / floral
  R. Olson
                 College (NSAC), NS
                                               -            Agronomy
                                                                                 biology




                                                       39

								
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