AN ICELANDIC PRIMER201112005222

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					AN ICELANDIC
   PRIMER
 HENRY SWEET∗
      1
    In the spelling I have not thought it nec-
essary to adhere strictly to that adopted in
the Reader, for the editors have themselves
deviated from it in their Corpus Poeticum
                                      ¸
Boreale , in the way of separating C from
 ˜
 A , etc. My own principle has been to devi-
ate as little as possible from the traditional
  ∗ PDF   created by pdfbooks.co.za
                        2
spelling followed in normalized texts. There
is, indeed, no practical gain for the begin-
                 ¨          ¨
ner in writing tAme for tAmi , discarding
 ˜ , etc., although these changes certainly
 A
bring us nearer the oldest MSS., and can-
not be dispensed with in scientific works.
The essential thing for the beginner is to
have regular forms presented to him, to
the exclusion, as far as possible, of isolated
                      3
archaisms, and to have the defective dis-
tinctions of the MSS. supplemented by di-
acritics. I have not hesitated to substitute
 ˆ        ˆ
(A) for (A) as the mark of length; the latter
ought in my opinion to be used exclusively–
in Icelandic as well as in Old English and
Old Irish–to represent the actual accents of
the MSS.
    In the grammar I have to acknowledge
                      4
                                       ˜
my great obligations to Noreen’s AltislAndische
Grammatik , which is by far the best Ice-
landic grammar that has yet appeared–at
least from that narrow point of view which
ignores syntax, and concentrates itself on
phonology and inflections.
    The texts are intended to be as easy,
interesting, and representative as possible.
With such a language, and such a master of
                     5
it as Snorri to choose from, this combina-
tion is not difficult to realise. The beginner
is indeed to be envied who makes his first
acquaintance with the splendid mythologi-
cal tales of the North, told in an absolutely
perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryg-
gvason is given in the Reader only from the
longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have
been able to give the shorter text, which is
                      6
admirably suited for the purposes of this
                          ˜
book. The story of AuAun is not only a
beautiful one in itself, but, together with
the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the
Norse ideal of the kingly character, which
was the foundation of their whole political
system. As the Reader does not include po-
etry (except incidentally), I have added one
of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is
                      7
at the same time freest from obscurity and
corruption–the song of Thor’s quest of his
hammer.
    In the glossary I have ventured to de-
viate from the very inconvenient Scandina-
                               ˜   ˜ A
vian arrangement, which puts A , A , ˚ ,
right at the end of the alphabet.
    I have to acknowledge the great help I
have had in preparing the texts and the
                      8
                                      ˜
glossary from Wimmer’s Oldnordisk LAsebog ,
which I consider to be, on the whole, the
best reading-book that exists in any lan-
guage. So excellent is Wimmer’s selection
of texts, that it was impossible for me to
do otherwise than follow him in nearly ev-
ery case.
    In conclusion, it is almost superfluous
to say that this book makes no pretension
                      9
to originality of any kind. If it contributes
towards restoring to Englishmen that pre-
cious heritage–the old language and litera-
ture of Iceland–which our miserably narrow
scheme of education has hitherto defrauded
them of, it will have fulfilled its purpose.
    HENRY SWEET London, February, 1886
    GRAMMAR
    1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in
                     10
its classical period, between 1200 and 1350.
    PRONUNCIATION
    2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded
                                       ˜
on the Latin, with the addition of A and
                                     ¨
 ˜ , and of the modified letters A , C ,
 A                                        ¸
 ˜                                        ˜
 A , which last is in this book written A ,
 C` .
 ¸I
    Vowels
    3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same
                       11
values as in Old English. Long vowels were
                   ˆ
often marked by (A). In this book long vow-
                             ˆ
els are regularly marked by (A)[1]. The fol-
lowing are the elementary vowels and diph-
thongs, with examples, and key-words from
English, French (F.), and German (G.):–
                                         ¨
    [Footnote 1: Note that the longs of A ,
                  ˜ A
 ˜ are written A , ˚ , respectively.]
 A
    a as in mann (G.) halda ( hold ) A Ӭ
                     12
         ¨˜                  ˜ ˜
father rAA ( advice ) e ” AtA (F.) gekk
          ¨
( went ) A[2] . . . lAt ¨ (let pret. ) A ” ¨
        ¨
men mAnn ( men )
    [Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given
for a long vowel, its sound is that of the
corresponding short vowel lengthened.]
    ˜                ˜
    A as in there sAr ( sea ) i ” fini (F.)
                           ¨
                 ¨ . . . lAtill ( little ) o ”
mikill ( great ) A
beau (F.) orA˜ ( word ) ˚ . . . t˚k ( look )
                         A       A
                     13
¸           ¸             ˜
C ” not hCnd ( hand ) A ” peu (F.) kAmr  ˜
( comes ) ˚ . . . f˚ra ( bring ) CI
             A       A             ¸ ` ” peur
(F.) gC` ( make ) u ” sou (F.) upp ( up )
       ¸ Ira
˚ . . . h˚s ( house ) y ” tu (F.) systir
A             A
            `        `
( sister ) E . . . lEsa ( shine ) au ” haus
                          ¨
(G.) lauss ( loose ) ei = A + i bein ( bone )
ey = A ¨ + y leysa ( loosen )
    4. The unaccented i in systir , etc.
(which is generally written e in the MSS.)
                      14
probably had the sound of y in pity ,
which is really between i and e . The un-
acc. u in f˚ru (they went), etc. (which
              A
is generally written o in the MSS.) prob-
ably had the sound of oo in good .
    Note that several of the vowels go in
pairs of close and open , thus:
              ¨ A ˜ A          ¨ ˜ ¸ ¸I
    close : e A o ˚ A ˚ open : A A C - C`
-
                     15
    Consonants
    5. Double consonants followed by a vowel
must be pronounced really double, as in
Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink)
must be pronounced like the kc in bookcase ,
                    ¨
while the k in drAki (dragon) is single,
as in booking . When final (or followed
by another cons.) double conss. are pro-
nounced long, as in munn (mouth acc. ),
                    16
 hamarr (hammer nom. ), steinn (stone
 nom. ), distinguished from mun (will vb. ),
and the accusatives hamar , stein .
     6. k and g had a more front (palatal)
                                      ¨
sound before the front vowels e , A , i ,
 ˜ , C` , y , and their longs, as also before
 A ¸I
             ¨
 j , as in kAnna (known), keyra (drive),
   ¸ `
 gCIra (make), liggja (lie).
     7. kkj , ggj were probably pronounced
                     17
simply as double front kk , gg , the j not
being pronounced separately.
    8. f had initially the sound of our f ,
medially and finally that of v , as in gefa
(give), gaf (gave), except of course in such
combinations as ft , where it had the sound
of f .
    9. g was a stopped (back or front–guttural
or palatal) cons. initially and in the com-
                      18
bination ng , the two g ’s in ganga (go)
being pronounced as in go . It had the
open sound of G. g in sagen medially
before the back vowels a , o , C , u ,
                                    ¸
and all conss. except j , and finally:– saga
(tale), dCgum (with days); sagAi (he
          ¸                          ˜
said); lag (he lay). Before the front vowels
and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen ,
                                       ¨
or nearly that of j (our y ), as in sAgir
                     19
          ¨
(says), sAgja (to say).
    10. Before voiceless conss. ( t , s ) g
seems to have been pronounced k , as in
 sagt (said), dags (day’s).
    11. The g was always sounded in the
combination ng , as in single , not as in
 singer .
    12. h was sounded before j in such
words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue
                     20
(= hj˚). hl , hn , hr , hv probably rep-
      A
resented voiceless l , n , r , w respec-
tively, hv being identical with E. wh :
                       ¨
 hlaupa (leap), hnAga (bend), hringr
(ring), hvat (what).
    13. j is not distinguished from i in the
MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young :
  ¸ ˜               ¨
 jCrA (earth), sAtja (to set).
    14. p in pt probably had the sound of
                       21
 f : lopt (air).
    15. r was always a strong point trill, as
in Scotch.
    16. s was always sharp.
    17. v (which was sometimes written u
and w ) had the sound of E. w : vel
          ¸
(well), hCggva (hew).
    18. z had the sound of ts : bAztr  ¨
(best).
                    22
         ˜       ˜
    19. A and A were used promiscuously
in the older MS., the very oldest using A ˜
almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic A ˜
is written initially to express the sound of
                 ˜
E. hard th , A medially and finally to
express that of soft th ; as there can be
no doubt that this usage corresponds with
the old pronunciation, it is retained in this
        ˜                       ˜
book: Aing (parliament), faAir (father),
                      23
   ˜
 viA (against). In such combinations as
 pA        ˜
   ˜ the A must of course be pronounced
 ˜ .
 A
    Stress
    20. The stress (accent) is always on the
first syllable.
    PHONOLOGY
    Vowels
    21. The vowels are related to one an-
                     24
other in different ways, the most important
of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture
(brechung), and gradation (ablaut).
    Mutation
    22. The following changes are i-mutations
(caused by an older i or j following, which
has generally been dropped)[3]:
    [Footnote 3: Many of the i ’s which ap-
pear in derivative and inflectional syllables
                     25
are late weakenings of a and other vowels,
as in bani (death) = Old English bana ;
these do not cause mutation.]
        ¸      ¨
    a (C) ... A :– mann (man acc. ), mAnn    ¨
            ¸                 ¨
(men); hCnd (hand), hAndr (hands).
    ¨      ˜        ¨               ˜
    A ... A :– mAl (speech), mAla (speak).
             ¸             ˜ (worth), virAa
    e (ja, jC) ... i :– verAr               ˜
(estimate).
    u (o) ... y :– fullr (full), fylla (to fill);
                        26
 lopt (air), lypta (lift).
          `                             `
    ˚ ... E :– br˚n (eyebrow), pl. brEnn .
    A             A
    o ... A ˜ :– koma (to come), kAmr   ˜
(comes).
    ˚ ... ˚ :– f˚r (went), f˚ra (bring).
    A      A      A            A
    au ... ey :– lauss (loose), leysa (loosen).
     A A           `
    j˚ (j˚) ... E :– sj˚kr (sick), sEki
                          A              `
                               `
(sickness); lj˚sta (strike), lEstr (strikes).
               A
                                  ¨
    23. The change of a into A is some-
                      27
times the result of a following k , g , or
              ¨
 ng , as in dAgi dat. sg. of dagr (day),
  ¨                 ¨
 tAkinn (taken), gAnginn (gone), inf. taka ,
 ganga . i appears instead of e , and u
instead of o before a nasal followed by an-
other cons.: cp. binda (to bind), bundinn
(bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn .
    24. There is also a u-mutation, caused
by a following u , which has often been
                     28
dropped:
          ¸                          ¸
    a ... C :– dagr (day) dat. pl. dCgum ;
                    ¸
 land (land) pl. lCnd .
    25. Unaccented C becomes u , as in
                       ¸
 sumur pl. of sumar (summer), kClluAu¸ ˜
(they called), infin. kalla .
    Fracture
    26. The only vowel that is affected by
fracture is e : when followed by original a
                      29
it becomes ja , when followed by original
                  ¸            ˜
 u it becomes jC , as in jarAar gen. of
 jCrA
  ¸   ˜ (earth)[4]. When followed by orig-
inal i , the e is, of course, mutated to
                                       ¸
 i , as in skildir plur. nom. of skjCldr
(shield), gen. skjaldar .
     [Footnote 4: Cp. German erde .]
     Gradation
     27. By gradation the vowels are related
                     30
as follows:–
    a ... ˚ :– fara (go) pret. f˚r , whence
          A                         A
by mut. f˚ra (bring).
             A
    e (i, ja) ... a ... u (o) :– bresta (burst),
prt. brast , prt. pl. brustu , ptc. prt.
 brostinn ; finna (find), fundinn (found
 ptc. ), fundr (meeting).
                  ¨
    e ... a ... A ... o :– stela (steal), prt.
                       ¨
 stal , prt. pl. stAlu , ptc. prt. stolinn .
                         31
                 ¨
     e ... a ... A ... e :– gefa (give), gaf (he
            ¨
gave), gAfu (they gave), gefinn (given),
 gjCf (gift), u -fracture of gef- , gAfa
    ¸                                       ˜
(luck) mut. of gAf-    ¨ .
     ¨                       ¨
     A ... ei ... i :– skAna (shine), skein
(he shone), skinu (they shone). s˚l-skin A
(sunshine).
     j˚ (j˚) ... au ... u ... o :– lj˚ga (tell
      A A                              A
a lie), prt. laug , prt. pl. lugu , ptc. prt.
                           32
 loginn . lygi (lie sbst. ) mut. of lug- .
 skj˚ta (shoot), skj˚tr (swift), skotinn
    A                 A
(shot ptc. ), skot (shot subst. ).
    Other changes
    28. All final vowels are long in accented
            ˜¨
syllables: AA (then), n˚ (now).
                          A
    29. Inflectional and derivative vowels
are often dropt after long accented vowels:
                             ¨
cp. ganga (to go) with fA (to get), the
                     33
                ¨
dat. plurals knjAm (knees) with h˚sum
                                    A
(houses).
    30. Vowels are often lengthened before
              ¨
 l + cons.: hAlfr (half adj. ), f˚lk (peo-
                                 A
ple); cp. f˚lginn (hidden) with brostinn
           A
(burst ptc. ).
    Consonants
    31. v is dropped before o and u :
 vaxa (to grow), prt. ˚x , vinna (to
                          A
                    34
win), unninn (won ptc. ), svelta (to starve),
 soltinn (starved, hungry).
    Final r is often assimilated to a pre-
ceding cons.
    32. -lr , -nr , -sr always become -ll ,
 -nn , -ss after a long vowel or diphthong,
as in st˚ll (chair nom. ), acc. st˚l ,
         A                             A
                                       ¨
 steinn (stone nom. ), acc. stein , vAss
                            ¨
(wise masc. nom. sg. ), vAs fem. nom.
                     35
sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc.
sg. nominatives mikill (great), fem. mikil ,
 borinn (carried), fem. borin , Emiss  `
                `
(various) fem. Emis .
    33. Words in which l , n , r , s are
preceded by a cons. drop the r entirely,
as in the masc. nominatives jarl (earl),
                                ˜
 hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), Aurs (giant),
 lax (salmon).
                     36
    34. If l and n are preceded by a short
accented vowel, the r is generally kept, as
in stelr (steals), vinr , (friend), sr be-
coming ss , as elsewhere.
    35. r is kept after ll , and generally
after nn , as in the masc. nom. allr (all),
           ¨
and in brAnnr (burns).
                              ˜
    36. z often stands for As as well as
 ts , as in A  ¨ ˜
             ˜ Ar Aykkizk (ye seem) = ×
                     37
˜      ˜
AykkiA-sk , Vest-firzkr (belonging to the
                    ˜       ¸ ˜
West Firths) = -firAskr ( fCrAr , firth).
    37. Inflectional t is generally doubled
                                 ¨
after a long accented vowel: fAr (few)
         ¨
neut. fAtt (cp. allr ’all,’ neut. allt ),
  ¨             ¨
 sA (I saw), sAtt ’thou sawest.’
    INFLECTIONS
    Nouns
    38. Gender. There are three genders in
                    38
Icelandic–masculine, feminine, and neuter.
The gender is partly natural, partly gram-
matical, generally agreeing with the gender
in Old English. Compound words follow
the gender of their last element.
    39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns
end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in
most of the other cases as well. Most strong
nouns end in a cons. in the nom. sg.
                     39
    40. Cases. There are four cases–nominative,
accusative, dative, genitive. All nouns (ex-
cept a few contractions) have the gen. pl.
in -a ( fiska , of fishes), and the dat. pl.
in -um ( fiskum ). All strong masculines
                                       A˜
( fiskr ) and some strong feminines ( br˚Ar ,
bride) take r [5] in the nom. sg. Most
strong feminines show the bare root in the
nom. sg. with u -mutation, if possible
                     40
  ¨              ¸
( Ast , favour, fCr , journey). The nom.
pl. of all strong masc. and fem. nouns
                      ¨
ends in r ( fiskar , Astir ). The acc. pl.
of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl.
  ¨
( Astir ). The acc. pl. of masc. strong
nouns always ends in a vowel ( fiska ). The
plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same
as the sing. nom. and acc., except that
in the plur. nom. and acc. they take u -
                    41
                         ˚             ¸
mutation, if possible ( hAs , houses, lCnd ,
lands).
    [Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the
assimilations described above.]
    41. The declensions are most conve-
niently distinguished by the acc. plur.
    Strong Masculines
    (1) a-plurals
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                      42
     Nom. fisk-r ( fish ) fisk-ar Acc. fisk
fisk-a Dat. fisk-i fisk-um Gen. fisk-s fisk-
a
    42. So also heimr (home, world); konungr
           ˜A                    ˜A
(king); A˚rr (Thor), acc. A˚r , gen.
 ˜ ˚rs ; steinn (stone), acc. stein , gen.
 AA
 steins , pl. nom. steinar ; hrafn (raven),
                                  ˜
acc. hrafn , pl. nom. hrafnar ; Aurs (gi-
                 ˜                ˜
ant), acc. gen. Aurs , pl. nom. Aursar .
                     43
    43. Dissyllables in -r , -l , -n gen-
erally throw out the preceding vowel be-
fore a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer),
dat. hamri ; jCtunn (giant), pl. nom.
                  ¸
  ¸          ¨
 jCtnar . kAtill (kettle) and lykill (key)
show unmutated vowels in the contracted
forms, as in the acc. plur. katla , lukla .
    44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar
in the gen. sing., especially proper names,
                     44
           ¨               ¨
such as HAkon , gen. HAkonar .
    45. Some nouns add v before vowels:
  ˜                 ˜
 sAr (sea), gen. sAvar .
    46. The dat. sometimes drops the i :
  ˜          ˜A
 sA (sea), A˚r . dagr (day) mutates its
                     ¨
vowel in the dat. dAgi .
    47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the
sing., and drop it in the plur.:
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                      45
              ¨             ¨            ¨
     Nom. hAlli-r ( cave ) hAll-ar Acc. hAlli
  ¨
hAll-a Dat. hAlli     ¨               ¨
                  ¨ hAll-um Gen. hAlli-s
  ¨
hAll-a
    48. So also a number of proper names,
              `      ˜A
such as SkrEmir , A˚rir .
    (2) i-plurals
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                 ˜               ˜
     Nom. staA-r ( place ) staA-ir Acc.
staA      ˜             ˜      ˜
    ˜ staA-i Dat. staA stCA-um Gen.
                             ¸
                     46
    ˜       ˜
staA-ar staA-a
    49. So also gripr (precious thing), salr
(hall).
          ¨
    50. gAstr (guest) takes -i in the dat.
sg., and -s in the gen. sg.
    51. Those ending in g or k (together
with some others) insert j before a and
        ¨               ¨        ¨       ¨
 u : bAkkr (bench), bAkk , bAkk , bAkkjar ;
  ¨          ¨        ¨           ¨
 bAkkir , bAkki , bAkkjum , bAkkja . So
                     47
        ¨                   ¨
also mArgr (marrow), strAngr (string).
    (3) u-plurals
    SINGULAR PLURAL
               ¸
     Nom. skjCld-r ( shield ) skild-ir Acc.
   ¸       ¸                     ¸
skjCld skjCld-u Dat. skild-i skjCld-um Gen.
skjald-ar skjald-a
    52. So also vCndr (twig), vCllr (plain),
                  ¸               ¸
   ˜              ¨
 viAr (wood). Ass (god) has plur. nom.
 ˜             ¨
 Asir , acc. Asu . sonr (son) has dat.
                    48
sg. syni , plur. nom. synir . It regularly
drops its r of the nom. in such compounds
as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi).
   (4) r-plurals
   SINGULAR PLURAL
    Nom. f˚t-r ( foot ) f˚t-r Acc. f˚t
            A              A           A
f˚t-r Dat. f˚t-i f˚t-um Gen. f˚t-ar f˚t-
 A           A     A             A    A
a
   53. So also fingr (finger), gen. fingrar ,
                     49
pl. fingr ; vetr (winter), pl. vetr . maAr ˜
(man) is irregular: maAr˜ , mann , manni ,
             ¨        ¨        ¸
 manns ; mAnn , mAnn , mCnnum , manna .
    SINGULAR PLURAL
              ˜             ¨˜          ¸˜
     Nom. faAir ( father ) fAAr Acc. fCAur
   ˜             ˜    ¨˜
 ¨ Ar Dat. fCAur fAArum Gen. fCAur
fA             ¸                      ¸ ˜
 ¨˜
fAAra
                   A˜                     A˜
    54. So also br˚Air (brother), pl. br˚Ar .
    55. Pres. participles used as nouns fol-
                     50
low this decl. in the pl., following the weak
class in the sg.:
    SINGULAR PLURAL
     Nom. b˚ndi ( yeoman ) b˚ndr Acc.
              A                   A
b˚nda b˚ndr Dat. b˚nda b˚ndum Gen.
  A      A             A        A
b˚nda b˚nda
  A       A
    56. So also fr˚ndi (kinsman), pl. fr˚ndr .
                  A                        A
    Strong Neuters
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                      51
      Nom. skip ( ship ) skip Acc. skip skip
 Dat. skip-i skip-um Gen. skip-s skip-a
                   ˜
     57. So also orA (word), land (land)
pl. lCnd , sumar (summer) pl. sumur
       ¸
 ˆ
(A 25).
           ¨
     58. mAn (necklace), kyn (race), grey
(dog) insert j before a and u : greyjum .
   ¸
 hCgg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel:
   ¸           ¨             ¨     ¨
 hCggvi . knA (knee), knA , knA , knAs ;   ¨
                     52
    ¨      ¨     ¨        ¨          ¨
 knA , knA , kjAm , knjA . So also trA
(tree).
           ¨
    59. fA (money) is contracted: gen.
              ¨
   ¨ , dat. fA .
 fjAr
    SINGULAR PLURAL
               ˜˜             ˜˜
     Nom. kvAAi ( poem ) kvAAi Acc.
kvA  ˜    ˜˜           ˜˜   ˜˜
   ˜ Ai kvAAi Dat. kvAAi kvAAum Gen.
   ˜˜
kvAAi-s kvAAa˜˜
                   ˜˜
    60. So also klAAi (cloth). Those in
                    53
 k insert j before a and u : mArki   ¨
            ¨            ¨
(mark), mArkjum , mArkja . So also rAki¨
(sovereignty).
    Strong Feminines
    (1) ar-plurals
    SINGULAR PLURAL
               ¸                       ¸
     Nom. gjCf ( gift ) gjaf-ar Acc. gjCf
                   ¸   ¸
gjaf-ar Dat. gjCf gjCf-um Gen. gjaf-ar
gjaf-a
                     54
                  ¸              ¸ ˜
    61. So also mCn (mane), gjCrA (gir-
       ¨ (oar).
dle), Ar
         ¨                    ¨    ¨   ¨
    62. A (river) contracts: A , A , A ,
       ¨     ¨    ¨
 ¨ ; Ar , Ar , Am , A .
 Ar                     ¨
    63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.:
  ¨                      ¨         ¨
 kArling (old woman), kArling , kArlingu ,
  ¨            ¨           ¨          ¨
 kArlingar ; kArlingar , kArlingar , kArlingum ,
  ¨
 kArlinga . So also laug (bath).
    64. Those with a mutated root-vowel
                    55
(or i ) insert j in inflection: ey (island),
 ey , eyju , eyjar ; eyjar , eyjar , eyjum ,
                          ¨      ˜
 eyja . So also Frigg , HAl . mAr (maid),
 mey , meyju , meyjar ; meyjar , meyjar ,
 meyjum , meyja .
    65.
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                ˜               ˜
     Nom. heiA-r ( heath ) heiA-ar Acc.
          ˜              ˜     ˜
   ˜ heiA-ar Dat. heiA-i heiA-um Gen.
heiA-i
                     56
   ˜        ˜
heiA-ar heiA-a
   (2) ir-plurals
   SINGULAR PLURAL
              ¨˜ ¨˜             ¨˜ ¨˜
    Nom. tAA tAA-ir Acc. tAA tAA-ir
 Dat. tA  ˜ ¨˜               ¨˜
        ¨ A tAA-um Gen. tAA-ar tAA-a¨˜
   66. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (ar-
rangement), hCfn (harbour) pl. hafnir ,
                ¸
and the majority of strong feminines.
   67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: s˚l
                                      A
                    57
                ˚
(sun), s˚l , sAlu , s˚lar ; s˚lir , s˚lir ,
         A             A      A      A
                             ¸ ˜
 s˚lum , s˚la . So also jCrA (earth),
  A          A
 stund (period of time).
    68. One noun has r in the nom. sg.,
               ˜              A˜
following heiAr in the sg.: br˚Ar (bride),
 br˚Ai
    A          ˜
      ˜ , br˚Ai , br˚Aar ; br˚Air , br˚Air ,
             A         A ˜     A˜        A˜
    A ˜
 br˚Aum , br˚Aa  A ˜ .
    (3) r-plurals
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                     58
            ˚
    Nom. bAk ( book ) b˚k-r Acc. b˚k
                         A            A
 ˚
bAk-r Dat. b˚k b˚k-um Gen. b˚k-ar
               A   A               A
b˚k-a
 A
                 ¨                  ˜
   69. So also nAtt (night) pl. nAtr ,
 b˚t (compensation) pl. b˚tr , tCnn
  A                          A      ¸
                          ¨
(tooth) gen. tannar pl. tAnnr .
                           ¨
   70. hCnd (hand) pl. hAndr has dat.
          ¸
      ¨
sg. hAndi .
         `                           `
   71. kEr (cow) has acc. k˚ , pl. kEr .
                             A
                   59
    72. br˚n (eyebrow) assimilates the r
           A
               `
of the pl.: brEnn .
    SINGULAR PLURAL
               A˜              A˜
     Nom. m˚Air ( mother ) m˚Ar Acc.
             ˜             ˜  A˜
    ˜ m˚Ar Dat. m˚Aur m˚Arum Gen.
m˚Aur A
  A                      A
  A ˜ m˚Ara
m˚Aur A      ˜
    73. So also d˚ttir (daughter) pl. d˚tr ;
                  A                    A
 systir (sister) pl. systr .
    Weak Masculines
                      60
    SINGULAR PLURAL
     Nom. bog-i ( bow ) bog-ar Acc. bog-
a bog-a Dat. bog-a bog-um Gen. bog-a
bog-a
                  ¨            ¨
    74. So also mAni (moon), fAlagi (com-
panion).
           ¸ ˜
    75. hCfAingi (chief) and some others
                        ¸ ˜         ¸ ˜
insert j in inflection: hCfAingja , hCfAingjar ,
  ¸  ˜
 hCfAingjum .
                     61
          ¨
    76. lA (scythe) is contracted; its gen.
         ¨ .
sg. is ljA
                          ˜
    77. oxi (ox) has pl. Axn .
    78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the
sg.
    Weak Neuters
    SINGULAR PLURAL
                               ¸
     Nom. hjart-a ( heart ) hjCrt-u Acc.
          ¸                     ¸
hjart-a hjCrt-u Dat. hjart-a hjCrt-um Gen.
                    62
hjart-a hjart-na
    79. So also auga (eye).
    Weak Feminines
    SINGULAR PLURAL
     Nom. tung-a ( tongue ) tung-ur Acc.
tung-u tung-ur Dat. tung-u tung-um Gen.
tung-u tung-na
                                      ¸
    80. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjCrnur ,
 kirkja (church), gen. plurals stjarna , kirkna .
                     63
                 ¨                     ¨
     Sg. Nom. Alli ( old age ) Acc. Alli
        ¨          ¨
 Dat. Alli Gen. Alli
                   ¨˜
    81. So also glAAi (joy) and many ab-
stract nouns.
    82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar ; so
also gC`
       ¸ Irsimi (precious thing).
    Adjectives
    83. Adjectives have three genders, and
the same cases as nouns, though with partly
                     64
different endings, together with strong and
weak forms.
   Strong Adjectives
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
    Sg. Nom. ung-r ( young ) ung-t ung
 Acc. ung-an ung-t ung-a Dat. ung-um
ung-u ung-ri Gen. ung-s ung-s ung-rar
    Pl. Nom. ung-ir ung ung-ar Acc. ung-
a ung ung-ar Dat. ung-um ung-um ung-
                    65
um Gen. ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra
                                      ¸
    84. So also fagr (fair), fem. fCgr ,
neut. fagrt .
    85. Some insert j before a and u :
  `            `        `
 nEr (new), nEjum , nEjan .
                                        ¨
    86. Some insert v before a vowel: hAr
          ¨        ˜              ˜
(high), hAvan , dAkkr (dark), dAkkvir ,
 kykr (alive), kykvir .
    87. The t of the neut. is doubled af-
                     66
                        `        ¨
ter a long vowel: nEtt , hAtt . Mono-
syllables in A˜ , dd , tt form their neut.
               ˜
in -tt : breiAr (broad), breitt ; leiddr
                 A˜
(led), leitt . g˚Ar (good) has neut. gott .
 sannr (true) has neut. satt . In unac-
cented syllables or if a cons. precedes, tt is
                          ˜
shortened to t : kallaAr (called), kallat ;
                               ˜
 blindr (blind), blint , harAr (hard), hart ,
 fastr (firm), fast .
                       67
    88. l and n assimilate a following
                          ¸
 r : gamall (old), fem. gCmul , fem. acc.
                         ¸
 gamla , dat. gamalli . vCnn (beautiful),
           ˜
gen. pl. vAnna .
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
     Sg. Nom. mikill ( great ) mikit mikil
 Acc. mikinn mikit mikla Dat. miklum
miklu mikilli Gen. mikils mikils mikillar
     Pl. Nom. miklir mikil miklar Acc.
                     68
mikla mikil miklar Dat. miklum miklum
miklum Gen. mikilla mikilla mikilla
                 ¨
    89. So also lAtill (little).
    90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in
the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. acc.:
  ¨                          ¨    ¨
 tAginn (distinguished), tAgit , tAginn ,
          ¨
      ¨ Ar . So also kominn (come).
pl. tAgn
    91.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                     69
                                    ¸
    Sg. Nom. annarr ( other ) annat Cnnur
                    ˜         ¸˜
 Acc. annan annat aAra Dat. CArum CAru¸˜
annarri Gen. annars annars annarrar
                 ˜     ¸      ˜
    Pl. Nom. aArir Cnnur aArar Acc.
             ˜             ˜
  ˜ Cnnur aArar Dat. CArum CArum
aAra ¸                   ¸        ¸˜
¸ ˜
CArum Gen. annarra annarra annarra
    Weak Adjectives
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
    Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a Acc.
                    70
ung-a ung-a ung-u Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-
u Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u
    Pl. Nom. ung-u ung-u ung-u Acc.
ung-u ung-u ung-u Dat. ung-u ung-u ung-
u Gen. ung-u ung-u ung-u
                        ¨
   92. So also fagri , hAvi , mikli , etc.
    Sg. Nom. yngri ( younger ) yngra yn-
gri Acc. yngra yngra yngri Dat. yngra
yngra yngri Gen. yngra yngra yngri
                    71
     Pl. Nom. yngri yngri yngri Acc. yn-
gri yngri yngri Dat. yngrum yngrum yn-
grum Gen. yngri yngri yngri
    93. So also all comparatives, such as
 meiri (greater), and pres. partic. when
used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giv-
ing), dat. pl. gefCndum .
                  ¸
    Comparison
                                 ¨
    94. (1) with -ari , -astr : rAkr (pow-
                     72
         ¨         ¨           ¸
erful), rAkari , rAkastr ; gCfugr (distin-
             ¸          ¸
guished), gCfgari , gCfgastr .
    95. (2) with -ri , -str and mutation:
                  ¨          ¨
 langr (long), lAngri , lAngstr ; st˚rr A
(big), st˚rri , st˚rstr ; ungr (young),
          A         A
 yngri , yngstr .
    96. The following are irregular:
                   ¨     ¨      A˜
    gamall ( old ) Allri Alztr g˚Ar ( good )
  ¨     ¨                   ¨    ¨      ¨
bAtri bAztr illr ( bad ) vArri vArstr lAtill
                     73
( little ) minni minstr margr ( many ) fleiri
flestr mikill ( great ) meiri mestr
     Numerals
     97.
     CARDINAL ORDINAL
     1. einn ( one ) fyrstr ( first ) 2. tveir
             ˜ ¨ ˜ ˜                 A ˜
annarr 3. ArAr AriAi 4. fj˚rir fj˚rAi 5.
                              A
                       ¨
fimm fimmti 6. sex sAtti 7. sjau sjaundi 8.
¨      ¨         ¨   ¨            ¨
Atta Atti 9. nAu nAundi 10. tAu tAundi ¨
                      74
                        A ˚            ˜    ¨
11. ellifu ellifti 12. t˚lf tAlfti 13. ArettAn
˜      ¨
ArettAndi 14. fj˚rtAnA   ¨ 15. fimmtAn 16.¨
     ¨              ¨       ¨ ¨
sextAn 17. sjautAn 18. AtjAn 19. nAtjAn   ¨ ¨
20. tuttugu 21. einn ok tuttugu, etc. 30.
˜ ¨                        ¨
ArAr tigir, etc. 100. tAu tigir 110. ellifu
tigir 120. hundraA            ˜A
                     ˜ 1200. A˚sund
     einn is declined like other adjectives:–
    98.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                        75
      Nom. einn eitt ein Acc. einn eitt eina
 Dat. einum einu einni Gen. eins eins ein-
nar
    It also has a pl. einir , einar , ein ;
gen. einna , etc. in the sense of ’some.’
    The next three show various irregulari-
ties.
    99.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                     76
                         ˜       ¨
     Nom. tveir tvau tvAr Acc. tvA tvau
                                    ¨
   ˜ Dat. tveim tveim tveim Gen. tvAggja
tvAr
   ¨        ¨
tvAggja tvAggja
                 ¨˜
    Similarly bAAir (both):
    100.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
              ¨˜    ˜˜ ¨˜
     Nom. bAAir bAAi bAAar Acc. bAAa¨˜
bA  ˜ ¨˜              ¨˜    ¨˜
  ˜ Ai bAAar Dat. bAAum bAAum bAAum¨˜
         ¨        ¨      ¨
 Gen. bAggja bAggja bAggja
                     77
    101.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
            ˜ ¨ ˜ A ˜ ¨
     Nom. ArAr Arj˚ ArjAr Acc. ArjA  ˜ ¨
      ˜ ¨          ˜     ˜     ˜
˜ ˚ ArjAr Dat. Arim Arim Arim Gen.
ArjA
˜        ˜      ˜
Ariggja Ariggja Ariggja
    102.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
     Nom. fj˚rir fjogur fj˚rar Acc. fj˚ra
             A            A           A
fjogur fj˚rar Dat. fj˚rum fj˚rum fj˚rum
         A           A       A      A
                    78
 Gen. fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra
    103. The others are indeclinable up to
 ˜ ¨
 ArAr tigir , etc.; the tigir being declined
regularly as a plural strong u -masculine
 tigir , tigu , tigum , tiga .
                  ˜
    104. hundraA is a strong neut.: tvau
hundruA  ˜ (240), tveim hundruAum , etc.
                                   ˜
                                   ˜A
It governs the gen. (as also does A˚sund ):
 fimm hundruA A  ˜ g˚lfa , ’five (six) hundred
                      79
chambers.’
          ˜A
    105. A˚sund is a strong ir -feminine:
       ˜A
    ˜ A˚sundir (2400).
 tvAr
                 ˜       ˜A
    106. hundraA and A˚sund are rarely
= 100 and 1000.
    107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr
  ˆ
(A 91) are strong, the others weak adjec-
        ˜ ˜                   ˜ ˜
tives. AriAi inserts a j : AriAja , etc.
    Pronouns
                     80
   108.
   Personal
                      ˜A
    Sg. Nom. ek ( I ) A˚ ( thou ) – Acc.
                              ¨ ˜¨ ¨
    ˜ sik ( oneself ) Dat. mAr AAr sAr
mik Aik
 Gen. mAn   ˜¨
         ¨ AAn sAn¨
    Dual Nom. vit it – Acc. okkr ykkr
                    ¨
sik Dat. okkr ykkr sAr Gen. okkar ykkar
 ¨
sAn
               ¨        ˜¨
    Pl. Nom. vAr ( we ) AAr ( ye ) – Acc.
                   81
      ˜                             ˜ ¨
oss yAr sik ( oneselves ) Dat. oss yAr sAr
 Gen. vAr     ˜    ¨
          ¨ yAar sAn
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                              ˜
     Sg. Nom. hann ( he ) Aat ( it ) hon
( she ) Acc. hann Aat˜ hana Dat. honum
˜ ¨ ¨                     ˜
AvA hAnni Gen. hans Aess hAnnar ¨
                ˜ ( they ) Aau AAr Acc.
     Pl. Nom. Aeir           ˜   ˜˜
  ¨ ˜     ˜˜         ˜     ˜    ˜
˜ A Aau AAr Dat. Aeim Aeim Aeim Gen.
A
˜       ˜    ˜
Aeira Aeira Aeira
                     82
    109. ek was often suffixed to its verb,
especially in poetry, being sometimes added
                ˜                   ¨
twice over: mAtta-k (I might), sA-k-a-k
                                ˜ ˚ : er-tu
(I saw not; a =’not’). So also AA
(art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = skalt-
tu .
    Possessive
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                                    ¨
     Sg. Nom. minn ( my ) mitt mAn Acc.
                      83
              ¨           ¨       ¨
minn mitt mAna Dat. mAnum mAnu minni
 Gen. mAns        ¨
          ¨ mAns minnar
                    ¨     ¨    ¨
     Pl. Nom. mAnir mAn mAnar Acc.
          ¨     ¨            ¨
  ¨ mAn mAnar Dat. mAnum mAnum
mAna                                 ¨
  ¨
mAnum Gen. minna minna minna
                     ˜
    110. So also Ainn (thy), sinn (his,
etc., reflexive).
            ¨        ¨     ¨
    111. vArr , vArt , vAr (our) is regu-
lar: acc. masc. vArn                  ¨
                    ¨ , masc. plur. vArir ,
                       84
   ¨         ¨           ¨
 vAra , vArum , vArra , etc.
     MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                     ˜                ˜
      Sg. Nom. yAarr ( your ) yAart yAur˜
          ˜      ˜        ˜
 Acc. yAarn yAart yAra Dat. yArum yAru˜   ˜
  ˜                ˜        ˜
yAarri Gen. yAars yAars yAarrar   ˜
                       ˜       ˜
      Pl. Nom. yArir yAur yArar Acc.˜
         ˜     ˜                ˜
  ˜ yAur yArar Dat. yArum yArum yArum
yAra                                  ˜   ˜
           ˜       ˜
 Gen. yAarra yAarra yAarra    ˜
     112. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr
                         85
(your two).
                      ˜             ¨
   113. hans (his), Aess (its), hAnnar
            ˜
(her), and Aeira (their) are indeclinable.
   Demonstrative
   114.
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                 ¨          ˜
    Sg. Nom. sA ( that ) Aat s˚ Acc.
                                 A
˜         ˜¨        ˜     ˜ ¨ ˜
       ˜ AA Dat. Aeim AvA Aeiri Gen.
Aann Aat
˜     ˜    ˜
Aess Aess Aeirar
                   86
                ˜    ˜    ˜˜
    Pl. Nom. Aeir Aau AAr Acc. AA     ˜¨
˜
Aau A   ˜         ˜     ˜    ˜
      ˜ Ar Dat. Aeim Aeim Aeim Gen.
˜      ˜    ˜
Aeira Aeira Aeira
   115. hinn , hitt , hin (that) is in-
flected like minn (except that its vowel is
short throughout): acc. masc. hinn , plur.
masc. hinir , hina , hinum , hinna .
   116.
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                    87
                ˜              ˜     ˜
    Sg. Nom. Aessi ( this ) Aetta Aessi
       ˜      ˜      ˜
 Acc. Aenna Aetta Aessa Dat. Aessum˜
˜      ˜           ˜     ˜       ˜
Aessu Aessi Gen. Aessa Aessa Aessar
                ˜      ˜     ˜
    Pl. Nom. Aessir Aessi Aessar Acc.
