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					                    AN ICELANDIC PRIMER
                                 HENRY SWEET∗


    In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere
strictly to that adopted in the Reader, for the editors have
themselves deviated from it in their Corpus Poeticum Boreale ,
                                      ˜
in the way of separating C from A , etc. My own principle has
                            ¸
been to deviate as little as possible from the traditional
spelling followed in normalized texts. There is, indeed, no
                                             ¨           ¨
practical gain for the beginner in writing tAme for tAmi ,
              ˜
discarding A , etc., although these changes certainly bring us
nearer the oldest MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in
scientific works. The essential thing for the beginner is to
have regular forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far
as possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective
distinctions of the MSS. supplemented by diacritics. I have not
                          ˆ       ˆ
hesitated to substitute (A) for (A) as the mark of length; the
latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively–in Icelandic
as well as in Old English and Old Irish–to represent the actual
accents of the MSS.

    In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to
                ˜
Noreen’s AltislAndische Grammatik , which is by far the best
Icelandic grammar that has yet appeared–at least from that
narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates
itself on phonology and inflections.

    The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and
representative as possible. With such a language, and such a
master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not
difficult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who
makes his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales
of the North, told in an absolutely perfect style. As the death
of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader only from the longer
recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the
shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this
                        ˜
book. The story of AuAun is not only a beautiful one in itself,
but, together with the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the
Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of
their whole political system. As the Reader does not include
poetry (except incidentally), I have added one of the finest of
the Eddaic poems, which is at the same time freest from obscurity
  ∗ PDF   created by pdfbooks.co.za



                                      1
and corruption–the song of Thor’s quest of his hammer.

    In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very
                                                      ˜    ˜ A
inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts A , A , ˚ ,
right at the end of the alphabet.

    I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the
                                                     ˜
texts and the glossary from Wimmer’s Oldnordisk LAsebog , which
I consider to be, on the whole, the best reading-book that exists
in any language. So excellent is Wimmer’s selection of texts,
that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in
nearly every case.

    In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book
makes no pretension to originality of any kind. If it
contributes towards restoring to Englishmen that precious
heritage–the old language and literature of Iceland–which our
miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them
of, it will have fulfilled its purpose.

   HENRY SWEET
London,
February, 1886

   GRAMMAR

   1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period,
between 1200 and 1350.

   PRONUNCIATION

   2. The Icelandic     alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the
             ˜
addition of A and        ˜                              ¨
                         A , and of the modified letters A , C ,
                                                            ¸
 ˜ , which last is in
 A                                         ˜ , C` .
                        this book written A ¸ I

   Vowels

   3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old
                                             ˆ
English. Long vowels were often marked by (A). In this book
                                     ˆ
long vowels are regularly marked by (A)[1]. The following are
the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and
key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):–

                                      ¨   ˜             ˜
  [Footnote 1: Note that the longs of A , A are written A ,
˚ , respectively.]
A

    a as in mann (G.) halda ( hold )
¨             ¨˜
A ” father rAA ( advice )
       ˜
    ˜ A (F.) gekk ( went )
e ” At
¨           ¨
A[2] . . . lAt (let pret. )

                                         2
¨        ¨
A ” men mAnn ( men )

   [Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its
sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.]

    ˜                  ˜
    A as in there sAr ( sea )
i ” fini (F.) mikill ( great )
¨        ¨
A . . . lAtill ( little )
                   ˜
o ” beau (F.) orA ( word )
˚ . . . t˚k ( look )
A        A
C ” not hCnd ( hand )
 ¸         ¸
˜                ˜
A ” peu (F.) kAmr ( comes )
˚ . . . f˚ra ( bring )
A        A
C` ” peur (F.) gC` ( make )
 ¸I                ¸ Ira
u ” sou (F.) upp ( up )
˚ . . . h˚s ( house )
A         A
y ” tu (F.) systir ( sister )
`        `
E . . . lEsa ( shine )
au ” haus (G.) lauss ( loose )
      ¨
ei = A + i bein ( bone )
       ¨
ey = A + y leysa ( loosen )

   4. The unaccented i in systir , etc. (which is generally
written e in the MSS.) probably had the sound of y in pity ,
which is really between i and e . The unacc. u in f˚ru A
(they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.)
probably had the sound of oo in good .

  Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and
open , thus:

             ¨ A ˜ A
   close : e A o ˚ A ˚
          ˜ ¸ ¸I
       ¨ A C - C` -
open : A

   Consonants

    5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced
really double, as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to
drink) must be pronounced like the kc in bookcase , while the
          ¨
 k in drAki (dragon) is single, as in booking . When final
(or followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long,
as in munn (mouth acc. ), hamarr (hammer nom. ), steinn
(stone nom. ), distinguished from mun (will vb. ), and the
accusatives hamar , stein .

   6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front
vowels e , A , i , A , C` , y , and their longs, as also
             ¨       ˜ ¸I
                  ¨
before j , as in kAnna (known), keyra (drive), gC` ¸ Ira
(make), liggja (lie).



                                      3
  7. kkj , ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front
kk , gg , the j not being pronounced separately.

    8. f had initially the sound of our f , medially and finally
that of v , as in gefa (give), gaf (gave), except of course
in such combinations as ft , where it had the sound of f .

     9. g was a stopped (back or front–guttural or palatal) cons.
initially and in the combination ng , the two g ’s in ganga
(go) being pronounced as in go . It had the open sound of G.
 g in sagen medially before the back vowels a , o , C ,  ¸
 u , and all conss. except j , and finally:– saga (tale),
   ¸                       ˜
 dCgum (with days); sagAi (he said); lag (he lay). Before
the front vowels and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen ,
                                       ¨              ¨
or nearly that of j (our y ), as in sAgir (says), sAgja
(to say).

   10. Before voiceless conss. ( t , s ) g seems to have been
pronounced k , as in sagt (said), dags (day’s).

    11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng ,
as in single , not as in singer .

    12. h was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart)
much as in E. hue (= hj˚). hl , hn , hr , hv probably
                          A
represented voiceless l , n , r , w respectively, hv
                                                 ¨
being identical with E. wh : hlaupa (leap), hnAga (bend),
 hringr (ring), hvat (what).

   13. j is not distinguished from i in the MSS. It had the
                               ¸ ˜           ¨
sound of E. y in young : jCrA (earth), sAtja (to set).

   14. p in pt probably had the sound of f : lopt (air).

   15. r was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch.

   16. s was always sharp.

    17. v (which was sometimes written u and w ) had the sound
                        ¸
of E. w : vel (well), hCggva (hew).

                                ¨
   18. z had the sound of ts : bAztr (best).

        ˜      ˜
    19. A and A were used promiscuously in the older MS., the
                    ˜
very oldest using A almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic
 ˜ is written initially to express the sound of E. hard th ,
 A
 ˜
 A medially and finally to express that of soft th ; as there
can be no doubt that this usage corresponds with the old
                                            ˜
pronunciation, it is retained in this book: Aing (parliament),
                     ˜
   ˜ (father), viA (against). In such combinations as pA
 faAir                                                       ˜


                                       4
    ˜                              ˜
the A must of course be pronounced A .

   Stress

   20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable.

   PHONOLOGY

   Vowels

   21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the
most important of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture
(brechung), and gradation (ablaut).

   Mutation

  22. The following changes are i-mutations (caused by an older
i or j following, which has generally been dropped)[3]:

   [Footnote 3: Many of the i ’s which appear in derivative and
inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a and other
vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana ; these do not
cause mutation.]

      ¸      ¨                       ¨           ¸
   a (C) ... A :– mann (man acc. ), mAnn (men); hCnd
           ¨
(hand), hAndr (hands).

   ¨     ˜     ¨             ˜
   A ... A :– mAl (speech), mAla (speak).

           ¸              ˜              ˜
   e (ja, jC) ... i :– verAr (worth), virAa (estimate).

    u (o) ... y :– fullr (full), fylla (to fill); lopt
(air), lypta (lift).

         `                          `
   ˚ ... E :– br˚n (eyebrow), pl. brEnn .
   A            A

         ˜                     ˜
   o ... A :– koma (to come), kAmr (comes).

