1 Writing 3 -- Using Direct and Indirect Quotations Direct quotation: you copy another person’s words exactly, putting them in quotation marks Indirect quotation: You report the person’s ideas in your own words (paraphrase) 1. To introduce borrowed information – direct quotations, indirect quotations, or statistics – use one of these expressions: According to Mr. Smith, “the rate of illegal immigration has been increasing” (Smith, 2005, p. 7). Smith asserts that “the rate of illegal immigration has been increasing” (Smith, 2005, p. 7). Other verbs: claims declares, insist, maintains, mentions, reports says, states, suggests, writes 2. Rules for using reporting verbs: 1. reporting verbs can be before, in the middle of, or after borrowed information. (according to goes before or after, but not in the middle) One illegal immigrant states, “To get to Spain is the best thing in the world.” “To get to Spain,” states one illegal immigrant, “is the best thing in the world.” “To get to Spain is the best thing in the world,” states one illegal immigrant. According to one illegal immigrant, arriving in “Spain is the best thing in the world.” Arriving in “Spain is the best thing in the world,” according to one illegal immigrant. 2 2. Reporting verbs can be used in any tense. Be careful that when you use the past tense you change the tenses in the paraphrased material so that it fits with the tenses in your paragraph. One illegal immigrant says that he hopes all of his friends can come to Spain. One illegal immigrant said that he hoped all of his friends could came to Spain. 3. Include the source of the borrowed information with the reporting verb. This gives your writing authority. They know who you are quoting. The UN Committee for Human Rights warns, “Illegal immigration in many cases is a result of human rights abuses in the nation of origin.” 3. Rules for punctuating direct quotations 1. Put quotation marks around information that you copy word for word. Do not use quotation marks for paraphrases, summaries or indirect quotations. 2. Place commas (and periods if nec) before the first quotation mark, and before the last one. According to Time Magazine, “Eliminating illegal immigration will take commitment from all the involved countries.” “Eliminating illegal immigration will take commitment from all the involved countries,” according to Time Magazine (Jackson, A., 2007, p. 10). Exceptions: If you insert only a couple of quoted words into your sentence, don’t use a comma If you add an in-text citation after the quotation, put the period outside the parentheses. Illegal immigration is a problem that requires “commitment” from the nations affected (Jackson, A., 2007, p. 10). 3 3. Capitalize the first word of the quotation, as well as the first word of the sentence: Allan Jackson, writing in Time Magazine, warns, “Eliminating illegal immigration will take commitment from all the involved countries.” 4. If you omit words, use an ellipses (three spaced periods) Allan Jackson warns, “Eliminating illegal immigration will take commitment ….” NOTE: the fourth period is the period for the end of the sentence. 4. When using indirect quotations, where the reporting verb is followed by that, a comma is not necessary: 5. If you add words, put square brackets around them to show they are your words. Also, use square brackets if you change the verb tense. Jackson stated that “/e/liminating illegal immigration /would/ take commitment from all the involved countries.” 6. If your quotation is four lines or longer, do not use quotation marks. Introduce it with a colon and indent it one inch from the left hand margin. A national news agency reported these shocking survey results: Several years ago when illegal immigrants were interviewed about why they had risked everything to come to Spain, it because apparent that many were not coming for the money only. A vast majority of these immigrants were in fact middle children. They were neither the oldest nor the youngest son.