˜      ˜    ˜             ˜        ˜
Aessa Aessi Aessar Dat. Aessum Aessum
˜              ˜      ˜     ˜
Aessum Gen. Aessa Aessa Aessa
   Definite
   The prefixed definite article is declined
thus:
                   88
   117.
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
    Sg. Nom. inn it in Acc. inn it ina
 Dat. inum inu inni Gen. ins ins innar
    Pl. Nom. inir in inar Acc. ina in inar
 Dat. inum inum inum Gen. inna inna
inna
   118. When suffixed to its noun it under-
goes various changes. In its monosyllabic
                    89
forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-
accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the eye),
                                       ¨
but keeps it after a long vowel, as in A-in
                ¨
(the river), trA-it (the tree). The dissyl-
labic forms drop their initial vowel almost
everywhere; not, however, after the -ar , -
                             ¨
r , of the gen. sg., nor in mAnninir (men,
             ¨
 nom. ), mAnn-ina (men, acc. ). The -
m of the dat. pl. is dropped before the
                      90
suffixed -num .
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                                 ¸
    Sg. Nom. fiskr-inn skip-it gjCf-in Acc.
                  ¸
fisk-inn skip-it gjCf-ina Dat. fiski-num skipi-
     ¸
nu gjCf-inni Gen. fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-
innar
    Pl. Nom. fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar
 Acc. fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar Dat. fisku-
                    ¸
num skipu-num gjCfu-num Gen. fiska-nna
                      91
skipa-nna gjafa-nna
    Sg. Nom. bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n Acc.
boga-nn auga-t tungu-na Dat. boga-num
auga-nu tungu-nni Gen. boga-ns auga-ns
tungu-nnar
    Pl. Nom. bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar
 Acc. boga-na augu-n tungur-nar Dat. bogu-
num augu-num tungnu-num Gen. boga-
nna augna-nna tungna-nna
                    92
    Relative
    119. The ordinary relative pron. is the
indeclinable er , often preceded by sA :¨
  ¨ er = he who, who, s˚ er who fem.
 sA                      A
    Interrogative
    120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess ,
         ¨
dat. hvA , which last is chiefly used as an
adverb = ’why.’
    121.
                    93
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                ¨              ¨     ¨
     Sg. Nom. hvArr ( which hvArt hvAr
                       ¨     ¨
                ¨ hvArt hvAra Dat.
of two ) Acc. hvArn
   ¨        ¨   ¨             ¨
hvArum hvAru hvArri Gen. hvArs hvArs¨
   ¨
hvArrar
                ¨      ¨    ¨
     Pl. Nom. hvArir hvAr hvArar Acc.
          ¨   ¨           ¨       ¨
   ¨ hvAr hvArar Dat. hvArum hvArum
hvAra
   ¨            ¨       ¨
hvArum Gen. hvArra hvArra hvArra¨
    122.
                  94
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                 ¨             ¨     ¨
    Sg. Nom. hvArr ( which, hvArt hvAr
               ¨
who ) Acc. hvArn hvArt       ¨
                       ¨ hvArja Dat.
  ¨        ¨       ¨           ¨    ¨
hvArjum hvArju hvArri Gen. hvArs hvArs
  ¨
hvArrar
                ¨       ¨    ¨
    Pl. Nom. hvArir hvAr hvArjar Acc.
  ¨          ¨              ¨       ¨
         ¨ hvArjar Dat. hvArjum hvArjum
hvArja hvAr
  ¨                ¨      ¨
hvArjum Gen. hvArra hvArra hvArra¨
   Indefinite
                    95
                 ¨           ¨
   123. einn-hvArr , eitthvArt , einhvAr¨
(some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the
other cases, the second element being in-
flected as above.
   124. sumr (some) is declined like an
ordinary adjective.
   125.
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.
    Sg. Nom. nakkvarr nakkvat nCkkur¸
                    96
( some ) Acc. nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara
         ¸        ¸
 Dat. nCkkurum nCkkuru nakkvarri Gen.
nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar
                         ¸
     Pl. Nom. nakkvarir nCkkur nakkvarar
                 ¸
 Acc. nakkvara nCkkur nakkvarar Dat.
  ¸         ¸          ¸
nCkkurum nCkkurum nCkkurum Gen. nakkvarra
nakkvarra nakkvarra
    126.
    MASC. NEUT. FEM.
                    97
    Sg. Nom. engi ( none, ekki engi no )
 Acc. engan ekki enga Dat. engum engu
engri Gen. engis engis engrar
    Pl. Nom. engir engi engar Acc. enga
engi engar Dat. engum engum engum Gen.
engra engra engra
               ¨     ¨
   127. In hvAr-tvAggja (each of the two,
both) the first element is declined as above,
the second is left unchanged.
                     98
   Verbs
   128. There are two classes of verbs, strong
and weak . Strong verbs are conjugated
partly by means of gradation, weak verbs
           ˜
by adding A ( d , t ).
             ˜
   129. The A of the 2 pl. is dropt before
 ˜                  ˜¨
 Ait (ye two) and AAr (ye): gefi AAr ,  ˜¨
       ˜
  ¨ Ait .
 gAfu
   130. There is a middle voice, which ends
                    99
in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pl., the
rest of the verb being formed by adding sk
to the active endings, r being dropt, the
                ˜                     ˆ
resulting ts , As being written z (A 36):
 kvezk (active kveAr             ˜
                     ˜ ’says’), Au fekkzk
( fekkt ’gottest’).
    131. The following is the conjugation
of the strong verb gefa (give), which will
show those endings which are common to
                     100
all verbs:
    Active
    INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
     Present sg. 1. gef gef-a 2. gef-r gef-ir
3. gef-r gef-i
                                    ˜
     pl. 1. gef-um gef-im 2. gef-iA gef-iA  ˜
3. gef-a gef-i
                           ˜              ˜
     Preterite sg. 1. gaf gAf-a 2. gaf-t gAf-
           ˜
ir 3. gaf gAf-i
                     101
              ¨         ˜       ¨ ˜ ˜
     pl. 1. gAf-um gAf-im 2. gAf-uA gAf-
        ¨      ˜
 ˜ 3. gAf-u gAf-i
iA
     Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2
     ˜
gef-iA. Participle pres. gef-andi; pret.
gef-inn. Infin. gefa.
    Middle
    INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
     Pres. sg. 1. gef-umk gef-umk 2. gef-sk
gef-isk 3. gef-sk gef-isk
                      102
     pl. 1. gef-umk gef-imk 2. gef-izk gef-
izk 3. gef-ask gef-isk
                     ¨       ˜
     Pret. sg. 1. gAf-umk gAf-umk 2. gaf-
     ˜                  ˜
zk gAf-isk 3. gaf-sk gAf-isk
               ¨          ˜         ¨
     pl. 1. gAf-umk gAf-imk 2. gAf-uzk
  ˜          ¨         ˜
gAf-izk 3. gAf-usk gAf-isk
     Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk,
2 gef-izk. Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret.
gef-izk neut. Infin. gef-ask.
                      103
    Strong Verbs
    132. In the strong verbs the plur. of
the pret. indic. generally has a different
vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret.
of the middle voice always has the vowel of
                 ¨
the pl. pret.: gAfumk . The pret. subj.
has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur.
mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they
shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there
                    104
is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.:
 hlj˚pi , inf. hlaupa (leap).
    A
    133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the
                                       `
root-vowel in all three persons: ek skEt ,
        `
 ˜ ˚ skEtr , hann skEtr , infin. skj˚ta
 AA                    `              A
(shoot). e however is not mutated: ek
       ˜A
gef , A˚ gefr . The inflectional r is li-
able to the same modifications as the r of
        ˆ         ¨       ¨
nouns (A 32): skAnn , vAx , infin. skAna ¨
                    105
(shine), vaxa (grow).
    134. Verbs in ld change the d into
 t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indic. and in the
imper. sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), in-
fin. halda . nd becomes tt , and ng
becomes kk under the same conditions:
 binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt ,
 gekk , imper. bitt , gakk .
    135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is
                   106
doubled after a long accented vowel: AA    ˜˚
  ¨
sAtt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indic.
                 ˜
ends in t or A , the 2 sg. ends in zt :
               ˜A ¨            ˜
  ¨ (I let), A˚ lAzt , bauA (I offered)
 lAt
 ˜ ˚ bauzt .
 AA
    136. There are seven conjugations of
strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the
characteristic vowels of their preterites.
    137.
                    107
    I. ’Fall’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
                    ¨                        ¨
    falla ( fall ) fAllr fell fellu fallinn lAta
               ¨ ¨      ¨        ¨˜
         ˜ lAt lAtu lAtinn rAAa ( advise )
( let ) lAtr
 ˜˜ ¨˜ ¨˜ ¨˜
rAAr rAA rAAu rAAinn heita ( call ) heitr
  ¨ ¨                                   ¨
hAt hAtu heitinn halda ( hold ) hAldr helt
                                 ¨
heldu haldinn ganga ( go ) gAngr gekk gengu
  ¨         ¨           ˜
gAnginn fA ( get ) fAr fekk fengu fAnginn ¨
                       108
                                    ˚ ˚
—————– auka ( increase ) eykr jAk jAku
                       `
aukinn b˚a ( dwell ) bEr bj˚ bjoggu b˚inn
         A                   A         A
hCggva ( hew ) hCggr hj˚ hjoggu hCggvinn
  ¸               ¸       A         ¸
hlaupa ( leap ) hleypr hlj˚p hlj˚pu hlaupinn
                          A     A
    138. The following have weak preterites
in r :
                           ˜     ˜
    gr˚a ( grow ) gr˚r grAri grAru gr˚inn
      A              A                 A
                      ˜
                  ˜ rAru r˚inn sn˚a ( twist )
r˚a ( row ) r˚r rAri
 A           A              A      A
   `    ˜     ˜
snEr snAri snAru sn˚inn
                     A
                    109
    139. heita in the passive sense of ’to
be named, called’ has a weak present: ek
         ˜A
heiti , A˚ heitir .
    140.
    II. ’Shake’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
                  ¨
    fara ( go ) fArr f˚r f˚ru farinn grafa
                      A A
                                   ˜
           ¨ gr˚f gr˚fu grafinn hlaAa ( load )
( dig ) grAfr A A
                     110
   ¨˜     ˚˜ ˚˜            ˜
hlAAr hlAA hlAAu hlaAinn vaxa ( grow )
                                        ¨
  ¨ ˚x ˚xu vaxinn standa ( stand ) stAndr
vAx A A
           ˜       ˜                 ¨ A
     ˜ st˚Au staAinn aka ( drive ) Akr ˚k
st˚A A
  A
       ¨                       ¨
˚ku Akinn taka ( take ) tAkr t˚k t˚ku
A                                  A A
 ¨                           ¨
tAkinn draga ( draw ) drAgr dr˚ dr˚gu
                                   A A
   ¨        ¨            ˜ A A
drAginn flA ( flay ) flAr fl˚ fl˚gu flAginn ¨
  ¨ ( strike ) slAr sl˚ sl˚gu slAginn
slA               ˜    A A       ¨
    141. The following have weak presents:
      ¨              ¨
    hAfja ( lift ) hAfr h˚f h˚fu hafinn deyja
                          A A
                       111
                ˚ A ¨           ˜
( die ) deyr dA d˚ dAinn hlAja ( laugh )
                    ¨
  ˜ hl˚ hl˚gu hlAginn
hlAr A A
    142.
    III. ’Bind’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
    bresta ( burst ) brestr brast brustu brostinn
hverfa ( turn ) hverfr hvarf hurfu horfinn
svelga ( swallow ) svelgr svalg sulgu s˚lginn
                                       A
                     112
    ˜                  ˜      ˜    ˜
verAa ( become ) verAr varA urAu orAinn  ˜
    ¨
skjAlfa ( shake ) skelfr skalf skulfu skolfinn
drekka ( drink ) drekkr drakk drukku drukkinn
finna ( find ) finnr fann fundu fundinn vinna
( win ) vinnr vann unnu unninn binda ( bind )
bindr batt bundu bundinn springa ( spring )
springr sprakk sprungu sprunginn stinga ( pierce )
                                    ˜
stingr stakk stungu stunginn bregAa ( pull )
bregAr     ¨     ˜        ˜      ˜
      ˜ brA brugAu brugAinn sAkkva ( sink )
                    113
 ˜       ¸                 ˜
sAkkr sCkk sukku sokkinn stAkkva ( spring )
  ˜        ¸
stAkkr stCkk stukku stokkinn
    143. The following have weak presents
(which makes however no difference in their
conjugation):
      ¨                ¨
    brAnna ( burn ) brAnnr brann brunnu
             ¨           ¨
brunninn rAnna ( run ) rAnnr rann runnu
runninn
    144.
                   114
    IV. ’Bear’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
                             ¨
    bera ( carry ) berr bar bAru borinn nema
                     ¨
( take ) nemr nam nAmu numinn fela ( hide )
           ¨
felr fal fAlu f˚lginn koma ( come ) kAmr
               A                        ˜
         ¨
kom kvAmu kominn sofa ( sleep ) sAfr ˜ svaf
   ¨
svAfu sofinn
    145.
                     115
    V. ’Give’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
                                ¨
    drepa ( kill ) drepr drap drApu drepinn
                                    ˜
                        ¨ gefinn kveAa ( say )
gefa ( give ) gefr gaf gAfu
           ˜    ¨˜        ˜
    ˜ kvaA kvAAu kveAinn meta ( estimate )
kveAr
              ¨
metr mat mAtu metinn reka ( drive ) rekr
                                ¨ ¨
      ¨ rekinn eta ( eat ) etr At Atu etinn
rak rAku
              ¨      ¨ ¨      ¨
  ¨ ( see ) sAr[6] sA sA[7] sAnn
sjA
                      116
                      ¨ ¨      ¨    ¨
    [Footnote 6: sA, sAr, sAr; sjAm, sAA, ¨˜
               ¨ ¨       ¨ ¨     ¨˜ ¨
   ¨ Subj. sA, sAr, sA; sAm, sAA, sA.]
sjA.
                     ¨      ¨ ˜ ¨
    [Footnote 7: sAm, sAiA, sA.]
    146. The following have weak presents:–
       ˜                ˜     ˜ ¨˜
    biAja ( ash ) biAr baA bAAu beAinn   ˜
                        ¨ setinn liggja ( lie )
sitja ( sit ) sitr sat sAtu
       ¨ ¨                ˜                ˜
liggr lA lAgum leginn Aiggja ( receive ) Aiggr
   ¨ ˜¨      ˜
˜ A AAgu Aeginn
A
    147.
                        117
     VI. ’Shine’-conjugation
     INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
      ¨             ¨                       ¨
     bAta ( bite ) bAtr beit bitu bitinn drAfa
                                      ¨
             ¨ dreif drifu drifinn grApa ( grasp )
( drive ) drAfr
   ¨                         ¨˜
grApr greip gripu gripinn lAAa ( go ) lAAr¨˜
leiA    ˜    ˜      ¨
    ˜ liAu liAinn lAta ( look ) lAtr leit litu
                                  ¨
         ¨˜            ¨˜       ˜ ˜
litinn rAAa ( ride ) rAAr reiA riAu riAinn˜
  ¨               ¨
sAga ( sink ) sAgr seig sigu siginn slAta  ¨
                      118
           ¨                         ¨
( tear ) slAtr sleit slitu slitinn stAga ( advance )
                              ¨˜
  ¨ steig stigu stiginn bAAa ( wait ) bAAr
stAgr                                        ¨˜
beiA     ˜      ˜
    ˜ biAu beiAnn
    148. The following has a weak present:
     ¨                   ¨
    vAkja ( move ) vAkr veik viku vikinn
    149.
    VII. ’Choose’-conjugation
    INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT.
PL. PTC. PRT.
                       119
      ˚˜             `˜     ˜    ˜
    bjAAa ( offer ) bEAr bauA buAu boAinn˜
                   ` braut brutu brotinn
brj˚ta ( break ) brEtr
   A
                 `
flj˚ta ( float ) flEtr flaut flutu flotinn hlj˚ta
  A                                     A
              ` hlaut hlutu hlotinn kj˚sa
( receive ) hlEtr                       A
             `
( choose ) kEss kaus kusum kosinn nj˚ta A
            ` naut nutu notinn skj˚ta ( shoot )
( enjoy ) nEtr                    A
   `
skEtr skaut skutu skotinn drj˚pa ( drop )
                              A
   `
drEpr draup drupu dropinn lj˚ga ( tell lies )
                            A
 `                                      `
lEgr laug lugu loginn l˚ka ( close ) lEkr
                        A
                    120
                                `
lauk luku lokinn l˚ta ( bend ) lEtr laut lutu
                  A
                      ` fl˚ flugu floginn
lotinn flj˚ga ( fly ) flEgr A
         A
    Weak Verbs
    150. There are three conjugations of
weak verbs. All those of the first conjuga-
tion have mutated vowels in the pres., and
                        ˜
form their pret. with A ( d , t ): heyra
             ˜ . Those of the second form
(hear), heyrAa
their pret. in the same way, but have un-
                    121
mutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have)
    ˜
 hafAa . Those of the third form their pret.
      ˜                        ˜
in -aAa : kalla (call), kallaAa .
   I. ’Hear’-conjugation
   Active
   151.
   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
    Pres. sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a 2. heyr-ir
heyr-ir 3. heyr-ir heyr-i
                     122
     pl. 1. heyr-um heyr-im 2. heyr-iA   ˜
heyr-iA˜ 3. heyr-a heyr-i
                        ˜       ˜
     Pret. sg. 1. heyr-Aa heyr-Aa 2. heyr-
          ˜           ˜
˜ heyr-Air 3. heyr-Ai heyr-Ai
Air                           ˜
                   ˜         ˜
     pl. 1. heyr-Aum heyr-Aim 2. heyr-
    ˜       ˜ ˜          ˜
˜ A heyr-AiA 3. heyr-Au heyr-Ai
Au                               ˜
     Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2.
       ˜
heyr-iA. Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret.
      ˜
heyr-Ar. Infin. heyr-a.
                     123
   Middle
   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
    Pres. sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk 2.
heyr-isk heyr-isk 3. heyr-isk heyr-isk
    pl. 1. heyr-umk heyr-imk 2. heyr-izk
heyr-izk 3. heyr-ask heyr-isk
                        ˜           ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. heyr-Aumk heyr-Aumk 2.
     ˜          ˜             ˜        ˜
heyr-Aisk heyr-Aisk 3. heyr-Aisk heyr-Aisk
                  ˜           ˜
    pl. 1. heyr-Aumk heyr-Aimk 2. heyr-
                     124
˜            ˜            ˜
Auzk heyr-Aizk 3. heyr-Ausk heyr-Aisk˜
     Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-
umk, 2. heyr-izk. Partic. pres. heyr-
andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut. Infin. heyr-
ask.
    A. Without vowel-change
                              ˜
    152. The inflectional A becomes d
after long syllables ending in l or n : sigla
                    ¨                ¨
(sail), siglda ; nAfna (name), nAfnda ,
                      125
  ¨
nAfndr .
            ˜˜                   ˜
    153. -AA becomes dd : leiAa (lead),
leidda .
           ˜
    154. A after s and t becomes t :
reisa (raise), reista ; m˚ta (meet), m˚tta .
                           A            A
                                ˜
Also in a few verbs in l , n : mAla (speak),
   ˜         ¨                  ¨
mAlta ; spAnna (buckle), spAnta .
    155. After nd and pt it is dropped:
  ¨                 ¨         ¨
sAnda (send), sAnda , sAndr ; lypta
                     126
(lift), lypta .
     156. It is preserved in such verbs as
the following: d˚ma (judge), d˚mAa ;
                  A                  A ˜
 f˚ra (lead), f˚rAa
  A              A          ¨ ˜
                    ˜ ; hArAa (harden),
   ¨ ˜
 hArAa ; hleypa (gallop), hleypAa . ˜
     B. With vowel-change
     157. All these verbs have j preceded
                      ¨
by a short syllable (tAlja), or a long vowel
                                `
without any cons. after it (dEja), or gg
                     127
  ¨
(lAggja); the j being kept before a and
 u , as in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask):
 spyr , spyrr , spyrr ; spyrjum , spyriA ,˜
 spyrja , pres. subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja ; they
unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc.
             ˜        ˜
pret. (spurAa, spurAr), the mutation be-
ing restored in the pret. subj. spyrAa ,˜
      ˜ , etc. The ptc. pret. often has an
 spyrAir
                ˜
 i before the A .
                     128
     ¨                   ˜     ˜ ¨
    bArja ( strike ) barAa barAr lAggja ( lay )
             ˜ ¨                 ˜        ˜
    ˜ lag(i)Ar tAlja ( tell ) talAa tal(i)Ar
lagAa
  ¨
vAkja ( wake ) vakAa        ˜
                     ˜ vakAr flytja ( remove )
               `              A˜
flutta fluttr dEja ( shake ) d˚Aa d˚ArA˜
    158. The following keep the mutated
vowel throughout:
     ¨              ¨      ¨     ¨
    sAlja ( sell ) sAlda sAldr sAtja ( set )
 ¨      ¨
sAtta sAttr
    C.
                      129
   159. The following are irregular:
                               ˜
   s˚kja ( seek ) s˚tta s˚ttr Aykkja ( seem )
    A              A       A
        ˜A
˜ ˚tta A˚ttr
AA
                           ˜A
   Subj. pret. s˚tta , A˚tta .
                 A
   160. The following has an adj. for its
partic. pret.:
   gC` ( make ) gC` Aa gC`
     ¸ Ira           ¸ Ir ˜   ¸ Irr.
   II. ’Have’-conjugation
   161. The few verbs of this class are con-
                    130
jugated like those of conj. I, except that
some of them have imperatives in -i : vaki ,
 ˜¨                          ¨
 AAfi ; uni . lifa , sAgja have imper.
 lif , sAg¨ . They mutate the vowel of the
                      ˜
pret. subj. (ynAa). Their partic. pret.
generally occurs only in the neut.; some-
times the a is dropped.
                          ˜
     lifa ( live ) lifi lifAa lifat una ( be con-
tented ) uni unAa   ˜ unat skorta ( be want-
                         131
                          ˜               ˜
ing ) skorti skorta skort Aola ( endure ) Aoli
    ˜ ˜        ˜             ˜    ˜ ˜ ˜
˜ Aa Aolat Aora ( dare ) Aori AorAa Aorat
Aol
  ¨               ¨ ¨˜      ¨˜
nA ( attain ) nAi nAAa nAAr, nAit   ¨
    162. The following show mutation:
     ¨               ¨      ˜      ˜ ˜¨
    sAgja ( say ) sAgi sagAa sagAr AAgja
                ¨ ˜ ˜ ˜
              ˜ Agi AagAa Aagat hafa ( have )
( be silent ) A
  ¨      ˜       ˜
hAfi hafAa hafAr kaupa ( buy ) kaupi keypta
keyptr
    163. The present indic. of the first three
                      132
is as follows:
                 ¨    ¨ ˜¨
      Sing. 1. hAfi sAgi AAgi 2, 3. hAfir ¨
  ¨
sAgir A   ¨
        ˜ Agir
                  ¸       ¨      ˜¨
      Plur. 1. hCfum sAgjum AAgjum 2.
hafiA     ¨ ˜ ˜¨ ˜              ¨    ˜¨
     ˜ sAgiA AAgiA 3. hafa sAgja AAgja
     164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres.
subj. hafa , hafir , hafi ; hafim , hafiA ,  ˜
 hafi . Pret. indic. hafAa        ˜         ˜
                         ˜ , hafAir , hafAi ;
 hCfdum , hCfAu
   ¸           ¸    ˜        ˜
                 ˜ A , hCfAu . Pret. subj.
                           ¸
                     133
  ¨ ˜        ¨ ˜          ¨ ˜   ¨ ˜      ¨ ˜ ˜
 hAfAa , hAfAir , hAfAi ; hAfAim , hAfAiA ,
      ˜
  ¨ Ai . Imper. haf , hCfum , hafiA .
 hAf                          ¸         ˜
Ptc. hafandi , hafAr . ˜
    III. ’Call’-conjugation
    Active
    INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
     Pres. sg. 1. kall-a kall-a 2. kall-ar
kall-ir 3. kall-ar kall-i
               ¸                     ˜
     pl. 1. kCll-um kall-im 2. kall-iA kall-
                       134
 ˜
iA 3. kall-a kall-i
                          ˜       ˜
    Pres. sg. 1. kall-aAa kall-aAa 2. kall-
            ˜            ˜       ˜
  ˜ kall-aAir 3. kall-aAi kall-aAi
aAir
               ¸    ˜          ˜
    pl. 1. kCll-uAum kall-aAim 2. kCll-¸
     ˜        ˜ ˜           ˜
  ˜ A kall-aAiA 3. kCll-uAu kall-aAi
uAu                    ¸            ˜
                                       ¸
    Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. kCll-
               ˜
um, 2. kall-iA. Partic. pres. kall-andi;
             ˜
 pret. kallaAr ( neut. kallat). Infin. kalla.
    Middle
                      135
    INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
                        ¸           ¸
     Pres. sg. 1. kCll-umk kCll-umk 2.
kall-ask kall-isk 3. kall-ask kall-isk
                ¸
     pl. 1. kCll-umk kall-imk 2. kall-izk
kall-izk 3. kall-ask kall-isk
                     ¸     ˜
     Pret. sg. 1. kCll-uAumk kCll-uAumk
                                    ¸   ˜
          ˜           ˜               ˜
2. kall-aAisk kall-aAisk 3. kall-aAisk kall-
 ˜
aAisk
              ¸    ˜            ˜
     pl. 1. kCll-uAumk kall-aAimk 2. kCll-¸
                      136
  ˜           ˜        ¸    ˜          ˜
uAuzk kall-aAizk 3. kCll-uAusk kall-aAisk
                                         ¸
     Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. kCll-
umk, 2. kall-izk. Partic. pres. kall-andisk;
 pret. kall-azk neut. Infin. kall-ask.
    165. So also byrja (begin), hArja  ¨
(make war), vakna (awake).
    Strong-Weak Verbs
    166. These have old strong preterites
for their presents, from which new weak
                    137
preterites are formed.
    INFIN. PRES. SG. PRES. PL. PRT. PTC.
                      ¨      ¨     ¨
    eiga ( possess ) A eigu Atta Attr kunna
( can ) kann kunnu kunna kunnat n. mega
            ¨           ¨      ¨
( can ) mA megu mAtta mAtt n. muna
                                ˜
( remember ) man munu munAa munat n.
                                 ˜
munu ( will ) mun munu munAa —- skulu
                                   ˜
( shall ) skal skulu skylda skyldr Aurfa ( need )
˜     ˜       ˜       ˜
Aarf Aurfu Aurfta Aurft n. unna ( love )
                      138
ann unnu unna unnt n. vita ( know ) veit
                ˜
vitu vissa vitaAr
    167. Of these verbs munu and skulu
have preterite infinitives: mundu , skyldu .
    Anomalous Verbs
    168. Vilja (will):
    Present
    Sing. Plur.
                              ˜
    1. vil viljum 2. vill viliA 3. vill vilja
                     139
    Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda.
 Ptc. prt. viljat.
   169. Vera (be):
   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
                      ¨        ¨         ¨
    Pres. sg. 1. em sA 2. ert sAr 3. er sA
    pl. 1. erum sAm         ˜ ¨˜
                   ¨ 2. eruA sAA 3. eru
 ¨
sA
                       ˜            ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. var vAra 2. vart vArir 3.
      ˜
var vAri
                    140
             ¨        ˜          ¨ ˜ ˜ ˜
     pl. 1. vArum vArim 2. vAruA vAriA
     ¨ vAri
3. vAru    ˜
                               ˜
     Imper. sg. ver; pl. veriA. Ptc. prt.
verit n.
    COMPOSITION
    170. Composition with the genitive is
very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the
side of skip-stj˚rn (ship-steering) we find
                A
 skips-brot (ship’s breaking, shipwreck), skipa-
                     141
  ¨
hArr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival com-
position often expresses possession, as in
 konungs-skip (king’s ship).
    DERIVATION
    Prefixes
    171. Prefixes are much less used in Ice-
landic than in Old English.
    al- ’quite,’ ’very’: al-b˚inn ’quite ready,’
                             A
 al-snotr ’very clever.’
                       142
     all- ’all,’ ’very’: all-valdr ’all-ruler, monarch,’
           ˜
 all-harAr ’very hard,’ all-st˚rum ’very
                                    A
greatly.’
     and- ’against’: and-lit ’countenance’
( lita , look), and-svar ’answer.’
       ¸                  ¸    ¨
     fjCl- ’many’: fjCl-mAnni ’multitude’
( maAr ˜ , man).
                           ¨
     mis- ’mis-’: mis-lAka ’displease.’
     ˚- ’un-’: ˚-friAr
     A             A                  ˜
                        ˜ ’war’ ( friAr , peace),
                         143
 ˚-happ ’misfortune’ ( happ luck).
 A
   Endings
   (a) Nouns
   Personal
                                 ¨
   172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: vAkingr ’pi-
        ¸  ˜                 ¨
rate,’ hCfAingi ’chief,’ kArling ’old woman.’
   Abstract
           ˜
   173. -A, fem. with mutation: fAgrA ¨ ˜
                             ˜
                          ¨ A ’journey’ ( fara ,
’beauty’ ( fagr , fair), fAr
                      144
        ¨ ˜
go), lAngA ’length’ ( langr , long).
                                      ¨
    -ing, fem.: svipting ’pulling,’ vAking
              ˜
’piracy,’ virAing ’honour.’
    -leikr, masc.: k˚r-leikr ’affection’ ( h˚rr ,
                     A                     A
dear), skj˚t-leikr ’speed’ ( skj˚tr , swift).
            A                   A
    -an, -un, fem.: skipan ’arrangement,’
    ¨
 skAmtun ’amusement.’
    (b) Adjectives
                  ¨˜                  ˜ A˜
    174. -ugr: rAAugr ’sagacious,’ Ar˚Augr
                     145
’strong.’
    -˚ttr: koll˚ttr ’bald,’ Cnd˚ttr ’fierce.’
     A            A           ¸ A
                     ¨
    -lauss ’-less’: fA-lauss ’moneyless,’ ˚tta-
                                          A
lauss ’without fear.’
    -ligr ’-ly’: undr-ligr ’wonderful,’ sann-
ligr ’probable’ ( sannr , true).
                ¨
    -samr: lAkn-samr ’gracious,’ skyn-samr
’intelligent.’
         ˜                     ˜
    -verAr ’-ward’: ofan-verAr ’upper.’
                       146
    (c) Verbs
    175. -na: brotna ’be broken’ ( brotinn ,
              ¨
broken), hvAtna ’become white,’ vakna
’awake.’ Used to form intransitive and in-
choative verbs of the third conj.
    (d) Adverbs
    176. -liga ’-ly’: undar-liga ’wonder-
          ¨                       ¨
fully,’ stArk-liga ’strongly’ ( stArkr , strong).
    -um, dat. pl.: st˚rum ’greatly’ ( st˚rr ,
                     A                    A
                     147
great).
    SYNTAX
    177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles
Old English, but has several peculiarities of
its own.
    Concord
    178. Concord is carried out very strictly
                      ¨      ¨
in Icelandic: allir mAnn vAru b˚nir ’all
                                   A
                               ¨
the men were ready,’ allir vAru drepnir
                    148
’all were killed.’
    179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring
to two nouns of different (natural or gram-
matical) gender is always put in the neuter:
 ˜¨                         ˜
 AA gekk hann upp, ok meA honum Loki
(masc.), ok Aj     ¨
               ˜ Alfi (masc.), ok RCskva
                                     ¸
          ˜¨       ˜             ¸ ˜ ¨
(fem.). AA er Aau (neut.) hCfAu lAtla
    ˜ ¨
hriA gAngit... ’he landed, and with him L.,
      ˜
and A., and R. When they had walked for
                     149
some time...’
    Cases
    180. The extensive use of the instru-
mental dative is very characteristic of Ice-
landic: whenever the direct object of a verb
can be considered as the instrument of the
action expressed by the verb, it is put in
the dative, as in kasta spj˚ti ’throw a
                             A
spear’ (lit. ’throw with a spear’), hann
                    150
helt hamarskaptinu ’he grasped the han-
                             ˜ ¨
dle of the hammer,’ heita AvA ’promise
             ˜ ¨
         ¨ AvA ’agree to that.’
that,’ jAta
    Adjectives
    181. The weak form of adjectives is used
                                      ˜
as in O.E. after the definite article, Aessi
and other demonstratives. annarr (other)
is always strong.
    182., An adj. is often set in apposition
                    151
to a following noun to denote part of it:
       ¨     `
 eiga hAlft dErit ’to have half of the an-
        ¸      ˜
imal,’ Cnnur Aau ’the rest of them,’ of
         ¨
   ˜ nAtt ’in the middle of the night.’
miAja
    Pronouns
           ¨
    183. sA is often put pleonastically be-
fore the definite article inn , both before
                        ¨
and after the subst.: sA inn ungi maAr  ˜
                         ˜ it dj˚pa ’the
’that young man,’ hafit Aat       A
                   152
deep sea.’
    184. The definite article is generally not
                                         ¨
expressed at all, or else einn , einnhvArr
is used.
    185. A noun (often a proper name) is of-
ten put in apposition to a dual pron. of the
first and second persons, or a plur. of the
                ˜     ¨
third person: Ait fAlagar , ’thou and thy
companions,’ meA ˜           ¨
                   ˜ Aeim Aka ’with him
                     153
     ¨                    ¨    ˜˚
and Aki.’ Similarly stAndr AArr upp ok
˜     ¨
Aeir fAlagar ’Thor and his companions get
up.’
                        ¨     ˜¨
   186. The plurals vAr , AAr are some-
                                         ˜A
times used instead of the singulars ek , A˚ ,
especially when a king is speaking or being
spoken to.
                    ¨
   187. sik and sAr are used in a strictly
reflexive sense, referring back to the sub-
                    154
                                        ˜
ject of the sentence, like se in Latin: Aorr
bauA                        ˜ ¨
     ˜ honum til matar meA sAr ’Thor asked
him to supper with him.’
    Verbs
    188. The tenses for which there is no
inflection in the active, and all those of the
passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal
(shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with the
infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern
                      155
English.
     189. The historical present is much used,
often alternating abruptly with the preterite.
     190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a
purely reflexive sense: spara ’spare,’ sparask
’spare oneself, reserve one’s strength.’ (2)
intransitively: b˚a ’prepare,’ b˚ask ’be-
                  A                 A
                           ¨            ¨
come ready, be ready’; sAtja ’set,’ sAtjask
              `               `
’sit down’; sEna ’show,’ sEnask ’appear,
                      156
                            ¨               ¨
seem.’ (3) reciprocally: bArja ’strike,’ bArjask
’fight’; hitta , ’find,’ hittask ’meet.’ In
other cases it specializes the meaning of the
verb, often emphasizing the idea of energy
or effort: koma ’come,’ komask ’make
one’s way.’
    191. The impersonal form of expression
                                    ¨
is widely used in Icelandic: rak A storm
               ˜
(acc.) fyrir Aeim ’a storm was driven in
                     157
their face.’
    192. The indef. ’one’ is expressed in
the same way by the third pers. sg., and
this form of expression is often used when
the subject is perfectly definite: ok freista
      ˜       ¨˜ A
skal Aessar AAr˚ttar ’and this feat shall
be tried (by you).’
    193. The abrupt change from the indi-
rect to the direct narration is very common:
                     158
                               ˜
 Haraldi konungi var sagt at Aar var komit
       `
bjarndEri, ’ok A    ¨ ¨           ˜
                 ¨ AslAnzkr maAr,’ ’King
Harold was told that a bear had arrived,
and that an Icelander owned it.’ The di-
rect narration is also used after at (that):
                            ¨˜         ¨
 hann svarar at ’ek skal rAAa til HAljar’
’he answers that he will ride to Hel.’
    TEXTS
    [Note: The asterisks are to help find the
                     159
spots mentioned in the notes. (I took out
the line numbers to keep the line width as
close to 65 characters as possible.) –B.C.]
     I. THOR
     ˜A      ¨                  ¨         ˜
     A˚rr er Asanna framastr, sA er kallaAr
         ˜A    ˜ ¸     ˜A              ¨
    ¨ A˚rr eAa Cku-A˚rr; hann er stArkastr
er Asa-
          ˜                      ¨ ˜
allra guAanna ok manna. Hann A Aar rAki  ¨
         ˜
    ˜ ˚A-vangar heita, en hCll hans heitir
er ArA                        ¸
         ¨     ¨ ˜
[] BilskArnir; A Aeim sal eru fimm hundruA  ˜
                    160
 ˚          A          ˜
gAlfa ok fj˚rir tigir; Aat er h˚s mest, svA
                                A          ¨
     ¨
at mAnn hafa gCIrt.
                 ¸ ` []
    ˜A ¨              ¨       ¨
    A˚rr A hafra tvA, er svA heita, Tann-
                                     ˜ ˜¨
gnj˚str ok Tann- grisnir, ok reiA AA er
   A
      ¨                            ˜    ˜ ¨
hann Akr, en hafrarnir draga reiAina; AvA
                      ˜A           ¨
              ˜ CkuA˚rr. Hann A ok ArjA
er hann kallaAr ¸                       ˜ ¨
                 ˜                      ¸
kost-gripi. Einn Aeira er hamarrinn MjCllnir,
          ˜                        ¨
     ¨ Aursar ok berg- risar kAnna, AA
er hrAm-                                  ˜¨
           ˜
er hann kAmr A                   ˜
                ¨ lopt, ok er Aat eigi un-
                     161
                  ¨
darligt: hann hAfir lamit margan haus A      ¨
   ˜        ˜    ˜        ˜
 ¨ Arum eAa frAndum Aeira. Annan grip
fA
¨         ¨         ¨         ˜
A hann bAztan, mAgin-gjarAar; ok er hann
   ¨      ˜
spAnnir Aeim um sik, A     ¨ ¨
                         ˜ A vAx honum As-¨
   ¨      ¨
mAgin hAlfu. En [] Ari      ˜        ¨
                        ˜ Aja hlut A hann
˜                           ¨ ˜
Aann er mikill gripr er A, Aat eru jArn-¨
  A     ˜
gl˚far; Aeira mA                     ˜
                 ¨ hann eigi missa viA hamarskap-
                   ¨ A˜         ¨
tit. En engi er svA fr˚Ar at tAlja kunni Cll
                                          ¸
st˚r-virki hans.
  A
                      162
                     ˚
    II. THOR AND AGARAALOKI  ˜
                    ˜        ¨      ¸ ˜A
    ˜ er upp-haf Aessa mAls at CkuA˚rr
    Aat
f˚r meA
 A                ¨              ˜
         ˜ hafra sAna [] ok reiA, ok meA   ˜
honum sA    ¨                      ˜
          ¨ Ass er Loki er kallaAr; koma
˜
Aeir at kveldi til eins b˚nda ok fA Aar
                           A           ¨ ˜
  ¨
nAtt-staA.                       ˜A
          ˜ En um kveldit t˚k A˚rr hafra
                              A
 ¨               ¨˜ ¨          ˜    ¨
sAna, ok skar bAAa; Aptir Aat vAru Aeir  ˜
  ¨                    ¨              ˜ var,
flAgnir ok bornir til kAtils; en er soAit
˜¨ ¨           ˜A        ¨       ˜       ˜
AA sAttisk [] A˚rr til nAtt-verAar ok Aeir
                     163
       ¨     ˜˚        ˜             ˜ ¨
lags-mAnn. AArr bauA til matar meA sAr
                                      ˜
b˚ndanum, ok konu hans, ok bCrnum Aeira;
  A                            ¸
sonr b˚nda hAt
       A          ˜ ¨
              ¨ AjAlfi, en RCskva d˚ttir.