   ˚ ... ˚ :– f˚r (went), f˚ra (bring).
   A     A     A           A

   au ... ey :– lauss (loose), leysa (loosen).

    ˚ A        `                   `
   jA (j˚) ... E :– sj˚kr (sick), sEki (sickness);
                      A
                   `
lj˚sta (strike), lEstr (strikes).
  A

                               ¨
    23. The change of a into A is sometimes the result of a
                                 ¨
following k , g , or ng , as in dAgi dat. sg. of dagr
         ¨                 ¨
(day), tAkinn (taken), gAnginn (gone), inf. taka , ganga .
 i appears instead of e , and u instead of o before a nasal
followed by another cons.: cp. binda (to bind), bundinn

                                         5
(bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn .

   24. There is also a u-mutation, caused by a following u ,
which has often been dropped:

         ¸
   a ... C :– dagr (day) dat. pl. dCgum ; land (land) pl.
                                   ¸
 ¸
lCnd .

                  ¸
   25. Unaccented C becomes u , as in sumur pl. of sumar
            ¸ ˜
(summer), kClluAu (they called), infin. kalla .

   Fracture

    26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is e : when
followed by original a it becomes ja , when followed by
                          ¸           ˜
original u it becomes jC , as in jarAar gen. of jCrA ¸ ˜
(earth)[4]. When followed by original i , the e is, of
                                                        ¸
course, mutated to i , as in skildir plur. nom. of skjCldr
(shield), gen. skjaldar .

   [Footnote 4: Cp. German erde .]

   Gradation

   27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:–

                                ˚
    a ... ˚ :– fara (go) pret. fAr , whence by mut. f˚ra
          A                                          A
(bring).

   e (i, ja) ... a ... u (o) :– bresta (burst), prt.
brast , prt. pl. brustu , ptc. prt. brostinn ; finna (find),
fundinn (found ptc. ), fundr (meeting).

                ¨
    e ... a ... A ... o :– stela (steal), prt. stal ,
prt. pl. stAlu¨ , ptc. prt. stolinn .

                ¨
    e ... a ... A ... e :– gefa (give), gaf (he gave),
  ¨                                       ¸
 gAfu (they gave), gefinn (given), gjCf (gift), u -fracture
              ˜
of gef- , gAfa (luck) mut. of gAf- . ¨

   ¨                   ¨
   A ... ei ... i :– skAna (shine), skein (he shone),
skinu (they shone). s˚l-skin (sunshine).
                         A

    j˚ (j˚) ... au ... u ... o :– lj˚ga (tell a lie), prt.
     A A                            A
 laug , prt. pl. lugu , ptc. prt. loginn . lygi (lie sbst. )
mut. of lug- . skj˚ta (shoot), skj˚tr (swift), skotinn
                     A                 A
(shot ptc. ), skot (shot subst. ).

   Other changes



                                          6
                                                      ˜¨
  28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: AA (then),
 ˚
nA (now).

   29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long
                                            ¨
accented vowels: cp. ganga (to go) with fA (to get), the dat.
           ¨
plurals knjAm (knees) with h˚sum (houses).
                                A

                                                       ¨
   30. Vowels are often lengthened before l + cons.: hAlfr (half
 adj. ), f˚lk (people); cp. f˚lginn (hidden) with brostinn
          A                  A
(burst ptc. ).

   Consonants

    31. v is dropped before o and u : vaxa (to grow), prt.
 ˚x , vinna (to win), unninn (won ptc. ), svelta (to
 A
starve), soltinn (starved, hungry).

   Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons.

    32. -lr , -nr , -sr always become -ll , -nn , -ss
after a long vowel or diphthong, as in st˚ll (chair nom. ),
                                         A
                                                   ¨
acc. st˚l , steinn (stone nom. ), acc. stein , vAss (wise
        A
                      ¨
 masc. nom. sg. ), vAs fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables,
as in the masc. sg. nominatives mikill (great), fem. mikil ,
                                  `                    `
 borinn (carried), fem. borin , Emiss (various) fem. Emis .

    33. Words in which l , n , r , s are preceded by a cons.
drop the r entirely, as in the masc. nominatives jarl (earl),
                               ˜
 hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), Aurs (giant), lax (salmon).

   34. If l and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the
r is generally kept, as in stelr (steals), vinr , (friend),
sr becoming ss , as elsewhere.

  35. r is kept after ll , and generally after nn , as in the
                                 ¨
masc. nom. allr (all), and in brAnnr (burns).

                          ˜                        ˜¨
   36. z often stands for As as well as ts , as in AAr
˜                     ˜     ˜
Aykkizk (ye seem) = AykkiA-sk , Vest-firzkr (belonging to
                      ˜       ¸ ˜
the West Firths) = -firAskr ( fCrAr , firth).

    37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented
          ¨                ¨
vowel: fAr (few) neut. fAtt (cp. allr ’all,’ neut. allt ),
                ¨
  ¨ (I saw), sAtt ’thou sawest.’
 sA

   INFLECTIONS

   Nouns




                                       7
   38. Gender. There are three genders in Icelandic–masculine,
feminine, and neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly
grammatical, generally agreeing with the gender in Old English.
Compound words follow the gender of their last element.

    39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom.
sg. and in most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns
end in a cons. in the nom. sg.

    40. Cases. There are four cases–nominative, accusative,
dative, genitive. All nouns (except a few contractions) have the
gen. pl. in -a ( fiska , of fishes), and the dat. pl. in -um
( fiskum ). All strong masculines ( fiskr ) and some strong
                A˜
feminines ( br˚Ar , bride) take r [5] in the nom. sg. Most strong
feminines show the bare root in the nom. sg. with u -mutation,
              ¨              ¸
if possible ( Ast , favour, fCr , journey). The nom. pl. of all
                                                     ¨
strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r ( fiskar , Astir ). The
                                                       ¨
acc. pl. of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl. ( Astir ).
The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends in a vowel
( fiska ). The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the
sing. nom. and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they
take u -mutation, if possible ( h˚s , houses, lCnd , lands).
                                   A            ¸

   [Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the assimilations described
above.]

   41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the
acc. plur.

   Strong Masculines

   (1) a-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

   Nom. fisk-r ( fish ) fisk-ar
Acc. fisk fisk-a
Dat. fisk-i fisk-um
Gen. fisk-s fisk-a

    42. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); AArr˜˚
(Thor), acc. AA            ˜A
               ˜ ˚r , gen. A˚rs ; steinn (stone), acc. stein ,
gen. steins , pl. nom. steinar ; hrafn (raven), acc.
                             ˜                        ˜
 hrafn , pl. nom. hrafnar ; Aurs (giant), acc. gen. Aurs ,
            ˜
pl. nom. Aursar .

   43. Dissyllables in -r , -l , -n generally throw out the
preceding vowel before a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer),
dat. hamri ; jCtunn (giant), pl. nom. jCtnar . kAtill
               ¸                           ¸         ¨
(kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the

                                       8
contracted forms, as in the acc. plur. katla , lukla .

   44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing.,
                                   ¨             ¨
especially proper names, such as HAkon , gen. HAkonar .

                                        ˜
   45. Some nouns add v before vowels: sAr (sea), gen.
 ˜
sAvar .

                                           ˜      ˜˚
   46. The dat. sometimes drops the i : sA (sea), AAr . dagr
                                     ¨
(day) mutates its vowel in the dat. dAgi .

   47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the sing., and drop it in the
plur.:

   SINGULAR PLURAL

           ¨              ¨
   Nom. hAlli-r ( cave ) hAll-ar
      ¨     ¨
Acc. hAlli hAll-a
      ¨     ¨
Dat. hAlli hAll-um
      ¨       ¨
Gen. hAlli-s hAll-a

                                                    `      ˜˚
   48. So also a number of proper names, such as SkrEmir , AArir .

   (2) i-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

             ˜              ˜
   Nom. staA-r ( place ) staA-ir
        ˜     ˜
Acc. staA staA-i
        ˜ ¸˜
Dat. staA stCA-um
        ˜        ˜
Gen. staA-ar staA-a

   49. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall).

         ¨
   50. gAstr (guest) takes -i in the dat. sg., and -s in the
gen. sg.

    51. Those ending in g or k (together with some others) insert
                         ¨             ¨
j before a and u : bAkkr (bench), bAkk , bAkk , ¨
  ¨          ¨         ¨      ¨          ¨
bAkkjar ; bAkkir , bAkki , bAkkjum , bAkkja . So also
   ¨                   ¨
mArgr (marrow), strAngr (string).

   (3) u-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

              ¸
   Nom. skjCld-r ( shield ) skild-ir
         ¸      ¸
Acc. skjCld skjCld-u
                ¸
Dat. skild-i skjCld-um



                                       9
Gen. skjald-ar skjald-a

                  ¸              ¸                ˜
    52. So also vCndr (twig), vCllr (plain), viAr (wood).
 ¨                          ˜            ¨
 Ass (god) has plur. nom. Asir , acc. Asu . sonr (son) has
dat. sg. syni , plur. nom. synir . It regularly drops its r
of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi).

   (4) r-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

                        ˚
   Nom. f˚t-r ( foot ) fAt-r
           A
Acc. f˚t f˚t-r
      A A
Dat. f˚t-i f˚t-um
      A     A
Gen. f˚t-ar f˚t-a
      A      A

   53. So also fingr (finger), gen. fingrar , pl. fingr ; vetr
                       ˜                        ˜
(winter), pl. vetr . maAr (man) is irregular: maAr , mann ,
                     ¨       ¨        ¸
 manni , manns ; mAnn , mAnn , mCnnum , manna .

   SINGULAR PLURAL

           ˜              ¨˜
   Nom. faAir ( father ) fAAr
      ¸˜     ¨˜
Acc. fCAur fAAr
      ¸˜     ¨˜
Dat. fCAur fAArum
      ¸˜     ¨˜
Gen. fCAur fAAra

                 ˚˜                    A˜
   54. So also brAAir (brother), pl. br˚Ar .

    55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl.,
following the weak class in the sg.:

   SINGULAR PLURAL

         ˚
   Nom. bAndi ( yeoman ) b˚ndr
                          A
Acc. b˚nda b˚ndr
      A     A
Dat. b˚nda b˚ndum
      A     A
Gen. b˚nda b˚nda
      A     A

                 ˚
   56. So also frAndi (kinsman), pl. fr˚ndr .
                                       A

   Strong Neuters

   SINGULAR PLURAL

   Nom. skip ( ship ) skip
Acc. skip skip
Dat. skip-i skip-um
Gen. skip-s skip-a



                                        10
                 ˜                          ¸
   57. So also orA (word), land (land) pl. lCnd , sumar
                     ˆ
(summer) pl. sumur (A 25).

          ¨
   58. mAn (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert j
                             ¸
before a and u : greyjum . hCgg (stroke) inserts v
                  ¸        ¨           ¨       ¨    ¨
before a vowel: hCggvi . knA (knee), knA , knA , knAs ;
   ¨       ¨     ¨       ¨           ¨
 knA , knA , kjAm , knjA . So also trA (tree).

        ¨                               ¨          ¨
   59. fA (money) is contracted: gen. fjAr , dat. fA .

   SINGULAR PLURAL

           ˜˜            ˜˜
   Nom. kvAAi ( poem ) kvAAi
       ˜˜     ˜˜
Acc. kvAAi kvAAi
       ˜˜     ˜˜
Dat. kvAAi kvAAum
       ˜˜      ˜˜
Gen. kvAAi-s kvAAa

                 ˜˜
   60. So also klAAi (cloth). Those in k insert j before a
            ¨              ¨           ¨
and u : mArki (mark), mArkjum , mArkja . So also rAki  ¨
(sovereignty).

   Strong Feminines

   (1) ar-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

            ¸
   Nom. gjCf ( gift ) gjaf-ar
       ¸
Acc. gjCf gjaf-ar
       ¸     ¸
Dat. gjCf gjCf-um
Gen. gjaf-ar gjaf-a

                             ¸ ˜           ¨
   61. So also mCn (mane), gjCrA (girdle), Ar (oar).
                ¸

      ¨                    ¨   ¨   ¨   ¨    ¨    ¨    ¨
  62. A (river) contracts: A , A , A , Ar ; Ar , Ar , Am ,
¨ .
A

                                       ¨
   63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: kArling (old woman),
 ¨         ¨          ¨            ¨          ¨
kArling , kArlingu , kArlingar ; kArlingar , kArlingar ,
 ¨            ¨
kArlingum , kArlinga . So also laug (bath).

    64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or i ) insert j in
inflection: ey (island), ey , eyju , eyjar ; eyjar ,
                                          ¨       ˜
 eyjar , eyjum , eyja . So also Frigg , HAl . mAr (maid),
 mey , meyju , meyjar ; meyjar , meyjar , meyjum , meyja .

   65.

   SINGULAR PLURAL



                                   11
             ˜              ˜
   Nom. heiA-r ( heath ) heiA-ar
        ˜      ˜
Acc. heiA-i heiA-ar
        ˜      ˜
Dat. heiA-i heiA-um
        ˜        ˜
Gen. heiA-ar heiA-a

   (2) ir-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

          ¨˜ ¨˜
   Nom. tAA tAA-ir
      ¨˜ ¨˜
Acc. tAA tAA-ir
      ¨˜ ¨˜
Dat. tAA tAA-um
      ¨˜     ¨˜
Gen. tAA-ar tAA-a

   66. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), hCfn  ¸
(harbour) pl. hafnir , and the majority of strong feminines.

    67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: s˚l (sun), s˚l , s˚lu ,
                                        A          A    A
                                                 ¸ ˜
 s˚lar ; s˚lir , s˚lir , s˚lum , s˚la . So also jCrA
  A       A       A       A       A
(earth), stund (period of time).

                                                     ˜
    68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heiAr in the
        A˜            A˜        A˜       A˜        A˜
sg.: br˚Ar (bride), br˚Ai , br˚Ai , br˚Aar ; br˚Air ,
   A˜        A˜        A˜
 br˚Air , br˚Aum , br˚Aa .

   (3) r-plurals

   SINGULAR PLURAL

                      ˚
   Nom. b˚k ( book ) bAk-r
          A
Acc. b˚k b˚k-r
      A A
Dat. b˚k b˚k-um
      A A
Gen. b˚k-ar b˚k-a
      A      A

               ¨                ˜      ˚
  69. So also nAtt (night) pl. nAtr , bAt (compensation) pl.
                                      ¨
b˚tr , tCnn (tooth) gen. tannar pl. tAnnr .
 A      ¸

        ¸               ¨                  ¨
   70. hCnd (hand) pl. hAndr has dat. sg. hAndi .

        `                  ˚        `
   71. kEr (cow) has acc. kA , pl. kEr .

         ˚                                            `
   72. brAn (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pl.: brEnn .

   SINGULAR PLURAL

          A˜              A˜
   Nom. m˚Air ( mother ) m˚Ar
Acc. mA ˜
      ˚Aur m˚Ar
             A ˜
      A˜     A˜
Dat. m˚Aur m˚Arum
        ˜    A˜
      ˚Aur m˚Ara
Gen. mA



                                     12
                ˚
   73. So also dAttir (daughter) pl. d˚tr ; systir (sister) pl.
                                      A
systr .

   Weak Masculines

   SINGULAR PLURAL

   Nom. bog-i ( bow ) bog-ar
Acc. bog-a bog-a
Dat. bog-a bog-um
Gen. bog-a bog-a

                ¨            ¨
   74. So also mAni (moon), fAlagi (companion).

        ¸ ˜
  75. hCfAingi (chief) and some others insert j in inflection:
 ¸ ˜         ¸ ˜          ¸ ˜
hCfAingja , hCfAingjar , hCfAingjum .

        ¨                                           ¨
   76. lA (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is ljA .

                        ˜
   77. oxi (ox) has pl. Axn .

   78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.

   Weak Neuters

   SINGULAR PLURAL

                            ¸
   Nom. hjart-a ( heart ) hjCrt-u
               ¸
Acc. hjart-a hjCrt-u
               ¸
Dat. hjart-a hjCrt-um
Gen. hjart-a hjart-na

   79. So also auga (eye).

   Weak Feminines

   SINGULAR PLURAL

   Nom. tung-a ( tongue ) tung-ur
Acc. tung-u tung-ur
Dat. tung-u tung-um
Gen. tung-u tung-na

                                     ¸
   80. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjCrnur , kirkja (church),
gen. plurals stjarna , kirkna .