                             ¸       A
˜¨      ˜ ˜A                          ¨
AA lagAi A˚rr hafr- stCkurnar utar frA el-
                        ¸
             ˜ at b˚ndi ok heima-mAnn
dinum, ok mAlti       A                ¨
hans skyldu kasta A ¨ hafrstCkurnar bein-
                            ¸
        ˜ ¨                      ¨ ˜ ¨
unum. AjAlfi, sonr b˚nda, helt A lAr-lAgg
                     A
                ¨
hafrsins, ok sprAtti A    ¨    ¨
                      ¨ knAfi sAnum, ok []
            ¨        ˜A         ˜   ˜
braut til mArgjar. A˚rr dvalAisk Aar of
                    164
  ¨          ¨ ˚                  A˜
nAttina; en A Attu [] fyrir dag st˚A hann
          ˜
upp, ok klAddi sik, t˚k hamarinn MjCllni
                      A               ¸
     ¨            ¨ ˜                  A˜
ok brA upp, ok vAgAi hafrstCkurnar; st˚Au
                             ¸
  ¨                         ˜¨
˜ A upp hafrarnir, ok var AA annarr haltr
A
¨              ˜          ˜A         ˜
Aptra f˚ti. Aat fann A˚rr, ok talAi at
        A
b˚ndinn eAa
  A        ˜ hans hj˚n mundi eigi skyn-
                        A
                      ˜                   ¨
samliga hafa farit meA beinum hafrsins: kAnnir
                          ¨            ˜
                      ˜ Aggrinn. Eigi Aarf
hann at brotinn var lArl
        ¨ ˜ ¨        ¨            ¨
langt frA AvA at sAgja: vita mAgu Aat   ˜
                    165
         ¨        ˜      ˚
allir hvArsu hrAddr bAndinn mundi vera,
er hann sA      ˜A ¨ ¨            `
           ¨ at A˚rr lAt sAga brEnnar ofan
                           ¨
                  ˜ er sA augnanna, [] AA
fyrir augun; en Aat                       ˜¨
     ˜
hugAisk hann falla mundu fyrir sj˚ninniA
                      ¨ ˜ ¨
einni samt; hann [] hArAi hAndrnar at hamar-
              ¨       ¨     ˜
skaptinu svA at hvAtnuAu kn˚arnir. En
                                 A
b˚ndinn gCIr
 A          ¸   ˜        ¨
              ` Ai sem vAn var, ok Cll hj˚nin:
                                   ¸     A
  ¸ ˜ ¨                 ¨˜ ¨       ˜
kClluAu Aka- fliga, bAAu sAr friAar, buAu   ˜
            ˜                 ˜  ¨
                     ˜ er Aau Attu. En er
at fyrir kvAmi alt Aat
                      166
        ¨    ˜    ˜     ˜¨
hann sA hrAzlu Aeira, AA gekk af honum
    ˜             ˜                   ˜
m˚Arinn, ok sefaAisk hann; ok t˚k af Aeim
  A                            A
    ˜          ˜      ˜ ¨
¨ sAtt bCrn Aeira, AjAlfa ok RCsku, ok
A         ¸                      ¸
 ¸ Ir ˜    ˜    ˜¨        ˜ A
gC` Ausk Aau AA skyldir Aj˚nustu- mAnn ¨
                 ˜                  ¨˜
˜ ˚rs, ok fylgja Aau honum jafnan sAAan.
AA
      ¨        ˜    ¨
    LAt hann Aar Aptir hafra, ok byrjaAi ˜
    ˜            ¨ ¸
 ¨ Aina austr A JCtun-heima, ok alt til
fAr
            ˜¨ A                     ˜
hafsins; ok AA f˚r hann ˚t yfir hafit Aat it
                         A
                                   ¨
                                 ˜ A gekk
dj˚pa; en er hann kom til lands, A
  A
                    167
                    ˜
hann upp, ok meA honum Loki, ok AjAlfi,  ˜ ¨
      ¸
ok RCskva. A     ¨    ˜          ˜ ¨
               ˜ A er Aau hCfAu lAtla hrAA
                              ¸            ¨˜
 ¨
gAngit, varA          ˜
             ˜ fyrir Aeim mCrk st˚r; gengu
                                ¸    A
˜     ˜                              ˜ ¨
Aau Aann dag allan til myrkrs. AjAlfi var
allra manna [] f˚t-hvatastr; hann bar kEl
                   A                         `
                                   ˜¨
˜ ˚rs, en til vista var eigi gott. AA er myrkt
AA
        ˜         ˜ ˜        ¨      ¨     ˜
var orAit, leituAu Aeir sAr til nAttstaAar,
ok [] fundu fyrir sAr      ¨
                     ¨ skAla nakkvarn mjCk  ¸
           ¨          ¨ ¨
mikinn, vAru dyrr A Anda, ok jafn-breiAar  ˜
                       168
   ¨         ˜         ˜ ˜     ¨ ¨
skAlanum; Aar leituAu Aeir sAr nAtt- b˚ls.
                                         A
                 ¨      ˜        ¨
          ˜ nAtt varA land-skjAlfti mikill,
En of miAja
       ¸ ˜           ˜
gekk jCrAin undir Aeim skykkjum, ok skalf
h˚sit. A
  A       ¨ A˜ ˜A                ¨ ¨
        ˜ A st˚A A˚rr upp, ok hAt A lagsmAnn¨
 ¨               ˜
sAna; ok leituAusk fyrir, ok fundu af-h˚sA
                         ˜       ¨
til h˚gri handar i miAjum skAlanum, ok
     A
        ˜          ¨       ˜A ¨
gengu Aannig; sAttisk A˚rr A dyrrin, en
¸              ¨            ¨
        ˜ vAru innar frA honum, ok vAru
Cnnur Aau                               ¨
˜       ˜
Aau hrAdd, en AA   ˜ ˚rr helt hamarskaptinu,
                      169
         ˜     ¨        ˜¨        ˜ ˜
ok hugAi at vArja sik; AA heyrAu Aau ym
mikinn ok gnE. ` En er kom at dagan, AA ˜¨
                     ¨        ¨    ˜
       ˜ ˚rr ˚t, ok sAr hvar lA maAr skamt
gekk AA A
  ¨             ¨ A                   ¨
frA [] honum A sk˚ginum, ok var sA eigi
 ¨                              ¨       ˜¨
lAtill; hann svaf, ok hraut stArkliga. AA
           ˜A              ¨             ˜
˜ ˚ttisk A˚rr skiIja hvat lAtum verit hafAi
AA
    ¨                ¨           ¨    ¸ ˜
of nAttina; hann spAnnir sik mAgingjCrAum,
                 ¨ ¨            ¨ ˜ ¨
ok ˚x honum AsmAgin; en A AvA vak-
    A
         ˜ ¨         A˜
nar maAr sA, ok st˚A skj˚tt upp; en AA
                            A           ˜¨
                     170
           ˜A       ˜
er sagt at A˚r varA bilt einu sinni at slA¨
hann meA                            ˜
         ˜ ham- [] rinum; ok spurAi hann
               ¨ ¨             `
at nafni, en sA nAfndisk SkrEmir: [] ’en
     ˜                                 ˜
                  ˜ hann, ’at spyrja Aik
eigi Aarf ek,’ sagAi
            ¨
at nafni: kAnni ek at AA          ¨ ˜A
                          ˜ ˚ ert AsaA˚rr;
      ¨    ¨    ˜A ¨         ¨
en hvArt hAfir A˚ drAgit A braut hanzka
minn?’ Seildisk A   ¨      `
                  ˜ A SkrEmir til, ok t˚k
                                       A
                  ¨ ˜A ˜ ¨        ˜
upp hanzka sinn; sAr A˚rr AA at Aat hafAi˜
              ¨               ¨ en afh˚sit
hann haft of nAttina fyrir skAla,     A
                    171
˜         ˜
Aat var Aumlungrinn hanzkans. SkrEmir `
spurAi      ˜A
      ˜ ef A˚rr vildi hafa fCru-neyti hans,
                             ¸
     ˜A     ¨   ˜ ¨ ˜¨ A
en A˚rr jAtti AvA. AA t˚k SkrEmir ok`
leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bj˚sk til at eta
                               A
       ˜      ˜A ¨ ¸ ˜            ˜
dCgurA, en A˚rr A CArum staA ok hans
  ¸
 ¨            `
fAlagar. SkrEmir bauA     ˜¨     ˜    ¨ ˜
                        ˜ AA at Aeir lAgAi
mCtu-neyti sitt, en AA
   ¸                          ¨   ˜ ¨ ˜¨
                      ˜ ˚rr jAtti AvA; AA
         `          ˜          ¨
batt SkrEmir nest Aeira alt A einn bagga,
ok lagAi    ¨      ¨
        ˜ A bak sAr; hann gekk fyrir of
                    172
                    ¨       ˚
daginn, ok steig hAldr stArum, en sAAan ¨˜
                       `    ˜       ¨
                ˜ SkrEmir Aeim nAttstaAar
at kveldi leitaAi                         ˜
undir eik nakkvarri mikilli. A  ¨ ˜         `
                              ˜ A mAlti SkrEmir
                        ¨         ˜
    ˜ ˚rs at hann vill lAggjask niAr at sofna;
til AA
     ˜¨        ˜                      A ˜
’en AAr takiA nest-baggann, ok b˚iA til
  ¨               ˜     ˜ ¨ ˜               `
          ˜ [] yAr.’ AvA nAst sofnar SkrEmir,
nAtt-verAar
ok hraut fast; en AA ˜ ˚rr t˚k nest-baggann
                            A
                       ¨        ¨
ok skal leysa; en svA er at sAgja, sem ˚-  A
              ˜
tr˚ligt mun Aykkja, at engi kn˚t fekk hann
  A                              A
                      173
               ¨      ¨                ¨
leyst, ok engi Alar- Andann hreyft, svA at
  ¨ ˜                ¨˜               ¨
˜ A vAri lausari en AAr. Ok er hann sAr at
A
˜             ¨        `    ˜¨      ˜
Aetta verk mA eigi nEtask, AA varA hann
              ˜¨
    ˜ greip AA hamarinn MjCllni tveim
reiAr,                         ¸
  ¸                      ¸˜
hCndum, ok steig fram CArum f˚ti at Aar
                                A       ˜
       `
er SkrEmir lA,       `    ¨ ¸ ˜
              ¨ ok lEstr A hCfuA honum;
        `                        ¨
en SkrEmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvArt laufs-
blaA                 ¨ ¸ ˜
     ˜ nakkvat felli A hCfuA honum, eAa  ˜
        ˜     ¨ ˜ ˜¨               ¨ A
    ¨ Aeir hAfAi AA matazk, ok sA b˚nir
hvArt
                     174
      ¨        ˜A     ¨       ˜
til rAkkna. A˚rr sAgir at Aeir munu AA   ˜¨
sofa ganga. Ganga Aau A ˜      ¨        ˜
                             ˜ A undir aAra
            ˜   ˜¨             ¨
eik. Er Aat AAr satt at sAgja, at ekki
var [] A   ¨ A                           ˜
         ˜ A ˚ttalaust at sofa. En at miAri
         ˜¨          ˜A          `
  ¨ AA heyrir A˚rr at SkrEmir hrEtr,
nAtt                                    `
      ˜            ¨            ¨
ok sAfr fast, svA at dunar A sk˚ginum.
                                   A
   ¨ ¨                         ¨
˜ A stAndr hann upp, ok gAngr til hans,
A
    ˜               ¨              `
reiAir hamarinn tAtt ok hart, ok lEstr ofan
        ˜                          ¨
¨ miAjan hvirfil honum; hann kAnnir at
A
                      175
            ˜      ˜       A ¨ ¸ ˜
hamars-muArinn sAkkr dj˚pt A hCfuAit.
En A   ˜ ¨                 `           ˜
    ¨ AvA bili vaknar SkrEmir, ok mAlti:
                                   ¨ hCfuA
’hvat er n˚? fell akarn nakkvat A ¸ ˜
           A
  ¨      ˜            ¨         ˜
mAr? eAa hvat er tAtt um Aik, A˚rr?’ ˜A
    ˜ ˚rr gekk aptr skyndiliga, ok svarar at
En AA
          ˜¨ `         ˜      ˜      ˜¨
hann var AA nEvaknaAr, sagAi at AA var
miA    ¨             ˜      ¨
   ˜ nAtt, ok enn vAri mAl at sofa. AA   ˜¨
          ˜A ˜                   ˜
      ˜ A˚rr Aat, ef hann kvAmi svA A
hugsaAi                                 ¨ ¨
          ¨          ˜ ˜
f˚ri at slA hann it AriAja hCgg, at aldri
 A                             ¸
                    176
                 ¨      ¨˜
skyldi hann sjA sik sAAan; liggr nA ok˚
  ˜           `            ˜           ¨
gAtir ef SkrEmir [] sofnaAi fast. En lAtlu
               ¨                   `
            ˜ A heyrir hann at SkrEmir mun
fyrir dagan A
                 ¨    ˜¨
sofnat hafa; stAndr AA upp, ok hleypr at
                 ˜¨
           ˜ AA hamarinn af Cllu afli ok
honum, reiAir                    ¸
 `     ¨ ˜               ˜
lEstr A Aunn-vangann Aann er upp vissi;
 ˜      ˜¨
sAkkr AA hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En
              ¨
    ` mir sAttisk upp, ok strauk of van-
SkrE-
            ˜       ¨
gann, ok mAlti: ’hvArt munu fuglar nakkvarir
                    177
       ¨ ¨              ¨
sitja A trAnu yfir mAr? mik grunaAi, er ˜
ek vaknaAa,˜ at tros nakkvat af kvistunum
      ¨ ¸ ˜ ¨            ¨         ˜A ˜A
felli A hCfuA mAr; hvArt vakir A˚, A˚rr?
MAl                                   ˜˜
   ¨ mun vera upp at standa ok klAAask,
en ekki eigu A    ¨                ˜
                ˜ Ar n˚ langa leiA fram til
                       A
                    ¸ ˜ A           ˜
borgar- innar er kClluA er ˚t-garAr. Heyrt
             ˜¨       ˜        ¨
  ¨ ek at AAr hafiA kvisat A milli yAvar
hAfi                                     ˜
at ek vAra          ¨        ˜   ¨
          ˜ ekki lAtill maAr vAxti, en sjA¨
skulu A   ¨ ˜              ¨      ˜¨
        ˜ Ar Aar st˚rri mAnn, er AAr komiA
                   A                      ˜
                      178
¨ A       ˜     A              ¨˜
A ˚tgarA. N˚ mun ek rAAa yAr heil-    ˜
    ˜   ¨ ˜¨                          ˜
 ˜ Ai: lAti AAr eigi st˚rliga yfir yAr, ekki
rA                      A
munu hirAm    ¨ A        ˜           ˜     ˜ ¨ ¨
          ˜ Ann ˚tgarAa-loka vel Aola AvAlAkum
  ¸
kCgur- sveinum kCpur-yrAi;
                   ¸                     ˜
                             ˜ en at CArum
                                       ¸
            ˜             ˜      ˜
kosti hverfiA aptr, ok Aann Atla ek yAr      ˜
  ¨
bAtra af at taka. En ef A    ¨     ˜
                          ˜ Ar viliA fram [ ×
        ˜¨     ¨     ˜¨ ¨
] fara, AA stAfni AAr A austr, en ek A       ¨
n˚ norAr
  A           ˜            ˜
        ˜ leiA til fjalla Aessa er n˚ munu
                                     A
˜¨      ¨            ¨         `
AAr sjA mega.’ TAkr SkrEmir nest-bag-
                     179
                  ¨       ¨       ` ˜ ¨
garm, ok kastar A bak sAr, ok snEr AvArs
          ¨ A           ¨ ˜
¨ braut A sk˚ginn frA Aeim, ok er Aess
A                                       ˜
               ˜
eigi getit at Asirnir bA  ˜ ˜¨
                        ˜ Ai AA heila [] hit-
task.
     ˜A A            ¨    ˜    ˜     ¨
    A˚rr f˚r fram A leiA ok Aeir fAlagar,
ok gekk fram til miAs           ˜¨ ¨ ˜
                       ˜ dags; AA sA Aeir
              ¨ ¸
borg standa A vCllum nCkkurum, ok sAttu
                          ¸             ¨
[] hnakkann A        ¨        ¨˜ ˜
             ¨ bak sAr aptr, AAr Aeir fengu
  ¨
sAt yfir upp; ganga til borgarinnar, ok var
                     180
                   ˜                    ˜˚
grind fyri borg-hliAinu, ok lokin aptr. AArr
gekk A¨ grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en
   ˜     ˜                    ¨
er Aeir Areyttu at komask A borgina, AA  ˜¨
        ˜
smugu Aeir milli spalanna ok k˚mu svA
                                   A       ¨
          ˜¨ ¸                       ˜
      ¨ AA hCll mikla, ok gengu Aannig;
inn; sA
        ˜          ˜¨         ˜
var hurAin opin; AA gengu Aeir inn, ok sA  ¨
                ¨    ¨    ¨ ¨
˜ marga mAnn A tvA bAkki, ok flesta
Aar
               ˜ ¨ ˜             ˜
˚rit st˚ra. AvA nAst koma Aeir fyrir []
A      A
                   ˜
konunginn, ˚tgarAaloka, ok kvCddu hann,
             A                   ¸
                     181
                        ˜
en hann leit seint til Aeira, ok glotti um
 ¸           ˜
tCnn, ok mAlti: ’seint er um langan [] veg
            ¨˜        ˜
at spyrja tAAinda, eAa er annan veg en ek
          ˜                     ¨ ¸ ˜A
hygg, at Aessi [] svein-stauli sA CkuA˚rr?
en meiri muntu vera en mAr      ¨  ˜A ˜
                           ¨ lAzk A˚; eAa
       ˜ A        ˜      ˜¨ ¨         ˜
     ¨ Ar˚tta er Aat er AAr fAlagar Aykkizk
hvat A
                                ¨
       ˜ b˚nir? Engi skal hAr vera meA
vera viA A                                  ˜
                                          ˜
     ¨ er eigi kunni nakkvars konar list eAa
oss sA
                            ¨      ˜¨ ¨
kunnandi um fram flesta mAnn.’ AA sAgir
                     182
  ¨     ¨˜
sA er sAAast gekk, er Loki heitir: ’kann ek
   ¨ ¨˜ A
˜ A AAr˚tt, er ek em al-b˚inn at reyna,
A                            A
            ¨ ¨
at engi er hAr sA inni er skj˚tara skal eta
                              A
                     ˜¨               ˜
[] mat sinn en ek.’ AA svarar ˚tgarAaloki:
                                A
    ˜ A     ˜       ˜A ¨
 ¨ Ar˚tt er Aat, ef A˚ Afnir, ok freista skal
’A
˜¨ ˜         ¨˜ A              ˜
AA Aessar AAr˚ttar;’ kallaAi utar A [ × ¨
    ¨
] bAkkinn at sA                            ¨
               ¨ er Logi heitir skal ganga A
  A                       ¨ A
                       ¨ A m˚ti Loka. AA
g˚lf fram, ok freista sAn                 ˜¨
      ¨                             ¨
var tAkit trog eitt, ok borit inn A hallar-
                     183
 ˚                  ¨      ¨              ¸˜
gAlfit, ok fylt af slAtri; sAttisk Loki at CArum
¨                      ¸ ˜
Anda, en Logi at CArum, ok At              ¨
                                    ¨ hvArr-
   ¨
tvAggja sem tA    ˜                   ¨
                ¨ Aast, ok m˚ttusk A miAju
                              A             ˜
troginu; hafAi    ˜¨                ¨
              ˜ AA Loki etit slAtr alt af
                        ˜           ¨
beinum, en Logi hafAi ok etit slAtr alt ok
beinin meA,          ¨             `
           ˜ ok svA trogit; ok sEndisk n˚     A
¸                     ¨ ˜ ¨
Cllum sem Loki hAfAi lAtit leikinn. AA      ˜¨
      A      ˜               ¨
spyrr ˚tgarAaloki hvat sA inn ungi maAr      ˜
kunni leika. En Aj    ¨     ¨
                   ˜ Alfi sAgir at hann mun
                       184
              ¨       ˜ ¸          ˜
freista at rAnna skeiA nCkkur viA einn-
         ˜             ˜       ˜
    ¨ Aann er ˚tgarAaloki fAr til. Hann
hvArn            A
  ¨            ˜       ˜         A˜ ¨ ˜ A
sAgir, ˚tgarAaloki, at Aetta er g˚A AAr˚tt,
        A
            ˜
ok kallar Aess meiri vAn             ¨
                         ¨ at hann sA vel
     ¨ [] b˚inn of skj˚tleikinn, ef hann
at sAr        A          A
      ˜      ¨˜ A             ˜A ˜
skal Aessa AAr˚tt inna; en A˚ lAtr hann
         ˜                    ¨    ˜¨
skj˚tt Aessa skulu freista. StAndr AA upp
    A
˚tgarAa-
A                    ¨
        ˜ loki, ok gAngr ˚t, ok var Aar
                            A          ˜
gott skeiA       ¨    ¨        ¨       ¨
           ˜ at rAnna Aptir slAttum vAlli.
                    185
˜¨                ˜           ¨
AA kallar ˚tgarAaloki til sAn sveinstaula
            A
                ¨                   ˜
nakkvarn, er nAfndr er Hugi, ok baA hann
  ¨                 ˜ ˜ ¨      ˜¨
        ¨ kCpp viA AjAlfa. AA taka Aeir
rAnna A ¸                               ˜
                             ˜ ¨
              ˜ ok er Hugi AvA framar at
it fyrsta skeiA,
         `         ¨ A
hann snEsk aptr A m˚ti honum at skeiAs    ˜
¨
Anda. A     ¨   ˜          ˜          ˜
          ˜ A mAlti ˚tgarAa- loki: ’Aurfa
                     A
          ˜ ¨         ¨      ˜
muntu, AjAlfi, at lAggja Aik meir fram,
                                 ˜A     ˜
    ˜ ˚ skalt vinna leikinn; en A˚ er Aat
ef AA
                               ˜    ¨
                     ¨ komit Aeir mAnn er
satt, at ekki hafa hAr
                     186
  ¨ ˜           ˚                ¨ ˜¨
mAr Aykkja fAthvatari en svA.’ AA taka
˜
Aeir [] aptr annat skeiA,        ˜¨
                          ˜ ok AA er Hugi
                       ¨
                   ˜ Anda, ok hann snEsk
er kominn til skeiAs                      `
        ¨                         ˜ ¨     ˜¨
      ˜ A var langt k˚lf-skot til AjAlfa. AA
aptr, A              A
             ˜             ˜        ¨ ˜ ¨
  ˜ ˚tgarAaloki: ’vel Aykkir mAr AjAlfi
mAlti A
 ¨
rAnna; en eigi tr˚i ek honum n˚ at hann
                  A                A
vinni leikinn, en n˚ mun reyna, er Aeir
                     A                   ˜
 ¨             ˜        ˜     ˜¨
           ˜ Aja skeiAit.’ AA taka Aeir
rAnna it Ari                             ˜
¨
Ann skeiA;˜ en er Hugi er kominn til skeiAs˜
                     187
¨            `                    ˜ ¨
Anda ok snEsk aptr, ok er [] AjAlfi eigi
   ¨         ¨             ˜    ˜¨ ¨
˜ A kominn A mitt skeiAit; AA sAgja al-
A
                      ˜            ˜¨
lir at reynt er um Aenna leik. AA spyrr
A      ˜
˚tgarAaloki AA           ˜     ¨˜ A
              ˜ ˚r, hvat Aeira AAr˚tta mun
                                       ˜
vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir Aeim,
svA                       ¨
   ¨ miklar sCgur sem mAnn hafa gC` um
             ¸                      ¸ Irt
   A              ˜¨     ˜    ˜A
st˚rvirki hans. AA mAlti A˚rr at hAlzt   ¨
                             ˜
           ˜ taka til, at Areyta drykkju
vill hann Aat
   ˜       ¨                  ˜       ¨
viA einnhvArn mann. ˚tgarAaloki sAgir at
                        A
                     188
˜       ¨                ¨        ¨ ¸
Aat mA vel vera; ok gAngr inn A hCllina,
ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, biAr˜ at hann
       ¨          ˜         ˜ ¨
taki vAtis-horn Aat, er hirAmAnn eru vanir
at drekka af. Av    ¨ ˜       ˜
                 ˜ A nAst kAmr fram sku-
tilsveinn meA                ˜ ˜A ¨ ¸
             ˜ horninu, ok fAr A˚r A hCnd.
˜¨ ˜ A            ˜               ˜      ˜
AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’af horni Aessu Aykkir
   ¨                ¨               ¨
˜ A vel drukkit, ef A einum drykk gAngr af,
A
            ¨              ¨
en sumir mAnn drekka af A tveim drykkjum,
en engi er svA   ¨                ˜
              ¨ lAtill drykkju- maAr, at eigi
                      189
         ¨ ˜         ˜A     ¨ ¨
gangi af A Arimr.’ A˚rr lAtr A hornit, ok
 `                          ˜ ˚ hAldr langt,
sEnisk ekki mikit, ok er AA ¨
                ¸ ˜           ¨
en hann er mjCk Ayrstr; tAkr at drekka,
ok svelgr allst˚rum, ok hyggr at eigi skal
               A
˜                               ¨
Aurfa at l˚ta optar at sinni A hornit. En
           A
         ˜         ˜
er hann Araut [] Arindit, ok hann laut ˚rA
              ¨           ˜
horninu, ok sAr hvat leiA drykkinum, [] ok
 ¨              ¨            ¨
lAzk honum svA, sem all-lAtill munr mun
vera at n˚ sA
          A       ˜      ¨
              ¨ lAgra A horninu en AAr.¨˜
                     190
˜¨ ˜ A            ˜
AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’vel er drukkit, ok
eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k tr˚a, ef mAr
                                 A         ¨
             ¨     ¨ ˜A
  ˜ sagt frA, at AsaA˚rr mundi eigi meira
vAri
                    ˜A              ˜A
drykk drekka; en A˚ veit ek at A˚ munt
                    ˜              ˜A
                ¨ CArum drykk.’ A˚rr svarar
vilja drekka af A ¸
         ¨           ¨         ¨
engu, sAtr hornit A munn sAr, ok hyggr
n˚ at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok
  A
˜         ¨
Areytir A drykkjuna, sem honum vannsk
    ˜           ¨ ¨
til Arindi, ok sAr Ann at stikillinn hornsins
                      191
                 ¨    ¸               ¨
vill ekki upp svA mjCk sem honum lAkar;
                                        ¨
                                 ¨ ok sAr,
ok er hann t˚k hornit af munni sAr
             A
                   ¨
 ¨ honum n˚ svA, sem minna hafi Aorrit
lAzk           A                     ˜
     ¨
en A inu fyrra sinni; er n˚ gott beranda
                            A
     ˜ ¨            ˜¨    ˜         ˜
borA A horninu. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki:
                               A
              ˜ ˚rr? muntu n˚ eigi sparask
’hvat er n˚, AA
           A                  A
                             ˜¨
til eins drykkjar meira en AAr mun hagr
¨            ¨ ¨        ¨      ˜A
A vera? SvA lAzk mAr, ef A˚ skalt n˚      A
                          ˜
                       ˜ Aja drykkinn, sem
drekka af horninu inn Ari
                     192
˜                 ˜ ˜
Aessi mun mestr AtlaAr; en ekki [] muntu
               ˜             ¨
       ¨ meA oss heita svA mikill maAr
mega hAr                               ˜
     ˜          ˜      ˜ ˚ gC` eigi meira
sem Asir kalla Aik, ef AA ¸ Irir
   ˜¨        ˜              ¨ ¨
af AAr um aAra leika en mAr lAzk sem um
˜
Aenna mun vera.’ A     ¨     ˜ ˜A     ˜
                     ˜ A varA A˚rr reiAr,
             ¨           ¨
 ¨ hornit A munn sAr, ok drekkr sem
sAtr
¨            ¨            ˜         ¨
Akafligast mA hann, ok Areytir sem lAngst
                            ¨ ¨
¨ drykkinn; en er hann sA A hornit, AA
A                                     ˜¨
           ¨                    ¨ ¨
    ˜ n˚ hAlzt nakkvat munr A fAngizk,
hafAi A
                    193
    ˜¨ `˜
ok AA bEAr hann upp hornit, ok vill eigi
               ˜¨ ˜ A           ˜
drekka meira. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’auA-  ˜
                ¨    ˜               ¨
  ¨ er n˚ at mAttr Ainn er ekki svA mikill
sAt      A
      ¨      ˜
sem vAr hugAum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri
          ¨ mA n˚, at ekki nEtir A˚ hAr
leika? SjA ¨ A                 `     ˜A ¨
                               ¨      ¨
      ˜ ˚rr svarar: ’freista mA ek Ann of
af.’ AA
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mAr    ¨
˜
Aykkja, A  ¨                      ˜ ¨
         ˜ A er ek var heima meA Asum, ef
˜ ¨ ¨                ˜      ¨ ¨         ˜
AvAlAkir drykkir vAri svA lAtlir kallaAir.
                    194
                  ˜ ¨ A A˜         ¨
En hvat leik vili AAr n˚ bj˚Aa mAr?’ AA˜¨
             ˜         ˜           ¨
   ˜ ˚tgarAaloki: ’Aat gC` hAr ungir
mAlti A                    ¸ Ira
            ¨                    ˜
sveinar er lAtit mark mun at Aykkja, at
                  ˜
  ¨ upp af jCrAu kCtt minn; en eigi munda-
hAfja         ¸       ¸
                ˜    ˜ ¨ ¨      ˜ ¨ ˜A
k kunna at mAla AvAlAkt viA AsaA˚r,
          ˜         ¨         ˜A
       ¨ Aa eigi sAt fyrr at A˚ ert miklu
ef ek hAf
            ˜¨             ˜      ˜ ¨ ˜
minni fyrir AAr en ek hugAa.’ AvA nAst
                             ¨
                         ¨ A hallarg˚lfit,
hlj˚p fram kCttr einn grAr
   A          ¸                      A
     ¨                ˜A
ok hAldr mikill; en A˚rr gekk til, ok t˚k
                                       A
                     195
  ¨              ˜          ˜       ˜
hAndi sinni niAr undir miAjan kviAinn, ok
lypti upp, en kCttrinn beygAi
                 ¸               ¨        ¨
                             ˜ kAnginn, svA
sem AA        ¨                        ˜A
      ˜ ˚rr rAtti upp hCndina; en er A˚rr
                        ¸
           ¨                       ¨    ¨
seildisk svA langt upp sem hann mAtti lAngst,
  ¨ ¨                               ˜ ˜A
˜ A lAtti kCttrinn einum f˚ti, ok fAr A˚rr
A           ¸               A
             ˜           ˜¨
eigi framit Aenna leik. AA
       ˜ A         ˜         ¨ A ˜
    mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’svA f˚r Aessi leikr
                                 ¨
               ˜ kCttrinn er hAldr mikill,
sem mik varAi; ¸
               ¨      ¨       ¨ A      ¨
    ˜ ˚rr er lAgr ok lAtill hjA st˚r- mAnni
en AA
                     196
˜ ¨          ¨        ˜        ˜ ¨ ˜ ˜A
AvA sem hAr er meA oss.’ AA mAlti A˚rr:
’svA   ¨             ¨        ˜       ˜¨
    ¨ lAtinn sem pAr kalliA mik, AA gangi
  A             ¨           ¨
n˚ til einnhvArr, ok fAisk viA      ˜ mik; n˚
                                            A
           ˜     ˜¨                  ˜
em ek reiAr.’ AA svarar ˚tgarAaloki, ok
                               A
            ¨ ¨                  ˜
litask um A bAkkina, ok mAlti: ’eigi sA     ¨
    ˜
ek Aann mann hAr                          ¨
                    ¨ inni, er eigi mun lAtil-
  ˜˜ ¨ ˜                ¨      ˜ ˜
rAAi A Aykkja at fAsk viA Aik;’ ok Ann    ¨
                  ¨                   ¨
   ˜ hann: ’sjAm fyrst, kalli mAr hingat
mAlti
  ¨            A          ¨       ¨
kArlinguna, f˚stru mAna [] Alli, ok fAisk ¨
                       197
˜˚       ˜                      ¨    ¨
AArr viA hana, ef hann vill; fAlt hAfir hon
   ¨ ¨          ¨                 A ¨
˜ A mAnn er mAr hafa litizk eigi ˚-stArkligri
A
                ˜ ¨ ˜              ¨ ¸
    ˜ ˚rr er.’ AvA nAst gekk A hCllina
en AA
  ¨
kArling ein gCmul. A
              ¸         ¨ ˜ A           ˜
                      ˜ A mAlti ˚tgar- Aaloki,
at hon skal taka fang viA    ¨ ˜A
                          ˜ AsaA˚r. Ekki er
langt um. at gC`           ¨ A         ˜
                 ¸ Ira: svA f˚r fang Aat at
    ¨     ˜        ˜A         ˜
˜ A harAara er A˚rr kn˚Aisk at fanginu,
Av                          A
˜ ¨             A˜        ˜¨ A      ¨
AvA fastara st˚A hon; AA t˚k kArling at
          ˜                ˜ ˜A ˜ ¨
               ˜ ok varA A˚rr AA lauss
leita til AragAa,
                      198
¨ A              ¨     ˜˜
A f˚tum, ok vAru AAr svip- tingar all-
    ˜             ¨      ¨˜    ˜A
harAar, ok eigi lAngi AAr en A˚rr fell A ¨
       ˜            ˜¨             ˜
   ¨ CArum f˚ti. AA gekk til ˚tgarAaloki,
knA ¸        A                A
   ˜ ˜     ˜                    ˜    ¨
baA Aau hAtta fanginu, ok sagAi svA, at
                    ˜           ˜
˜ ˚rr mundi eigi Aurfa at bj˚Aa fleirum
AA                            A
  ¸            ¨          ¸    ˜¨      ˜
mCnnum fang A hans hCll; var AA ok liAit
    ¨    ¨ ˜ A           ˜    ˜A     ˜
¨ nAtt, vAsaAi ˚tgarAaloki A˚r ok Aeim
A
 ¨ ¸          ˜             ¨    ˜    ¨
fAlCgum til sAtis, ok dvAljask Aar nAtt-
          ˜
      ¨ g˚Aum fagnaAi.
langt A A               ˜
                      199
                   ˜           ˜   ¨     ˜A
   En at morgni, Aegar dagaAi, stAndr A˚rr
            ¨           ˜˜
         ˜ fAlagar, klAAa sik, ok eru b˚nir
upp ok Aeir                             A
                 ˜¨         ˜ A      ˜
braut at ganga. AA kom Aar ˚tgarAaloki,
     ¨    ¨    ˜          ˜         ˜¨
ok lAt sAtja Aeim borA; skorti AA eigi
   ˜
g˚Aan fagnaA,
 A           ˜ mat ok drykk. En er Aeir ˜
hafa matazk, A   ¨           ˜       ¨ ˜
              ˜ A sn˚ask Aeir til fArAar.
                      A
       ˜             ˜      A    ¨
˚tgarAaloki fylgir Aeim ˚t, gAngr meA
A                                          ˜
˜
Aeim braut ˚r borginni; en at skilnaAi
            A                            ˜¨
                                      ˜ AA
  ˜ A        ˜           ˜A               ¨
mAlti ˚tgar- Aaloki til A˚rs, ok spyrr hvArnig
                     200
        ˜        ¨ ˜ ¨        ˜     ˜
honum Aykkir fArA sAn orAin, eAa hvArt   ¨
                   ¨
       ¨ hitt rAkara mann nakkvarn en
hann hAfir
      ˜A
sik. A˚rr svarar at eigi mun hann Aat    ˜
 ¨
sAgja, at eigi hafi hann mikla ˚-s˚mA
                                A A   ˜ farit
¨ ˜         ˜                ˜A
A Aeira viA-skiptum; ’en A˚ veit [] ek at
˜¨           ˜             ¨
AAr munuA kalla mik lAtinn mann fyrir
                ˜ ¨         ˜¨ ˜ A         ˜
   ¨ ok uni ek AvA illa.’ AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki:
mAr,
  A        ¨
’n˚ skal sAgja A   ¨               ˜A
                 ˜ Ar it sanna, er A˚ ert ˚t
                                          A
kominn ˚r borginni–ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k
        A
                     201
 ¨˜ ˜¨                      ¨
rAAa, AA skaltu aldri optar A hana koma;
                  ¨             ¨ ˜ ˜A
   ˜ veit tr˚a mAn, at aldri hAfAir A˚
ok Aat      A
                       ¨ ˜        ¨˜
¨ hana komit, ef ek hAfAa vitat AAr at
A
     ¨ ˜     ¨                    ˜ ˜¨
˜ ˚ hAfAir svA mikinn krapt meA AAr,
AA
   ˜A    ˜      ¨ ˜
ok A˚ hafAir svA nAr haft oss mikilli ˚-
                                       A
                  ¨          ¨
f˚ru. En sj˚n-hvArfingar hAfi ek gC`
 A         A                         ¸ Irt
˜¨     ¨                              ˜
AAr, svA at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann Aik
                                   ˜ ˜
¨ sk˚ginum, kom ek til fundar viA yAr;
A A
   ˜¨     ˜A
ok AA er A˚ skyldir leysa nestbaggann,
                  202
˜¨       ˜              ˜       ¨
AA hafAa-k bundit meA gres-jArni, en A˚˜A
                                      ˜ A
fannt eigi hvar upp skyldi l˚ka. En Av ¨
                             A
  ˜          ˜A          ˜
nAst laust A˚ mik meA hamrinum Arj˚  ˜ A
hCgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var A˚
  ¸                                    ˜A
svA             ¨          ¨
   ¨ mikit, at mAr mundi Andask til bana,
    ¨ ¨ ˜              ˜       ˜A ¨
ef A hAfAi komit; en Aar er A˚ sAtt hjA ¨
  ¸                            ¨        ¨
                          ˜ sAtt-u ofan A
hCll minni set-berg, ok Aar
     ¨
˜ A dala fer- skeytta ok einn dj˚pastan,
Arj                               A
˜      ¨              ˜
Aat vAru hamarspor Ain; setber- ginu brA¨
                   203
             ¸              ¨ ˜˚ ˜
ek fyrir hCggin en eigi sAtt AA Aat. SvA     ¨
var ok of leikana, er A     ¨ ˜        ˜
                          ˜ Ar AreyttuA viA  ˜
        ¨       ¨     ˜¨       ˜
   ˜ Ann mAna. AA var Aat it fyrsta, er
hirAm
        ¸ Ir ˜
Loki gC` Ai; hann var mjCk soltinn, ok At
                             ¸              ¨
 ¨
tAtt; en sA             ¨ ˜
             ¨ er Logi hAt, Aat var villi-eldr,
      ¨                          ¨
ok brAndi hann eigi seinna slAtrit en trogit.
En er Aj    ¨    ˜        ¨        ˜ ˜
         ˜ Alfi Areytti rAsina viA Aann er
              ˜                        ˜ ¨
        ¨ Aat var hugi minn, ok var AjAlfa
Hugi hAt,
       ˜         ˜
eigi vAnt at Areyta skj˚t-f˚ri viA
                           A A       ˜ hann.
                      204
       ˜A                        ˜A ˜ ¨
En er A˚ drakkt af horninu, ok A˚tti AAr
          ˜       ˜              ¨
       ¨ Aa,–en Aat veit tr˚a mAn, at AA
seint lA                    A            ˜¨
varA   ˜
     ˜ Aat undr, er ek munda eigi tr˚a at
                                      A
         ˜             ¨
vera mAtti; annarr Andir hornsins var ˚t  A
¨             ˜     ¨
A hafi, en Aat sAttu eigi; en n˚, er A˚
                                  A      ˜A
  ˜          ˜         ˜¨           ¨
kAmr til sAvarins, AA mun-tu sjA mega,
         ˜ ˜ ˜A ¨                ¨ ˜
    ¨ AurA A˚ hAfir drukkit A sAnum.’
hvArn
˜           A ¸           ˜       ¨
Aat eru n˚ fjCrur kallaAar. Ok Ann mAlti ˜
                      ¨
             ˜ ˚tti mAr hitt minna vera vert,
hann: ’eigi AA
                      205
    ˜A                ¨            ˜¨
er A˚ lyptir upp kAt- tinum, ok AAr satt
     ¨
at sAgja, A   ¨    ˜            ˜
            ˜ A hrAddusk allir Aeir er sA,¨
                      ˜
    ˜ ˚ lyptir af jCrAu einum f˚tinum; en
er AA              ¸           A
 ¨ ¸                      ˜¨ `
sA kCttr var eigi sem AAr sEndisk; Aat  ˜
        ˜    ˜                     ¸
var MiAgarAs-ormr, er liggr um lCnd Cll,¸
                             ¨ ˜
ok vannsk honum varliga lAngAin til, at
 ¸ ˜                ˜      ¸ ˜        ¨
jCrAina t˚ki sporAr ok hCfuA; ok svA langt
           A
                              ˜¨
         ˜ ˚ upp at skamt var AA til himins.
seildisk AA
                                        ˜A
En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er A˚
                      206
          ˜ ¨          ˜ ¨             ¨
fekkzk viA Alli; fyrir AvA at engi hAfir sA¨
                        ˜         ¨
   ˜ ok engi mun verAa, ef svA gamall er
orAit,
    ¨    ¨˜                   ¨      ¸
at Alli bAAr, at eigi komi Allin Cllum til
              A        ¨        ¨
                  ˜ sAtt at sAgja, at vAr
falls. Ok er n˚ Aat                      ¨
munum skiljask, ok mun A    ¨ ¨        ¨    ¨
                          ˜ A bAtr hvArratvAggju
handar at A   ¨        ˜
            ˜ Ar komiA eigi optar mik at
                ¨                   ¨
hitta; ek mun Ann annat sinn vArja borg
          ˜ ˜ ¨ ¨         ¨
   ¨ meA AvAlAkum vAlum eAa CArum,
mAna                              ˜ ¸˜
   ¨                     ˜¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
svA at ekki vald munu AAr A mAr fA.’ En
                     207
   ˜A          ˜ ˜
er A˚rr heyrAi Aessa tClu, greip hann til
                          ¸
                     ˜ ¨
hamarsins, ok bregAr A lopt; en er hann
              ˜ ˜¨ ¨            ˜     ¨
skal fram reiAa, AA sAr hann Aar hvArgi
A      ˜
˚tgarAaloka, ok A    ¨     `
                   ˜ A snEsk hann aptr til
                 ˜        ˜¨
borgarinnar, ok Atlask AA fyrir at brj˚ta
                                      A
borgina; A  ¨ ¨          ˜         ¨˜
          ˜ A sAr hann Aar vCllu vAAa ok
                              ¸
                         `        ˜¨
fagra, en enga borg. SnEsk hann AA aptr,
           ˜          ˜
    ¨ leiA sina, til Aess er hann kom aptr
ok fArr
¨ ˜ A˜
A Ar˚A- vanga.
                     208
    III. BALDER
                 A ˜                     ¨
    Annarr sonr ˚ŒAins er Baldr, ok er frA
                   ¨              ¨
honum gott at sAgja: hann er bAztr, ok
                             ¨     ¨
hann lofa allir. Hann er svA fagr A-litum
ok bjartr svA        `
              ¨ at lEsir af honum; ok eitt
            ¨    ¨
gras er svA hvAtt at jafnat er til Baldrs
        ˜                     ¨
   ¨ Aat er allra grasa hvAtast; ok Aar
brAr,                                  ˜
¨         ¨
Aptir mAttu marka hans fAgr     ˜   ˜˜ ¨
                            ¨ A, bAAi A
  ¨       ¨ ¨                     ¨
hAr ok A lAki; hann er vitrastr Asanna,
                     209
     ¨          ˜       ¨
ok fAgrstr taliAr ok lAknsamastr. En sA    ˚
                                  ¨
  ¨ ˚ra fylgir honum at engi mA haldask
nAttA
                          ` ˜
d˚mr hans. [] Hann bEr Aar sem heitir
 A
      ˜              ¨         ¨ ˜
              ˜ er A himni; A Aeim staA
BreiAa-blik, Aat                           ˜
mA                         ¨       ¨ ¨
   ¨ ekki vera ˚-hreint, svA sem hAr sAgir:
               A
         ˜            ˜              ¨    ¨
    BreiAablik heita, Aar er Baldr hAfir sAr
     ¸ `          ˜ ¨
                ¨ AvA landi er ek liggja veit
of gCIrva sali; A
 ˜
fAsta feikn-stafi.
    IV. THE DEATH OF BALDER
                    210
     ˜             ˜       ¸
     Aat er upphaf Aessar sCgu, at Baldr inn
g˚Aa
 A             ˜                     ˜
    ˜ dreymAi drauma st˚ra ok hAttliga
                            A
um lAf                          ˜ ¨
       ¨ sitt. En er hann sagAi Asunum
             ˜¨ ¨      ˜            ¨˜ ¨
draumana, AA bAru Aeir saman rAA sAn,
                        ˜     ˜
        ˜ gC` at beiAa griAa Baldri fyrir
ok var Aat ¸ Irt
             ¨
alls konar hAska; ok Frigg t˚k svardaga til
                             A
˜
Aess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn,
 ¨                    ¨              ¸ ˜
jArn ok alls konar mAlmr, steinar, jCrAin,
   ˜                    `
viAirnir, s˚ttirnar, dErin, fuglarnir, eitr,
            A
                     211
                ˜
ormar. En er Aetta var gC` ok vitat, AA
                          ¸ Irt          ˜¨
            ¨                ¨
     ˜ skAmtun Baldrs ok Asanna at hann
var Aat
                    ¨ ˜                 ˜
skyldi standa upp A Aingum, en allir aArir
skyldu sumir skj˚ta A
                  A   ¨ hann, sumir hCggva
                                      ¸
             ¨
til, sumir bArja grj˚ti. En hvat sem at var
                    A
gC`           ˜                  ˜A   ˜
  ¸ Irt, sakaAi hann ekki, ok A˚tti Aetta
¸                              ˜
Cllum mikill frami. En er [] Aetta sA¨ Loki
                 ˜¨ ¨ ˜
Laufeyjar-son, AA lAkaAi honum illa er Baldr
sakaAi                            ¨
      ˜ ekki. Hann gekk til FAn-salar til
                     212
               ¨ ¨ ¨         ¨    ˜¨
Friggjar, ok brA sAr A konu lAki; AA spyrr
                             ˜     ¸ ˜
Frigg ef s˚ kona vissi hvat Asir hCfAusk
           A
at A  ˜                 ˜
    ¨ Ainginu. Hon sagAi at allir skutu at
             ˜                ˜
Baldri, ok Aat, at hann sakaAi ekki. AA ˜¨
   ˜                       ¨
mAlti Frigg: ’eigi munu vApn eAa ˜˜ viAir
                  ˜   ¨    ˜¨        ¸
granda Baldri; eiAa hAfi ek AAgit af Cllum
˜
Aeim.’ A    ¨
          ˜ A spyrr konan: ’hafa allir hlu-
      ˜                         ˜¨
tir eiAa unnit at eira Baldri?’ AA svarar
                ˜
          ¨ viAar-teinungr einn fyrir ves-
Frigg: ’vAx
                    213
          ¸    ¨                     ˜    ¨
tan Val-hCll; sA er Mistilteinn kallaAr; sA
         ¨               ¨      ˜      ˜ ¨
˜ ˚tti mAr ungr [] at krAfja eiAsins.’ AvA
AA
  ˜                  ¨
nAst hvarf konan A braut; en Loki t˚k    A
                                     ˜
Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til Aings.
      ¸˜    A˜           ¨
En HCAr st˚A utarliga A mannhringinum,
    ¨                        ˜¨   ˜
˜ A at hann var blindr. AA mAlti Loki
Av
viA            ¨    ` ˜A
   ˜ hann: ’hvA skEtr A˚ ekki at Baldri?’
               ˜ ¨         ¨
Hann svarar: ’AvA at ek sA eigi, hvar Baldr
       ˜ annat, at ek em vapnlauss.’ AA
er, ok Aat                              ˜¨
                     214
   ˜           ¸ Ir- ˜ ˜ ˚ ¨ ¨
mAlti Loki: ’gC` Au AA A lAking annarra,
                         A ˜        ˜
manna, ok veit Baldri s˚mA sem aArir mAnn; ¨
ek mun vAsa     ˜¨
           ¨ AAr til, hvar hann stAndr; ¨
                   ¨      ˜          ¸˜ A
skj˚t at honum vAndi Aessum.’ HCAr t˚k
    A
                                         ¨
Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvAsun
Loka; flaug skotit A      ¨
                     ¨ gAgnum hann, ok fell
          ˜           ˜         ¨   ˜
hann dauAr til jarAar; ok hAfir Aat mest
˚-happ verit unnit meA
A                            ˜
                         ˜ goAum ok mCnnum.
                                       ¸
   ˜¨                        ˜¨        ¸
[] AA er Baldr var fallinn, AA fellusk Cllum
                       215
¨          ˜ ¸           ¨ ¨
Asum orA-tCk, ok svA hAndr at taka til
hans; ok sA      ¨                   ¨
            ¨ hvArr til annars, ok vAru [] al-
lir meA                   ˜
        ˜ einum hug til Aess er unnit hafAi˜
                    ¨      ¨
verkit; en engi mAtti hAfna: Aar  ˜ var svA ¨
           ˜              ˜¨    ˜
                  ˜ En AA er Asirnir freistuAu
mikill griAa-staAr.                            ˜
      ˜
at mAla, A    ¨          ˜A            ¨
            ˜ A var hitt A˚ fyrr, at grAtrinn
                ¨           ¨   ¸˜
[] kom upp, svA at engi mAtti CArum sAgja¨
meA      ˜         ¨ ¨
    ˜ orAunum frA sAnum harmi. En ˚ŒAinnA ˜
      ˜             ¨     ˜
bar Aeim mun vArst Aenna skaAa,      ˜ sem
                      216
                               ¨
hann kunni mesta skyn, hvArsu mikil af-
               ¨
taka ok missa Asunum var A ¨  ¨ frA-falli Bal-
                 ˜         ˜       ˜¨
drs. En er goAin vitkuAusk, AA mAlti      ˜
                     ¨   ¨ ˜        ˜ ¨
              ˜ hvArr sA vAri meA Asum,
Frigg ok spurAi,
                       ¨
er eignask vildi allar Astir hennar ok hylli,
ok vili hann rA  ˜ ¨ ¨
               ¨ Aa A hAl-veg [] ok freista
          ¨                       A˜
ef hann fAi fundit Baldr, ok bj˚Aa HAlju  ¨
                        ¨ fara Baldr heim
˚t-lausn, ef hon vill lAta
A
¨ ¨       ˜         ¨      ¨
A As-garA. En sA er nAfndr HArm˚Ar  ¨ A˜
                     217
                 ˚ ˜             ˜
inn hvati, sonr AŒAins, er til Aeirar farar
        ˜¨       ¨                   A ˜
    ˜ AA var tAkinn Sleipnir, hestr ˚ŒAins,
varA.
                                  ˜ ¨ ˜
                           ¨ ˚Ar A Aann
ok leiddr fram, ok steig HArmA
                ˜
hest, ok hleypAi braut.
        ˜              ¨
    En Asirnir t˚ku lAk Baldrs ok fluttu til
                 A
 ˜                      ¨
sAvar. Hring- horni hAt skip Baldrs, hann
                                    ˜
var allra skipa mestr; hann vildu goAin fram
 ¨
sAtja, ok gCIra
             ¸     ˜   ¨ ¨ ¸
               ` Aar A bAl-fCr Baldrs; en
                ¨            ˜¨
skipit gekk hvArgi fram. AA var sAnt A¨    ¨
                     218
  ¸            ¨      ` ˜
JCtunheima Aptir gEgi Aeiri er Hyrrokin
                            ˜
  ¨ en er hon kom, ok reiA vargi, ok hafAi
hAt;                                      ˜
hCgg-orm at taumum, A
  ¸                          ¨
                           ˜ A hlj˚p hon af
                                  A
               A ˜             ˜        ¨
hestinum, en ˚ŒAinn kallaAi til ber-sArki
                                    ˜
           ˜ hestsins, ok fengu Aeir eigi
fj˚ra at gAta
  A
                ˜     ¨             ˜¨
haldit, nema Aeir fAldi hann. AA gekk
Hyrrokin A¨ [] fram-stafn nCkkvans, ok hratt
                            ¸
      ¨           ˜      ˜     ¨
fram A fyrsta viA-bragAi, svA at eldr hraut
˚r hlunnunum, ok lCnd Cll skulfu. AA
A                      ¸     ¸           ˜¨
                     219
    ˜ ˜A         ˜
varA A˚rr reiAr, ok greip hamarinn, ok
mundi A  ¨            ¸ ˜ ¨         ¨˜
       ˜ A brj˚ta hCfuA hAnnar, AAr en
                A
            ¨˜     ¨      ˜     ˜¨
   ˜ Cll bAAu hAnni friAar. AA var borit
goAin ¸
A ¨           ¨                ˜    ¨
˚t A skipit lAk Baldrs; ok er Aat sA kona
hans, Nanna, Neps d˚ttir, A
                       A      ¨
                            ˜ A sprakk hon
                                 ¨ ¨
af harmi, ok d˚; var hon borin A bAlit, ok
               A
  ¨             ˜ ¨ A˜ ˜A              ¨ ˜
       ¨ eldi. AA st˚A A˚rr at, ok vAgAi
slAgit A
  ¨
bAlit meA ˜ MjCllni; en fyrir f˚tum hans
                 ¸              A
                         ¨           ¨
rann dvergr nakkvarr, sA er Litr nAfndr;
                     220
    ˜A              ˚     ¨     ¨
en A˚rr spyrndi fAti sAnum A hann, ok
hratt honum A  ¨ eldinn, ok brann hann. En
   ˜        ¨                         ˜ A˜
at Aessi brAnnu s˚tti margs konar Aj˚A:
                    A
          ¨             ˜         ˜
                  ¨ ˚ŒAni, at meA honum
fyrst at sAgja frA A
f˚r Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en
 A
      A ¨ ¨           ˜ ¨ ˜
Freyr ˚k A kArru meA gAlti Aeim er Gullin-
                     ¨˜
               ˜ SlAArug-tanni; en Heim-
bursti heitir eAa
         ˜        ˜
dallr reiA hesti Aeim er Gull-toppr heitir;
             ¸        ¨       ˜
en Freyja kCttum sAnum. Aar kAmr ok ˜
                     221
             ¨ ˜                      ˚ ˜
mikit f˚lk hrAmAursa, ok berg- risar. AŒAinn
        A
        ¨ ¨                ˜
    ˜ A bAlit gullhring Aann er Draupnir
lagAi
                   ˜ ¨˜       A ¨ A
heitir; honum fylgAi sAAan s˚ nAtt˚ra, at
        ¨        ¨
hina nAundu hvArja nAtt ¨ drupu af honum
¨                        ¸
Atta gullhringar jafn-hCfgir. Hestr Baldrs
           ¨ ¨         ˜ ¸      ˜
var leiddr A bAlit meA Cllu reiAi.
                    ¨        ¨ ¨ A˜
         ˜ er at sAgja frA HArm˚Ai, at
    En Aat
          ˜ ¨    ˜     ˜
hann reiA nAu nAtr dAkkva dala ok dj˚pa,
                                      A
svA            ¨
   ¨ at hann sA ekki, fyrr en hann kom til
                     222
¨                         ˜ ¨
Arinnar Gjallar, ok reiA A Gjallar-br˚na;
                                      A
             ˜ `            A˜ ˜      ¨
       ˜ ¸ kA lEsi-gulli. M˚AguAr er nAfnd
hon er AC
               ˜
  ˜ s˚ er gAtir br˚ar- innar; hon spurAi
mAr A                A                   ˜
hann at nafni eAa     ˜          ˜
                   ˜ Att, ok sagAi at hinn
             ˜                         ˜
fyrra dag riAu um br˚na fimm fylki dauAra
                      A
manna; ’en eigi dynr br˚in minnr undir
                            A
        ˜¨               ¨    ˜A
einum AAr, ok eigi hAfir A˚ lit dauAra  ˜
manna; hvA      ¨ ˜ ˜A ¨ ¨ ¨
            ¨ rAAr A˚ hAr A hAlveg?’ Hann
                     ¨˜        ¨
svarar at ’ek skal rAAa til hAljar at leita
                     223
          ˜        ¨     ¨    ˜A
Baldrs, eAa hvArt hAfir A˚ nakkvat sAt      ¨
Baldr A     ¨                     ˜
       ¨ hAlvegi?’ En hon sagAi at Baldr
    ˜ ˜       ˜                         ˜
hafAi Aar riAit um Gjallarbr˚; ’en niAr ok
                                A
                ¨          ˜¨    ˜ ¨ A˜
    ˜ liggr hAlvegr.’ AA reiA HArm˚Ar
norAr
˜                             ¨
Aar til er hann kom at hAl-grindum; AA    ˜¨
steig hann af hestinum, ok gyrAi ˜ hann fast,
                     ˜
steig upp, ok keyrAi hann sporum, en hes-
trinn hlj˚p svA
         A        ¨ hart, ok yfir grindina, at
               ¨      ˜ ˜¨       ˜ ¨ A˜
hann kom hvArgi nAr. AA reiA HArm˚Ar
                       224
heim til hallar- [] innar, ok steig af hesti,
          ¨ ¸         ¨ ˜         ¨ ¸
gekk inn A hCllina, sA Aar sitja A Cndvegi
                             ˜      ¨ A˜
            ˜ sinn; ok dvalAisk HArm˚Ar
Baldr, br˚Aur
          A
            ¨
˜ um nAttina. En at morgni AA bei-
Aar                                  ˜¨
               ˜        ¨
         ¨ ˚Ar af HAlju at Baldr skyldi
ddisk HArmA
 ¨˜             ˜                 ˜
rAAa heim meA honum, ok sagAi hvArsu    ¨
                     ˜ ¨            ¨
         ¨ var meA Asum. En HAl sagAi
mikill grAtr                              ˜
                 ¨             ¨
    ˜ skyldi svA reyna, [] hvArt Baldr var
at Aat
   ¨ ¨     ˜
svA Ast-sAll sem sagt er; ’ok ef allir hlu-
                     225
    ¨                            ˜
tir A heiminum, kykvir ok dauAir, grAta¨
hann, A  ¨                    ¨
       ˜ A skal hann fara til Asa aptr, en
            ˜ ¨                    ˜
haldask meA HAlju, ef nakkvarr mAllr viA,˜
                ¨      ˜ ¨ A˜ ¨ A˜
  ˜ vill eigi grAta.’ AA st˚A HArm˚Ar
eAa
                  ˜
upp, en Baldr leiAir hann ˚t ˚r hCllinni,
                           A A ¸
                              ¨     A ˜
ok t˚k hringinn Draupni, ok sAndi ˚ŒAni
    A
                        ¨
til minja, en Nanna sAndi Frigg ripti ok
¨                                  ˜¨
Ann fleiri gjafar, Fullu fingr-gull. AA reiA˜
        ˜          ˜ ¨             ¨ ¨
   ¨ ˚Ar aptr leiA sAna, ok kom A AsgarA,
HArmA                                      ˜
                    226
       ˜ ¸     ¨˜        ˜
ok sagAi Cll tAAindi Aau er hann hafAi    ˜
 ¨ ok heyrt.
sAt
    ˜ ¨ ˜       ¨       ˜
    AvA nAst sAndu Asir um allan heim
˜                               ˜     ¨
                 ˜ at Baldr vAri grAtinn
Arind-reka, at biAja
A    ¨
˚r hAlju; en allir gCIr
                     ¸   ˜ ˜        ¨
                       ` Au Aat, mAnninir,
                   ¸ ˜
ok kykvendin, ok jCrAin, ok steinarnir, ok
  ¨           ¨         ¨     ˜A
trA, ok allr mAlmr; svA sem A˚ munt sAt   ¨
          ˜                ¨
hafa, at Aessir hlutir grAta, A   ¨     ˜
                               ˜ A er Aeir
       A            ¨        ˜¨
koma ˚r frosti ok A hita. AA er sAndi-¨
                    227
   ¨     A                ¸ ˜
mAnn f˚ru heim, ok hCfAu vel rekit sAn    ¨
˜              ˜
Arindi, finna Aeir A      ¨
                     ¨ hAlli nCkkurum hvar
                               ¸
    `              ¨        ˜¸     ˜     ˜
[] gEgr sat; hon nAfndisk ACkk. Aeir biAja
                          ¨
         ¨ Baldr ˚r hAlju. Hon svarar:
hana grAta           A
      ˜¸            ¨    ˜         ¨
     ’ACkk mun grAta Aurrum tArum Bal-
       ¨
drs bAlfarar; kyks nA       ˜
                      ¨ dauAs naut-k-a-k karls
                  ¨ ˜ ¨        ¨
sonar; [] haldi HAl AvA es hAfir!’
         ˜             ¨        ˜
     En Aess geta mAnn, at Aar hafi verit
                                 ¨
Loki Laufeyjar-son, er flest hAfir ilt gC`¸ Irt
                      228
   ˜ ¨
meA Asum.
           ˜
    V. HEAINN AND HCGNI   ¸
               ¨       ¸         ¨
    Konungr sA er HCgni er nAfndr Atti ¨
 A                   ¨
d˚ttur, er Hildr hAt. Hana t˚k at hAr-
                                 A      ¨
fangi konungr sA       ¨˜      ¨
                ¨ er HAAinn hAt, Hjarranda-
      ˜¨       ¸                     ¨
son. AA var HCgni konungr farinn A konunga-
  ¨
stAfnu; en er hann spurAi          ¨
                            ˜ at hArjat var
¨ ¨                                  ¨
A rAki hans, ok d˚ttir hans var A braut
                    A
 ¨
tAkin, A  ¨ A            ˜ ¨       ˜
        ˜ A f˚r hann meA sAnu liAi at leita
                     229
  ¨˜              ˜             ¨˜
HAAins, ok spurAi til hans at HAAinn hafAi˜
               ˜         ˜¨
          ˜ meA landi. AA [] er HCgni ko-
siglt norAr                        ¸
            ¨             ˜          ¨˜
nungr kom A Noreg, spurAi hann at HAAinn
                            ˜¨
    ˜ siglt vestr um haf. AA siglir HCgni
hafAi                                 ¸
¨
Aptir honum allt til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann
      ˜                ¨      ˜¨
kom Aar sem heitir HA-ey, AA [] var Aar˜
fyrir HA  ˜        ˜ ˜         ˜¨ A
        ¨ Ainn meA liA sitt. AA f˚r Hildr
¨         ¸˜     ¨           ˜
A fund fCAur sAns, ok bauA honum mAn    ¨
             ¨      ¨˜         ¨ ¸˜
     ˜ af hAndi HAAins, en A CAru orAi
at sAtt                                  ˜
                    230
     ˜            ¨˜       ˜             ¨
sagAi hon at HAAinn vAri b˚inn at bArjask,
                               A
     ˜
ok Atti HCgni af honum engrar vAg ˜
              ¸                         ˜ Aar
  ¨                 ¨
vAn. HCgni svArar stirt d˚ttur sinni; en
          ¸                    A
er hon hitti HA ˜            ˜
                  ¨ Ain, sagAi hon honum, at
                      ˜          ˜
HCgni vildi enga sAtt, ok baA hann b˚ask
   ¸                                      A
                             ˜     ¨       ¨
                    ¨ gC` Aeir hvArir-tvAggju,
til orrostu, ok svA ¸ Ira
ganga upp A                         ˜
                ¨ eyna, ok fylkja liAinu. AA˜¨
kallar HA   ˜      ¨ ¸         ¨
         ¨ Ainn A HCgna, mAg sinn, ok bauA    ˜
honum sAtt ˜ ok mikit gull at b˚tum. AA
                                   A        ˜¨
                       231
          ¸           ¨˜
svarar HCgni: ’of sAA bauzt-u Aetta, ef ˜
          ˜       ˜ ¨              ¨
˜ ˚ vill sAttask, AvA at n˚ hAfi ek drAgit
AA                           A              ¨
  ¨
DAins-leif, er dvergarnir gCIr¸   ˜
                                ` Au, er manns
               ˜     ¨                 ¨
bani skal verAa, hvArt sinn er bArt er, ok
                                     ¨
             ¨ hCggvi, ok ekki sAr gr˚r, ef
aldri bilar A ¸                           A
˜                 ˜¨              ¨˜
Aar skeinisk af.’ AA svarar HAAinn: ’sverAi   ˜
           ˜                   ˜
      ˜ ˚ Aar, en eigi sigri; Aat kalla ek gott
h˚lir AA
 A
   ¨                             ˜¨ A ˜
hvArt er dr˚ttin- holt er.’ AA h˚fu Aeir
             A
orrostu A  ¨       ˜            ¨
         ˜ A er HjaAninga-vAg er kallat, ok
                     232
  ¸ ˜       ˜
bCrAusk Aann dag allan, ok at kveldi fAru˚
                                       ¨
konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nAttina
                   ˜           ˜ ¸
til valsins, ok vakAi upp meA fjClkyngi alla
   ¨          ˜    ¨
˜ A er dauAir vAru; ok annan dag gengu
A
                ¨ ¨    ¸           ¸ ˜
konungarnir A vAg-vCllinn ok bCrAusk, ok
svA          ˜
   ¨ allir Aeir er fellu hinn fyrra daginn.
         ¨ A               ¨         ¨
F˚r svA s˚ orrosta hvArn dag Aptir an-
  A
                ˜               ¸    ¨   ˜
nan, at allir Aeir er fellu, ok Cll vApn Aau
     ¨
er lAgu A       ¨ ¨           ¨ ¨
          ¨ vAgvAlli, ok svA hlAfar, urAu ˜
                      233
                       ˜   ˚˜
at grj˚ti. En er dagaAi, stAAu upp allir
      A
          ¨             ˜
    ˜ mAnn, ok bCrAusk, ok Cll vApn
dauAir               ¸          ¸    ¨
      ˜¨ `        ¨       ¨    ˜˜
 ¨ AA nE. SvA er sagt A kvAAum, at
vAru
    ˜                ¨ ¨˜          ˜
HjaAningar skulu svA bAAa ragna-rAkrs.
   VI. THE DEATH OF OLAF TRYG-
GVASON
                          ¨ ¨          ¨˜
   Sveinn konungr tj˚gu-skAgg Atti SigrAAi
                     A
hina st˚r-rA
       A      ˜        ¨˜
            ¨ Au. SigrAAr var hinn mesti
       A ¨
˚-vinr ˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggva-sonar; ok
A
                    234
       ˜             ˚ ¨
fann Aat til saka at AŒlAfr konungr hafAi   ˜
              ¨
slitit einka-mAlum viA ˜ hana, ok lostit hana
¨                 ¨      ˜     ¸
A and-lit. Hon AggjaAi mjCk Svein ko-
                               ˜ A ¨
nung til at halda orrostu viA ˚ŒlAf ko-
                                    ¨ ¨
nung Tryggvason, ok kom hon svA sAnum
      ¸
for-tClum at Sveinn konungr var full- kominn
      ¸ Ira ˜    ¨˜
at gC` Aetta rAA. Ok snimma um vArit      ¨
 ¨                        ¨
sAndi Sveinn konungr mAnn austr til SvA-    ¨
      ˜ ¨             ¨              ¨
˜ ˚Aar A fund ˚ŒlAfs konungs SvAa-konungs,
AjA             A
                     235
   ¨    ¨            ¨            ¨ ¨
mAgs sAns, ok EirAks jarls; ok lAt sAgja
˜          A    ¨
Aeim at ˚ŒlAfr, Noregs konungr, hafAi     ˜
   ˜                   ˜
                  ˜ Ai at fara um sumarit
leiAangr ˚ti, ok Atla
          A
                        ˜ ˜     ˜ ¨
til Vind-lands. FylgAi Aat orA-sAnding
                          ¨
                    ˜ SvAakonungr ok EirAkr
Dana-konungs, at Aeir                       ¨
              ¨ ˚ti hafa, ok fara til m˚ts
jarl skyldi hAr A                       A
   ˜                      ˜   ˜¨
viA Svein konung, skyldu Aeir AA allir samt
 ¨                   ˜A ¨
lAggja til orrostu viA ˚ŒlAf konung Tryggva-
son. En ˚ŒlAfr
          A            ¨
                ¨ SvAakonungr ok EirAkr ¨
                     236
      ¨ ˜         ¨ ˜
jarl vAru Aessar fArAar al-b˚nir, ok dr˚gu
                            A          A
  ¨                ¨               ¨   ¨
˜ A saman skipa-hAr mikinn af SvAa- vAldi,
A
 ¸       ¨ ˜     ˜                       ¨
      ˜ A liAi suAr til Dan-markar ok kvAmu
fCru Av
       ¨            ¨
˜ svA, [] at ˚ŒlAfr konungr Tryggvason
Aar            A
    ˜ ¨˜                  ˜      ¨
hafAi AAr austr siglt. Aeir SvAakonungr
                                 ˜
       ¨ jarl heldu til fundar viA Danako-
ok EirAkr
nung, ok hCfAu
            ¸     ˜¨
              ˜ AA allir saman ˚-grynni
                                   A
  ¨
hArs.
                      ˜¨             ˜ ¨
    Sveinn konungr, AA er hann hafAi sAnt
                     237
¨          ¨       ˜¨ ¨
Aptir hArinum, AA sAndi hann Sigvalda
                                 ¨ ˜A ¨
jarl til Vindlands at nj˚sna um fArA ˚ŒlAfs
                        A
                                    ¨
konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra svA til, at
         ˜                       ˜
fundr Aeira Sveins konungs mAtti verAa. ˜
        ˜¨                  ˜ ¨
   ¨ AA Sigvaldi jarl leiA sAna, ok kom
FArr
        ¨
fram A Vindlandi, f˚r til J˚msborgar, ok
                       A      A
sA  ˜      ¨     A ¨
  ¨ Aan A fund ˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggva-
            ¨  ˜             ¨     ¨ ˜
sonar. VAru Aar mikil vinAttu-mAl Aeira
       ˜              ¨ ¨             ˜
¨ meAal, kom jarl sAr A hinn mesta kArleik
A
                      238
   ˜ ˚ ¨                ¨ ¨˜
viA AŒlAf konung. AstrAAr kona jarls,
d˚ttir Burizleifs konungs, var vinr mikill
  A
A ¨                      ˜
˚ŒlAfs konungs, ok var Aat mjCk af hinum
                              ¸
             ˜                         ˜
          ¨ Aum, er ˚Œlafr konungr hafAi
fyrrum tAng           A
                       ¨
¨ Geiru, systur [] hAnnar. Sigvaldi jarl
Att
        ˜          ¨˜
var maAr vitr ok rAAugr; en er hann kom
     ¨ ¨˜      ¨ ˜ ˜ A ¨
 ¨ A rAAa-gArA viA ˚ŒlAf konung, AA
sAr                                   ˜¨
                     ¨ ˜
     ˜ hann mjCk fArAina hans austan at
dvalAi          ¸
                   ˜       ¸ `
sigla, ok fann til Aess mjCk Emsa hluti.
                    239
          ˜ A ¨              ¨
[] En liA ˚ŒlAfs konungs lAt geysi illa,
      ¨      ¨
ok vAru mAnn mjCk heim-f˚sir, er Aeir
                    ¸        A        ˜
 ¨
lAgu alb˚nir, en veAr
           A                 ˜
                      ˜ byr-vAn. Sigvaldi
jarl fekk nj˚sn leyniliga af DanmCrk, at
             A                     ¸
˜¨                       ¨     ¨
AA var austan kominn hArr SvAakonungs,
        ¨         ˜ ˜¨                  ¨
ok EirAkr jarl hafAi AA ok b˚inn sinn hAr,
                            A
             ˜               ˜¨
    ˜ hCfAingjarnir mundu AA koma austr
ok Aeir ¸
                     ˜     ¸ ˜ ¨
undir Vindland, ok Aeir hCfAu A kveAit,˜
   ˜
at Aeir mundu bA   ˜ A ¨
                 ¨ Aa ˚ŒlAfs konungs viA  ˜
                    240
    ˜¨         ¸ ˜              ¨ ˜
ey AA er SvClAr heitir, svA Aat, at jarl
skyldi svA                    ˜     ˜   ˜
          ¨ til stilla [] at Aeir mAtti Aar
finna ˚ŒlAf
      A    ¨ konung.
    ˜¨
    AA kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at
                            ¨ ˜    ¨ A
Sveinn Dana- konungr hAfAi hAr ˚ti, ok
 ¸   ˜       ¨     ¨
   ` Aisk brAtt sA kurr, at Sveinn Danako-
gCIr
                          A ¨
nungr mundi vilja finna ˚ŒlAf konung. En
                ¨                       ˜
Sigvaldi jarl sAgir konungi: ’ekki er Aat
   ˜                        ¨
 ¨ A Sveins konungs at lAggja til bardaga
rA
                      241
   ˜ ˜         ˜          ¨
viA Aik meA Dana-hAr einn saman, svA       ¨
mikinn hAr            ˜¨       ˜
            ¨ sem AAr hafiA. En ef yAr     ˜
                      ¨ ˜ ¨       A ˜
er nakkvarr grunr A AvA, at ˚-friAr muni
fyrir, A  ¨                 ˜      ˜ ¨
        ˜ A skal ek fylgja yAr meA mAnu [ ×
             ˜A     ˜
    ˜ ok A˚tti Aat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar
] liAi,
              ¨             ˜    ¸ ˜
sem J˚ms-vAkingar fylgAu hCfAingjum; mun
       A
ek fA   ˜¨                        ˜
     ¨ AAr ellifu skip vel skipuA.’ Konungr
 ¨      ˜
jAtti Aessu. Var A      ¨ ¨         ˜
                      ˜ A lAtit veAr ok hag-
st˚tt; lAt
  A                     ˜¨
          ¨ konungr AA leysa flotann, ok
                       242
   ¨                           ¨     ˜¨
blAsa til brott-lCgu. Dr˚gu mAnn AA segl
                 ¸        A
 ¨                           ¨       ¸
sAn, ok gengu meira smA-skipin Cll, ok
          ˜           ¨
sigldu [] Aau undan A haf ˚t. En jarl sigldi
                            A
  ˜                            ˜       ˜
nAr konungs-skipinu, ok kallaAi til Aeira,
baA                 ¨       ¨     ¨
   ˜ konung sigla Aptir sAr: ’mAr er kun-
        ¨
nast,’ sAgir hann, ’hvar dj˚past er um eyja-
                            A
             ˜¨           ˜ ˜    ˜
sundin, en AAr munuA Aess Aurfa meA        ˜
˜
Aau in st˚ru skipin.’ Sigldi A
           A                     ¨
                               ˜ A jarl fyrir
    ˜ ¨                        ˜
meA sAnum skipum. Hann hafAi ellifu skip,
                      243
                   ¨               ˜
en konungr sigldi Aptir honum meA sinum
                          ˜
                 ˜ hann Aar ok ellifu skip,
st˚r-skipum, hafAi
  A
                 ¨             A ¨
en allr annarr hArrinn sigldi ˚t A hafit.
                                      ¸ ˜
En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at SvClAr,
  ¨ ˜ ¨ A ˜
˜ A rAri A m˚ti Aeim sk˚ta ein. Aeir
A                           A          ˜
 ¨                                   ¨ ˜
                ¨ Dana- konungs lA Aar
sAgja jarli at hArr
¨ ¸               ˜      ˜¨ ¨
A hCfninni fyrir Aeim. AA lAt jarl hlaAa ˜
                   ˜
seglunum, ok r˚a Aeir inn undir eyna.
               A
                            A ¨        ¨
    Sveinn Danakonungr ok ˚ŒlAfr SvAakonungr
                     244
       ¨            ¨     ˜    ˜¨
ok EirAkr jarl vAru Aar AA meA allan    ˜
            ˜¨               ˜
  ¨ sinn; AA var fagrt veAr ok bjart s˚l-
hAr                                         A
               ˜             ¨ A
skin. Gengu Aeir n˚ upp A h˚lminn allir
                       A
  ¸ ˜            ˜
hCfAingjar meA miklar sveitir manna, ok
                       A ¨
 ¨ er skipin sigldu ˚t A hafit mjCk mCrg
sA                                    ¸     ¸
saman. Ok n˚ sjA
             A        ˜
                   ¨ Aeir hvar siglir eitt mikit
           ˜        ˜¨ ˜          ¨˜
skip ok glAsiligt; AA mAltu bAAir konun-
         ˜                         ¨
garnir: ’Aetta er mikit skip ok Akafliga fa-
     ˜
grt, Aetta mun vera Ormrinn langi.’ EirAkr  ¨
                       245
                 ¨             ˜
jarl svarar ok sAgir: ’ekki er Aetta Ormr
hinn langi.’ Ok svA ¨ var sem hann sagAi;˜
˜                     ˜                ¨
             ¨ EindriAi af Gimsum. LAtlu
Aetta skip Atti
 ¨˜       ¨ ˜
sAAar sA Aeir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu
                     ˜¨     ˜
meira en hit fyrra. AA mAlti Sveinn ko-
            ˜
nungr: ’hrAddr er ˚ŒlAfr
                   A    ¨ Tryggvason n˚, A
      ˜                       ˜ ¸ ˜
eigi Aorir hann at sigla meA hCfuAin A     ¨
        ¨
skipi sAnu.’ A   ¨ ¨        ¨
               ˜ A sAgir EirAkr jarl: ’ekki
   ˜                     ¨       ˜
er Aetta konungs skip, kAnni ek Aetta skip
                    246
            ˜ ¨                        ˜
ok seglit, AvA at stafat er seglit, Aat A   ¨
             ¨         ¨
Erlingr SkjAlgsson; lAtum sigla A    ¨ ¨
                                   ˜ A, bAtra
             ˜            ¨       A ¨
er oss skarA ok missa A flota ˚ŒlAfs ko-
            ˜            ˜
nungs en Aetta skip Aar svA A    ¨ b˚it.’ En
          ¨˜      ¨ ˜          ¨
stundu sAAar sA Aeir ok kAndu skip Sig-
                           ˜
                     ˜ Aannig at h˚lmanum.
valda jarls, ok viku Aan              A
˜¨ ¨ ˜                       ˜ A
AA sA Aeir hvar sigldu Arj˚ skip, ok var
                    ˜    ˜¨
eitt mikit skip. MAlti AA Sveinn konungr,
      ˜¨                              ¨
   ˜ AA ganga til skipa sinna, sAgir at
biAr
                      247
˜      ¨                     ¨          ˜
Aar fArr Ormrinn langi. EirAkr jarl mAlti:
     ¸                                ˜
              ˜ Cnnur st˚r skip ok glAsilig
’mCrg hafa Aeir ¸         A
                      ¨˜     ¨      ˜¨ ˜
en Orm hinn langa, bAAum Ann.’ AA mAltu
     ¸           ¨                  ¨
mjCk margir mAnn: ’eigi vill EirAkr jarl
  A    ¨          ¨
n˚ bArjask, ok hAfna fCAur
                        ¸      ¨    ˜
                          ˜ sAns; Aetta er
skCmm mikil, svA
    ¸             ¨ at spyrjask mun um Cll¸
  ¸         ¨            ¨     ˜
lCnd, ef vAr liggjum hAr meA jafn-miklu
   ˜       A ¨                    ¨
liAi, en ˚ŒlAfr konungr sigli A hafit ˚t   A
hAr      ¨      ¨                ˜    ¸ ˜
   ¨ hjA oss sjAlfum.’ En er Aeir hCfAu
                    248
˜                    ¨˜ ˜¨ ¨ ˜
Aetta talat um hrAA, AA sA Aeir hvar
                               ˜          ¨
sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af Aeim var drAki
all-mikill ok mjCk gull-b˚inn. A
                  ¸         A         ¨ A˜
                                    ˜ A st˚A
                              ˜      ¨
upp Sveinn konungr, ok mAlti: ’hAtt mun
Ormrinn bera mik A   ¨ kveld, honum skal ek
  `      ˜¨ ˜
stEra.’ AA mAltu margir, at Ormrinn var
                          ¨
    ˜ mikit skip ok frAtt, ok rausn mikil
furAu
                 ¨           ˜¨ ˜
    ¨ gC` slAkt skip. AA mAlti EirAkr
at lAta ¸ Ira                             ¨
                          ¨        ˜
        ¨ at nakkvarir mAnn heyrAu: ’A˚tt
jarl, svA                                ˜A
                     249
A ¨                   ¨ ˜
˚ŒlAfr konungr hAfAi ekki meira skip en
˜
Aetta, A   ¨                        ˜
         ˜ A mundi Sveinn konungr Aat aldri
                    ˜
 ¨ af honum meA einn saman DanahAr.’
fA                                        ¨
Dreif A   ¨ A                          ¨
       ˜ A f˚lkit til skipanna, ok rAku af
             ˜ ˜
tjCldin, ok AtluAu at b˚ask skj˚tliga. En
  ¸                        A     A
        ˜                ˜           ¨
er hCfAingjar r˚ddu Aetta milli sAn, sem
     ¸           A
n˚ er sagt, A
  A             ¨ ¨ ˜                    ˜ A
              ˜ A sA Aeir, hvar sigldu Arj˚
                            ¨˜            ˜
                        ˜ sAAast, ok var Aat
skip all-mikil, ok fj˚rAa
                     A
                       ˜
Ormrinn langi. En Aau hin st˚ru skip, er
                                A
                      250
¨˜       ¸ ˜             ˜        ˜
AAr hCfAu siglt, ok Aeir hugAu at Orm-
             ˜
        ˜ Aat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit
rinn vAri,
 ¨˜                                ˜¨
sAAara Ormrinn skammi. En AA er Aeir       ˜
                     ¨                 ˜ ˜¨
 ¨ Orminn langa, kAndu allir, ok mAlti AA
sA
       ¨ A         ˜
engi A m˚t, at Aar mundi sigla ˚ŒlAfr A ¨
Tryggvason; gengu A    ¨                       ˜
                     ˜ A til skipanna, ok skipuAu
         ¸                 ˜          ¨ ˜
                     ¨ Aat einkamAl Aeira
til at- lCgunnar. VAru
  ¸ ˜                          A ¨
hCfAingja, Sveins konungs, ˚ŒlAfs konungs,
                      ˜ ˜
     ¨ jarls, at sinn AriAjung Noregs skyldi
EirAks
                      251
            ¨ ˜            ˜     ¨     ˚ ¨
eignask hvArr Aeira, ef Aeir fAldi AŒlAf
konung Tryggvason; en sA     ˜       ¸ ˜
                           ¨ Aeira hCfAingja
er fyrst gengi A¨ Orminn, skyldi eignask alt
˜                     ˜
Aat hlut-skipti er Aar fengisk, ok hvArr ¨
˜       ˜               ¨        ˜
Aeira Aau skip er sjAlfr hryAi. EirAkr   ¨
        ˜      ˜
jarl hafAi barAa einn geysi mikinn, er hann
                   ¨           ˜
var vanr at hafa A viking; Aar var skAgg ¨
             ˜       ˜       ¨      ¨
¨ ofan- verAu barAinu hvArutvAggja, en
A
  ˜     ¨ ¨        ¸     ˜
niAr frA jArn-spCng Aykk ok svA breiA ¨    ˜
                     252
         ˜               ¨ ˜
sem barAit, ok t˚k alt A sA ofan.