            ¨
   Sg. Nom. Alli ( old age )
     ¨
Acc. Alli
     ¨
Dat. Alli



                                      13
     ¨
Gen. Alli

                 ¨˜
   81. So also glAAi (joy) and many abstract nouns.

   82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar ; so also gC`
                                                 ¸ Irsimi
(precious thing).

   Adjectives

   83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns,
though with partly different endings, together with strong and
weak forms.

   Strong Adjectives

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

   Sg. Nom. ung-r ( young ) ung-t ung
Acc. ung-an ung-t ung-a
Dat. ung-um ung-u ung-ri
Gen. ung-s ung-s ung-rar

   Pl. Nom. ung-ir ung ung-ar
Acc. ung-a ung ung-ar
Dat. ung-um ung-um ung-um
Gen. ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra

                                  ¸
   84. So also fagr (fair), fem. fCgr , neut. fagrt .

                                       `          `
   85. Some insert j before a and u : nEr (new), nEjum ,
 `
nEjan .

                                      ¨           ¨
   86. Some insert v before a vowel: hAr (high), hAvan ,
 ˜                ˜
dAkkr (dark), dAkkvir , kykr (alive), kykvir .

                                                             `
    87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: nEtt ,
                           ˜
   ¨ . Monosyllables in A , dd , tt form their neut. in
 hAtt
           ˜
 -tt : breiAr (broad), breitt ; leiddr (led), leitt .
 g˚Ar
  A  ˜ (good) has neut. gott . sannr (true) has neut. satt .
In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, tt is shortened
             ˜
to t : kallaAr (called), kallat ; blindr (blind), blint ,
     ˜ (hard), hart , fastr (firm), fast .
 harAr

    88. l and n assimilate a following r : gamall (old), fem.
  ¸                                         ¸
 gCmul , fem. acc. gamla , dat. gamalli . vCnn (beautiful),
           ˜
gen. pl. vAnna .

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.




                                     14
   Sg. Nom. mikill ( great ) mikit mikil
Acc. mikinn mikit mikla
Dat. miklum miklu mikilli
Gen. mikils mikils mikillar

   Pl. Nom. miklir mikil miklar
Acc. mikla mikil miklar
Dat. miklum miklum miklum
Gen. mikilla mikilla mikilla

                ¨
   89. So also lAtill (little).

   90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in
                      ¨                       ¨       ¨
the masc. sg. acc.: tAginn (distinguished), tAgit , tAginn ,
     ¨ ¨
pl. tAgnAr . So also kominn (come).

   91.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                                   ¸
   Sg. Nom. annarr ( other ) annat Cnnur
                   ˜
Acc. annan annat aAra
      ¸˜     ¸˜
Dat. CArum CAru annarri
Gen. annars annars annarrar

              ˜    ¸      ˜
   Pl. Nom. aArir Cnnur aArar
       ˜ ¸        ˜
Acc. aAra Cnnur aArar
      ¸˜     ¸˜      ¸˜
Dat. CArum CArum CArum
Gen. annarra annarra annarra

   Weak Adjectives

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

   Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a
Acc. ung-a ung-a ung-u
Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-u
Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u

   Pl. Nom. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Acc. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Dat. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Gen. ung-u ung-u ung-u

                        ¨
   92. So also fagri , hAvi , mikli , etc.

   Sg. Nom. yngri ( younger ) yngra yngri
Acc. yngra yngra yngri
Dat. yngra yngra yngri



                                      15
Gen. yngra yngra yngri

   Pl. Nom. yngri yngri yngri
Acc. yngri yngri yngri
Dat. yngrum yngrum yngrum
Gen. yngri yngri yngri

    93. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and
pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi
                       ¸
(giving), dat. pl. gefCndum .

   Comparison

                                ¨                ¨
   94. (1) with -ari , -astr : rAkr (powerful), rAkari ,
 ¨          ¸                        ¸         ¸
rAkastr ; gCfugr (distinguished), gCfgari , gCfgastr .

    95. (2) with -ri , -str and mutation: langr (long),
  ¨         ¨
 lAngri , lAngstr ; st˚rr (big), st˚rri , st˚rstr ; ungr
                       A           A        A
(young), yngri , yngstr .

   96. The following are irregular:

                     ¨     ¨
     gamall ( old ) Allri Alztr
  ˚˜               ¨
gAAr ( good ) bAtri bAztr ¨
                ¨     ¨
illr ( bad ) vArri vArstr
 ¨
lAtill ( little ) minni minstr
margr ( many ) fleiri flestr
mikill ( great ) meiri mestr

   Numerals

   97.

   CARDINAL ORDINAL

    1. einn ( one ) fyrstr ( first )
2. tveir annarr
   ˜ ¨ ˜ ˜
3. ArAr AriAi
             A ˜
4. fj˚rir fj˚rAi
     A
5. fimm fimmti
         ¨
6. sex sAtti
7. sjau sjaundi
   ¨      ¨
8. Atta Atti
     ¨ nAundi
9. nAu ¨
      ¨     ¨
10. tAu tAundi
11. ellifu ellifti
12. t˚lf t˚lfti
      A A
     ˜      ¨ ˜     ¨
13. ArettAn ArettAndi
      ˚rtAn
14. fjA    ¨
15. fimmtAn  ¨


                                      16
         ¨
16. sextAn
          ¨
17. sjautAn
    ¨ ¨
18. AtjAn
      ¨ ¨
19. nAtjAn
20. tuttugu
21. einn ok tuttugu, etc.
    ˜ ¨
30. ArAr tigir, etc.
       ¨
100. tAu tigir
110. ellifu tigir
120. hundraA  ˜
       ˜A
1200. A˚sund

    einn is declined like other adjectives:–

   98.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

   Nom. einn eitt ein
Acc. einn eitt eina
Dat. einum einu einni
Gen. eins eins einnar

   It also has a pl. einir , einar , ein ; gen. einna , etc. in
the sense of ’some.’

   The next three show various irregularities.

   99.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                      ˜
   Nom. tveir tvau tvAr
                 ˜
       ¨ tvau tvAr
Acc. tvA
Dat. tveim tveim tveim
        ¨       ¨       ¨
Gen. tvAggja tvAggja tvAggja

              ¨˜
   Similarly bAAir (both):

   100.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

          ¨˜    ˜˜ ¨˜
   Nom. bAAir bAAi bAAar
        ˜   ˜˜ ¨˜
      ¨ Aa bAAi bAAar
Acc. bA
      ¨˜     ¨˜      ¨˜
Dat. bAAum bAAum bAAum
      ¨      ¨      ¨
Gen. bAggja bAggja bAggja

   101.



                                       17
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

         ˜ ¨ ˜ A ˜ ¨
   Nom. ArAr Arj˚ ArjAr
     ˜ ¨ ˜ A ˜ ¨
Acc. ArjA Arj˚ ArjAr
     ˜    ˜     ˜
Dat. Arim Arim Arim
     ˜       ˜       ˜
Gen. Ariggja Ariggja Ariggja

   102.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

           ˚
   Nom. fjArir fjogur fj˚rar
                         A
Acc. fj˚ra fjogur fj˚rar
       A            A
Dat. fj˚rum fj˚rum fj˚rum
       A       A       A
Gen. fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra

                                            ˜ ¨
   103. The others are indeclinable up to ArAr tigir , etc.; the
tigir being declined regularly as a plural strong u -masculine
tigir , tigu , tigum , tiga .

              ˜                                   ˜
   104. hundraA is a strong neut.: tvau hundruA (240), tveim
       ˜                                            ˜A
hundruAum , etc. It governs the gen. (as also does A˚sund ):
            ˜ A
 fimm hundruA g˚lfa , ’five (six) hundred chambers.’

        ˜˚                                 ˜ ˜A
   105. AAsund is a strong ir -feminine: tvAr A˚sundir (2400).

              ˜     ˜˚
   106. hundraA and AAsund are rarely = 100 and 1000.

                                            ˆ
   107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr (A 91) are strong, the
                            ˜              ˜ ˜
                        ˜ Ai inserts a j : AriAja , etc.
others weak adjectives. Ari

   Pronouns

   108.