                 A
      ¨    ˜                   ˜
    ˜ A er Aeir Sigvaldi jarl rAru inn undir
    A
h˚lminn, A
 A           ¨ ¨ ˜ ˜         ˜    ¨      ˜
           ˜ A sA Aat Aeir AorkAll dyArill
                  ˜ skip-stj˚rn- ar-mAnn,
af Trananum ok aArir           A         ¨
           ˜                        ˜
˜ er meA honum f˚ru, at jarl snAri skipum
Aeir                 A
                 ˜ ¨ A˜ ˜
undir h˚lmann; AA hl˚Au Aeir ok seglum,
        A
    ˜ ¨                     ¸ ˜        ˜
ok rAru Aptir honum, ok kClluAu til Aeira,
            ¨ ˜             ¨        ¨
     ˜ hvA Aeir f˚ru svA. Jarl sAgir, at
spurAu,             A
             ¨˜ A ¨
hann vill bAAa ˚ŒlAfs konungs: ’ok er
                    253
         ¨      A ˜      ¨
meiri vAn at ˚friAr sA fyrir oss.’ LAtu¨
˜
Aeir A   ¨ A              ˜         ˜    ¨
       ˜ A flj˚ta skipin, Aar til er AorkAll
  ¨
nAfja kom meA   ˜ Orminn skamma, ok Aau˜
˜ A                       ˜       ¨ ˜
Arj˚ skip er honum fylgAu. Ok vAru Aeim
 ¸
sCgA               ¨˜           ˜ ˜
     ˜ hin sCmu tAAindi; hl˚Au Aeir AA
             ¸                A         ˜¨
     ¨                   ¨ flj˚ta, ok biAu
ok sAnum seglum, ok lAtu A               ˜
˚ŒlAfs
A                         ˜¨
      ¨ konungs. En AA er konungrinn
                                ˜¨ ˜
sigldi innan at h˚l- manum, AA rAri allr
                  A
  ¨
hArrinn ˚t A
           A                 ˜¨        ˜
              ¨ sundit fyrir AA. En er Aeir
                    254
 ¨ ˜     ˜    ¨˜ ˜
sA Aat, Aa bAAu Aeir konunginn sigla leiA   ˜
 ¨          ¨
sAna, en lAggja eigi til orrostu viA ˜ svA  ¨
                               ¨
          ¨ Konungr svarar hAtt, ok st˚A
mikinn hAr.                              A˜
upp A                  ¨
      ¨ lyptingunni: ’lAti ofan seglit, ekki
         ¨     ¨           ¨ A
skulu mAnir mAnn hyggja A fl˚tta, ek hAfi   ¨
            ¨           ¨˜       ˜
        ` A orrostu, rAAi GuA fyrir lAfi
aldri flEit                                ¨
  ¨
mAnu, en aldri mun ek A A            ¨
                          ¨ fl˚tta lAggja.’
       ¨ ¸ Irt
Var svA gC` sem konungr mAlti. ˜
                      ¨    ¨
         ¨ konungr lAt blAsa til sam-lCgu
    ˚ŒlAfr
    A                                   ¸
                    255
 ¸               ¨
Cllum skipum sAnum. Var konungs skip A   ¨
         ˜      ˜ ¨              ˜
   ˜ liAi, en Aar A annat borA Ormrinn
miAju
             ¨            ˜
skammi, en A annat borA Traninn. En AA  ˜¨
    ˜    A         ¨
er Aeir t˚ku at tAngja stafna A ¨ Orminum
langa ok Orminum skamma, ok er konungr
  ¨ ˜         ˜         ¨      ˜ ˜¨ ¨
sA Aat, kallaAi hann hAtt, baA AA lAggja
                                ¨ ˜
       ¨ hit mikla skipit, ok lAta Aat eigi
fram bAtr
aptast vera allra skipa A     ¨
                           ¨ hArinum. AA˜¨
                                       ˜ ¨
                     ˜ ’ef Orminn skal AvA
svarar ˚lfr hinn rauAi:
       A
                     256
 ¨             ¨
lAngra fram lAggja, sem hann er lAngri¨
en Cnnur skip, A
    ¸              ¨      ¨         ˜
                 ˜ A mun A-vint verAa um
 ¸      ¨                  ¨
sCxin A dag.’ Konungr sAgir: ’eigi vissa
          ˜                 ˜˜      ˜
ek at ek Atta stafnb˚ann bAAi rauAan ok
                     A
               ˜          ˜A
                       ¨ A˚ eigi meir baki
ragan.’ ˚lfr mAlti: ’vAr
         A
lyptingina en ek mun stafninn.’ Konungr
      ¨             ˜ ¸ ¨     ¨          ˜
helt A boga, ok lagAi Cr A strAng, ok snAri
                ˜
at ˚lfi. ˚lfr mAlti: ’skj˚t annan veg, ko-
   A      A              A
        ¨ ˜                    ˜¸
nungr A Aannig sem meiri er ACrfin; AAr  ˜¨
                     257
         ˜
vinn ek Aat er ek vinn.’
                        A˜ ¨          ¨
         ¨ konungr st˚A A lyptingu A Orminum,
    ˚ŒlAfr
    A
                                    ˜
            ¨ [] mjCk; hann hafAi gyl-
bar hann hAtt          ¸
       ¸              ˜      ¨
tan skjCld ok gull-roAinn hjAlm; var hann
      ¨      ¨ ¸˜
   ˜ Andr frA CArum mCnnum: hann hafAi
auA-k                     ¸               ˜
    ˜
rauAan kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En
   A ¨               ¨      ˜ ˜
er ˚ŒlAfr konungr sA at riAluAusk flotarnir,
              ¨      ¨          ¸ ˜
         ¨ sAtt mArki fyrir hCfAingjum,
ok upp vAru
  ¨                   ¨        ¸ ˜
˜ A spyrr hann: ’hvArr er hCfAingi fyrir
A
                    258
  ˜ ˜ ¨          ¨
liAi AvA er gAgnt oss er?’ Honum var
        ˜ var Sveinn konungr tj˚guskAgg
sagt at Aar                    A       ¨
meA           ¨                         ˜˜
    ˜ DanahAr. Konungr svarar: ’ekki hrAAumk
           ˜    ˜˜             ¨ ¸
  ¨ bleyAur AAr, engi er hugr A DCnum.
vAr
       ¨      ¸ ˜         ˜       ¨
En hvArr hCfAingi fylgir Aeim mArkjum
                 ¨ ¨ ¨ A
    ˜ eru ˚t AfrA A h˚gra veg?’ Honum
er Aar       A
              ˜       A ¨
var sagt at Aar var ˚ŒlAfr konungr meA   ˜
    ¨              ¨         ¨
        ¨ ˚ŒlAfr konungr sAgir: ’bAtra
SvAa-hAr. A                           ¨
  ˜      ¨
vAri SvAum heima at sleikja um bl˚t- bolla
                                 A
                     259
  ¨             ¨                ¨
sAna en ganga A Orminn undir vApn yAur.˜
        ¨        ˜                      ˜
En hvArir eigu Aau hin st˚ru skip, er Aar
                           A
liggja ˚t A
        A            ˜             ˜
           ¨ bak-borAa DCnum?’ ’Aar er,’
                          ¸
  ¨     ˜       ¨         ¨
sAgja Aeir ’EirAkr jarl HAkonar-son.’ AA˜¨
              ¨                      ˜
      ˜ ˚ŒlAfr konungr: ’hann mun Aykkjask
svaraAi A
         ˜                               ¨
eiga viA oss skapligan fund, ok oss er vAn
                          ¨ ˜ ˜
                        ˜ A liAi; Aeir eru
snarpligrar orrostu af Av
     ˜ ¨             ¨
NorA-mAnn, sem vAr erum.’
    SA  ˜       ˜               A˜
      ¨ Aan greiAa konungar at-r˚Ar. LagAi ˜
                    260
                             ˚
Sveinn konungr sitt skip mAti Orminum
            A ¨                        ˜ A
langa, en ˚ŒlAfr konungr S˚nski lagAi ˚t
                            A
                                    A ¨
   ¨ ok stakk stCfnum at yzta skipi ˚ŒlAfs
frA,            ¸
                          ¸ ˜
konungs Tryggvasonar, en CArum megin EirAkr ¨
                  ˜¨ ¸ ˜
              ˜ AA hCrA orrosta. Sigvaldi
jarl. T˚ksk Aar
         A
       ¨          ˜ ¨                ˜
jarl lAt skotta viA sAn skip, ok lagAi ekki
til orrostu.
     ˜
    Aessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-
           A˜                  ¨
mann-sk˚A. Fram- byggjar A Orminum
                    261
langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum
 A ˜                     ¨ ¨
f˚rAu akkeri ok stafn-ljA A skip Sveins ko-
           ¨     ¨                 ˜
nungs, en Attu vApnin at bera niAr undir
              ˜ ˜           ˜          ˜
       ¨ hruAu Aeir Cll Aau skip er Aeir
f˚tr sAr;
 A                     ¸
                                       ˜
fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok Aat
                        `˜ ¨ ¸
  ˜ er undan komsk flEAi A Cnnur skip,
liA
    ˜    ˜    ¸ ˜ ˜          ¨ A
ok Aar nAst lCgAu Aeir frA ˚r skot-mAli.¨
      A  ˜             ¨
                ¨ svA sem gat ˚ŒlAfr
Ok f˚r Aessi hArr                   A ¨
konungr Tryggvason. A     ¨     ˜ ˜
                       ˜ A lagAi Aar at A ¨
                   262
     ˜    A ¨          ¨              ˜
staAinn ˚ŒlAfr SvAakonungr; ok Aegar er
˜                                 ˜¨ A ˜
              ˜ st˚rskipum, AA f˚r Aeim
Aeir koma nAr A
                 ˜       ¨      ˜
sem hinum, at Aeir lAtu liA mikit ok sum
                   ˜       ¨ ˜      ¨ A
        ¨ ok lCgAu frA viA svA b˚it. En
skip sAn,      ¸
             ¨       ˜        ˜       ˜
     ¨ jarl sA-byrAi BarAanum viA hit yzta
EirAkr
skip ˚ŒlAfs
       A                           ˜
           ¨ konungs, ok hrauA hann Aat,˜
       A ˜                   ¨
                ˜ ˚r tAngslum, en lagAi
ok hj˚ Aegar Aat A                        ˜
   ¨     ˜ ¨       ˜            ˜
˜ A at AvA, er Aar var nAst, ok barAisk
A                                       ˜
     ˜      ˜               ˜     A ˜¨ ˜
til Aess er Aat var hroAit. T˚k AA liAit
                       263
                         ˜
at hlaupa af hinum smArum skipunum, ok
                           ¨         A ¨
      ¨ st˚rskipin. En EirAkr jarl hj˚ hvArt
upp A A
A     ¨
˚r tAngslunum, svA              ˜
                      ¨ sem hroAit var. En
              ¨     ¸ ˜ ˜¨ ¨
Danir ok SvAar lCgAu AA A skotmAl ok   ¨
Cllum megin at skipum ˚ŒlAfs
¸                          A   ¨ konungs,
        ¨        ¨ ¨       ¨        ˜
en EirAkr jarl lA Avalt sAbyrt viA skipin,
    ¨      ¸
ok Atti hCgg-orrostu. En svA   ¨ sem mAnn¨
                       ˜¨         ˜
      ¨ skipum hans, AA gengu aArir upp A
fellu A                                    ¨
    ˜                        ˜¨
             ¨ ok Danir. AA var orrosta
staAinn, SvAar
                     264
                        ˜¨    ¸     ˜
hin snarpasta, ok fell AA mjCk liAit, ok
kom svA          ˜             ¨      ˜
        ¨ at lykAum, at Cll vAru hroAin
                          ¸
skip ˚ŒlAfs
     A     ¨ konungs Tryggvasonar nema
                   ˜ ˜¨         ˜ ¨
Ormrinn langi; var Aar AA alt liA A komit,
          ¨                      ˜¨
˜ er vAgt var hans manna. AA lagAi
Aat                                     ˜
                 ˜
   ¨ jarl BarAanum at Orminum langa
EirAkr
 ¨              ˜    ¸
sAbyrt, ok var Aar hCggorrosta.
        ¨            ¨             ¨
    EirlAkr jarl var A fyrir-r˚mi A skipi
                              A
 ¨             ˜
sAnu, ok var Aar fylkt meA  ˜ skjald-borg.
                    265
     ˜¨ ˜˜ ¸
Var AA bAAi hCggorrosta, ok spj˚tum lagit,
                                  A
           ¸     ˜ ¨          ¨
ok kastat Cllu AvA er til vApna var, en
                         ˜
sumir skutu boga-skoti eAa hand-skoti. Var
      ¨          ¨         ˜ ¨
˜ svA mikill vApnaburAr A Orminn, at
Aa
               ¨       ˜            ¨ ˜
        ¨ hlAfum viA koma, er svA Aykt
varla mAtti
flugu spj˚t ok Crvar; Av
         A       ¸          ¨
                         ˜ A at Cllum me-
                                 ¸
     ¸ ˜     ¨
gin lCgAu hArskip at Orminum. En mAnn  ¨
                     ¨    ˜¨    ¨ A˜
     ¨ konungs vAru AA svA ˚Air, at
˚ŒlAfs
A
˜       A          ¨     ˜      ˜
Aeir hlj˚pu upp A borAin, til Aess at nA ¨
                     266
    ˜      ˜
meA sverAs-hCggum at drepa f˚lkit. En
               ¸                A
          ¸ ˜          ¨
margir lCgAu eigi svA undir Orminn, at
˜           ¨ ¸                   A ¨
Aeir vildi A hCggorrostu vera. En ˚ŒlAfs
   ¨                           ˜
mAnn gengu flestir ˚t af borAunum, ok
                      A
 ¨˜                  ˜     ¨ ˜   ¨ ¨
gAAu eigi annars en Aeir bArAisk A slAttum
  ¨                      ˜ ¨       ¨
                  ˜ meA vApnum sAnum.
vAlli, ok sukku niAr
            ˜          ¨
     Einarr Aambar-skAlfir var A¨ Orminum
       ¨
aptr A krappa-r˚mi; hann skaut af boga,
                 A
                         ˜
ok var allra manna harA-skeytastr. Einarr
                    267
             ¨                  ¨ `
skaut at EirAki jarli, ok laust A stEris-hnakkann
             ¸
fyrir ofan hCfuA ˜ jarli, ok gekk alt upp A   ¨
reyr-bCndin. Jarl leit til, ok spurAi
        ¸                                  ˜
                                     ˜ ef Aeir
          ¨
vissi, hvArr skaut. En jafn-skj˚tt kom Cnnur
                                A          ¸
       ¨ nAr jarli, at flaug milli sAAunna ok
Cr svA ˜
¸                                  ¨˜
                     ¨       ¨ ¸ ˜
handarinnar, ok svA aptr A hCfAa-fjClina,¸
at langt st˚A A
            A                       ˜¨
               ˜ ˚t broddrinn. AA mAlti     ˜
jarl viA         ˜                 ¨
        ˜ mann Aann er sumir nAfna Finn,
            ¨                 ˜
en sumir sAgja at hann vAri Finskr, sA        ¨
                      268
                        ˜       ˚
var hinn mesti bog-maAr: ’skjAt-tu mann
˜
Aann hinn mikla A ¨ krappar˚minu!’ Finnr
                            A
               ¸    ¨                 ˜
skaut, ok kom Crin A boga Einars miAjan,
   ˜ ¨                      ˜ ˜
¨ AvA bili er Einarr dr˚ it AriAja sinn bo-
A                      A
              ˜¨          ¨    ¨
gann. Brast AA boginn A tvA hluti. AA   ˜¨
  ˜
mAlti ˚ŒlAfr
       A    ¨ konungr: ’hvat brast Aar  ˜
   ¨ ¨                            A ¨
svA hAtt?’ Einarr svarar: ’Noregr ˚r hAndi
  ¨                          ¨
˜ Ar, konungr!’ ’Eigi mun svA mikill brestr
A
     ˜       ¨
at orAinn,’ sAgir konungr, ’tak boga minn,
                    269
                      ˜
ok skj˚t af,’ ok kastaAi boganum til hans.
      A
                         A ˜
Einarr t˚k bogann, ok dr˚ Aegar fyrir odd
         A
¸                 ˜
Crvarinnar, ok mAlti: ’ofveikr, ofveikr al-
                         ˜
lvalds boginn!’ ok kastaAi aptr boganum;
t˚k A
 A     ¨                    ˜          ˜
     ˜ A skjCld sinn ok sverA, ok barAisk.
            ¸
                                     ˜ ¨
         ¨ konungr Tryggvason st˚A A lypt-
    ˚ŒlAfr
    A                              A
    ¨
ing A Orminum, ok skaut optast um daginn,
                                     ¸
stundum bogaskoti, en stundum gaflCkum,
                   ¨             ¨
ok jafnan tveim sAnn. Hann sA fram A     ¨
                    270
             ¨ ¨      ¨       ˜
skipit, ok sA sAna mAnn reiAa sverAin ok˜
  ¸        ¨
hCggva tAtt, ok sA                    ˜   ˜¨
                   ¨ at illa bitu; mAlti AA
  ¨              ˜ ˜¨      ¨ ˜            ˜
           ¨ reiAi AAr svA slAliga sverAin,
hAtt: ’hvArt
        ¨          ¨     ˜         ˜
er ek sA at ekki bAta yAr?’ MaAr svarar:
’sverA    ¨       ˜
      ˜ vAr eru slA ok brotin mjCk.’ AA
                                    ¸     ˜¨
gekk konungr ofan A   ¨ fyrirr˚mit ok lauk
                              A
       ¨ ˜             A ˜ A
upp hAsAtis-kistuna, t˚k Aar ˚r mCrg sverA
                                      ¸      ˜
hvCss, ok fekk mCnnum. En er hann t˚k
    ¸             ¸                       A
   ˜                ¨       ˜¨ ¨ ¨
niAr hinni h˚gri hAndi, AA sA mAnn at
              A
                     271
  ˚˜
blAA rann ofan undan bryn-st˚kunni; en
                                A
                           ¨
engi vissi hvar hann var sArr.
                     ¨                    A˜
    Mest var vCrnin A Orminum ok mannsk˚Aust
               ¸
af fyrirr˚ms- mCnnum ok stafnb˚um; Aar
         A       ¸               A      ˜
        ¨    ¨
var hvArttvAggja, valit mest mann-f˚lkit
                                      A
     ˜       ˜          ˜
ok hAst borAin. En liA fell fyrst um mitt
            ˜¨     ¨     A˜
skipit. Ok AA er fAtt st˚A manna upp um
              ˜¨ ¨˜         ¨
          ˜ AA rAA EirAkr jarl til upp-
siglu-skeiA,
gCngunnar, ok kom upp A
  ¸                                  ˜    ¨
                          ¨ Orminn viA fimtAnda
                     272
          ˜¨       ¨ A
[] mann. AA kom A m˚t honum Hyrningr,
             ¨               ˜
   ¨ ˚ŒlAfs konungs, meA sveit manna,
mAgr A
ok varA   ˜           ˜
        ˜ Aar inn harAasti bardagi, ok lauk
   ¨            ¸                ¨
svA, at jarl hrCkk ofan aptr A BarAann;˜
    ˜       ¨
en Aeir mAnn er honum hCfAu ¸  ˜ fylgt fellu
                    ¨    ˜ ˜       ˜
sumir, en sumir vAru sArAir. Aar varA      ˜
¨
Ann in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu A  ¨
                                    ˜ A mar-
      ¨    ¨                   ˜
gir mAnn A Orminum. En er Ayntisk skipan
                             ˜¨ ¨˜
¨ Orminum til varnarinnar, AA rAA EirAkr
A                                        ¨
                     273
                             ¸      ¨
jarl annat sinn til uppgCngu A Orminn.
VarA    ˜¨ ¨          ˜ ˜
     ˜ AA Ann hCrA viA-taka. En er Aetta
                  ¸                     ˜
sA              ¨              ˜¨
  ¨ stafnb˚ar A Orminum, AA gengu Aeir
           A                              ˜
aptr A ¨ skipit, ok sn˚ask til varnar m˚ti
                        A                  A
                      ˜      ˜ ¸
jarli, ok veita harAa viAtCku. En fyrir
˜ ¨      ˜¨         ¨    ¸          ˜ ¨
AvA at AA var svA mjCk fallit liA A Orminum,
at vA  ˜    ¨       ˜      ˜          ˜¨
     ¨ Aa vAru auA borAin, t˚ku AA jarls
                                 A
   ¨
mAnn vA     ˜
          ¨ Aa upp at ganga. En alt Aat   ˜
        ˜ ¨ A˜                     ¨
  ˜ er AA st˚A upp til varnar A Orminum
liA
                       274
            ¨         ˜
s˚tti aptr A skipit, Aar sem konungr var.
 A
          ¸                      ¨
    KolbjCrn stallari gekk upp A lypting til
           ˜     ¸
konungs; Aeir hCfAu             ¨
                    ˜ mjCk lAkan klAAa-
                            ¸          ˜˜
b˚naA
 A            ¨
       ˜ ok vApna, KolbjCrn var ok [] allra
                            ¸
                   ¨˜            ˜ A¨
manna mestr ok frAAastr. VarA n˚ Ann A    ¨
fyrirr˚minu in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir
      A
˜¨ ¸          ˜¨         ¨
AA sCk at AA var svA mikit f˚lk komit
                                   A
upp A                ˜                  ¨
      ¨ Orminn af liAi jarls sem vera mAtti
                              ˜
¨ skipinu, en skip hans lCgAu at Cllum me-
A                         ¸        ¸
                     275
                              ¨
gin utan at Orminum, en lAtit fjCl-mAnni
                                     ¸    ¨
til varnar m˚ti svA
              A                   ¨
                    ¨ miklum hAr, n˚ A˚tt
                                       A ˜A
˜        ¨      ˜    ˜˜     ¨
Aeir mAnn vAri bAAi stArkir ok fr˚knir, A
˜¨                     ¨ ¨
AA fellu n˚ flestir A lAtilli stundu. En
             A
A ¨                   ¨         ˜
˚ŒlAfr konungr sjAlfr ok Aeir KolbjCrn     ¸
bA   ˜           ˜¨          ˜      ¨
  ¨ Air hlj˚pu AA fyrir borA, ok A sitt borA
           A                                 ˜
    ¨               ¨
hvArr. En jarls mAnn hCfAu ¸  ˜ lagt utan at
    ¨ A             ¨     ˜¨      ¨
smA-sk˚tur, ok drApu AA er A kaf hlj˚pu. A
Ok A   ¨              ¨        ˜ ¨
     ˜ A er konungr sjAlfr hafAi A kaf hlaupit,
                      276
       ˜
vildu Aeir taka hann hCndum, ok f˚ra EirAki
                        ¸          A       ¨
                              ¨
               ¨ konungr brA yfir sik skild-
jarli. En ˚ŒlAfr
          A
                ˜     ¨             ¸
inum, ok steypAisk A kaf; en KolbjCrn stal-
                                        ¨ ˜
lari skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlAfAi
        ¨ ˜ ¨
 ¨ svA viA vApnum er lagt var af skipum
sAr
˜                 ¨
Aeim er undir lAgu, ok fell hann svA A  ¨ ¨
 ˜
sAinn at skjCldrinn varA
             ¸            ˜ undir honum, ok
              ˜ ¨       ¨       ¨
komsk hann AvA eigi A kaf svA skj˚tt, ok
                                      A
varA                ¨           ¨
    ˜ hann hand-tAkinn ok drAginn upp A    ¨
                      277
   A              ˜ ˜          ˜
sk˚tuna, ok hugAu Aeir at Aar vAri ko- ˜
nungrinn. Var hann A   ¨
                     ˜ A leiddr fyrir jarl. En
   ˜       ˜              ˜               ¸
er Aess varA jarl varr at Aar var KolbjCrn,
                          ˜¨ ¨
            ¨ konungr, AA vAru Kolbirni
en eigi ˚ŒlAfr
        A
   ˜            ¨ ˜
griA gefin. En A Aessi svipan hlj˚pu allir
                                    A
                         ˜        ˜¨ ¨ ¨
         ˜ af Orminum, Aeir er AA vAru A
fyrir borA
 ¨ A ¨                   ¨         ¨
lAfi, ˚ŒlAfs konungs mAnn; ok sAgir Hall-
             ˜˜     ¨        ˜     ¨
   ˜ vandrAAa-skAld, at AorkAll nAfja,
freAr                                     ¨
                          ¨˜
              ˜ hlj˚p sAAast allra manna
konungs br˚Air, A
           A
                    278
          ˜
fyrir borA.
    SvA ¨ var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom
     ¸             ˜ A ¨
til fCruneytis viA ˚ŒlAf konung A Vin-  ¨
dlandi, ok hafAi      ¨             ˜
                ˜ tAu skip, en Aat hit el-
          ¨ ¨        ¨     ¨ ¨˜
lifta, er A vAru mAnn AstrAAar konungs-
                           ˜¨      A ¨
d˚ttur, konu jarls. En AA er ˚ŒlAfr ko-
  A
nungr hafAi              ˜            ˜¨ A ˜
            ˜ fyrir borA hlaupit, AA ˚pAi
  ¨
hArrinn allr sigr-˚p, ok A
                   A         ¨        ˜   ¨
                           ˜ A lustu Aeir Arum
     ˜                           ¨
¨ sA Sigvaldi jarl ok hans mAnn, ok rAru
A                                           ˜
                       279
                  ˚            ¨
til bardaga. En sA Vinda- snAkkjan, er
     ¨˜      ¨    ¨ ¨ ˜
¨ AAar mAnn vAru A, rAri brott ok aptr
Astr
                       ˜
undir Vindland; ok var Aat margra manna
mAl  ˜             ¨
   ¨ Aegar, at ˚ŒlAfr konungr mundi hafa
               A
            ¨            ¨
steypt af sAr brynjunni A kafi, ok kafat
                                    ¨˜
   ¨ ˚t undan langskipunum, lagizk sAAan
svA A
            ¨
til VindasnAkkj- unnar, ok hAf   ˜   ¨
                              ¨ Ai mAnn
     ¨˜                              ˜
¨ AAar flutt hann til lands. Ok eru Aar
Astr
          ¨              ˜ A ¨
                       ¨ Air ˚ŒlAfs ko-
margar frA-sagnir um fAr
                   280
nungs gC`          ¨˜               ¸
          ¸ Irvar sAAan af sumum mCnnum.
                      ˜    ¨        ˜¨
       ¨ veg sem Aat hAfir verit, AA kom
En hvArn
A ¨
˚ŒlAfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sAAan  ¨˜
     ¨
til rAkis A ¨ Noregi.
     VII. AUAUN˜
               ¨     ˜
        ˜ hAt AuAun, Vest-firzkr at kyni
     MaAr
         ¨                            ˜
      ¨ Atill; hann f˚r utan vestr Aar A
ok fA-l                 A                  ¨
  ¸  ˜
fjCrAum meA             ¨˜ ˜
                 ˜ um-rAAi Aorsteins b˚nda
                                       A
  A˜         ˜A      `            ˜
g˚As, ok A˚ris stEri-manns, er Aar hafAi  ˜
                       281
˜                        ˜ ˜             ˜
Aegit vist of vetrinn meA Aorsteini. AuAun
        ˜
var ok Aar, ok starfaAi                ˜A
                       ˜ fyrir honum A˚ri,
    ˜¨ ˜                             ¨ ˜
ok AA Aessi laun af honum–utan-fArAina
ok hans um-sjA.            ˜      ˜
               ¨ Hann AuAun lagAi mestan
        ¨ ˜                     A˜
hluta fjAr Aess er var fyrir m˚Aur sAna,¨
  ˜                ¨
¨ Ar hann stigi A skip, ok var kveAit A
A                                      ˜ ¨
˜                                 ˜
Ariggja vetra bjCrg. Ok n˚ fara Aeir utan
                  ¸         A
   ˜         ¨     ˜                  ˜
heAan, ok fArsk Aeim vel, ok var AuAun of
         ¨
vetrinn Aptir meA     ˜A     `
                   ˜ A˚ri stErimanni; hann
                     282
¨      A ¨
Atti b˚ A M˚ri. Ok um sumarit Aptir
                A                          ¨
     ˜
fara Aeir ˚t til Gr˚n-lands, ok eru Aar
            A          A                     ˜
               ˜
of vetrinn. Aess er viA    ˜ getit at AuAun  ˜
        ˜            `
kaupir Aar bjarn-dEri eitt, gC`  ¸ Irsimi mikla,
                               ¨
        ˜ fyrir alla eigu sAna. Ok n˚ of
ok gaf Aar                                  A
          ¨      ˜¨       ˜
sumarit Aptir AA fara Aeir aptr til Noregs,
       ˜           ˜         ¨
ok verAa vel reiA-fara; hAfir AuAun dEr ˜       `
sitt meA     ¨       ˜
        ˜ sAr, ok Atlar n˚ at fara suAr
                              A                ˜
           ¨     ¨
til DanmArkr A fund Sveins konungs, ok
                      283
              `
gefa honum dErit. Ok er hann kom suAr    ˜
          ˜
¨ landit, Aar sem konungr var fyrir, AA
A                                       ˜¨
 ¨                                 ˜ ¨
gAngr hann upp af [] skipi, ok leiAir Aptir
      `               ¨ ¨      ¨
 ¨ dErit, ok leigir sAr hAr-bArgi. Haraldi
sAr
                      ¨      ˜
konungi var sagt brAtt at Aar var komit
        ` gC`                   ¨ ¨ ¨
bjarndEri, ¸ Irsimi mikil, ’ok A As-lAnzkr
                   ¨     ˜        ¨
   ˜ Konungr sAndir Aegar mAnn Aptir
maAr.’                                ¨
                ˜ kom fyrir konung, kvAAr
honum, ok er AuAun                        ¨˜
hann konung vel; konungr t˚k vel kvA
                            A           ˜
                                      ¨ Aju
                     284
               ˜ ¨˜         ¨
hans, ok spurAi sAAan: ’Attu gC`  ¸ Irsimi mikla
          `
¨ bjarndEri?’ Hann svarar, ok kvezk eiga
A
  `           ¨                  ˜
dErit eitthvArt. Konungr mAlti: ’villtu
 ¨           `
sAlja oss dErit viA       ¨      ˜
                    ˜ slAku verAi sem A˚   ˜A
keyptir?’ Hann svarar: ’eigi vil ek Aat,  ˜
                 ˜¨      ¨
herra!’ ’Villtu AA,’ sAgir konungr, ’at ek
gefa A  ¨               ˜ ¨
      ˜ Ar tvau [] verA slAk, ok mun Aat   ˜
 ¨                ¨ ˜         ˜          ˜¨
            ˜ ˚ hAfir Aar viA gefit alla AAna
rAttara, ef AA
                    ˜              ¨
eigu.’ ’Eigi vil ek Aat, herra!’ sAgir hann.
                      285
            ˜                  ¨ ˜¨
Konungr mAlti: ’villtu gefa mAr AA?’ Hann
                                  ˜
svarar: ’eigi, herra!’ Konungr mAlti: ’hvat
         ¨
       ˜ A af gC`
villtu A         ¸ Ira?’ Hann svarar: ’fara,’
 ¨                        ¨
sAgir hann, ’til DanmArkr, ok gefa Sveini
                                ¨
konungi.’ Haraldr konungr sAgir: ’hvArt  ¨
                    ˜    ¨ A        ˜A ¨
       ˜ ˚ ert maAr svA ˚vitr at A˚ hAfir
er, at AA
           A ˜ ˜             ¨
eigi heyrt ˚friA Aann er A milli er landa
˜           ˜       ˜A       ˜¨      ¨
         ˜ Atlar A˚ giptu AAna svA mikla,
Aessa, eAa
                ˜
    ˜ ˚ munir Aar komask meA gC`
at AA                           ˜ ¸ Irsimar,
                       286
     ˜     ¨                           ˜˚
er aArir fA eigi komizk klakk-laust, AA at
     ˜                   ˜
nauA-syn eigi til?’ AuAun svarar: ’herra!
˜        ¨ ˜                     ¨
Aat er A yAru valdi, en engu jAtum vAr     ¨
¸          ˜          ¨         ¨˜ ˜
  ˜ en Aessu er vAr hCfum AAr Atlat.’
CAru                       ¸
˜¨ ˜                     ¨            ˜
AA mAlti konungr: ’hvA mun eigi Aat til,
                ˜ ˜¨         ˜A
   ˜ ˚ farir leiA AAna, sem A˚ vill, ok kom
at AA
˜¨        ¨       ˜A ¨              ¨
AA til mAn, er A˚ fArr aptr, ok sAg mAr,  ¨
   ¨
hvArsu Sveinn konungr launar A     ¨    `
                                ˜ Ar dErit,
          ˜             ˜A ¨    ˜
ok kann Aat vera, at A˚ sAr gAfu-maAr.’  ˜
                     287
 ˜ ¨           ˜¨         ˜
’AvA heit ek AAr,’ sagAi AuAun.  ˜
                      ¨˜        ˜
           ¨ n˚ sAAan suAr meA landi,
    Hann fArr A                        ˜
ok A    ¨             ˜¨            ¨
    ¨ VAk austr, ok AA til DanmArkr; ok er
˜¨           ¨     ¨           ¨
AA uppi hvArr pAnningr fjArins, ok verAr     ˜
hann A   ¨    ˜               ˜˜
       ˜ A biAja matar bAAi fyrir sik ok
       `              ˜      ¨       ¨
fyrir dErit. Hann kAmr A fund Ar-manns
                   ˜
Sveins konungs, Aess er Aki        ¨
                             ¨ hAt, ok baA    ˜
hann vista nakkvarra bA     ˜
                         ˜ Ai fyrir sik ok fyrir
  `        ˜        ¨
dErit: ’ek Atla,’ sAgir hann, ’at gefa Sveini
                      288
            `     ¨    ¨    ¨
konungi dErit.’ Aki lAzk sAlja mundu honum
                          ˜
vistir, ef hann vildi. AuAun kvezk ekki til
                                  ˜A ¨
hafa fyrir at gefa; ’en ek vilda A˚,’ sAgir
             ˜        ˜            ˜
hann, ’at Aetta kvAmisk til leiAar at ek
  ˜        `
mAtta dErit f˚ra konungi.’ ’Ek mun fA
                 A                        ¨
  ¨                  ˜    ˜
˜ Ar vistir, sem it AurfiA til konungs fun-
A
         ˜ ¨ A                    ¨    `
dar; en Aar A m˚ti vil ek eiga hAlft dErit,
      ¨
ok mAttu A     ˜    ¨         `
             ¨ Aat lAta, at dErit mun deyja
      ˜¨ ˜          ˜     ˜
fyrir AAr, Aars it AurfuA vistir miklar, en
                      289
 ¨ ¨                       ˜      ˜A
fA sA farit, ok er b˚it viA at A˚ hafir
                     A
  ¨        `                        ¨
˜ A ekki dErsins.’ Ok [] er hann lAtr A
A                                       ¨
˜        `                    ¨
Aetta, sEnisk honum nakkvat Aptir sem []
¨     ˜       ˜                     ˜
ArmaArinn mAlti fyrir honum, ok sAttask
     ¨ ˜               ¨ ¨      ¨     `
˜ A Aetta, at hann sAlr Aka hAlft dErit,
Aeir
ok skal konungr sA  ˜
                  ¨ Aan meta alt saman.