   Personal

                     ˜˚
   Sg. Nom. ek ( I ) AA ( thou ) –
         ˜ sik ( oneself )
Acc. mik Aik
       ¨ ˜¨ ¨
Dat. mAr AAr sAr
        ¨ ˜¨
Gen. mAn AAn sAn¨

   Dual Nom. vit it –
Acc. okkr ykkr sik
                 ¨
Dat. okkr ykkr sAr
                   ¨
Gen. okkar ykkar sAn

   Pl. Nom.      ¨          ˜¨
               vAr ( we ) AAr ( ye ) –
          ˜
Acc. oss yAr   sik ( oneselves )
          ˜
Dat. oss yAr     ¨
               sAr

                                      18
      ¨   ˜    ¨
Gen. vAr yAar sAn

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                        ˜
   Sg. Nom. hann ( he ) Aat ( it ) hon ( she )
          ˜
Acc. hann Aat hana
            ˜ ¨ ¨
Dat. honum AvA hAnni
          ˜     ¨
Gen. hans Aess hAnnar

             ˜            ˜   ˜˜
   Pl. Nom. Aeir ( they ) Aau AAr
      ˜¨ ˜    ˜˜
Acc. AA Aau AAr
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Dat. Aeim Aeim Aeim
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Gen. Aeira Aeira Aeira

    109. ek was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry,
                                     ˜                    ¨
being sometimes added twice over: mAtta-k (I might), sA-k-a-k
                                ˜A
(I saw not; a =’not’). So also A˚ : er-tu (art thou),
 skalt-u (shalt thou) = skalt-tu .

   Possessive

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                              ¨
   Sg. Nom. minn ( my ) mitt mAn
                 ¨
Acc. minn mitt mAna
       ¨       ¨
Dat. mAnum mAnu minni
        ¨    ¨
Gen. mAns mAns minnar

              ¨     ¨   ¨
   Pl. Nom. mAnir mAn mAnar
       ¨         ¨
            ¨ mAnar
Acc. mAna mAn
       ¨      ¨
Dat. mAnum mAnum mAnum¨
Gen. minna minna minna

                ˜
   110. So also Ainn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive).

          ¨      ¨      ¨                              ¨
  111. vArr , vArt , vAr (our) is regular: acc. masc. vArn ,
             ¨            ¨          ¨
                     ¨ , vArum , vArra , etc.
masc. plur. vArir , vAra

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

              ˜             ˜     ˜
   Sg. Nom. yAarr ( your ) yAart yAur
       ˜    ˜     ˜
Acc. yAarn yAart yAra
       ˜     ˜    ˜
Dat. yArum yAru yAarri
       ˜    ˜     ˜
Gen. yAars yAars yAarrar

              ˜    ˜    ˜
   Pl. Nom. yArir yAur yArar
           ˜    ˜
       ˜ yAur yArar
Acc. yAra
       ˜     ˜      ˜
Dat. yArum yArum yArum
       ˜     ˜       ˜
Gen. yAarra yAarra yAarra



                                     19
   112. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two).

                        ˜        ¨                ˜
   113. hans (his), Aess (its), hAnnar (her), and Aeira
(their) are indeclinable.

   Demonstrative

   114.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

              ¨         ˜
   Sg. Nom. sA ( that ) Aat s˚
                             A
     ˜    ˜ ˜¨
Acc. Aann Aat AA
     ˜    ˜ ¨ ˜
Dat. Aeim AvA Aeiri
      ˜   ˜     ˜
Gen. Aess Aess Aeirar

             ˜     ˜   ˜˜
   Pl. Nom. Aeir Aau AAr
      ˜¨ ˜    ˜˜
Acc. AA Aau AAr
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Dat. Aeim Aeim Aeim
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Gen. Aeira Aeira Aeira

   115. hinn , hitt , hin (that) is inflected like minn
(except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. hinn ,
plur. masc. hinir , hina , hinum , hinna .

   116.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

             ˜             ˜     ˜
   Sg. Nom. Aessi ( this ) Aetta Aessi
     ˜     ˜     ˜
Acc. Aenna Aetta Aessa
     ˜       ˜     ˜
Dat. Aessum Aessu Aessi
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Gen. Aessa Aessa Aessar

             ˜      ˜    ˜
   Pl. Nom. Aessir Aessi Aessar
      ˜    ˜     ˜
Acc. Aessa Aessi Aessar
      ˜      ˜        ˜
Dat. Aessum Aessum Aessum
      ˜    ˜      ˜
Gen. Aessa Aessa Aessa

   Definite

   The prefixed definite article is declined thus:

   117.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

   Sg. Nom. inn it in
Acc. inn it ina
Dat. inum inu inni

                                      20
Gen. ins ins innar

   Pl. Nom. inir in inar
Acc. ina in inar
Dat. inum inum inum
Gen. inna inna inna

    118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In
its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short
(un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the eye), but keeps it after
                     ¨                    ¨
a long vowel, as in A-in (the river), trA-it (the tree). The
dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere;
not, however, after the -ar , -r , of the gen. sg., nor in
    ¨                          ¨
 mAnninir (men, nom. ), mAnn-ina (men, acc. ). The -m of
the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed -num .

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                                 ¸
   Sg. Nom. fiskr-inn skip-it gjCf-in
                       ¸
Acc. fisk-inn skip-it gjCf-ina
                           ¸
Dat. fiski-num skipi-nu gjCf-inni
Gen. fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-innar

   Pl. Nom. fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar
Acc. fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar
                             ¸
Dat. fisku-num skipu-num gjCfu-num
Gen. fiska-nna skipa-nna gjafa-nna

   Sg. Nom. bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n
Acc. boga-nn auga-t tungu-na
Dat. boga-num auga-nu tungu-nni
Gen. boga-ns auga-ns tungu-nnar

   Pl. Nom. bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar
Acc. boga-na augu-n tungur-nar
Dat. bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num
Gen. boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna

   Relative

   119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er , often
             ¨     ¨
preceded by sA : sA er = he who, who, s˚ er who fem.
                                             A

   Interrogative

                                                ¨
    120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess , dat. hvA , which last is
chiefly used as an adverb = ’why.’

   121.



                                       21
   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                 ¨            ¨     ¨
     Sg. Nom. hvArr ( which hvArt hvAr
of two )
          ¨    ¨     ¨
 Acc. hvArn hvArt hvAra
          ¨      ¨     ¨
 Dat. hvArum hvAru hvArri
          ¨    ¨     ¨
 Gen. hvArs hvArs hvArrar

               ¨     ¨    ¨
   Pl. Nom. hvArir hvAr hvArar
        ¨    ¨     ¨
Acc. hvAra hvAr hvArar
        ¨       ¨      ¨
Dat. hvArum hvArum hvArum
        ¨      ¨     ¨
Gen. hvArra hvArra hvArra

   122.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

               ¨             ¨     ¨
   Sg. Nom. hvArr ( which, hvArt hvAr
who )
        ¨    ¨     ¨
Acc. hvArn hvArt hvArja
        ¨       ¨      ¨
Dat. hvArjum hvArju hvArri
        ¨    ¨     ¨
Gen. hvArs hvArs hvArrar

               ¨     ¨     ¨
   Pl. Nom. hvArir hvAr hvArjar
        ¨     ¨    ¨
Acc. hvArja hvAr hvArjar
        ¨        ¨       ¨
Dat. hvArjum hvArjum hvArjum
        ¨     ¨      ¨
Gen. hvArra hvArra hvArra

   Indefinite

                 ¨           ¨            ¨
   123. einn-hvArr , eitthvArt , einhvAr (some one) keeps an
invariable ein- in the other cases, the second element being
inflected as above.

   124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.

   125.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

                                ¸
    Sg. Nom. nakkvarr nakkvat nCkkur
( some )
 Acc. nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara
        ¸         ¸
 Dat. nCkkurum nCkkuru nakkvarri
 Gen. nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar

                       ¸
   Pl. Nom. nakkvarir nCkkur nakkvarar
               ¸
Acc. nakkvara nCkkur nakkvarar
       ¸         ¸        ¸
Dat. nCkkurum nCkkurum nCkkurum



                                     22
Gen. nakkvarra nakkvarra nakkvarra

   126.

   MASC. NEUT. FEM.

     Sg. Nom. engi ( none, ekki engi
no )
 Acc. engan ekki enga
 Dat. engum engu engri
 Gen. engis engis engrar

   Pl. Nom. engir engi engar
Acc. enga engi engar
Dat. engum engum engum
Gen. engra engra engra

                ¨    ¨
    127. In hvAr-tvAggja (each of the two, both) the first element
is declined as above, the second is left unchanged.

   Verbs

   128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak . Strong
verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by
         ˜
adding A ( d , t ).

           ˜                              ˜
  129. The A of the 2 pl. is dropt before Ait (ye two) and
˜¨            ˜¨      ¨ ˜
AAr (ye): gefi AAr , gAfu Ait .

    130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers.
sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to
                                                       ˜
the active endings, r being dropt, the resulting ts , As
being written z (A                             ˜
                    ˆ 36): kvezk (active kveAr ’says’), Au˜
fekkzk ( fekkt ’gottest’).

    131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa
(give), which will show those endings which are common to all
verbs:

   Active

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

    Present sg. 1. gef gef-a
2. gef-r gef-ir
3. gef-r gef-i

    pl. 1. gef-um gef-im
        ˜      ˜
2. gef-iA gef-iA



                                       23
3. gef-a gef-i

                          ˜
    Preterite sg. 1. gaf gAf-a
           ˜
2. gaf-t gAf-ir
         ˜
3. gaf gAf-i

            ¨      ˜
    pl. 1. gAf-um gAf-im
    ¨ ˜ ˜ ˜
2. gAf-uA gAf-iA
    ¨     ˜
3. gAf-u gAf-i

                                              ˜
   Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-iA.
Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn.
Infin. gefa.

   Middle

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

    Pres. sg. 1. gef-umk gef-umk
2. gef-sk gef-isk
3. gef-sk gef-isk

    pl. 1. gef-umk gef-imk
2. gef-izk gef-izk
3. gef-ask gef-isk

                  ¨       ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. gAf-umk gAf-umk
           ˜
2. gaf-zk gAf-isk
           ˜
3. gaf-sk gAf-isk

            ¨       ˜
    pl. 1. gAf-umk gAf-imk
    ¨       ˜
2. gAf-uzk gAf-izk
    ¨       ˜
3. gAf-usk gAf-isk

   Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk.
Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut.
Infin. gef-ask.

   Strong Verbs

    132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally
has a different vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of
                                                            ¨
the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: gAfumk .
The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated:
 skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot).
But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hlj˚pi ,
                                                          A
inf. hlaupa (leap).

   133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three
              `     ˜A `                `
persons: ek skEt , A˚ skEtr , hann skEtr , infin. skj˚ta A

                                       24
                                              ˜˚
(shoot). e however is not mutated: ek gef , AA gefr . The
inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r
          ˆ          ¨        ¨           ¨
of nouns (A 32): skAnn , vAx , infin. skAna (shine), vaxa
(grow).

   134. Verbs in ld change      the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret.
indic. and in the imper. sg.:    helt (held), halt (hold!),
infin. halda . nd becomes        tt , and ng becomes kk under
the same conditions: binda      (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt ,
 gekk , imper. bitt , gakk .

   135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long
                  ˜A ¨
accented vowel: A˚ sAtt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret.
                    ˜                            ¨
indic. ends in t or A , the 2 sg. ends in zt : lAt (I let),
 ˜A ¨           ˜             ˜A
 A˚ lAzt , bauA (I offered) A˚ bauzt .

   136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished
mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites.

   137.

   I. ’Fall’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

                    ¨
    falla ( fall ) fAllr fell fellu fallinn
 ¨             ˜      ¨ ¨
lAta ( let ) lAtr lAt lAtu lAtinn¨
 ¨˜                   ˜˜ ¨˜ ¨˜
rAAa ( advise ) rAAr rAA rAAu rAAinn       ¨˜
                        ¨     ¨
heita ( call ) heitr hAt hAtu heitinn
                    ¨
halda ( hold ) hAldr helt heldu haldinn
                 ¨
ganga ( go ) gAngr gekk gengu gAnginn    ¨
             ˜                  ¨
 ¨ ( get ) fAr fekk fengu fAnginn
fA
—————–
auka ( increase ) eykr j˚k j˚ku aukinn
                            A A
                   `
b˚a ( dwell ) bEr bj˚ bjoggu b˚inn
 A                       A             A
hCggva ( hew ) hCggr hj˚ hjoggu hCggvinn
  ¸                   ¸       A             ¸
hlaupa ( leap ) hleypr hlj˚p hlj˚pu hlaupinn
                               A      A

   138. The following have weak preterites in r :

     ˚                   ˜    ˜
   grAa ( grow ) gr˚r grAri grAru gr˚inn
                    A               A
                      ˜
                 ˜ rAru r˚inn
r˚a ( row ) r˚r rAri
 A           A             A
                 `    ˜     ˜
sn˚a ( twist ) snEr snAri snAru sn˚inn
  A                               A

   139. heita in the passive sense of ’to be named, called’ has a
                         ˜A
weak present: ek heiti , A˚ heitir .

   140.




                                        25
   II. ’Shake’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

                 ¨    ˚ A
    fara ( go ) fArr fAr f˚ru farinn
                 ¨
grafa ( dig ) grAfr gr˚f gr˚fu grafinn
                       A   A
    ˜              ¨˜     A˜ A˜
hlaAa ( load ) hlAAr hl˚A hl˚Au hlaAinn˜
                  ¨ A A
vaxa ( grow ) vAx ˚x ˚xu vaxinn
                     ¨      A˜ A˜        ˜
standa ( stand ) stAndr st˚A st˚Au staAinn
               ¨ A A        ¨
aka ( drive ) Akr ˚k ˚ku Akinn
                ¨               ¨
taka ( take ) tAkr t˚k t˚ku tAkinn
                      A A
                   ¨                 ¨
draga ( draw ) drAgr dr˚ dr˚gu drAginn
                          A A
  ¨           ˜ A A
flA ( flay ) flAr fl˚ fl˚gu flAginn¨
  ¨              ˜              ¨
slA ( strike ) slAr sl˚ sl˚gu slAginn
                      A A

   141. The following have weak presents:

     ¨              ¨
    hAfja ( lift ) hAfr h˚f h˚fu hafinn
                         A A
                      A A ¨
deyja ( die ) deyr d˚ d˚ dAinn
  ˜                 ˜              ¨
hlAja ( laugh ) hlAr hl˚ hl˚gu hlAginn
                         A A

   142.

   III. ’Bind’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

    bresta ( burst ) brestr brast brustu brostinn
hverfa ( turn ) hverfr hvarf hurfu horfinn
svelga ( swallow ) svelgr svalg sulgu s˚lginn
                                        A
    ˜                  ˜      ˜    ˜
verAa ( become ) verAr varA urAu orAinn  ˜
    ¨
skjAlfa ( shake ) skelfr skalf skulfu skolfinn
drekka ( drink ) drekkr drakk drukku drukkinn
finna ( find ) finnr fann fundu fundinn
vinna ( win ) vinnr vann unnu unninn
binda ( bind ) bindr batt bundu bundinn
springa ( spring ) springr sprakk sprungu sprunginn
stinga ( pierce ) stingr stakk stungu stunginn
      ˜               ˜     ¨       ˜
bregAa ( pull ) bregAr brA brugAu brugAinn  ˜
 ˜                 ˜      ¸
sAkkva ( sink ) sAkkr sCkk sukku sokkinn
  ˜                    ˜       ¸
stAkkva ( spring ) stAkkr stCkk stukku stokkinn

   143. The following have weak presents (which makes however no
difference in their conjugation):

     ¨                ¨
   brAnna ( burn ) brAnnr brann brunnu brunninn
 ¨             ¨
rAnna ( run ) rAnnr rann runnu runninn

   144.



                                     26
   IV. ’Bear’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

                                 ¨
    bera ( carry ) berr bar bAru borinn
                               ¨
nema ( take ) nemr nam nAmu numinn
                        ¨
fela ( hide ) felr fal fAlu f˚lginn
                             A
                   ˜              ¨
koma ( come ) kAmr kom kvAmu kominn
                 ˜           ¨
sofa ( sleep ) sAfr svaf svAfu sofinn

   145.