       ˜         ¨˜     A ¨
Skulu Aeir fara bAAir n˚ A fund konungs;
              ˜          A ¨˜ ¨
     ¨ gC` Aeir: fara n˚ bAAir A fund
ok svA ¸ Ira
                            ˜
                ˜ fyrir borAinu. Konungr
konungs, ok st˚Au
              A
                   290
¨      ¨˜      ¨ ˜           ˜
AhugAAi, hvArr Aessi maAr myndi vera, er
        ¨                ˜ sAAan til AuAunar:
hann kAndi eigi, ok mAlti ¨ ˜            ˜
                   ¨
     ¨ er-tu?’ sAgir hann. Hann svarar:
’hvArr
         ¨ ¨           ˜           ¨
’ek em AslAnzkr maAr, herra,’ sAgir hann,
’ok kominn n˚ utan af Gr˚nlandi, ok n˚
               A              A            A
                 ˜ ˜                ˜        `
[] af Noregi, ok AtlaAa-k at f˚ra yAr bjarndEri
                               A
˜
Aetta; keypta-k Aat        ˜
                   ˜ meA allri eigu minni,
            ˜A ¨     ˜                ¨
ok n˚ er A˚ A orAit mikit fyrir mAr; ek
      A
          ¨          `           ¨
¨ n˚ hAlft eitt dErit,’ ok sAgir konungi
A A
                      291
 ¨˜         ¨              ˜      ˜ ˜
sAAan, hvArsu farit hafAi meA Aeim Aka     ¨
¨                               ˜
Armanni hans. Konungr mAlti: ’er Aat        ˜
      ¨                ¨
satt, Aki, er hann sAgir?’ ’Satt er Aat,’ ˜
 ¨                           ˜
sAgir hann. Konungr mAlti: ’ok A˚tti     ˜A
  ¨ ˜                ˜             ¨
˜ Ar Aat til liggja, Aar sem ek sAtta-k Aik
A                                           ˜
                     ¨
mikinn mann, at hApta Aat        ˜ ¨
                           ˜ eAa tAlma er
   ˜    ¸ Ir ˜
maAr gC` Aisk til at f˚ra mAr gC`
                          A      ¨    ¸ Irsimi,
ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok sA ˜¨ Aat Haraldr
               ¨˜      ¨              ¨
konungr at rAAi at lAta hann fara A friAi,   ˜
                      292
              ¨ A               ˜A
ok er hann vArr ˚vinr? Hygg A˚ at AA, ˜¨
hvA            ˜         ˜
    ¨ sannligt Aat var Ainnar handar, ok
˜      ˜              ˜A ˜
Aat vAri makligt, at A˚ vArir drepinn; en
                 ˜ gC` en braut skaltu
ek mun n˚ eigi Aat ¸ Ira,
          A
      ˜
fara Aegar ˚r landinu, ok koma aldri aptr
            A
 ¨˜       ¨ ¨        `        ˜¨
sAAan mAr A aug-sEn! En AAr, AuAun!  ˜
               ˜¸          ˜A       ¨
          ¨ ACkk, sem A˚ gefir mAr alt
kann ek slAka
  `            ¨     ˜ ¨      ˜ ˜¨
dErit, ok ver hAr meA mAr.’ Aat AAkkisk
hann, ok er meA                       ¨˜
                ˜ Sveini konungi um hrAA.
                    293
             ˜                     ˜¨ ˜
    Ok er liAu nakkvarir stundir, AA mAlti
    ˜
AuAun viA                       `
           ˜ konung: ’braut fEsir mik n˚,  A
                            ¨
herra!’ Konungr svarar hAldr seint: ’hvat
       ˜¨ ¨                 ˜A
villtu AA,’ sAgir hann, ’ef A˚ vill eigi meA˜
                   ¨
oss vera?’ Hann sAgir: ’suAr˜ vil ek ganga.’
     ˜A              ¨        ¨˜         ¨
’Ef A˚ vildir eigi svA gott rAA taka,’ sAgir
konungr, ’A   ¨          ¨        ˜
            ˜ A myndi mAr fyrir Aykkja A,  ¨
         `      ¨
    ˜ ˚ fEsisk A braut’; ok n˚ gaf konungr
er AA                         A
honum silfr mjCk mikit, ok f˚r hann suAr
                 ¸             A           ˜
                     294
 ¨˜          ˜ ˚       ¨
sAAan meA RAm-fArlum, ok skipaAi ko-   ˜
                  ˜           ˜
               ¨ A hans, baA hann koma til
nungr til um fAr
 ¨           ˜
sAn, er kvAmi aptr. N˚ f˚r hann fArAar
                          A A          ¨ ˜
                    ˜
sinnar, unz hann kAmr suAr      ¨ A
                             ˜ A R˚ma-borg.
                ¨     ˜
Ok er hann hAfir Aar dvalizk, sem hann
    ˜   ˜¨ ¨                     ¨  ˜¨ A
 ¨ Air, AA fArr hann aptr; tAkr AA s˚tt
tA
          ¸ `
mikla, gCIrir hann A      ¨ ¨
                        ˜ A Akafliga magran;
  ¨     ˜¨               ¨ ˜
gAngr AA upp alt fAit Aat, er konungr
                         ¨ ˜         ¨     ¨˜
    ˜ gefit honum til fArAarinnar; tAkr sAAan
hafAi
                      295
                 ¨        ˜ ¨
upp staf-karls stAg, ok biAr sAr matar. Hann
er A  ¨                ¨    A ˜
    ˜ A koll˚ttr ok hAldr ˚-sAlligr; hann
            A
  ˜
kAmr aptr A          ˜       ¨      ˜
            ¨ DanmArk at pAskum, Aangat
sem konungr er A     ¨                ˜ ˜
                   ˜ A staddr; en ei AorAi
                ¨             ¨
         ¨ sjA sik; ok var A kirkju- skoti,
hann at lAta
    ˜ ˜ ˜¨                     ˜
ok AtlaAi AA til fundar viA konung, er
hann gengi til kirkju um kveldit; ok n˚  A
          ¨                     ˜
er hann sA konunginn ok hirAina fagrliga
        ˜¨ ˜ ˜                    ¨   ¨
b˚na, AA AorAi hann eigi at lAta sjA sik.
 A
                     296
                                 ¨ ¸
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju A hCllina,
  ¨       ˜        ˜               ˜
˜ A mataAisk AuAun ˚ti, sem siAr er til
A                       A
  A   ¨
R˚mfArla, meAan      ˜
               ˜ Aeir hafa eigi kastat staf
ok skreppu. Ok n˚ of aptaninn, er ko-
                     A
                       ¸     ˜ ˜      ˜
nungr gekk til kveld- sCngs, AtlaAi AuAun
at hitta hann, ok svA  ¨ mikit sem honum
˜A                               ¨    ˜
A˚tti fyrr fyrir, j˚k n˚ miklu A, er Aeir
                   A A
                 ˜ ¨               ˜
  ¨ druknir hirAmAnninir; ok er Aeir gengu
vAru
          ˜¨ ˜¨ ˜                     ˜A
inn aptr, AA AAkAi konungr mann, ok A˚ttisk
                     297
                   ˜
finna at eigi hafAi frama til at ganga fram
                                 ˜
at hitta hann. Ok n˚ er hirAin gekk inn,
                        A
   ¨                           ˜
˜ A veik konungr ˚t, ok mAlti: ’gangi sA
A                    A                       ¨
n˚ fram, er mik vill finna; mik grunar at
  A
  ¨                  ˜        ˜¨
sA muni vera maArinn.’ AA gekk AuAun      ˜
                                          ¨
fram, ok fell til f˚ta konungi, ok varla kAndi
                   A
                       ˜
konungr hann; ok Aegar er konungr veit,
                               ¨ ¸
    ¨ hann er, t˚k konungr A hCnd honum
hvArr              A
     ˜
AuAuni, ok baA                             ¨
                  ˜ hann vel kominn, ’ok hAfir
                       298
˜˚                                ¨˜
AA mikit skipazk,’ segir hann, ’sAAan vit
 ¨
sAmk’; leiAir          ¨      ¨
             ˜ hann Aptir sAr inn, ok er
    ˜     ¨              ˜
hirAin sA hann, hl˚gu Aeir at honum; en
                    A
konungr sagAi:         ˜     ˜¨
               ˜ ’eigi Aurfu AAr at honum
       ˜
at hlAja, Av    ¨    ¨    ¨           ¨
            ˜ A at bAtr hAfir hann sAt fyr
sinni sAl     ¨       ¨    ˜¨ ¨
         ¨ hAldr en Ar.’ AA lAt konungr
gC` [] honum laug, ok gaf honum sAAan
  ¸ Ira                                ¨˜
hlA  ˜                     ˜          ˜
   ˜ Ai, ok er hann n˚ meA honum. Aat er
                      A
                 ¨           ¨
n˚ sagt einhvArju sinni of vArit at konungr
  A
                     299
  `˜       ˜                ˜ ¨ ¨ ¨ ˜
bEAr AuAuni at vera meA sAr A-lAngAar,
ok kvezk myndu gCIra¸ ` hann skutil-svein sinn,
     ¨                  A˜     ˜
ok lAggja til hans g˚Aa virAing. AuAun   ˜
 ¨
sAgir: ’GuA    ˜        ˜               ˜
             ˜ Aakki yAr, herra! s˚ma Aann
                                   A
          ˜¨       ˜       ¨ ¨
allan er AAr viliA til mAn lAggja; en hitt
     ¨ ¨                       ¨
er mAr A skapi at fara ˚t til Aslands.’ Ko-
                          A
         ¨       ˜       `       ¨
nungr sAgir: ’Aetta sEnisk mAr undarliga
            ˜      ˜
kosit.’ AuAun mAlti: ’eigi mA        ˜
                               ¨ ek Aat vita,
          ¨
herra!’ sAgir hann, ’at ek hafa hAr¨ mikinn
                       300
 A          ˜ ˜          A˜       ¨
s˚ma meA yAr, en m˚Air mAn [] troAi       ˜
                   ¨ ¨          ˜ ¨
             ¨ ˚t A Aslandi; AvA at n˚ er
stafkarls stAg A                        A
         ¸    ˜               ˜      ¨˜
lokit bjCrg Aeiri er ek lagAa til, AAr ek
          ¨
f˚ra af Aslandi.’ Konungr svarar: ’vel er
 A
   ˜      ¨
mAlt,’ sAgir hann, ’ok mannliga, ok muntu
     ˜          ˜ ˜                  ¨
verAa giptu-maAr; Aessi einn var svA hlutrinn,
at mAr                      ¨       ˜A A
       ¨ myndi eigi [] mis-lAka at A˚ f˚rir
¨            ˜                   ˜ ¨ ˜
A braut heAan; ok ver n˚ meA mAr Aar
                           A
                              ` svA.
til er skip b˚ask.’ Hann gCIrir ¨
             A              ¸
                     301
                 ¨     ˜ ¨
    Einn dag, er A leiA vArit, gekk Sveinn
konungr ofan A                  ¨     ¨
               ¨ bryggjur, ok vAru mAnn
  ¨                       `
˜ A at, at b˚a skip til Emissa landa, A
A             A                          ¨
                             ¨ ˜ A˜
           ˜ Sax-land, til SvAAj˚Aar eAa
austr-veg eAa                           ˜
         ˜¨        ˜       ˜
Noregs. AA koma Aeir AuAun at einu skipi
             ¨      ¨
fCgru, ok vAru mAnn at, at b˚a skipit.
 ¸                               A
˜¨       ˜                 ¨     ¨
AA spurAi konungr: ’hvArsu lAzk AAr,  ˜¨
    ˜
AuAun! A    ˜
         ¨ Aetta skip?’ Hann svarar: ’vel,
                    ˜     ˜
herra!’ Konungr mAlti: ’Aetta skip vil ek
                     302
˜¨                           `             ˜
AAr gefa, ok launa bjarndErit.’ Hann AakkaAi      ˜
  ¸      ¨
gjCfina Aptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leiA         ˜
                          A ˜¨ ˜
stund, ok skipit var alb˚it, AA mAlti Sveinn
konungr viA       ˜       ˜A          A¨
           ˜ AuAun: ’A˚ villtu n˚ A braut,
  ¨                      ¨    ˜
˜ A mun ek n˚ ekki lAtja Aik, en Aat hAfi
A              A                        ˜     ¨
                                            ˜
ek spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yAru,
          ¨˜ ˜ ˜              ˜
ok eru vAAa ArAfi ok hAtt skipum; n˚            A
       ˜A         `
  ` A˚, ok tEnir skipinu ok fAnu; lAtt
brEtr                                 ¨      ¨
 ¨ ˜      ˜¨ ¨          ˜A
sAr Aat AA A, at A˚ hafir fundit Svein
                       303
konung, ok gefit honum gC`                 ¨˜
                              ¸ Irsimi.’ SAAan
  ¨                        ˜
sAldi konungr honum leAr-hosu fulla af sil-
               ˜¨ ¨          ¨           ˜ ¸
fri, ’ok ertu AA Ann eigi fA-lauss meA Cllu,
         ˜A                      ˜A ˜
˜ ˚tt A˚ brj˚tir skipit, ef A˚ fAr haldit
AA               A
˜             ˜     ¨ ¨ ¨          ¨
Aessu. VerAa mA svA Ann,’ sAgir konungr,
’at AA     `      ˜      ¨ ¨         ` ˜A ˜ ¨
      ˜ ˚ tEnir Aessu fA; lAtt nEtr A˚ AA
˜
Aess, er AA ˜ ˚ fannt Svein konung, ok gaft
honum gC`              ¨˜
           ¸ Irsimi.’ SAAan dr˚ konungr hring
                                 A
       ¨
af hAndi sAr,                  ˜
               ¨ ok gaf AuAuni, ok mAlti:  ˜
                       304
 ˜A        ¨         ˜      ˜˚     ˚
’A˚ at svA illa verAi, at AA brjAtir skipit
    `      ¨              ¨          ˜A ˜
ok tEnir fAnu, eigi ertu fAlauss, ef A˚ kAmsk
          ˜ ¨                ¨
¨ land, AvA at margir mAnn hafa gull A
A                                           ¨
     ¨                    ¨ ˜¨       ˜A ¨
 ¨ A skips-brotum, ok sAr AA at A˚ hAfir
sAr
                            ˜A ¨
fundit Svein konung, ef A˚ hAldr hring-
                       ¨˜ ˜¨       ¨
           ˜ vil ek rAAa AAr,’ sAgir hann,
inum; en Aat
                                  ˜A ˜
    ˜ ˚ gefir eigi hringinn, nema A˚ Aykkisk
’at AA
       ¨                       ¸          ¸
eiga svA mikit gott at launa nCkkurum gCfgum
         ˜¨     ˜                ˜ ¨
manni, AA gef Aeim hringinn, AvA at tignum
                      305
                     ˜
mCnnum s˚mir at Aiggja, ok far n˚ heill!’
   ¸         A                        A
        ˜      ˜          ¨
      ¨ Aan lAtr hann A haf, ok kAmr A
     SA                               ˜     ¨
Noreg, ok lAtr                    ˜
              ˜ flytja upp varnaA sinn, ok
˜                    ˜ ˜
Aurfti n˚ meira viA Aat en fyrr, er hann
          A
var A                  ¨     A ¨˜      ¨
     ¨ Noregi. Hann fArr n˚ sAAan A fund
                            ¨   ˜ er hann
Haralds konungs, ok vill Afna Aat
  ¨             ¨˜
hAt honum, AAr hann f˚r til DanmArkr,
                            A            ¨
ok kvA   ˜
       ¨ Ar konung vel. Haraldr konungr t˚kA
       ¨˜               ¨     ˜     ¨
vel kvAAju hans, ok ’sAzk niAr,’ sAgir hann,
                     306
            ¨     ˜             ¨ ¸ Irir
’ok drekk hAr meA oss’; ok svA gC` hann.
  ¨      ˜                           ¨
˜ A spurAi Haraldr kon- ungr: ’hvArju launaAi
A                                            ˜
Sveinn konungr A  ¨ `              ˜
                ˜ Ar dErit?’ AuAun svarar:
 ˜ ¨                      ˜¨
’AvA, herra! at hann AA at mAr.’ Ko- ¨
           ˜ ’launat mynda ek AAr AvA
nungr sagAi:                         ˜¨ ˜ ¨
         ¨          ˜          ¨
hafa; hvArju launaAi hann Ann?’ AuAun    ˜
                                   ˜ ¸
                    ¨ silfr til suAr-gCngu.’
svarar: ’gaf hann mAr
˜¨ ¨                             ¸
AA sAgir Haraldr konungr: ’mCrgum mCnnum  ¸
                                ˜ ¸
gefr Sveinn konungr silfr til suArgCngu eAa˜
                    307
                 ˜A
annarra hluta, A˚tt ekki f˚ri honum gC`
                           A           ¸ Irsimar;
         ¨                         ˜
hvat er Ann fleira?’ ’Hann bauA mAr,’    ¨
 ¨       ˜           ˜
sAgir AuAun, ’at gArask skutilsveinn hans,
                         ¨       ¨
ok mikinn s˚ma til mAn at lAggja.’ ’Vel
             A
            ˜      ¨
    ˜ mAlt,’ sAgir konungr, ’ok launa,
var Aat
              ¨              ˜       ˜
myndi hann Ann fleira.’ AuAun sagAi: ’gaf
hann mAr               ˜        ˜
        ¨ knCrr meA farmi Aeim er hin-
                ¸
        ¨           ¨          ˜
gat er bAzt varit A Noreg.’ Aat var st˚r-A
             ¨
mannligt,’ sAgir konungr, ’en launat mynda
                      308
    ˜¨ ˜ ¨
ek AAr AvA hafa. LaunaAi hann AvA  ˜       ˜ ¨
               ˜            ˜
fleira?’ AuAun svaraAi: ’gaf hann mAr          ¨
  ˜
leArhosu fulla af silfri, ok kvaA            ˜¨
                                      ˜ mik AA
      ¨                          ˜ ¨ ˜A
eigi fAlausan, ef ek helda AvA, A˚ at skip
mitt bryti viA      ¨
                 ˜ Asland.’ Konungr sagAi:    ˜
            ¨ ˜                    ˜
 ˜ var A-gAtliga gC` ok Aat mynda ek
’Aat                     ¸ Irt,
ekki gC` hafa; lauss mynda ek Aykkjask,
        ¸ Irt                          ˜
              ˜                 ¨
         ˜ Aer skipit; hvArt launaAi hann
ef ek gAfa                               ˜
fleira?’ ’SvA          ¨              ¨      ˜
              ¨ var vAst, herra!’ sAgir AuAun,
                        309
               ˜                 ¨
’at hann launaAi: hann gaf mAr hring Aenna ˜
            ¨ ¨                ˜     ¨
        ¨ A hAndi, ok kvaA svA mega at
er ek hAfi
                 `       ¨
berask, at ek tEnda fAnu Cllu, ok sagAi
                               ¸             ˜
mik A  ¨       ¨                ˜
     ˜ A eigi fAlausan, ef ek Atta hringinn,
      ˜                            ˜
ok baA mik eigi l˚ga, nema ek Atta nCkkurum
                 A                       ¸
tignum manni svA  ¨ gott at launa, at ek vilda
           A ¨         ˜
gefa; en n˚ hAfi ek Aann fundit, AvA at  ˜ ¨
     ¨                        ¨      ¨
˜ ˚ Attir kost at taka hvArttvAggja frA
AA                                            ¨
         `         ¨ ¨
   ¨ dErit ok svA lAf mitt, en A˚ lAzt
mAr,                                   ˜A ¨
                     310
          ˜         ¨     ˜        ˜
mik fara Aangat A friAi, sem aArir nAAu    ¨˜
eigi.’ Konungr t˚k viA ¸
                  A                    ˜ ¨˜
                        ˜ gjCfinni meA blAAu,
           ˜      ¨ A        A˜
ok gaf AuAuni A m˚ti g˚Aar gjafir, AAr      ¨˜
     ˜        ˜           ˜
en Aeir skilAisk. AuAun varAi           ¨
                                  ˜ fAnu til
¨         ¨ ˜         A A ˜
Aslands-fArAar ok f˚r ˚t Aegar um sumarit
    ¨                                    ˜    ˜
                 ˜ ˚tti vera inn mesti gAfumaAr.
til Aslands, ok AA
         ˜
    VII. ARYMS-KVIAA     ˜
            ˜        ˜¨         ˜A
    1. VreiAr var AA Ving-A˚rr, er hann
               ¨                     ˜
       ˜ ok sAns hamars of saknaAi: skAgg
vaknaAi,                                    ¨
                      311
                   ¸        `      ¨˜    ˜
nam at hrista, skCr nam at dEja, rAA JarAar
             ˜
burr um at Areifask.
                  ˜      ˜               ˜
    2. Ok hann Aat orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
                                     ˜
       ˜ n˚, Loki! hvat ek n˚ mAli, er
’heyr-Au A                     A
              ˜        ¨    ¨
engi veit jarAar hvArgi [] nA upp-himins:
¨
Ass er stolinn hamri!’
                ˜
    3. Gengu Aeir fagra Freyju t˚na, [] ok
                                 A
              ˜                  ˜
       ˜ orAa alls fyrst of kvaA: ’muntu
hann Aat
  ¨                  ˜      ¨
mAr, Freyja! fjaAr-hams ljA, ef ek minn
                       312
          ˜
hamar mAtta-k hitta?’
              ˜
    Freyja kvaA:
                         ˜ ¨ ˜A A
       ˜ ˚ munda-k gefa AAr, A˚tt ˚r gulli
    4. AA
          ˜A ¨          ˜ A
  ˜ ok-A˚ sAlja at vAri ˚r silfri.’ []
vAri,
         A ˜¨           ˜          ˜
    5. Fl˚ AA Loki, fjaArhamr dunAi, unz
                      ˜
              ¨ garAa, ok fyr innan kom
fyr utan kom Asa
 ¸
jCtna heima.
       ˜         ¨          ˜
    6. Arymr sat A haugi, Aursa dr˚ttinn,
                                  A
          ¨           ¸       ˜      ¸
greyjum sAnum gull-bCnd snAri ok mCrum
                   313
 ¨
sAnum mCn jafnaAi.
          ¸        ˜
    ˜
   Arymr kvaA:  ˜
                    ˜ ¨
   7. ’Hvat er meA Asum? hvat er meA    ˜
¨
Alfum? hvA                     ¨ ¸
           ¨ er-tu einn kominn A JCtunheima?’
            ˜
   Loki kvaA:
               ˜ ¨               ˜ ¨
   ’Ilt er meA Asum, ilt er meA Alfum;
       ˜A A ˜
  ¨ A˚ Hl˚-riAa hamar of f˚lginn?’
hAfir                          A
    ˜
   Arymr kvaA:  ˜
             ¨     A ˜
   8. ’Ek hAfi Hl˚riAa hamar of f˚lginn
                                   A
                     314
¨       ¸            ¸ ˜     ˜
Atta rCstum fyr jCrA neAan; hann engi
maAr                               ¨
    ˜ aptr of heimtir, nema f˚ri mAr Freyju
                              A
      ¨
at kvAn.’ []
          A ˜¨            ˜           ˜
    9. Fl˚ AA Loki, fjaArhamr dunAi, unz
                ¸
fyr utan kom jCtna heima ok fyr innan kom
¨        ˜      A          ˜A    ˜
Asa garAa; m˚tti hann A˚r miAra garAa,   ˜
ok hann Aat       ˜                 ˜
           ˜ orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
            ¨   ˜A ˜            ¨ ˜
    10. ’HAfir A˚ Arindi sem ArfiAi? sAg- ¨
    ¨               ¨˜
˜ A lopti lCng tAAindi: opt sitjanda sCgur
Au            ¸                         ¸
                      315
                                   ¨
of fallask, ok liggjandi lygi of bAllir.’
    Loki kvaA: ˜
             ¨      ¨ ˜        ˜
    11. ’HAfi-k ArfiAi ok Arindi: Arymr    ˜
  ¨     ˜               ˜
hAfir Ainn hamar, Aursa dr˚ttinn; hann
                                 A
          ˜
engi maAr aptr of heimtir, nema honum
                    ¨
f˚ri Freyju at kvAn.’
 A
                  ˜
    12. Ganga Aeir fagra Freyju at hitta,
          ˜       ˜                   ˜
ok hann Aat orAa alls fyrst of kvaA: ’bitt-
                     ˜     ¨
   ˜ Freyja, br˚Aar lAni! vit skulum aka
u Aik,             A
                       316
      ¨ ¸
tvau A JCtunheima.’
            ˜      ˜ ˜¨             ¨ ˜
    13. VreiA varA AA Freyja ok fnAsaAi,
     ¨                    ˜     ¸   ˜
allr Asa salr undir bifAisk, stCkk Aat it
mikla mAn       ¨
         ¨ BrAsinga: ’mik veizt-u verAa˜
                            ˜ ˜¨ ¨ ¸
                      ¨ meA AAr A JCtunheima.’
ver-gjarnasta, ef ek Ak
          ¨       ¨     ˜       ¨ ˜
    14. SAnn vAru Asir allir A Aingi ok
¨                   ¨        ˜   ¨˜ ¨
              ¨ mAli, ok of Aat rAAu rAkir
Asynjur allar A
 ¨
tAvar, hvA  ˜             ˜
          ¨ Aeir Hl˚riAa hamar of s˚tti.
                      A             A
        ˜¨       ˜ ˜                ¨
    15. AA kvaA Aat Heimdallr, hvAtastr
                      317
¨                                     ˜
Asa (vissi hann vel fram, sem vanir aArir):
’bindum vAr      ˜A ˜ ¨       ˜    ¨
           ¨ A˚r AA br˚Aar lAni, hafi
                            A
                  ¨     ¨
hann it mikla mAn BrAsinga!
           ¨
    16. LAtum und honum hrynja lukla
            ¨˜         ¨           ¨
ok kvenn-vAAir of knA falla, en A brj˚sti
                                        A
                                 ˜
     ˜ steina, ok hagliga of hCfuA typpum!’
breiAa                        ¸
        ˜¨       ˜ ˜ ˜A       ˜ A˜
    17. AA kvaA Aat A˚rr, Ar˚Augr Ass:  ¨
             ˜
’mik munu Asir argan kalla, ef ek bindask
 ˜     A˜      ¨
lAt br˚Aar lAni.’
                    318
        ˜¨        ˜ ˜
    18. AA kvaA Aat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
   ¨ ˜A A ˜A               ˜        ˜ ˜
 ˜ Agi A˚ [n˚], A˚rr! Aeira orAa; Aegar
’A
        ¸       ¨
munu jCtnar AsgarA A                 ˜A ˜
                       ˜ b˚a, nema A˚ Ainn
hamar A   ¨
        ˜ Ar of heimtir.’
                  ˜     ˜A ˜ ¨ A˜
    19. Bundu Aeir A˚r AA br˚Aar lAni      ¨
ok inu mikla mAni        ¨
                  ¨ BrAsinga.
           ¨
    20. LAtu und honum hrynja lukla ok
kvenn-vA   ˜         ¨          ¨             ˜
         ¨ Air of knA falla, en A brj˚sti breiAa
                                     A
steina, ok hagliga of hCfuA
                         ¸         ˜
                             ˜ typAu.
                       319
         ˜¨      ˜ ˜
    21. AA kvaA Aat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
                ˜ AAr ambAtt vera, vit sku-
’mun ek ok meA ˜ ¨         ¨
lum aka tvAr    ¨ ¸
            ˜ A JCtunheima.’
          ¨        ¨
    22. SAnn vAru hafrar heim of reknir,
             ¸                  ¨        ¸
skyndir at skCklum, skyldu vel rAnna: bjCrg
                       ˜       A A ˜
        ˜ brann jCrA loga, ˚k ˚ŒAins
brotnuAu,            ¸
      ¨ ¸
sonr A JCtunheima.
         ˜¨     ˜ ˜ ˜         ˜
    23. AA kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                     A
’standiA                     ¨ ˜ ¨
        ˜ upp, jCtnar! ok strAiA bAkki! n˚
                 ¸                       A
                     320
 ˚      ¨               ¨      ˜
fAra mAr Freyju at kvAn, NjarAar d˚ttur,
                                     A
˚r N˚a-t˚num.
A A A
                  ¨         ˜
    24. Ganga hAr at garAi gull-hyrndar
      ˜
 ` Axn al-svartir jCtni at gamni; fjClA
kEr,                  ¸                ¸ ˜
           ˜        ˜ ¨       ¨
¨ ek meiAma, fjClA A ek mAnja, einnar
A                 ¸
  ¨           ¨     ˜
mAr Freyju Avant Aykkir.’
             ˜ at kveldi of komit snimma,
    25. Var Aar
         ¸      ¸                  ¨
ok fyr jCtna Cl fram borit; einn At oxa,
¨                        ˜˜
              ¨ allar, AAr er konur skyldu,
Atta laxa, krAsir
                    321
                   ¨ ˜ ˚         ˜
drakk Sifjar verr sAld ArjA mjaAar.
   26. A  ¨     ˜ ˜ ˜        ˜
        ˜ A kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                      A
       ¨      A˜     ¨               ¨
’hvar sAttu br˚Air bAta hvassara? sAk-a-k
  A˜      ¨       ˜      ¨
br˚Air bAta breiAara, nA inn meira mjCA ¸˜
mey of drekka.’
                               ¨
   27. Sat in al-snotra ambAtt fyrir, er
                 ˜ ¸        ¨      ¨
  ˜ of fann viA jCtuns mAli: ’At vAtr
orA                                     ˜
        ¨      ¨
Freyja Atta nAttum, svA               ˜ A
                        ¨ var hon ˚A-f˚s
                                    A
¨ ¸
A JCtunheima.’
                    322
                    ¨
   28. Laut und lAnu, lysti at kyssa, en
             ¸    ¨                  ¨
hann utan stCkk And-langan sal: ’hvA eru
¸ A                     ˜
Cnd˚tt augu Freyju? Aykkir mAr A ¨ ˚r au-
               ¨
gum eldr of brAnna.’
                               ¨
   29. Sat in alsnotra ambAtt fyrir, er
                ˜ ¸          ¨
  ˜ of fann viA jCtuns mAli: ’svaf vAtr
orA                                    ˜
       ¨       ¨
Freyja Atta nAttum, svA               ˜ A
                          ¨ var hon ˚Af˚s
                                    A
¨ ¸
A JCtunheima.’
                            ¸
   30. Inn kom in arma jCtna systir, hin
                    323
      A˜ ¨         ˜ ˜ ˜        ¨   ˜¨
er br˚A-fjAr of biAja AorAi: ’lAttu AAr af
hCndum hringa rauAa,
  ¸                        ˜A ¸ ˜
                     ˜ ef A˚ CAlask vill
¨        ¨      ¨      ¨
Astir mAnar, Astir mAnar, alla hylli!’
    31. A  ¨    ˜ ˜ ˜        ˜
         ˜ A kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                     A
’beriA                 ˜      ¨     ¨
      ˜ inn hamar br˚Ai at vAgja, lAggiA
                     A                   ˜
MjCllni A
    ¸                 ¨ ¨ ˜
          ¨ meyjar knA, vAgiA okkr saman
  ¨       ¨
VArar hAndi!’
                  A ˜        ¨
    32. Hl˚ Hl˚riAa hugr A brj˚sti, er
             A                    A
    ˜
harA-hugaAr              ˜¨ ˜ ˜
             ˜ hamar of AAkAi; Arym drap
                    324
              ˜                  ˜
hann fyrstan, Aursa dr˚ttin, ok Att jCtuns
                        A            ¸
         ˜
alla lamAi.
                         ¸     ¸
    33. Drap hann ina Cldnu jCtna systur,
          A˜ ¨          ˜     ˜
hin er br˚AfjAr of beAit hafAi; hon skell
                            ¸
of hlaut fyr skillinga, en hCgg hamars fyr
         ¸ ˜      ¨      A ˜
hringa fjClA. SvA kom ˚ŒAins sonr Andr¨
at hamri.
    NOTES
    The references marked Gr. are to the
                     325
paragraphs of the Grammar.
    I. THOR
                       ¨ ˜      ¨
    Line 3. Hann A Aar rAki er Ar˚A-     ˜ A˜
vangar heita, ’he reigns (there) where it is
        ˜                                     ˜
called A.,’ i.e. in the place which is called A.
The plur. heita agrees with ArA        ˜
                                  ˜ ˚Avangar ,
                          ˜         ¨
as in l. 14 below: Aat eru jArngl˚far      A
’that is (his) iron gloves.’
            ˜         A            ¨
    l. 5. Aat er h˚s mest, svA at mAnn      ¨
                       326
hafa gC`¸ Irt, ’that is the largest house, so
that men have made (it),’ i.e. the largest
house that has been built. Note the plur.
 h˚s of a single house; each chamber was
  A
originally regarded as a house, being often
a detached building.
               ¨     ˜           ˆ
    l. 13. spAnnir Aeim, Gr. A 154; cp. 2.
49.
    II. THOR AND ˚TGARAALOKI
                       A        ˜
                       327
             ˚       ˜         ¨
    l. 1. fAr meA hafra sAna...ok meA       ˜
honum sA,    ¨
          ¨ Ass er... We see here that meA ˜
generally takes an acc. to denote passive,
and a dat. to denote voluntary accompani-
ment.
            ˜
    l. 5. soAit refers to some such subst. as
   ¨
 slAtr (meat) understood.
               ¨    ¨     ¨
    l. 11. sprAtti A... A is here an adv.
                   ¨
    l. 12. til mArgjar. til here implies
                      328
intention–to get at the marrow.
             ˜       ¨
    l. 20. Aat er sA augnanna, ’the little
he saw of the eyes.’– Thor frowned till his
eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the
man felt as if he were going to fall down
dead at the mere sight of them.
    l. 21. The second hann refers, of course,
to Thor.
    l. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark.
                     329
              ˜
     l. 36. Aeir, the masc. instead of the
neut. pl., as in l. 32 foll., showing that
        ˜
 leituAu is meant to refer only to the men
of the party, and not to include RCskva.  ¸
        ˆ
(Gr. A 179.)
              ¨         ¨     ˜
     l. 46. sAr hvar lA maAr, ’saw where a
man lay,’ i.e. saw a man lying.
     l. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life.
              ¨            `
     l. 52. nAfndisk SkrEmir, said his name
                       330
was Skr.
               A ˜                 ¨
    l. 66. b˚iA til ( prp. ) nAtt-verAar ˜
  ˜ prepare supper for yourselves.
yAr,
               ˜ ˜¨               ¨
    l. 77. Er Aat AAr satt at sAgja. satt
                      ˜ –’that is to be told
is in apposition to Aat
you as the truth, (namely) that...’
             ¨
    l. 88. sjA sik, see himself alive.
             ˜          ˜
    l. 104. Aann = Aann veg , that way,
course.
                      331
              ˜         ˜˜ ˜¨
   l. 108. at Asirnir bAAi AA heila hittask ×
. The full sense is, ’that Thor and Loki ex-
                                 `
pressed a wish that they and SkrEmir might
meet again safe and sound.’
                   ¨               ¨
   ll. 111, 112. sAttu hnakkann A bak sAr   ¨
aptr, threw back the backs of their heads till
they touched their backs, i.e. threw back
their heads.
   l. 118. ˚rit st˚ra, ’rather big,’ i.e. very
            A      A
                      332
big.
                       ¸
    l. 120. glotti um tCnn, ’grinned round a
tooth,’ i.e. showed his teeth in a malicious
                          ˜
grin. Two MSS. read viA instead of um .
    l. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is
it otherwise than as I think, namely that...?
i.e. am I not right in thinking that...?
                      ¨ ¨
    l. 127. engi er hAr sA inni er... = engi
     ¨         ¨
er hAr-inni sA-er...
                     333
                              ˆ
    l. 129. freista skal, Gr. A 192.
                     ˜            ¨
    l. 140. kallar Aess meiri vAn at hann
  ¨ ’says that there is more probability of
sA...
that, namely that he is...than of the con-
trary,’ i.e. says that he will have to be...
                               ¨
    l. 150. f˚thvatari en svA, ’more swift-
              A
footed than so–under these circumstances,’
i.e. than you.
                     ˜ ¨         ˜¨
    l. 156. ok er AjAlfl eigi AA kominn...
                      334
   ˜¨     ˜ ¨
= AA er AjAlfi eigi kominn...
   l. 172. at sinni, this time.
   l. 172. hann, acc.
   l. 173. laut ˚r horninu, bent back from
                 A
the horn.
   l. 188. mestr refers to drykkr under-
stood.
                      ˆ
   l. 218. kalli, Gr. A 192.
           ˜ ˚ refers to uni .
   l. 241. AA
                     335
   III. BALDER
   l. 7. engi agrees with d˚mr .
                           A
   IV. THE DEATH OF BALDER
   l. 11. hann, acc.
   l. 20. ungr, too young.
                                     ˜
   l. 31. ˚-happ is in apposition to Aat ;
          A
cp. 3. 7.
                  ¨      ˜
   ll. 33, 34. vAru meA einum hug til...
had the same feelings towards.
                    336
   l. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, pre-
vented.
   l. 42. vili, subj. ’whether he will’;–
change of construction.
   l. 55. nema, ’unless,’ here = ’until.’
   l. 89. heim. This use of heim in the
sense of ’someone else’s home.’ is frequent.
Cp. our ’drive a nail home.’
            ¨
   l. 94. svA refers to ok ef allir hlutir... ,
                    337
the ok being pleonastic.
   l. 108. hvar, cp. 2. 46.
   l. 113. karl, ’old man,’ here = Odin.
         ¨˜
   V. HAAINN AND HEGNI
             ¨˜
   l. 6. HAAinn = hann; this use of a
proper name instead of a pronoun is fre-
quent.
         ˜
   l. 9. Aar. Cp. 1. 3.
   VI. THE DEATH OF OLAF TRYG-
                     338
GVASON
              ¨
    l. 17. svA at, so that, i.e. just when.
    l. 30. er, namely that.
    l. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of
                 ¨ ˜
apposition to fArAina .
              ¨ also.
    l. 40. svA,
    l. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impend-
ing.
    l. 53. meira, adv., better, faster.
                      339
                        ¨
   l. 149. bar hann hAtt, impers. w. acc.;
he was in a conspicuous place.
               ˜     ¨
   l. 244. viA fimtAnda mann, one of fif-
teen, with fourteen men.
               ¨
   l. 259. vApna is governed by the sec-
                                     ˜˜
ond half of the genitival compound klAAa-
b˚naA
 A    ˜ , which is here considered as two
independent words.
   VII. AUAUN˜
                     340
   l. 17. var fyrir, was to be found.
                    ˜ ¨
   l. 26. tvau verA slAk, double the price
you gave.
           ¨
   l. 55. fA is probably dat. here, but may
be nom.
           ¨
   l. 56. Aptir sem..., according as, in ac-
cordance with what.
   l. 64. n˚...n˚, lately...just now.
            A A
               ¨
   l. 116. hAldr is here used pleonasti-
                     341
cally in a kind of apposition to the preced-
        ¨
ing bAtr .
    l. 125. en, and = while.
               ˜                  ¨
    l. 129. Aessi einn var svA hlutrinn,
at..., this single thing is the case, namely
that... i.e. the only thing is that...
           ˜
    VIII. ARYMSKVIAA    ˜
              ˜ is governed by hvArgi .
    l. 7. jarAar                      ¨
    l. 9. t˚na. Poetical construction of gen.
           A
                      342
to denote goal of motion.
           ˜A
    l. 15. A˚ goes with the following at =
      ¨     ˜A      ˜A        ˜ A
 ok sAlja, A˚at ( A˚tt ) vAri ˚r silfri .
    l. 32. f˚ri may be either sg. or pl. 3
             A
pers.
    GLOSSARY
    ˜            ˜ ˜              ¨
    A follows aA, A follows d, A follows
                                  ˜
                ˜ C follows o, A follows
e, ˚ follows oA, ¸
   A
¸ ˜
C, A follows t.
                    343
    The declensions of nouns are only occa-
sionally given.
    (-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom.
is kept in inflection.
    A
                    ¨            ¨
    -a adv. not. A sf. river. A see ×
eiga. A ¨ prp. w. acc. and dat. on, in.
¨˜                        ˜
AAr adv., cj. before. aArir see annar ×
   ˜           ¨      ˜
. Asir see Ass. Atla wv. 3, consider,
                     344
         ˜                      ˜
deem: ’Atlask fyrir,’ intend. Att sf. 2,
                        ˜
race, descent, family. Atta see eiga. af
 prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. ’drekka
af,’ drink off. af-h˚s sn. out-house, side
                   A
room. afl sn. strength, might. af-taka
                      ¨ ˜
 wf. damage, injury. AgAtliga adv. splen-
didly. aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.).
¨
Akafliga adv. vehemently, hard–’kalla a.’
call loudly. akarn sn. acorn. akkeri sn.
                    345
           ¨     ¨
anchor. Alar-Andir sm. thong-end, end
of a strap. al-b˚inn adj. w. gen. quite
                   A
ready. aldinn adj. old. aldri adv. never.
¨ ¨ ˜                               ¨
A-lAngAar adv. for some time. Alfr sm.
     ¨
elf. A-lit snpl. appearance, countenance
  ¨             ˜
[lAta]. all-harAr adj. very hard, very vi-
            ¨
olent. all-lAtill adj. very little. all-mann-
   A˜
sk˚Ar adj. (very injurious to men), very
                            ˜
murderous (of a battle) [skaAi, ’injury’]. all-
                     346
mikill adj. very great. allr adj. all, whole;
     ˜ ¸
’meA Cllu,’ entirely; ’alls fyrst,’ first of all.
all-st˚rum adv. very greatly. all-valdr sm.