   V. ’Give’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

                                 ¨
    drepa ( kill ) drepr drap drApu drepinn
                        ¨
gefa ( give ) gefr gaf gAfu gefinn
    ˜               ˜      ˜    ¨˜
kveAa ( say ) kveAr kvaA kvAAu kveAinn ˜
                                 ¨
meta ( estimate ) metr mat mAtu metinn
                          ¨
reka ( drive ) rekr rak rAku rekinn
                ¨ ¨
eta ( eat ) etr At Atu etinn
  ¨          ¨       ¨ ¨      ¨
sjA ( see ) sAr[6] sA sA[7] sAnn

                 ¨ ¨      ¨     ¨    ¨˜    ¨         ¨ ¨      ¨
   [Footnote 6: sA, sAr, sAr; sjAm, sAA, sjA. Subj. sA, sAr, sA;
 ¨    ¨˜ ¨
sAm, sAA, sA.]

                 ¨    ¨ ˜ ¨
   [Footnote 7: sAm, sAiA, sA.]

   146. The following have weak presents:–

       ˜               ˜    ˜ ¨˜
    biAja ( ash ) biAr baA bAAu beAinn˜
                         ¨ setinn
sitja ( sit ) sitr sat sAtu
                      ¨ ¨
liggja ( lie ) liggr lA lAgum leginn
˜                     ˜     ˜¨ ˜¨    ˜
Aiggja ( receive ) Aiggr AA AAgu Aeginn

   147.

   VI. ’Shine’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

     ¨              ¨
    bAta ( bite ) bAtr beit bitu bitinn
                   ¨
   ¨ ( drive ) drAfr dreif drifu drifinn
drAfa
   ¨                ¨
grApa ( grasp ) grApr greip gripu gripinn
   ˜          ¨˜      ˜ ˜       ˜
 ¨ Aa ( go ) lAAr leiA liAu liAinn
lA
               ¨
 ¨ ( look ) lAtr leit litu litinn
lAta
 ¨˜              ¨˜      ˜ ˜
rAAa ( ride ) rAAr reiA riAu riAinn ˜
                ¨
 ¨ ( sink ) sAgr seig sigu siginn
sAga
  ¨              ¨
slAta ( tear ) slAtr sleit slitu slitinn

                                     27
  ¨                 ¨
stAga ( advance ) stAgr steig stigu stiginn
  ¨˜           ¨˜       ˜ ˜
bAAa ( wait ) bAAr beiA biAu beiAnn ˜

   148. The following has a weak present:

    ¨              ¨
   vAkja ( move ) vAkr veik viku vikinn

   149.

   VII. ’Choose’-conjugation

   INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

      A˜                 `˜     ˜    ˜
    bj˚Aa ( offer ) bEAr bauA buAu boAinn  ˜
   ˚                   `
brjAta ( break ) brEtr braut brutu brotinn
                   `
flj˚ta ( float ) flEtr flaut flutu flotinn
  A
                        `
hlj˚ta ( receive ) hlEtr hlaut hlutu hlotinn
   A
                     `
kj˚sa ( choose ) kEss kaus kusum kosinn
  A
                    `
nj˚ta ( enjoy ) nEtr naut nutu notinn
  A
                      `
skj˚ta ( shoot ) skEtr skaut skutu skotinn
   A
                      `
drj˚pa ( drop ) drEpr draup drupu dropinn
   A
                     `
lj˚ga ( tell lies ) lEgr laug lugu loginn
  A
                 `
l˚ka ( close ) lEkr lauk luku lokinn
 A
                 `
l˚ta ( bend ) lEtr laut lutu lotinn
 A
                 `
flj˚ga ( fly ) flEgr fl˚ flugu floginn
  A                     A

   Weak Verbs

    150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of
the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form
                 ˜                                  ˜
their pret. with A ( d , t ): heyra (hear), heyrAa . Those
of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have
                                                  ˜
unmutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafAa . Those of
                                                        ˜
                                 ˜ : kalla (call), kallaAa .
the third form their pret. in -aAa

   I. ’Hear’-conjugation

   Active

   151.

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

    Pres. sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a
2. heyr-ir heyr-ir
3. heyr-ir heyr-i

    pl. 1. heyr-um heyr-im
         ˜       ˜
2. heyr-iA heyr-iA



                                      28
3. heyr-a heyr-i

                      ˜       ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. heyr-Aa heyr-Aa
        ˜        ˜
2. heyr-Air heyr-Air
        ˜       ˜
3. heyr-Ai heyr-Ai

                ˜        ˜
    pl. 1. heyr-Aum heyr-Aim
        ˜ ˜       ˜ ˜
2. heyr-AuA heyr-AiA
        ˜       ˜
3. heyr-Au heyr-Ai

                                                ˜
   Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-iA.
                                    ˜
Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-Ar.
Infin. heyr-a.

   Middle

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

    Pres. sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk
2. heyr-isk heyr-isk
3. heyr-isk heyr-isk

    pl. 1. heyr-umk heyr-imk
2. heyr-izk heyr-izk
3. heyr-ask heyr-isk

                      ˜         ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. heyr-Aumk heyr-Aumk
        ˜         ˜
2. heyr-Aisk heyr-Aisk
        ˜         ˜
3. heyr-Aisk heyr-Aisk

                ˜         ˜
    pl. 1. heyr-Aumk heyr-Aimk
        ˜         ˜
2. heyr-Auzk heyr-Aizk
        ˜         ˜
3. heyr-Ausk heyr-Aisk

   Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk.
Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut.
Infin. heyr-ask.

   A. Without vowel-change

                         ˜
    152. The inflectional A becomes d after long syllables ending
                                    ¨
in l or n : sigla (sail), siglda ; nAfna (name),
  ¨         ¨
 nAfnda , nAfndr .

         ˜˜                 ˜
   153. -AA becomes dd : leiAa (lead), leidda .

          ˜
   154. A after s and t becomes t : reisa (raise),
reista ; m˚ta (meet), m˚tta . Also in a few verbs in l ,
            A          A
        ˜            ˜       ¨                   ¨
n : mAla (speak), mAlta ; spAnna (buckle), spAnta .



                                     29
                                        ¨             ¨
   155. After nd and pt it is dropped: sAnda (send), sAnda ,
 ¨
sAndr ; lypta (lift), lypta .

                                                          ˚
    156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: dAma
            A ˜                      A ˜       ¨ ˜
(judge), d˚mAa ; f˚ra (lead), f˚rAa ; hArAa (harden),
                      A
   ¨ ˜
 hArAa ; hleypa (gallop), hleypAa . ˜

   B. With vowel-change

    157. All these verbs have j preceded by a short syllable
  ¨                                                   `
(tAlja), or a long vowel without any cons. after it (dEja), or
        ¨
 gg (lAggja); the j being kept before a and u , as in the
pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr , spyrr , spyrr ;
                  ˜
 spyrjum , spyriA , spyrja , pres. subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja ;
they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurAa,˜
     ˜
spurAr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyrAa ,˜
      ˜
 spyrAir , etc. The ptc. pret. often has an i before the A .˜

     ¨                   ˜
   bArja ( strike ) barAa barAr˜
 ¨                  ˜
lAggja ( lay ) lagAa lag(i)Ar˜
 ¨                ˜        ˜
tAlja ( tell ) talAa tal(i)Ar
 ¨                    ˜
vAkja ( wake ) vakAa vakAr   ˜
flytja ( remove ) flutta fluttr
 `                A˜
dEja ( shake ) d˚Aa d˚Ar A˜

   158. The following keep the mutated vowel throughout:

    ¨              ¨     ¨
   sAlja ( sell ) sAlda sAldr
 ¨             ¨      ¨
sAtja ( set ) sAtta sAttr

   C.

   159. The following are irregular:

                  ˚
  s˚kja ( seek ) sAtta s˚ttr
   A                    A
˜               ˜A     ˜A
Aykkja ( seem ) A˚tta A˚ttr

                       ˜A
   Subj. pret. s˚tta , A˚tta .
                A

   160. The following has an adj. for its partic. pret.:

                 ¸ Ir ˜
   gC` ( make ) gC` Aa gC`
    ¸ Ira               ¸ Irr.