      A
monarch, king. al-snotr adj. very clever.
al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black. alt
                   ¨
 adv. quite. ambAtt sf. 2, female slave,
                          ¨
maid. and-lit sn. face [lAta]. annarr prn.
second; following, next; other; one of the
two– ’annar...annarr,’ one...the other. ap-
                     347
tann sm. evening. aptastr adj. most be-
hind. aptr adv. back, backwards, behind.
¨             ¨               ¨
Ar sf. oar. Ar sn. year. Ar see A ×   ¨
                            ¨     ˜ sm.
. argr adj. cowardly, base. Ar-maAr
                                ¨
steward. armr adj. wretched. As-mAgin¨
                       ¨
 sn. divine strength. Ass sm. 3, (Scan-
                ¨
dinavian) god. Ast sf. 2, affection, love,
              ¨    ˜
 often in pl. Ast-sAll adj. beloved, pop-
                       ¨
         ˜ ’happy’]. Asynja wf. (Scan-
ular. [sAll,
                   348
                    ¨      ¨
dinavian) goddess [Ass]. At see eta. at
 prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to;
for; in accordance with, after. at adv. to.
                                    ¨
-at adv. not. at-laga wf. attack [lAggja].
at-r˚Ar
    A  ˜ (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, at-
        ¨                   ¨
tack. Atta num. eight. Atta see eiga ×
          ¨
      ˜ Andr adj. easy to be recognized,
. auA-k
                           ˜
easily distinguishable. auAr adj. desert,
                           ˜ Ann adj. ev-
deserted, without men. auA-s ¨
                    349
                              `
ident. auga wn. eye. aug-sEn sf. sight.
auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of
                               ¨
what is added ’j˚k n˚ miklu A,’ much was
                 A A
added to it (his hesitation increased). aus-
                                    ˜
tan adv. from the east. aust-maAr sm.
Easterner, Norwegian. austr sn. the east–
 ¨
’A au.,’ eastwards. austr adv. eastwards.
austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Rus-
     ¨
sia. Avalt adv. continually, all the time.
                    350
¨
A-vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in
          ¨           ¨      ˜
’einnar mAr Freyju Avant Aykkir,’ Freyja
                         ¨
alone I seem to want. A-vinnr adj. toil-
some, only in the impers. neut. ’mun A-  ¨
        ˜ um sCxin,’ it will be a hard fight
vint verAa      ¸
at the prow.
    B
      ˜        ˜       ¨˜
    baA see biAja. bAAir prn. both, neut.
as adv. in ’bA  ˜                      ¨˜
              ˜ Ai...ok,’ both...and. bAAu
                    351
         ˜     ¸˜            ˜
 see biAja. bCAa see biAja. bCAi see¸˜
bA  ˜
  ¨ Air. baggi wm. bag; bundle. bak sn.
          ¨
back, ’vArja eitt baki,’ defend a thing with
the back, i.e. turns one’s back to it = be
                    ˜
a coward. bak-borAi wm. larboard. bAl     ¨
 sn. flame; funeral pile. bAl-fC¨ ¸ r sf. fu-
neral. bani wm. death. bar see bera.
                           ˜
bardagi wm. battle. barA sn. edge, rim;
projection in the prow of a ship formed by
                     352
                                  ˜
the continuation of the keel. barAa see
  ¨        ˜ wm. war-ship with a sharp
bArja. barAi
prow, ram. barn sn. child. batt see ×
            ˜         A˜
binda. bauA see bj˚Aa. beiAa wv. ˜
1, w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers.
benefited , ask, demand. bein sn. bone.
  ¨                       ¨
bAkkr sm. 2, bench. bAlla wv. 1, oc-
cupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a
bad sense . bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear,
                   353
endure. berask at, happen. b. fram, bring
                     ¨        ˜
forward, out. b. vApn niAr, shoot down.
b. rA   ˜ ¨
     ¨ A sAn saman, hold council, deliber-
                                    ¨
ate. berg-risi wm. hill-giant. bArja wv.
                                 ¨
1b, strike–’b. grj˚ti,’ stone. bArjask, fight.
                  A
  ¨
bArr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword).
      ¨
ber-sArkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion.
[Literally ’bear-shirt,’ i.e. one clothed in a
                ¨                 ¨
bear’s skin.] bAtr see vel. bAtri see ×
                     354
 ˚˜       ¨               ¨
gAAr. bAzt see vel. bAztr see g˚Ar.   A˜
beygja wv. 1, bend, arch. bA     ˜
                               ¨ Aa sv. 6,
 w. gen. wait for; w. acc. abide, undergo.
  ˜
biAja sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of
thing, acc. of the pers. asked, and dat. of
the person benefited ; express a wish, bid–
    ˜
’baA hann vel kominn’ (vera understood ),
bad him welcome; call on, challenge, com-
mand, tell. bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake.
                    355
bil sn. moment of time. bila wv. 2, fail.
bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. ’einum
    ˜
verAr bilt,’ one hesitates, is taken aback, is
afraid. binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress.
                                  ¨
birta wv. 1, show [bjartr]. bAta sv. 6,
bite; cut. bittu see binda. bitu see ×
  ¨             `
bAta. bjarn-dEri sn. bear. bjartr adj.
                                  A˜
bright, clear. bj˚ see b˚a. bj˚Aa sv. 7,
                 A        A
 w. acc. and dat. offer, propose–’b. einum
                     356
fang,’ challenge to wrestling; invite. b. upp,
             ¸
give up. bjCrg sf. help; means of subsis-
                           ¨
tence, store of food. blAsa sv. 1, blow;
                                ˜
blow trumpet as signal. bleyAa wf. cow-
ard. blA   ˜
         ¨ Aa wf. gentleness, friendliness.
                      A˜
blindr adj. blind. bl˚A sn. blood. bl˚t-   A
bolli wm. sacrificial bowl. b˚tr see ×
                                  A
b˚t. boga-skot sn. bowshot. bogi wm.
 A
               ˜
bow. bog-maAr sm. bowman, archer. b˚ndi    A
                     357
 sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man
  ˚          ˜
[bAa]. borA sn. side of a ship, board;
rim, the margin between the rim of a ves-
sel and the liquid in it–’n˚ er gott beranda
                           A
    ¨
b. A horninu,’ now there is a good margin
for carrying the horn, i.e. its contents are
so diminished that it can be lifted without
spilling. borg sf. fortress, castle. borg-
   ˜
hliA sn. castle gate. b˚t sf. 3, mend-
                           A
                     358
                            ˚
ing, improvement; plur. bAtr, compensa-
         ¸                ¨
tion. bCrn see barn. brA sf. eyelid. brA   ¨
           ˜
 see bregAa. bragA   ˜ sn. trick, stratagem
       ˜                  ¨
[bregAa]. brann see brAnna. brast see
             ¨
bresta. brAtt adv. quickly. braut sf.
       ¨
way–A braut, adv. away. braut see ×
brj˚ta. braut, brott adv. away. bregAa
    A                                    ˜
 sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp,
lift, raise (to strike). change, transform.
                      359
     ˜                  ¨
breiAr adj. broad. brAnna wf. burning;
                 ¨
incremation. brAnna sv. 3, burn intr.
   ¨
brAnna wv. 1, burn trans. bresta sv.
3, break, crack, burst. brestr sm. crack;
loss. brj˚st sn. breast. brj˚ta sv. 7,
         A                     A
break–’b. (skip)’ suffer shipwreck, also
                             `
    impers. ’skip (acc.) brEtr,’ the ship
is wrecked. broddr sm. point. br˚Air  A˜
 sm. 4, brother. brotinn see brj˚ta ×A
                    360
. brotna wv. 3, break intr. brott see
braut. brott-laga sf. retreat. br˚ sf.
                                   A
            A˜ ¨
bridge. br˚A-fA sn. bridal gift. br˚ArA˜
 sf. 2, bride. br˚n sf. 3, eyebrow. bryg-
                 A
                                      `
gja wf. pier. brynja wf. corslet. brEnn
 see br˚n. bryn-st˚ka wf. corslet-sleeve.
        A          A
                      `
bryti see brj˚ta. brEtr see brj˚ta. b˚
               A                 A      A
 sn. dwelling, home. b˚a sv. 1, dwell; in-
                       A
habit, possess, prepare. b˚ask, get ready,
                          A
                    361
                    ˚     ˜
prepare intr. ’er bAit viA at...’ it is likely
to be that..., there is danger of... buAu  ˜
          ˜
 see bj˚Aa. b˚inn adj. ready; in a cer-
        A       A
                   ˜     ¨ A
tain condition–’(viA) svA b˚it’ adv. un-
der such circumstances; capable, fit for–’vel
    ¨ A
at sAr b˚inn,’ very capable, very good (at).
bundu see binda. burr sm. son. bEAr       `˜
        A ˜
 see bj˚Aa. bEr ` see b˚a. byrja wv.
                           A
                ˜
3, begin. byr-vAnn adj. promising a fair
                    362
wind.
    D
    daga wv. 3, dawn. dagan sf. dawn.
dagr sm. day. dalr sm. valley. dauAr ˜
                ¨
 adj. dead. dAgi see dagr. deyja sv.
2, die. dj˚pr adj. deep. d˚ see deyja.
          A               A
d˚mr sm. decision. d˚ttir sf. 3, daugh-
  A                  A
        ¸   ˜                     ˜
ter. dCgurAr sm. breakfast [-urA = -
              ¨    ˜
    ˜ cp. nAttverAr]. d˚kkr (-vir) adj.
verAr,                  A
                  363
dark. draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman,
collect. drakk see drekka. drap see ×
                               ¨
drepa. draumr sm. dream. drAginn see
                    ¨      ¨
draga. dreif see drAfa. drAki wm. dragon;
dragon-ship, ship with a dragon’s head as a
beak. drekka sv. 3, drink. drepa sv.
5, strike; kill. dreyma wv. 1, impers.
w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing
                    ¨
dream [draumr]. drAfa sv. 6, drive; has-
                    364
        ˚
ten. drjApa sv. 7, drop. dr˚ see draga ×
                            A
. dr˚gu see draga. dr˚ttinn sm. lord.
     A                   A
dr˚ttin-hollr adj. faithful to its master.
  A
drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk. drupu see
drj˚pa. drykkja wf. drinking [drekka]. drykkju-
   A
   ˜
maAr sm. drinker. drykkr sm. 2, draught.
                           ˜
duna wv. 3, resound. dunAi see dynja ×
                   ¨         ¨
       ˜ see dvAlja. dvAlja wv. 1b,
. dvalAa
          ¨
delay. dvAljask, dwell, stop. dvergr sm.
                   365
           ˜                  `
dwarf. dyArill sm. (?). dEja wv. 1b,
                                   `
shake. dynja wv. 1b, resound. dEr sn.
animal, beast. dyrr sfnpl. door.
   E
    ˜                     ¨
   eAa cj. or. ef cj. if. Afna wv. 1, per-
                 ¨                      ˜
form, carry out. Aggja wv. 3, incite. eiAr
 sm. oath. eiga wf. property. eiga swv.
possess, have: have as wife, be married to;
have in the sense of must. eigi adv. not;
                   366
no. eign sf. property. eignask wv. 3, ap-
                                        ¨
propriate, gain. eik sf. 3, oak. einka-mAl
 snpl. personal agreement, special treaty.
einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain,
a; alone, only– ’einn saman,’ alone, mere.
        ¨
einn-hvArr prn. a certain, some, a. eira
 wv. 1, w. dat. spare. eitr sn. poi-
                   ¨
son. ek prn. I. Ak see aka. ekki prn.
neut. nothing; adv. not. eldr sm. fire.
                     367
¨
Alli wf. old age. ellifti adj. eleventh. el-
lifu num. eleven. em see vera. en cj.
but; and. en adv. than, after compar.
¨                               ¨     ¨
Andask wv. 1, end, suffice for. Andi, Andir
          ¨
 sm. end. And-langr adj. the whole length–
 ¨
’Andlangan sal,’ the whole length of the
       ¨
hall. Andr adv. again. engi prn. none,
     ¨
no. Ann adv. yet, still; besides; after all.
¨
Aptir prp. w. acc. after (of time). w.
                   368
dat. along, over; in quest of, after; accord-
ing to, by. adv. afterwards; behind [aptr].
¨
Aptri adj. compar. hind. er prn. rel.
who, which, rel. adv. where; when; be-
cause, that. er see vera. er see A˚ ×   ˜A
      ˜
  ¨ Ai sn. work; trouble. ert see vera.
. Arfi
eru see vera. eta sv. 5, eat. ey sf. is-
land.
    F
                    369
     ¨
    fA sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be
         ¨               ¨  ¨
able. fAsk, wrestle. fAsk A, be obtained,
        ˜                     ˜
be. faAir sm. 4, father. fAr see fA ×   ¨
   ˜                      ˜
               ¨ fagnaAr sm. 2, joy; en-
. fAstr see fAr.
tertainment, hospitality. fagr adj. beau-
tiful, fair, fine. fagrliga adv. finely. fall
 sn. fall. falla sv. 1, fall. fallask, be
forgotten, fail. fang sn. embrace, grasp;
                              ¨
wrestling. fann see finna. fAr adj. few–
                     370
         ¨                 ¨
 neut. fAtt w. gen. : ’fAtt manna,’ few
men. fara go, travel– w. gen. in such con-
                 ¨ ˜
str. as ’f. fArAar sinnar,’ go his way;
fare (well, ill); happen, turn out; experi-
              ˜
ence; ’f. meA einu,’ deal with, treat; de-
stroy, use up w. dat. farask impers. in
  ¨     ˜
’fArsk Aeim vel,’ they have a good pas-
sage. farmr sm. lading, cargo. fastr adj.
                     ¨
firm, fast, strong. fA sn. property, money.
                      371
 ¨˜               ˜
fAArum see faAir. fekk see fA. fAgrA ¨ ¨ ˜
                     ¨
 sf. beauty [fagr]. fAgrstr see fagr. feikn-
stafir smpl. 2, wickedness. fela sv. 3,
          ¨
hide. fAlagi wm. companion. fA-lauss    ¨
                       ¨
                    ¨ Atill adj. with little
 adj. penniless. fA-l
                                  ¨
money, poor. fell see falla. fAlla wv. 1,
                                        ¨
fell, throw down; kill [falla]. fengu, fAnginn
 see fA.    ¨                ¨ ˜
        ¨ fAr see fara. fArA sf. 2, jour-
ney [fara]. fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered.
                     372
                      ¨
fimm num. five. fimtAndi adj. fifteenth.
finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice,
         ˜
see. fjaAr-hamr sm. feathered (winged)
                               ¨
coat. fjall sn. mountain. fjAr see fA. ¨
fjara sf. ebb-tide; beach. fjogur see ×
          A ˜
fj˚rir. fj˚rAi adj. fourth. fj˚rir num.
  A                            A
        ¸ ˜                  ¸
four. fjClA wf. quantity. fjCl-kyngi sn.
           ¸   ¨
magic. fjCl-mAnni sn. multitude; troop
    ˜
[maAr]. fjCrAr
            ¸ ˜ sm. 3, firth. fjCrur see
                                 ¸
                   373
         ¨
fjara. flA sv. 2, flay, skin. flaug see ×
          ¨            ¨
flj˚ga. flAginn see flA. flestr see margr ×
   A
. flj˚ta sv. 7, float, drift. flj˚ga sv.
     A                            A
7, fly. fl˚ see flj˚ga. floti wm. fleet
           A         A
                                `
[flj˚tal. fl˚tti wm. flight [flEja]. flugu
   A        A
                                  `
 see flj˚ga. fluttu see flytja. flEja wv.
        A
                                         ¨
1, flee. flytja wv. 1b. remove, bring. fnAsa
 wv. 3, snort. f˚ra wv. 1, bring, take; fas-
                 A
ten [fara]. f˚rir see fara. f˚ti see f˚t ×
             A               A        A
                     374
. f˚lginn see fela. f˚lk sn. multitude,
   A                   A
troop; people. f˚r see fara. for-tClur
                 A                      ¸
 wpl. representations, arguments [tala]. f˚stra
                                          A
 wf. nurse. f˚t-hvatr adj. swift-footed.
              A
 A                      ¸˜
f˚tr sm. foot; leg. fCAur see faAir × ˜
   ¸                        ¸
. fCr sf. journey [fara]. fCru-neyti sn.
                      ¨
company [nj˚ta]. frA prp. from, away
            A
                             ¨ ¨
from; about, concerning. ’A frA’ adv.
        ˜                       ¨
away. frAndi sm. 4, relation. frA-fall sn.
                   375
death. fram adv. forward, forth. compar.
framar, ahead. framastr adj. superl. chief,
most distinguished. frami wm. advantage,
                ˜        ¨
courage. framiAr see frAmja. fram-stafn
                ¨ ¸ gn sf. narrative, rela-
 sm. prow. frA-sC
tion. freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test.
  ¨                                 ˜
frAmja wv. 1b, perform [fram]. friAr sm.
              ˜                         A˜
            ¨ Ar adj. beautiful, fine. fr˚Ar
2, peace. frA
 adj. learned, wise. fr˚kn adj. bold, dar-
                       A
                    376
ing. frost sn. frost. fugl sm. bird. full-
kominn adj. ( ptc. ) complete; ready (for).
fullr adj. full. fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna].
                       ˜
fundu see finna. furAu adv. awfully, very.
    f˚ss adj. eager. fylgja wv. 1, w.
     A
dat. follow; accompany. fylki sn. troop
[f˚lk]. fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up
  A
(troops) [f˚lk]. fylla wv. 1, fill [fullr]. fyr,
           A
fyrir prp. w. acc. and dat. before; be-
                      377
                     ˜
yond, over–’f. borA,’ overboard; instead
of–’koma f.’ adv. be given as compen-
                             ˜ ¨
sation; for; because of. ’f. AvA at,’ be-
          ¨         ¨ insignificant. fyrir-
cause. ’lAtill. f. sAr,’
r˚m sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin. fyrirr˚ms-
 A                                    A
    ˜
maAr sm. man in the fore-hold. fyrr adv.
compar. before, formerly. superl. fyrst,
first. fyrri adj. compar. former. superl.
               `
fyrstr, first. fEsa wv. 1, hasten trans.–
                    378
                 `
impers. ’braut fEsir mik,’ I feel a desire to
go away [f˚ss].
          A
    G
     ¨
    gA wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for.
  ˜                     ˜
gAfa wf. luck [gefa]. gAta wv. 1, watch,
take care of [geta]. gaf see gefa. gAfu- ˜
maAr˜ sm. lucky man. gaflak sn. javelin.
gamall adj. old. gaman sn. amusement,
joy. ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in
                    379
                     ¨
poetry ; attack–’g. A skip,’ board a ship.
g. af, be finished. g. til, come up. g.
upp, land; board a ship; be used up, ex-
                        ˜
pended (of money). garAr sm. enclosure,
court; dwelling. gat see geta. gefa sv. 5,
        ¨        ¨ ¨
give. gAgnum, A gAgnum prp. w. gen.
                              ¨
through. gekk see ganga. gAlti see ×
         ¨        ¨
gCltr. gAnginn, gAngr, gengu see ganga ×
  ¸
. geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak
                    380
of; guess, suppose. geysi adv. excessively.
                                  ˜
gipta wf. luck [gefa]. giptu-maAr sm.
                            ¸
lucky man. gjafar see gjCf. gjCf sf.¸
gift. glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin.
   ˜                           `
glAsiligr adj. magnificent. gnEr sm. din,
noise. g˚Ar
         A ˜ adj. good–’gott er til eins,’ it
is easy to get at, obtain. g˚lf sn. floor;
                            A
                              A˜
apartment, room. gott see g˚Ar. gCfugr¸
                              ¸
 adj. distinguished [gefa]. gCltr sm. 3,
                    381
boar. gCmul see gamall. gC`
          ¸                         ¸ Ira wv.
1c, do, make. gC` ¸ Irask, set about doing;
be made into, become. gC` at, accom-
                             ¸ Ira
plish, carry out. gC`¸ Irsimi wf. article of
value, treasure. granda wv. 3, w. dat.
            ¨
injure. grAr adj. gray. gras sn. grass;
                 ¨
plant, flower. grAta sv. 1, weep, mourn
        ¨                          ˜
for. grAtr sm. weeping. greiAa wv. 1,
put in order, arrange. greip see grApa × ¨
                     382
         ¨
. gres-jArn sn. iron wire (?). grey sn.
           ˜
dog. griA snpl. peace, security. griAa-  ˜
    ˜ sm. sanctuary. grind sf. 3, lattice
staAr
                   ¨
door, wicket. grApa sv. 6, seize. gripr
 sm. 2, article of value, treasure. grj˚t A
 sn. stone (collectively). gr˚a sv. 1, grow;
                             A
heal. gr˚r see gr˚a. gruna wv. 3, impers. –
        A          A
’mik grunar,’ I suspect, think. grunr sm.
2, suspicion. gull sn. gold. gull-band sn.
                     383
                    ˚
gold band. gull-bAinn adj. adorned with
gold. gull-hringr sm. gold ring. gull-hyrndr
                                        ˜
 adj. ( ptc. ) with gilt horns. gull-roAinn
                      `
 adj. ( ptc. ) gilt. gEgr sf. giantess. gyltr
                         ˜
 adj. ( ptc. ) gilt. gyrAa wv. 1, gird.
   H
     ˜            ¨     ˜
   hAstr see hAr. hAtta wv. 1, w. dat.
                     ˜
desist from, stop. hAttligr adj. dangerous,
                 ˜
threatening. hAttr adj. dangerous. haf
                      384
 sn. sea. hafa wv. 1, have; ’h. einn nAr   ˜
einu,’ bring near to, expose to; use, utilize.
at hafask, undertake. til hafa, have at hand.
              ¸
hafna see hCfn. hafr sm. goat. hafr-
staka wf. goatskin. hagliga adv. neatly.
                                    ˜¨
hagr sm. condition; advantage–’AAr mun
h. A ¨ vera,’ will avail thee, be profitable
               A˜
to you. hag-st˚Ar adj. favourable. halda
 sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. A );¨
                     385
keep. w. acc. observe, keep (laws, etc.).
                                      ¨
 intr. take a certain direction, go. hAlfr
              ¨
 adj. half. hAlfu adv. by half, half as
much again. hallar see hCll. hallar-g˚lf
                           ¸           A
 sn. hall floor. haltr adj. lame. hamarr
                          ˜
 sm. hammer. hamars-muAr sm. thin end
of hammer. hamar-skapt sn. handle of a
hammer. hamar-spor sn. mark made by
a hammer. hana see hann. handar see
                    386
  ¸
hCnd. hand-skot sn. throwing with the
              ¨
hand. hand-tAkinn ptc. pret. taken by
                                     ¨
hand, taken alive. hann prn. he. hAr sn.
                           ˜       ˜
        ¨ adj. high. harA-hugaAr adj.
hair. hAr
                    ˜
stern of mood. harAr adj. hard; strong.
    ˜
harA-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skj˚ta].
                                       A
                    ¨
harmr sm. grief. hAski wm. danger. hA-   ¨
 ˜
sAti sn. high seat, dais [sitja]. hAs  ˜
                                     ¨ Atis-
                                 ¨
kista sf. chest under the dais. hAtt adv.
                    387
high; loudly. haugr sm. mound. hauss
               ˜
 sm. skull. heAan adv. hence. hAfi see¨
        ¨                                ¨
hafa. hAfja sv. 2, raise, lift; begin. hAfna
 wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge. heill
 adj. sound, safe, prosperous. heil-rCAi  ¸˜
 sn. sound advice, good advice [rA   ˜
                                   ¨ A]. heim
 adv. to one’s home, home (domum). heima
 adv. at home (domi). heima-maAr sm. ˜
man of the household. heim-f˚ss adj. long-
                              A
                    388
ing to go home, homesick. heimr sm. home,
dwelling; world. heimta wv. 1, fetch, ob-
tain, get back. heita sv. 1, call; w. dat.
of pers. and dat. of thing promise; intr.
                                  ¨
( pres. heiti) be named, called. hAldr see
           ¨
halda. hAldr adv. compar. more will-
ingly, rather, sooner, more; rather, very.
  ¨                                    ¨
hAl-grindr sf. the doors of hell. hAllir
                               ¨
 sm. cave. helt see halda. hAl-vegr sm.
                    389
                  ¨
road to hell. hAlzt adv. superl. most
                                       ¨
willingly, soonest, especially, most [hAldr].
  ¨       ¨            ¸        ¨
hAndi, hAndr see hCnd. hAnnar, hAnni    ¨
               ¨
 see hann. hApta wv. 1, bind; hinder,
        ¨
stop. hAr adv. here–’h. af,’ etc. here-of.
  ¨
hAr-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings. hArAa¨ ˜
                         ¨
 wv. harden, clench. hAr-fang sn. booty.
  ¨                                ¨
hArja wv. 3, make war, ravage [hArr]. hArr ¨
 sm. army, fleet. herra sm. lord. hAr-     ¨
                     390
                                      ¨
skip sn. war-ship. hestr sm. horse. hAt
 see heita. heyra wv. 1, hear. himinn
 sm. heaven. hingat adv. hither. hinn
                 ˜               ˜
 prn. that. hirA sf. court. hirA-maAr ˜
 sm. courtier. hiti wm. heat. hitta wv.
come upon, find, meet; trans. go to. ×
                        ¨
hittask, meet, intr. hjA prp. w. dat. by,
                          ¨
at; in comparison with. hjAlmr sm. hel-
                                 ˜
met. hj˚n snpl. household. hlaAa sv.
         A
                    391
2, load, heap up; ’h. seglum,’ take in sails.
   ˜
hlAja sv. 2, laugh. hlaupa sv. 1, jump,
leap; run. hlaut see hlj˚ta. hleyp see
                           A
hlaupa. hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e.
                       ¨                 ¨
the horse), gallop. hlAf sf. shield. hlAfa
 wv. 1, w. dat. shelter, cover, protect.
hlj˚p see hlaupa.
   A
                                   A˜
     hlj˚ta sv. 7, get, receive. hl˚Au see
        A
     ˜                   ˜
hlaAa. hl˚gu see hlAja. hlunnr sm.
            A
                    392
roller (for launching ships). hluti wm. por-
tion [hlj˚ta]. hlutr sm. 2, share; portion,
          A
part, piece; thing [hlj˚ta]. hlut-skipti sn.
                       A
booty. hnakki wm. back of head. h˚f        A
         ¨
 see hAfja. hollr adj. gracious, faithful.
h˚lmr sm. small island. hon see hann.
  A
honum see hann. horn sn. horn. h˚gri     A
 adj. compar. right (hand). h˚la wv. 1,
                                 A
                               ¸ ˜
 w. dat. praise, boast of. hCfAingi wm.
                      393
        ¸ ˜       ¸ ˜    ¸
chief [hCfuA]. hCfAa-fjCl sf. head-board
                             ¸ ˜
(especially of a bedstead). hCfAu see ×
                           ¸ ˜
hafa. hCfn sf. harbour. hCfuA sn. head.
        ¸
  ¸
hCgg sn. stroke. hCgg-ormr sm. viper.
                      ¸
  ¸
hCgg-orrosta wf. ’cutting-fight,’ hand-to-
              ¸
hand fight. hCggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike.
  ¸
hCll sf. hall. hCnd sf. 3, hand; side–
                   ¸
    ¨      ¨
’hvArra-tvAggju handar,’ on both sides, for
                 ˜
both parties. hrAddr adj. frightened, afraid
                     394
             ˜˜          ˜˜
[ ptc. of hrAAask]. hrAAask wv. 1, be
                    ˜                ˜˜
frightened, fear. hrAzla wf. fear [hrAAask].
hrafn sm. raven. hratt see hrinda. hrauA  ˜
           ˜
 see hrj˚Aa. hraut see hrj˚ta. hreyfa
         A                     A
                    ¨˜
 wv. 1, move. hrAA sf. period of time.
   ¨ ˜
hrAm-Aurs sm. frost giant. hrinda sv. 3,
push, launch (ship). hrista wv. 1, shake.
    A˜
hrj˚Aa sv. 7, strip, clear, disable. hrj˚ta
                                        A
 sv. 7, start, burst out. hrCkk see ×
                               ¸
                     395
   ˜         ˜                         ˜
hrAkkva. hrAkkva sv. 3, start back. hryAi
 see hrj˚ta. hrynja wv. 1b. fall down.
         A
   `                      ˜
hrEtr see hrj˚ta. hugAa see hyggja ×
               A
. hugi wm. thought. hugr sm. mind,
heart; courage, spirit. hugsa wv. 3, con-
                     ˜
sider, think. hundraA sn. hundred. hurA ˜
 sf. 2, door. h˚s sn. room; house. hvar
                A
                        ¨
 adv. where; that. hvArr prn. which of
                              ¨     ¨
two; each of the two, both. hvArr-tvAggja
                    396
                                 ¨
 prn. each of the two, both. hvArt adv.
whether, both in direct and indirect ques-
           ¨    ¨
tions . hvArt-tvAggja adv. ’hv...ok,’ both...and.
hvass adj. sharp. hvat prn. neut. what.
                             ¨
hvart adj. brisk, bold. hvA adv. how.
                          ¨
hverfa sv. 3, turn, go. hvAr-gi adv. nowhere–
         ˜
’hv. jarAar,’ nowhere on earth; in no re-
                          ¨
spect, by no means. hvArnig adv. how
                    ¨
      ¨ veg.]. hvArr prn. who. hvArsu
[= hvArn                              ¨
                    397
                 ¨
 adv. how. hvA adv. why. hvirfill sm.
                       ¨
crown of head. hvAtna wv. 2, whiten.
    ¨
hvAtr adj. white. hyggja wv. 1b. think,
mean, determine [hugr]. hylli wf. favour
[hollr].
     I
     ¨             ¨
     A prp. in. A-huga wv. 3, try to re-
member, consider [hugr]. illa adv. ill, badly.
illr adj. ill, bad. inn art. the. inn adv.
                      398
in compar. innar, further in. inna wv.
1, accomplish. innan adv. within, inside.
fyrir innan prp. w. gen. within, in. inni
                 ˜A                 ¨ ˜ A
 adv. in. it see A˚. it see inn. A-Ar˚tt
 sf. feat.
    J
             ˜
    jafn-breiAr adj. equally broad. jafn-
  ¸                              ¨
hCfugr adj. equally heavy [hAfja]. jafn-
mikill adj. equally great. jafn-skj˚tt adv.
                                   A
                    399
equally quick. jafna wv. 3, smooth; com-
pare w. dat. of thing compared. jafnan
                                 ¨
 adv. always. jarl sm. earl. jArn sn.
       ¨                             ¨
iron. jArn-gl˚fi sm. iron gauntlet. jArn-
              A
   ¸                     ¨
spCng sf. iron plate. jAta wv. 1, w.
                                 ¸ ˜
dat. agree to. j˚k see auka. jCrA sf.
                  A
         ¸
earth. jCtun-heimar smpl. home, world
                ¸
of the giants. jCtunn sm. giant.
    K
                    400
      ˜                                ˜
    kAr-leikr sm. love, affection [kArr, ’dear’].
kaf sn. diving; deep water, water under
the surface. kafa wv. 3, dive. kalla wv.
3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call.
kann see kunna. kapp sn. competition.
karl sm. man; old man. kasta wv. 3,
cast, throw. kaupa wv. 2, buy. kAngr     ¨
               ¨
 sm. bend. kAnna wv. 1, know; perceive.
  ¨                                  ¨
kArling sf. old woman [karl]. kArra wf.
                       401
          ¨
chariot. kAtill sm. kettle. keypta see ×
kaupa. keyra wv. 1, drive. kirkja wf.
church. kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church.
kj˚sa sv. 7, choose. klakk-laust adv.
  A
              ˜˜                     ˜˜
uninjured. klAAa wv. 1, clothe. klAAa-
b˚naAr
  A                      ˜˜
      ˜ sm. apparel. klAAi snpl. clothes.
   ¨               ¨
knA sn. knee. knAfr sm. knife. knCrr  ¸
                        A˜          `
 sm. merchant-ship. kn˚Ai see knEja ×
. kn˚i wm. knuckle. kn˚tr sm. knot.
     A                     A
                   402
   `
knEja wv. 1b, press with knuckles or knees;
exert oneself [kn˚i]. k˚lf-skot sn. (dis-
                  A      A
tance of a) bolt-shot. koll˚ttr adj. bald.
                            A
koma sv. 4. come; happen, turn out; w.
dat. bring into a certain condition. k. fyrir ×
, be paid in atonement. komask, make one’s
way (by dint of exertion). kona wf. woman;
wife. konr sm. kind–’alls konar,’ all kinds;
’nakkvars konar,’ of some kind. konunga-
                     403
   ¨
stAfna wf. congress of kings. konungr sm.
king. konungs-d˚ttir sf. king’s daughter.
                  A
konungs-skip sn. king’s ship. kosinn see
kj˚sa. kost-gripr sm. precious thing, trea-
   A
                                ¸˜
sure. kostr sm. 2, choice–’at CAru kosti,’
otherwise; power [kj˚sa]. kCgur-sveinn sm.
                     A     ¸
                     ¸               ¸
little boy, urchin. kCpp see kapp. kCpur-
   ˜                     ˜    ¸
yrAi sn. boasting [orA]. kCttr sm. 3,
        ˜
cat. kAm see koma. krappa-r˚m sn.  A
                     404
back cabin. krappr adj. narrow. kraptr
                   ¨                   ¨
 sm. strength. krAs sf. 2, delicacy. krAfja
 wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing , demand. kunna swv. know; feel;
venture; like to. kunnandi wf. knowledge,
accomplishments. kunnusta wf. knowledge,
power. kunnr adj. known. kurr sm.
                      ˜˜
murmur, rumour. kvAAi sn. poem. kvAma   ˜
 see koma. kvAn                  ˜
                ¨ sf. wife. kveAa sv. 5,
                     405
           ¨                     ¨˜
say. kv. A settle, agree on. kvAAja wf.
                ˜
salutation [kveAa]. kvA   ˜
                        ¨ Aja wv. 1b, greet.
                       ¨
kveld sn. evening–’A kv.,’ this evening.
        ¸                          ¨˜
kveld-sCngr sm. vespers. kvenn-vAAir sfpl.
woman’s clothes. kviAr ˜ sm. 3, stomach,
belly. kvisa wv. 3, whisper. kvistr sm.
3, branch, twig. kvCddu see kvAAja ×
                      ¸             ¨˜
. kykr (-vir) adj. living. kykvendi sn.
                            `
living creature, animal. kEll sm. bag. kyn
                     406
                      `
 sn. race, lineage. kEr sf. 3, cow. kyssa
 wv. 1, kiss.
    L
     ¨                ˜         ¨     ˜
    lA see liggja. lAgri see lAgr. lAr-
 ¨
lAggr sm. thigh-bone. lAt           ¨
                           ˜ see lAta ×
      ˜        ¨        ¨
. lagAa see lAggja. lAgr adj. low; short
                            ˜
of stature [liggja]. lags-maAr sm. com-
                                ˜
panion. lagu see liggja. lamAa, lamit
        ¨
 see lAmja. land sn. land, country. land-
                     407
    ¨
skjAlfti wm. earthquake. langr adj. long,
       ¨                   ¨
far. lAt snpl. noise. lAta sv. 1, let go;
leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave, act;
                                 ˜
say. lauf sn. foliage. laufs-blaA sn. (blade
of foliage), leaf. laug sf. bath. laun snpl.
reward. launa wv. 3, reward, requite w.
dat. of the thing given and of the pers.,
and acc. of the thing requited. lauss adj.
loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obliga-
                      408
                     ˚
tion. laust see ljAsta. laut see l˚ta × A
                         ˜
. lax sm. salmon. leAr-hosa wf. leather
       ¨
bag. lAggja wv. 1b, lay, put; ’l. eitt fyrir
einn,’ give, settle on; ’l. sik fram,’ exert
oneself; intr. w. skip understood sail,
                               ¨
row–l. at, land; attack; l. frA, retreat, draw
                              ¨
off; pierce, make a thrust. lAggjask, set out,
                            ˜
proceed; swim [liggja]. leiA sf. way–’koma
            ˜                 ¨˜       ˜
einu til leiAar,’ carry out [lAAa]. leiA see
                      409
 ¨˜       ˜                          ¨˜
lAAa. leiAa wv. 1, lead, conduct [lAAa].
   ˜                         ˜ leiga wv.
leiAangr (-rs) sm. levy [leiA].
1, borrow. leikr sm. game; athletic sports,
contest. leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat.
seek; take to, have recourse to. leitask ×
                    ¨      ¨
, feel one’s way [lAta]. lAmja wv. 1b,
              ˜
         ¨ A sf. length [langr]. lAngi
break. lAng                           ¨
                               ¨
 adv. long (of time) [langr]. lAngstr see
        ¨         ¨     ¨
langr. lAt see lAta. lAtja wv. 1b, w.
                    410
acc. of pers. and gen. of thing , hin-
                   ¨
der, dissuade. lAtta wv. 1, w. dat.
lift. leyniliga adv. secretly. leysa wv. 1,
                               ˜
loosen, untie, open [lauss]. liA sn. troop.
    ˜
 ¨ Aa sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers.
lA
 ¨˜
lAAr, w. dat. fare, get on. impers.
  ¨˜ ¨        ¨
’lAAr A (nAttina),’ (the night) is drawing
               ¨          ¨ ¨
to a close. lAf sn. life–’A lAfi,’ alive. lifa
 wv. 2, live. liggja sv. 5, lie. l. til ×
                     411
                 ¨
, be fitting. lAk sn. body; corpse. lAka    ¨
                               ¨
 wv. 3, w. dat. please. lAki sn. form
  ¨      ¨                               ¨
[lAk]. lAking sf. likeness, similarity [lAkr].
 ¨                             ¨
lAknsamr adj. gracious. lAkr adj. like.
 ¨
lAn sn. linen; linen headdress. list sf.
       ¨
art. lAta sv. 6, look at; regard, consider–
’l. til eins.’ turn to, acknowledge greeting.
 ¨
lAtask impers. w. dat. seem. litask wv.
                      ¨      ¨
3, look round one [lAta]. lAtill adj. little,
                      412
        ¨       ˜
small–’lAtit veAr,’ not very windy weather.
 ¨                                 ¨     ˜˜
lAtlu adv. by a little, a little. lAtil-rAAi
 sm. degradation [rA  ˜
                    ¨ A]. litr sm. 3, colour,
                            ¨       ¨
complexion; appearance [lAta]. lAzk see
 ¨      ¨ wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend.
lAta. ljA
lj˚sta sv. 7, strike, w. dat. of instr. and
  A
                                ¨     ¨ ˜
acc. of the thing struck –’l. Arum A sA,’
dip the oars into the sea, begin to row. lofa
 wv. 3, praise. l˚ga wv. 3, w. dat.
                   A
                     413
part with. logi wm. flame. lokinn see
                       ¨
l˚ka. lopt sn. air–’A l.,’ up. l˚ka sv.
 A                                 A
                          `
7, lock, close; impers. ’lEkr einu,’ it is fin-
ished, exhausted. ’l. upp,’ unlock, open.
lukla see lykill. lustu see lj˚sta. l˚ta
                                 A        A
 sv. 7, bend, bow. lygi wf. lie, falsehood.
    ˜                    ˜
lykA sf. ending–’at lykAum,’ finally. lykill
 sm. key [l˚ka]. lypta wv. 1, w. dat. lift
            A
[lopt]. lypting sf. raised place (castle) on
                    414
                                `
the poop of a warship [lypta]. lEsa wv. 1,
         `                         `
shine. lEsi-gull sn. bright gold. lEst see
lj˚sta. lysta wv. 1, impers. w. acc.
  A
desire.
    M
      ¨                  ˜
    mA see mega. maAr sm. 4, man.
           ˜
   ˜ (mAlta) wv. 1, speak–’m. viA einu,’
mAla                                ˜
                                         ˜
                  ˜ sf. virgin, maid. mAtta
refuse; suggest. mAr
 see mega. magr (-ran) adj. thin. mAgr ¨
                    415
 sm. kinsman, relation, connection. mak-
                    ¨
ligr adj. fitting. mAl sn. narrative; in
plur. poem; proper time, time. mAlmr¨
 sm. metal. mann see maAr. ˜ mann-f˚lkA
 sn. troops, crew. mann-hringr sm. ring
of men. mannliga adv. manlily. margr
 adj. many, much. mark sn. mark; im-
portance. marka wv. 3, infer. marr sm.
horse. mart see margr. matask wv. 3,
                   416
eat a meal. matr sm. 2, food. mAtta     ¨
                ¨
 see mega. mAttr sm. 2, might, strength.
    ˜
meA prp. w. acc. and dat. with. meAal    ˜
 s. middle–A  ¨ m. w. gen. between. meAan˜
 adv. whilst. mega swv. can, may. megin
   ¸˜                             ¸
–’CArum m.,’ on the other side; ’Cllum m.,’
                                      ¨
on all sides [ corruption of vegum]. mAgin-
     ˜                                      ˜
gjarAar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega]. meiAmar
 sfpl. treasures. meiri see mikill. mAn   ¨
                      417
                                  ¨
 sn. necklace, piece of jewelry. mAnn see
         ¨                ¨
    ˜ mAr see ek. mArgr sm. 2, mar-
maAr.
       ¨
row. mArki sn. mark; banner [mark]. mest
 see mikill. meta sv. 5, measure; esti-
                     ˜        ˜
mate. mey see mAr. miA-garAr sm.   ˜
                                ˜   ˜
(middle enclosure), world. miAgarAs-ormr
 sm. world-serpent. miAr   ˜ adj. middle.
mik see ek. mikill adj. big, tall, great. ×
mikit adv. much, very. miklu adv. ( instr. )
                    418
              ¨
much. milli, A milli prp. between, among.
minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial. minn
                        ¨
 see ek. minni see lAtill. minnr adv.
           ¨
less. mis-lAka wv. 3, w. dat. displease,
not please. missa wf. loss, want. missa
 wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without. mistil-
teinn sm. mistletoe [teinn, ’twig’]. mitt
             ¸˜                  ¸
 see ek. mjCAr sm. 3, mead. mjCk adv.
           ˜                   A˜
very. m˚Air sf. 3, mother. m˚Ar sm.
        A
                    419
anger. m˚task wv. 1, meet intr. [m˚t].
          A                          A
  ¸
mCn sf. mane. morginn sm. morning.
mCrk sf. 3, forest. mCrum see marr ×
  ¸                    ¸
                        ¨ A
. m˚t sn. meeting. A m˚ti prp. w.
     A
                ¸
dat. against. mCtu-neyti sn. community
           ¨
of food–’lAggja m. sitt,’ make their pro-
vision into a common store [matr; nj˚ta].
                                    A
mundu see munu. munnr sm. mouth.
                      ˜
munr sm. difference–’Aeim mun,’ to that
                  420
extent. munu swv. will, may (of futurity
and probability). myndi see munu. myrkr
 sn. darkness. myrkr adj. dark.
    N
     ¨
    nA wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in.
  ¸
nCr adv. w. dat. near; nearly. superl.
  ˜    ˜ ¨
nAst–’AvA n.,’ thereupon. nCtr see ×
                             ¸
  ¨
nAtt. nafn sn. name. nakkvarr prn.
some, a certain. nakkvat adv. somewhat;
                   421
            ¨                ¨
perhaps. nAtt sf. 3, night. nAtt-b˚l sn.
                                   A
                 ¨
night-quarters. nAtt-langt adv. the whole
              ¨     ˜
night long. nAtt-staAr sm. night-quarters.
  ¨ ˚ra wf. nature, peculiarity. nAtt-
nAttA                                ¨
                          ˜
    ˜ sm. 2, supper. nauA-syn sf. neces-
verAr
                         ˜
sity. naut see nj˚ta. neAan adv. below.
                  A
                                ¨
fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below. nAfja adj.
                  ¨
long-nosed (?). nAfna wv. 1, name, call.
  ¨
nAfnask, name oneself, give one’s name as
                    422
[nafn]. nema sv. 4, take; begin. nema
 adv. except, unless. nest sn. provisions.
                                ˜
nest-baggi sm. provision-bag. niAr adv.
                     ¨
down, downwards. nAundi adj. ninth. nj˚sn
                                        A
 sf. spying; news. nj˚sna wv. 3, spy; get
                     A
intelligence. nj˚ta sv. 7, enjoy, profit.
                 A
    ˜
norAr adv. northwards. nCkkvi wm. ves-
                           ¸
sel, small ship. n˚ adv. now; therefore,
                   A
      `       ˜
so. nE-vaknaAr adj. ( ptc. ) newly awoke.
                    423
  `              `
nEr adj. new. nEta wv. 1, profit [nj˚ta].
                                    A
    O
                      A˜ A
    oddr sm. point. ˚A-f˚ss adj. madly
         ˜ adj. mad, furious. ˚`
eager. ˚Ar
       A                       AIpa wv.
1, shout [˚p, ’shout’]. ˚rit adv. enough;
          A             A
very. of prp. w. dat. over; during; with
respect to, about. adv. too (of excess).
of adv., often used in poetry as a mere
expletive. of-veikr adj. too weak. ofan
                   424
                               ˜
 adv. above; down. ofan-verAr adj. up-
per, on the top. ˚k see aka. ok conj.
                  A
and; also–’ok...ok,’ both...and; but. okkr
      ˜A
 see A˚. opt adv. often. compar. ×
optar, oftener, again. ˚r prp. w. dat.
                         A
          ˜              ¨ ¸˜      ˜
out of. orA sn. word–’A CAru orAi,’ oth-
           ˜               ˜
erwise. orAinn see verAa. orA-s ¨˜ Anding
                         ˜
 sf. verbal message. orA-tak sn. expres-
sion, word. ormr sm. serpent, dragon;
                     425
ship with a dragon’s head. orrosta wf.
battle. oss see ek. ˚tta wf. the end of
                      A
night, just before dawn. ˚ttalaust adj.
                           A
without fear. ˚x see vaxa. oxi wm.
                A
      ¸˜                      ¸˜
ox. CAlask wv. 3, obtain. CAru see
annarr. Cl sn. ale. Cldnu see aldinn ×
          ¸            ¸
. Cnd˚ttr adj. fierce. Cnd-vegi sn. high
  ¸ A                    ¸
            ¸                 ¸
seat, dais. Cnnur see annar. Cr sf. ar-
      ˜ ˜                         ˜
row. Ar-Afi sn. harbourless coast. Arendi
                    426
               ˜
 sn. errand. Arendi sn. holding the breath,
          ˜
breath. Arind-reki sm. messenger [reka].
˜
Axn see oxi.
    P
                          ¨
    pati sm. rumour. pAnningr sm. penny.
    R
     ¨˜
    rAA sn. advice; what is advisable–’sjA  ¨
           ˜
         ¨ Ai,’ consider advisable; plan, pol-
eitt at rA
                    ¨˜
icy, resolution. rAAa sv. 1, advise, w.
                      427
acc. of thing and dat. of pers. ; consider,
deliberate; undertake, begin w. prp. til
 or infin. ; dispose of, have control over w.
               ¨˜    ¸ Ir ˜
prp. fyrir. rAAa-gC` A sf. deliberation,
decision. rA  ˜
            ¨ Augr adj. sagacious. ragna-
 ˜
rAkr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the
                            ¨
world. [ragna gen. of rAgin neut. plur.
                                 ¨
’gods.’] ragr adj. cowardly. rAku see ×
                  ¨
reka. rann see rAnna. rAs                  ˜
                            ¨ sf. race. rauAr
                     428
 adj. red. rausn sf. magnificence, any-
                     ¨˜         ¨˜
thing magnificent. rAA see rAAa. reiA      ˜
                          ¨˜       ˜
                 ˜ see rAAa. reiAa wv.
 sf. chariot. reiA
                              ˜
1, swing, wield, brandish. reiA-fara adj. –
’vera vel r.,’ have a good passage. reiAi˜
                            ˜ adj. angry.
 sn. trappings, harness. reiAr
reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform. ’r.
     ¸                          ¨
af tjCld,’ take down awning. rAkkja wf.
       ¨                   ¨
bed. rAnna sv. 3, run. rAtta wv. 1, di-
                    429
                                         ¨
rect; reach, stretch. r. upp, pull up. rAttr
 adj. right, correct; equitable, fair. reyna
                          ¸
 wv. 1, try, test. reyr-bCnd supl. the wire
with which the arrow-head was bound to
              ¨˜
the shaft. rAAa sv. 6, w. dat. ride.
            ¨˜       ˜
  ˜ see rAAa. riAlask wv. 3, set oneself
riAu
               ¨
in motion. rAki sn. power; sovereignty,
         ¨
reign. rAkr adj. powerful, distinguished.
ripti sn. linen cloth. rita wv. 3, write.
                      430
 ˚                  A˜
rAa sv. 1, row. r˚Aa wv. 1, talk about,
           ˜
discuss. rAra see r˚a. rCst sf. league.
                      A     ¸
    S
     ¨
    sA prn. that; he; such, such a one.
sA           ¨ ˜                ˜
  ¨ see sjA. sAr sm. sea. sAra wv. 1,
           ¨      ˜
wound [sAr]. sAti sn. seat [sitja]. sAtt˜
                                ˜
 sf. 2, reconciliation, peace. sAttask wv.
1, be reconciled, agree. saga wf. narrative,
                    ˜         ¨
history, story. sagAa see sAgja. saka wv.
                      431
                                  ˜
impers. w. acc. –’hann (acc.) sakaAi ekki,’
he was not injured. sakna wv. 3, w. gen.
        ¨                 ¨
miss. sAl sf. 2, soul. sAld sn. gallon.
salr sm. 2, hall. saman adv. together.
sami weak adj. same. sam-laga wf. lay-
ing ships together for battle. samt adv.
together. sannligr adj. probable; suitable,
                           ¨
right. sannr adj. true. sAr sn. wound.
 ¨
sArr adj. wounded. sat see sitja. satt
                    432
                ¨              ¨
 see sannr. sA see vera. sA see sjA ×     ¨
                                  ¨
. sefask wv. 3, be pacified. sAgja wv.
1b, say, relate [saga]. segl sn. sail. seilask
 wv. 1, stretch intr. seinn adj. late, slow,
                                ¨
tedious. seint adv. slowly. sAlja wv. 1,
give; sell. sem adv. as; w. subj. as if;
 to strengthen the superl. –’sem mest,’ the
                                        ¨
most possible, as much as possible. sAnda
                   ¨
 wv. 1, send. sAndi-maAr    ˜ sm. messen-
                     433
        ¨
ger. sAnn adv. at the same time, at once;
                            ¨
immediately, forthwith. sAnn see sjA ×   ¨
                 ¨            ¨ ¨
    ¨ see sik. sAr see sjA. sAt see ×
. sAr
   ¨
sjA. set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag
          ¨
[sitja]. sAtja wv. 1, set, place. s. fram ×
                      ¨
, launch (a ship). sAtjask, sit down. ×
  ¨                            ¨    ˜
sAtjask upp, sit up [sitja]. sA-byrAa wv.
1, w. dat. lay a ship alongside another.
              ¨                     ˜    ¨˜
 neut. ptc. sAbyrt, close up to [borA]. sAA
                    434
                         ¨˜
 adv. late. comp. sAAar, later, after-
wards. superl. sA    ˜                    ¨˜
                   ¨ Aast, latest, last. sAAa
 wf. side. sA   ˜
              ¨ Aan adv. afterwards, then;
         ¨˜
since. sAAari adj. comp. later, second (in
           ˜                      ¨
order). siAr sm. 3, custom. sAga sv. 6,
sink. sigla wf. mast [segl]. sigla wv. 1,
                ˜
sail. siglu-skeiA sn. middle of a ship. sigr
(-rs) sm. victory. sigr-˚p shout of victory.
                         A
sik prn. oneself. silfr sn. silver. sAn    ¨
                     435
 see sik. sinn sn. time (of repetition)–
’einu sinni,’ once, for once. ’eigi optar at
sinni,’ not oftener than that time, i.e. only
once. sinn see sik. sitja sv. 5, sit. ×
                              ¨    ˜
s. fyrir, sit in readiness. sjA = Aessi. sjA ¨
 sv. 5, see; ’s. fyrir einu,’ look after, take
                       ¨    ¨ ˜     ¨
care of. impers. ’lAtt sAr Aat A, at’...it
                                 ¨
will hardly be seen that... sjAsk, see one
                     ¨
another, meet. sjAlfr prn. self. sj˚Aa    A˜
                      436
                        ˚
 sv. 7, boil; cook. sjAn sf. sight. sj˚n-
                                        A
   ¨
hvArfing sf. ocular delusion. skal see ×
                      ¨       ¨
skulu. skalf see skjAlfa. skAli wm. hall.
skammr adj. short. skap sn. state, condi-
tion; state of mind, mood, humour. skapligr
 adj. suitable, fit. skapt sn. shaft, handle.
                      ˜
skar see skera. skarA sn. notch, gap; de-
                            ¨
fect. skaut see skj˚ta. skAgg sn. beard;
                     A
beak (of a ship). skeiA  ˜ sn. race-course,
                     437
running-ground; race–’taka sk.,’ start in a
race. skeina wv. 1, graze. skellr sm.
             ¨
knock. skAmtun sf. amusement, enter-
tainment [skammr, literally ’shortening (of
time)’ ]. skera sv. 4, cut, cut up; kill
(animal). skiljask wv. 1, separate, part
                                           ˜
 intr. skillingr sm. shilling, coin. skilnaAr
 sm. separation, parting. skip sn. ship.
skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit
                    438
out. ’sk. til um eitt,’ make arrangements
for. skipask, take one’s place; change, alter
               ¨
 intr. skipa-hArr sm. fleet.
    skipan sf. arranging; ship’s crew. skips-
brot sn. shipwreck. skip-stj˚rnar-maAr
                                A          ˜
 sm. (steerer), commander of a ship, cap-
tain. skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, tes-
           ¨
tudo. skjAlfa sv. 3, shake intr. skj˚ta  A
 sv. 7, w. dat. shoot, throw, push. skj˚t-
                                         A
                    439
 ˚
fAri sn. swiftness. skj˚t-leikr sm. swift-
                        A
ness. skj˚t-liga adv. swiftly, quick. skj˚tr
         A                               A
 adj. swift, quick. skj˚tt adv. quickly.
                         A
skjCldr sm. 3, shield. sk˚gr sm. forest,
   ¸                        A
wood. skorta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of
pers. and of thing , want, fail. skot sn.
                               ¨
shot; missile [skj˚ta]. skot-mAl sn. shot-
                  A
measure, range. skotta wv. 3, dangle–sk.
  ˜                        ¸
viA drift (of ships). skCkull sm. shaft
                    440
                ¸
(of a cart). skCmm sf. disgrace, shame.
   ¸
skCr sf. hair of the head. skreppa wf.
                                ¨
bag, wallet. skulfu see skjAlfa. skulu
 swv. shall. skuta wf. small ship, cutter.
skutill sm. trencher, small table. skutil-
sveinn sm. page, chamberlain. skutu see
skj˚ta. skykkr sm. shake–’ganga skykkjum,’
   A
shake. skylda see skulu. skyldr adj.
obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu]. skyn sn.
                     441
understanding, insight–’kunna, sk.’ under-
stand. skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in
haste. skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly. skyn-
                                          `
samliga adv. intelligently, carefully. skEt
 see skj˚ta. slA
          A                           ¨
                ¨ sv. 2, strike. ’slA eldi
¨                   ˜
A,’ light a fire. slAliga adv. sluggishly,
weakly. slAr˜ adj. blunt. slAr see ×
                                ˜
        ¨
  ¨ slAtr sn. meat. sleikja wv. lick.
slA.
            ¨      ¨
sleit see slAta. slAttr adj. level, smooth;
                     442
                     ¨                ¨
comfortable, easy. slAkr adj. such. slAta
 sv. 6, tear–sl. upp, pull up; w. dat.
                       ˜          ¨
break (agreement). smAri see smAr. smAr ¨
                              ¨
 adj. small, insignificant. smA-skip snpl.
                  ¨ A
small ships. smA-sk˚ta wf. small cut-
ter. smj˚ga sv. 7, squeeze through, slip.
        A
smugu see smj˚ga. snarpligr adj. vigor-
                 A
ous. snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous. snimma
                ˜
 adv. early. snAra see sn˚a. sn˚a sv.
                            A     A
                    443
1, w. dat. turn or ( trans. ) direct; twist,
                                 ˜
plait. sn˚ask, turn ( intr. ). soAinn see
         A
    ˜
sj˚Aa. s˚kja wv. 1c, seek; go–’s. aptr,’
  A      A
          A ˜
retreat. s˚mA sf. honour [s˚ma]. s˚tti
                               A        A
 see s˚kja. sofa sv. 4, sleep. sofna wv.
       A
                 ¸                  ¸
3, go to sleep. sCgur see saga. sCk sf.
             ˜¨                       ˜
cause–’fyrir AA s. at’..., because. sAkkva
 sv. 3, sink. s˚l sf. sun. s˚l-skin sn.
                A              A
sunshine. soltinn adj. hungry [ ptc. of
                   444
                    ˚
’svelta,’ starve]. sAma wv. 2, w. dat. ,
be suitable, befitting. s˚mi wm. honour.
                         A
sonr sm. son. s˚tt sf. illness. s˚tta see
                  A               A
s˚kja. sCx snpl. raised prow of a war-
 A         ¸
                      ¸
ship. spala see spClr. sparask wv. 2,
                                       ¨
spare oneself, reserve one’s energy. spAnna
    ¨
(spAnta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing , gird,
                                    ˜
buckle on. spj˚t sn. spear. sporAr sm.
                A
                              ¸
tail. spori sm. spur. spClr sm. rail.
                     445
                         ¨
sprakk see springa. sprAtta wv. 1, split.
                            ˜
springa sv. 3, burst. spurAa see spyrja.
spyrja wv. 1b, ask; hear of, learn–’sp. til
eins,’ have news of, hear of his arrival. ×
spyrjask, be known. spyrna wv. 1, kick.
                                         ¨˜
staddr adj. placed, staying [ ptc. of ’stAAja,’
            ˜ sm. place–’A staAinn,’ in-
place]. staAr               ¨     ˜
             ˜
stead. stafaAr adj. ( ptc. ) striped. staf-
karl sm. (staff-man), beggar. stafn sm.
                    446
prow. stafn-b˚i wm. prow-man. stafn-lA
              A                          ¨
 wm. grappling-hook. stafr sm. 2 ( gen.
sg. stafs), staff, stick. stakk see stinga.
stallari sm. marshall.
    standa sv. 2, stand. st. upp, stand up,
                               ¨
rise. starfa wv. 3, work. stAfna wv. 1,
                                       ¨
steer; take a course, go. steig see stAga.
steinn sm. stone; jewel. stela sv. 4, w.
dat. of thing and acc. of pers. steal, rob.
                     447
  ¨                      ¨
stAndr see standa. stArkliga adv. vig-
             ¨
orously. stArkr adj. strong. steypa wv.
1, w. dat. of thing , throw; pull off. ×
                            ¨
steypask, throw oneself. stAga sv. 6, ad-
vance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse).
  ¨
stAgr sm. path, way. stikill sm. point.
stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange. st. til, ar-
range, dispose. stinga sv. 3, pierce; ’st.
   ¸
stCfnum at skipi,’ run the prow against a
                    448
ship’s side. stirt adv. harshly [ neut. of
     ˜             A˜
’stirAr,’ stiff]. st˚A see standa. st˚rri
                                       A
 see st˚r. st˚kkva sv. 3, spring, rebound,
       A      A
start back. stolinn see stela. st˚rliga
                                     A
 adv. bigly, arrogantly. st˚r-mannligr adj.
                           A
                                 ¨
magnificent, aristocratic. st˚r-mAnni sn.
                             A
great men (collective), aristocracy. st˚rr
                                       A
 adj. big, great. st˚rum adv. greatly.
                      A
  A ¨˜
st˚r-rAAr adj. (great of plans), ambitious.
                    449
st˚r-skip sn. big ship, st˚r-virki sn. great
  A                       A
         ¨
deed. strA wv. 1, strew, cover with straw.
                        ¨
strauk see strj˚ka. strAngr sm. 2, string.
               A
strj˚ka sv. 7, stroke. stund sf. period of
    A
time, time. stutt adv. shortly, abruptly
                               `
[ neut. of ’stuttr’ short]. stEra wv. 1,
                   `                   `
 w. dat. steer. stEri sn. rudder. stEris-
hnakki wm. top piece of rudder. styrkr
                              ¨     ˜
 sm. strength; help. s˚ see sA. suAr adv.
                      A
                    450
              ˜
southward. suAr-ganga wf. journey south
                            ˜
(to Rome). sukku see sAkkva. sumar
 sn. summer. sumr prn. some. sund sn.
                   ¨
sound, channel. svA adv. so, as; as soon
          ¨ also. svaf see sofa. svara
as. ’ok svA,’
 wv. 3, w. dat. of thing , answer. svardagi
 sm. oath. sveinn sm. boy. sveinn-stauli
 wm. small boy. sveit sf. troop. svelga
                             ˜
 sv. 3, swallow, gulp. sverA sn. sword.
                    451
     ˜   ¸
sverAs-hCgg sn. swordstroke. svipan sf.
jerk; moment. svipting sf. pull, struggle.
 `
sEnask wv. 1, seem [sj˚n]. syni see ×
                            A
sonr. systir sf. 3, sister.
    T
    taka wv. 2, w. acc. take, seize, take
possession of; w. inf. begin; w. dat.
receive (well, ill, etc.). takask, take place,
begin. t. at, choose. t. til, engage in, try.
                      452
t. upp, take to, choose. tala wf. talk,
speech. tala wv. 3, speak, talk about,
               ˜        ¨       ¨
discuss. taliAr see tAlja. tAlma wv.
3, hinder. tAr¨ sn. tear. taumar smpl.
         ¨                   ¨
reins. tAkinn see taka. tAlja wv. 1b,
count, recount; account, consider; relate,
             ¨ ˜
say [tala]. tAngAir sfpl. relationship, con-
                       ¨
nection by marriage. tAngja wv. 1, bind,
                  ¨                     ¨˜
fasten together. tAngsl snpl. cable. tAAa
                    453
                                     ¨˜
 wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire. tAAindi
 snpl. tidings, news. tA      ˜
                            ¨ Ar adj. usual,
                         ¨        ˜
happening–’hvat er tAtt um Aik?’ what
                              ¨
is the matter with you? tAtt adv. often,
                 ¨˜
quickly–’sem tAAast,’ as quickly as possi-
ble. tiginn adj. of high rank. tigr sm. –
’fj˚rir tigir,’ forty. til prp. w. gen. to;
   A
                                ¨
till; for (of use)–’alt er t. vApna var,’ ev-
erything that could be used as a missile;
                      454
                                       ¨
for (of object, intention)–’brj˚ta lAgg til
                                A
   ¨
mArgjar,’ break a leg to get at the mar-
row; with respect to–’til vista var eigi gott,’
they were not well off for provisions. til
                               ¨
 adv. too (of excess). til-vAsan sf. di-
                     ¨            ¨˜
rection, guidance. tAtt see tAAr. tAvi     ¨
 wm. god. tjald sn. tent. tj˚gu-skAgg
                                  A       ¨
 sn. forked beard. t˚ka see taka. t˚k
                      A                    A
             ¸
 see taka. tCnn sf. 3, tooth. trani wm.
                    455
            ¨                ˜
crane. trA sn. tree. troAa sv. tread.
trog sn. trough. tros sn. droppings, rub-
          A               ˜
bish. tr˚a wf. faith–’Aat veit tr. mAn ¨
at...,’ by my faith. tr˚a wv. 2, w. dat.
                       A
of pers. believe, trust, rely on. t˚n sn.
                                   A
                                      `
enclosure, dwelling. tveir num. two. tEna
 wv. 1, w. dat. lose. typpa wv. tie in a
top-knot.
    A˜
                     456
     ˜¨       ¨ ˜¨         ˜       ˜¨
    AA see sA. AA see Aiggja. AA adv.
then. A   ˜        ¨ ˜ ˜            ˜¨
        ˜ Ar see sA. AakAr see AAkja ×
  ˜
. Aakka wv. 3, w. acc. of thing and dat.
                                    ˜
of pers. thank; requite, reward. Aambar-
   ¨
skAlfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?). Aann  ˜
           ˜                           ˜
       ¨ Aannig adv. thither; so [= Aann
 see sA.
       ˜
veg]. Aar adv. there; then; ’A.˜ af,’ etc. ,
           ˜                         ˜
thereof. ’Aar sem,’ since, because. ’Aar til,’
        ˜        ˜         ˜
until. Aarf see Aurfa. Aat see sA. Aau¨ ˜
                     457
        ¨ ˜                      ˜
 see sA. Aegar adv. at once. ’A. er,’ as
soon as. A   ¨          ˜      ˜¨
           ˜ Aginn see Aiggja. AAgja wv.
                 ˜           ¨ ˜    ˜
1b, be silent. Aeim see sA. Aeir, Aeirra
 see sA.    ˜¨                     ˜¨
        ¨ AAkja wv. 1b, roof. AAkkja
                    ˜¨
 wv. 1, notice. AAkkjask, take pleasure
in; accept. A    ¨       ˜A ˜
               ˜ Ar see A˚. Aess see ×
     ˜
  ¨ Aess adv. w. comp. the, so much
sA.
       ˜                   ˜
the. Aessi prn. this. Aiggja sv. 5, re-
         ˜
ceive. Aik see AA        ˜
                   ˜ ˚. Aing sn. meeting,
                     458
             ˜          ˜A ˜
parliament. Ainn see A˚. Ait see A˚. ˜A
     ˜                  ˜A
˜ ˚A sf. nation, race. A˚ adv. though,
AjA
     ˜¸ ˜         ˜¨     ˜¸
yet. ACkA see AAkja. ACkk sf. thanks,
           ˜         ˜
gratitude [Aakka]. Aola wv. 2, endure,
              ˜                  ˜¸
put up with. Aora wv. 2, dare. ACrf sf.
       ˜              ˜
need. Aorrinn see Averra. AA  ˜ ˚tt adv.
            ˜A       ˜A          ˜
though [= A˚ at]. A˚tta see Aykkja ×
   ˜
. Araut see ArjA         ˜
                 ˜ ˚ta. Areifask wv. 3,
               ˜
grope, feel. Areyta wv. 1, make exer-
                    459
            ˜ ˜                ˜ ˜
tions, try. AriAi adj. third. AriAjungr
                ¨                 ˜ A
             ˜ Ar num. three. Arj˚ta
 sm. third. Ar
 sv. 7, impers. w. acc. of pers. come
                   ˜ A˜
to an end, fail. Ar˚Augr adj. mighty.
                 ˜
˜ ˚ prn. thou. Aumlungr sm. thumb of
AA
       ˜
glove. Aunn-vangi wm. temple (of head).
    ˜
˜ Ar sm. diminution. Aurfa swv. of-
Aur                        ˜
                            ˜
ten impers. require, need. Aurr adj. dry.
˜                  ˜
Aurs sm. giant. Averra sv. 3, diminish.
                    460
˜                       ˜ ¨
Avers adv. across. AvA see sA. AvA  ¨ ˜ ¨
 adv. therefore; w. compar. the, so much
              ˜ ¨
the more. AvAlikr adj. such. Aykkja  ˜
                                 ˜
 wv. 1c, seen, be considered. ’Aykkir einum
fyrir,’ there seems to be something in the
                               ¨      ˜ ¨
way, one hesitates. ’myndi mAr fyrir A. A,’
                           ˜
I should be displeased. Aykkjask, think.
˜                            ˜
Aykkr adj. thick, close. Aynna wv. 1,
             ˜                    ˜
make thin. Aynnask get thin. Ayrstr adj.
                     461
( ptc. ) thirsty.
    U
    ˚-f˚ra wf. impassable place; fix, dif-
    A A
          A ˜
ficulty. ˚-friAr sm. hostility, war. ˚- A
grynni sn. countless number [grunnr, ’bottom’].
˚-happ sn. misfortune. ˚-hreinn adj.
A                         A
impure. um prp. w. acc. around, about,
over; of time in, at; of superiority be-
                              ¨˜
yond; concerning, about. um-rAA sn. ad-
                   462
                 ¨
vice, help. um-sjA sf. care. una wv.
1, w. dat. be contented–’u. illa,’ be dis-
contented. undan prp. w. dat. , adv.
away (from). undarliga adv. strangely.
undarligr adj. strange. undir prp. w.
acc. and dat. under. undr sn. wonder.
ungr adj. young. unninn see vinna ×
. unz adv. until. upp adv. up. upp-
ganga wf. boarding (ship). upp-haf sn.
                   463
             ¨
beginning [hAfja]. upp-himinn sm. high
heaven. uppi adv. up; at an end. urAu ˜
         ˜
 see verAa. ˚t adv. out. comp. utar,
              A
outer, outwards, farther away. utan adv.
                          ¨ ˜
outside; outwards. utan-fArA sf. journey
abroad. utar see ˚t. ˚ti adv. outside,
                   A A
out on the sea. ˚t-lausn sf. ransom. ˚-
                A                     A
vinr sm. enemy.
    V
                    464
      ˜ ˜                   ˜
    vAgA sf. forbearance. vAnn adj. likely,
                                 ˜
                   ˜ see vera. vAtr neut.
to be expected. vAri
nothing. vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up.
vakna wv. 3, awake. vald sn. power,
control. val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain,
war-goddess [kj˚sa]. valr sm. corpses on
                 A
                    ¨
the battle-field. vAn, sf. hope, expecta-
                         ˜˜    ¨
tion, probability. vandrAAa-skAld sn. the
’awkward’ poet, the poet who is difficult
                     465
                     ˜˜
to deal with. vandrAAi snpl. difficulty.
vangi wm. cheek. vanr adj. accustomed.
  ¨                  ¨          ˜
vApn sn. weapon. vApna-burA sm. bear-
                                   ¨
ing weapons, shower of missiles. vApn-lauss
 adj. without weapons. var see vera. vAr ¨
 sn. spring. vAr¨ see ek. vara wv. 2,
                                       ˜
 impers. w. acc. of pers. –’mik varAi,’ I
expected. varA            ˜
               ˜ see verAa. varAi see˜
  ¨                              ˜
vArja. vargr sm. wolf. variAr see ×
                   466
  ¨                               ˜
vArja. varla adv. scarcely. varnaAr sm.
                        ¨
goods, merchandise. vAru see vera. vatn
 sn. water. vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase.
   ˜
veAr sn. weather. vegr sm. road; way,
manner; direction, side; in composition ,
region, tract, land. veik see vikja. veit
 see vita. veita wv. 1, give, grant; make
                      ¨
(resistance, etc.). vAkja wv. 1b, wake
                                      ¨
          ¨ sf. artifice, cunning. vAlja
[vaka]. vAl
                    467
                    ¨
 wv. 1b, choose. vAndi see vCndr. vAr
                                ¸        ¨
 see ek. vera sv. exist; remain, stay, hap-
                  ¨         ˜
pen; be. ’hvat lAtum hafAi verit,’ what
had caused the noise. v. at, be occupied
          ˜
with. verA sn. worth, value; price. verAa˜
 sv. 3, happen; happen to come. ’v. fyrir
einum,’ come in one’s way, appear before
one; become; come into being, be; ’v. til
eins,’ be ready for, undertake; w. infin.
                    468
                             ¨    ˜
be obliged, must. ’n˚ er A orAit mikit
                       A
        ¨
fyrir mAr,’ now I have come into a great
                                        ˜
perplexity, difficulty. v. at, happen. verAr
 adj. worth; important. ver-gjarn adj. de-
sirous of a husband, loose. verit see vera.
               ˜    ¨
vert see verAr. vArja wv. 1b, defend–
’v. baki,’ defend with the back, turn one’s
             ¨
back on. vArja wv. 1b, dress; lay out
money, invest. verk sn. work, job. verr
                    469
                        ¨
 sm. man; husband. vArr adv. comp.
                  ¨                ¸
worse. superl. vArst, worst. verCld sf.
world. vestan adv. from the west. ’v.
fyrir’ w. gen. or acc. , west of. vestr
 adv. westwards. vetr sm. winter; year.
  ¨                 ¨
vAx see vaxa. vAxti see vCxtr. viA
                                ¸        ˜
 prp. w. acc. by, near; towards (of place
and time); with (of various relations). w.
dat. towards, at (laugh at, etc.); in ex-
                    470
                  ¨˜
change for, for. vAAa adv. widely, far and
                         ˜
wide, on many sides. viAar-teinungr sm.
                       ˜    ˜
tree-shoot, plant. viA-bragA sn. push.
  ˜ sm. 3, tree. vAAr adj. wide, broad.
viAr                 ¨˜
  ˜                           ˜
viA-skipti snpl. dealings. viA-taka wf.
                         ¨
reception; resistance. vAgja wv. 1, con-
                   ¨
secrate, hallow. vAgr adj. warlike, able-
          ¨
bodied. vAking sf. piracy, piratical expe-
          ¨                     ¨
dition. vAkingr sm. pirate. vAkja sv.
                    471
6, turn, move, go. vilja swv. will. villi-
                                      ¨
eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration. vinAtta
                      ¨
 wf. friendship. vinAttu-mAl ¨ snpl. as-
surances of friendship. vinna sv. 3, do,
perform; win, conquer. vinnask til, suf-
                            ˜
fice. vinr sm. 2, friend. virAing sf. hon-
        ˜      ¨
our [verAr]. vAsa wv. 2, w. dat. show,
         ¨
guide. vAss adj. wise; certain. vissa see
vita. vist sf. 2, board and lodging; pro-
                    472
visions. vit see ek. vita swv. know; be
turned in a certain direction. v. fram ×
                      ¨
, see into futurity. vAti sn. punishment,
           ¨
penalty. vAtis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose
contents were drunk as a
    punishment). vitkask wv. 3, come to
one’s senses. vitr (-ran) adj. wise. vCllr
                                       ¸
                         ¸
 sm. 3, plain, field. vCndr sm. 3, twig,
        ¸                             ¸
rod. vCrn sf. defence, resistance. vCxtr
                     473
                             ˜       ˜
 sm. 3, growth, stature. vreiAr = reiAr.
    Y
      ˜       ˜A
    yAr see A˚. yfir prp. w. acc. and
                   `
dat. over [ofan]. Emiss adj. various, dif-
ferent. ymr sm. rumbling noise. ytri adj.
comp. outer. superl. yztr, outside(st) [˚t].
                                        A
    PROPER NAMES
    ¨        ¨ ˜A
    Aki sm. Asa-A˚rr sm. (divine) Thor.
     ¨˜           ˜
¨ AAr sf. AuAun sm.
Astr
                     474
                          ˜
    Baldr (-rs) sm. BarAi wm. ’the Ram’
                         ¨               ¨
(name of a ship). Bil-skArnir sm. BrAsinga-
  ¨ sn. Freyja’s necklace. Burizleifr sm.
mAn
      ¨                      ¨
    DAins-leif sf. relic of DAinn [’leif,’ leav-
ing, heritage]. Dana-konungr sm. king of
the Danes. Danir smpl. the Danes. Dan-
  ¸
mCrk sf. 3, Denmark. Draupnir sm.
                        ˜            ¨
    Einarr sm. EindriAi wm. EirAkr sm.
Erlingr sm.
                     475
      ¨
    FAn-salr sm. 2. Finnr sm. Finskr
 adj. Finnish. Freyja wf. Freyr sm. Frigg
 sf. wife of Odin. Fulla wf. Frigg’s hand-
maid.
    Geira wf. Gimsar fpl. Gjallar-br˚ sf.
                                     A
                             ¸     ¸
the bridge over the river GjCll. GjCll sf.
’the Resounder,’ the river of Hell. Gr˚n-
                                       A
land sn. Greenland. Gullin-bursti wm.
’Golden-bristle.’ Gull-toppr sm. ’Gold-top.’
                    476
       ¨                         ¨
    HA-ey sf. ’High-island.’ HAkon sm.
Hall-freAr                        ¨˜
          ˜ sm. Haraldr sm. HAAinn sm.
Heim-dallr sm. HAl    ¨ sf. the goddess of
                         ¨   A˜
the infernal regions. HAr-m˚Ar sm. Hildr
                        ˜       ¨
 sf. [’hildr,’ war]. HjaAninga-vAg sn. bat-
                ˜                       A ˜
tle of the HjaAnings. Hjarrandi wm. Hl˚riAi
                                 ¸
 wm. the Thunderer, Thor. HCgni wm.
Hring-horni wm. ’Ring-prowed.’ Hyrningr
                        ¸˜
 sm. Hyrrokin sf. HCAr sm.
                      477
    ¨                    ¨      ¨ ˜
   As-land sn. Iceland. Asland-fArA sf.
                         ¨
                     ¨ Anzkr adj. Ice-
journey to Iceland. Asl
landic.
                           ¨
   J˚ms-borg sf. J˚ms-vAkingar smpl.
     A              A
the pirates of J˚msborg.
                A
          ¸
   Kol-bjCrn sm.
   Laufey sf. Litr sm. Loki wm.
      A˜     ˜
   M˚A-guAr sf. M˚ri wf.
                     A
                             ˜
   Nanna wf. Nepr sm. NjarAar see ×
                   478
   ¸ ˜      ¸ ˜
NjCrAr. NjCrAr sm. N˚a-t˚n snpl. Noregr
                        A A
                    ˜
 sm. Norway [= norA-vegr].
         ˜A
    Cku-A˚rr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka].
    ¸
      ¨       A ˜
˚ŒlAfr sm. ˚ŒAinn sm. Odin. Orkn-
A
eyjar sfpl. Orkneys.
                                 ¨
    R˚ma-borg sf. Rome. R˚m-fArli wm.
      A                     A
                         ¸
pilgrim to Rome [fara]. RCskva wf.
    Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany. Sif sf.
     ¨˜                        ¨
SigrAAr sf. Sig-valdi wm. SkjAlgr sm.
                   479
    `                           ¨˜
SkrEmir sm. Sleipnir sm. SlAArug-tanni
 wm. [tCnn]. S˚nskr adj. Swedish. Sveinn
        ¸       A
          ¨
 sm. SvAa-konungr sm. king of Sweden.
   ¨                         ¨
SvAar smpl. Swedes. SvAa-vAldi sn.¨
                     ˜ A˜                 ¸ ˜
                  ¨ Aj˚A sf. Sweden. SvClAr
Sweden [vald]. SvA-
                                      ˜
(-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near RAgen.
    Tann-gnj˚str sm. [tCnn]. Tann-grisnir
             A           ¸
        ¸
 sm. [tCnn]. Tryggvi wm. ’Trusty.’
    ˜ ¨          ˜A           ˜
    AjAlfi wm. A˚rir sm. Aor-kAll sm.¨
                     480
˜˚                ˜
AArr sm. Thor. Aor-steinn sm. Ar˚A- ˜ A˜
                                   ˜
vangar smpl. ’plains of strength.’ Arymyr
      ˜¸
 sm. ACkk sf.
               A   ˜
    ˚lfr sm. ˚tgarAa-loki wm. ˚t-garAr
    A                            A      ˜
             ˜
 sm. ˚t-garAar pl. ’outer enclosure,’ world
      A
of the giants.
                                   ¨
    Vanir smpl. race of Gods. VAr sf.
goddess of betrothal and marriage. Vest-
firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland).
                   481
  ¨
VAk sf. ’the Bay,’ the Skagerak and the
                           ¨
Christiania fjord. Vinda-snAkkja wf. Wendish
ship. Vind-land sn. Wendland. Vindr
                          ˜A
 smpl. the Wends. Ving-A˚rr sm. name
of Thor.
    THE END.



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