   II. ’Have’-conjugation

   161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of
conj. I, except that some of them have imperatives in -i :
         ˜¨                   ¨
 vaki , AAfi ; uni . lifa , sAgja have imper. lif , sAg .¨
                                              ˜
They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynAa). Their partic.
pret. generally occurs only in the neut.; sometimes the a is

                                       30
dropped.

                         ˜
    lifa ( live ) lifi lifAa lifat
una ( be contented ) uni unAa unat˜
skorta ( be wanting ) skorti skorta skort
˜                   ˜     ˜ ˜ ˜
Aola ( endure ) Aoli AolAa Aolat
˜                ˜      ˜ ˜ ˜
Aora ( dare ) Aori AorAa Aorat
  ¨                ¨ ¨˜         ¨˜
nA ( attain ) nAi nAAa nAAr, nAit   ¨

   162. The following show mutation:

    ¨             ¨      ˜     ˜
   sAgja ( say ) sAgi sagAa sagAr
˜¨                  ˜¨ ˜ ˜ ˜
AAgja ( be silent ) AAgi AagAa Aagat
               ¨      ˜     ˜
hafa ( have ) hAfi hafAa hafAr
kaupa ( buy ) kaupi keypta keyptr

   163. The present indic. of the first three is as follows:

               ¨   ¨ ˜¨
     Sing. 1. hAfi sAgi AAgi
        ¨    ¨   ˜¨
2, 3. hAfir sAgir AAgir

               ¸    ¨     ˜¨
    Plur. 1. hCfum sAgjum AAgjum
       ˜ ¨ ˜ ˜¨ ˜
2. hafiA sAgiA AAgiA
         ¨    ˜¨
3. hafa sAgja AAgja

  164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa , hafir ,
                  ˜                          ˜
hafi ; hafim , hafiA , hafi . Pret. indic. hafAa ,
   ˜        ˜     ¸          ¸ ˜ ˜       ¸ ˜
hafAir , hafAi ; hCfdum , hCfAuA , hCfAu . Pret. subj.
 ¨ ˜      ¨ ˜       ¨ ˜      ¨ ˜        ¨ ˜ ˜     ¨ ˜
hAfAa , hAfAir , hAfAi ; hAfAim , hAfAiA , hAfAi . Imper.
haf , hCfum , hafiA
        ¸                                  ˜
                   ˜ . Ptc. hafandi , hafAr .

   III. ’Call’-conjugation

   Active

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

    Pres. sg. 1. kall-a kall-a
2. kall-ar kall-ir
3. kall-ar kall-i

              ¸
    pl. 1. kCll-um kall-im
         ˜       ˜
2. kall-iA kall-iA
3. kall-a kall-i

                       ˜        ˜
    Pres. sg. 1. kall-aAa kall-aAa
                   ˜
         ˜ kall-aAir
2. kall-aAir
         ˜        ˜
3. kall-aAi kall-aAi




                                       31
            ¸     ˜        ˜
    pl. 1. kCll-uAum kall-aAim
    ¸    ˜ ˜         ˜ ˜
2. kCll-uAuA kall-aAiA
    ¸    ˜         ˜
3. kCll-uAu kall-aAi

                                      ¸                ˜
   Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. kCll-um, 2. kall-iA.
                                    ˜
Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kallaAr ( neut. kallat).
Infin. kalla.

   Middle

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

                     ¸     ¸
    Pres. sg. 1. kCll-umk kCll-umk
2. kall-ask kall-isk
3. kall-ask kall-isk

              ¸
    pl. 1. kCll-umk kall-imk
2. kall-izk kall-izk
3. kall-ask kall-isk

                    ¸    ˜   ¸    ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. kCll-uAumk kCll-uAumk
         ˜          ˜
2. kall-aAisk kall-aAisk
         ˜          ˜
3. kall-aAisk kall-aAisk

            ¸    ˜          ˜
    pl. 1. kCll-uAumk kall-aAimk
    ¸    ˜          ˜
2. kCll-uAuzk kall-aAizk
    ¸    ˜          ˜
3. kCll-uAusk kall-aAisk

                                       ¸
   Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. kCll-umk, 2. kall-izk.
Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut.
Infin. kall-ask.

                                ¨
   165. So also byrja (begin), hArja (make war), vakna
(awake).

   Strong-Weak Verbs

   166. These have old strong preterites for their presents,
from which new weak preterites are formed.

   INFIN. PRES. SG. PRES. PL. PRT. PTC.

                     ¨       ¨    ¨
   eiga ( possess ) A eigu Atta Attr
kunna ( can ) kann kunnu kunna kunnat n.
                 ¨          ¨
mega ( can ) mA megu mAtta mAtt n.  ¨
                                        ˜
muna ( remember ) man munu munAa munat n.
munu ( will ) mun munu munAa    ˜ —-
skulu ( shall ) skal skulu skylda skyldr
˜                ˜    ˜      ˜        ˜
Aurfa ( need ) Aarf Aurfu Aurfta Aurft n.
unna ( love ) ann unnu unna unnt n.

                                      32
                                  ˜
vita ( know ) veit vitu vissa vitaAr

   167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite
infinitives: mundu , skyldu .

   Anomalous Verbs

   168. Vilja (will):

   Present

   Sing. Plur.

    1. vil viljum
            ˜
2. vill viliA
3. vill vilja

    Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat.

   169. Vera (be):

   INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

                     ¨
    Pres. sg. 1. em sA
        ¨
2. ert sAr
       ¨
3. er sA

                 ¨
    pl. 1. erum sAm
      ˜ ¨˜
2. eruA sAA
        ¨
3. eru sA

                      ˜
    Pret. sg. 1. var vAra
          ˜
2. vart vArir
         ˜
3. var vAri

            ¨     ˜
    pl. 1. vArum vArim
        ˜ ˜ ˜
    ¨ A vAriA
2. vAru
    ¨     ˜
3. vAru vAri

                            ˜
    Imper. sg. ver; pl. veriA. Ptc. prt. verit n.

   COMPOSITION

    170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic.
Thus by the side of skip-stj˚rn (ship-steering) we find
                            A
                                                  ¨
 skips-brot (ship’s breaking, shipwreck), skipa-hArr (army of
ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses possession,
as in konungs-skip (king’s ship).




                                       33
   DERIVATION

   Prefixes

   171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old
English.

                             ˚
    al- ’quite,’ ’very’: al-bAinn ’quite ready,’ al-snotr ’very
clever.’

   all- ’all,’ ’very’: all-valdr ’all-ruler, monarch,’
        ˜
all-harAr ’very hard,’ all-st˚rum ’very greatly.’
                                A

  and- ’against’: and-lit ’countenance’ ( lita , look),
and-svar ’answer.’

     ¸                 ¨                    ˜
   fjCl- ’many’: fjCl-mAnni ’multitude’ ( maAr , man).
                   ¸

                     ¨
   mis- ’mis-’: mis-lAka ’displease.’

              A ˜               ˜
   ˚- ’un-’: ˚-friAr ’war’ ( friAr , peace), ˚-happ
   A                                         A
’misfortune’ ( happ luck).

   Endings

   (a) Nouns

   Personal

                              ¨                 ¸ ˜
    172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: vAkingr ’pirate,’ hCfAingi
          ¨
’chief,’ kArling ’old woman.’

   Abstract

         ˜                       ¨ ˜
   173. -A, fem. with mutation: fAgrA ’beauty’ ( fagr , fair),
    ˜                         ¨ ˜
 ¨ A ’journey’ ( fara , go), lAngA ’length’ ( langr , long).
fAr

                                    ¨                  ˜
   -ing, fem.: svipting ’pulling,’ vAking ’piracy,’ virAing
’honour.’

                   ˚
   -leikr, masc.: kAr-leikr ’affection’ ( h˚rr , dear),
                                          A
   ˚
skjAt-leikr ’speed’ ( skj˚tr , swift).
                         A

                                           ¨
   -an, -un, fem.: skipan ’arrangement,’ skAmtun
’amusement.’

   (b) Adjectives

               ¨˜                 ˜ A˜
   174. -ugr: rAAugr ’sagacious,’ Ar˚Augr ’strong.’



                                        34
              ˚
   -˚ttr: kollAttr ’bald,’ Cnd˚ttr ’fierce.’
    A                      ¸ A

                     ¨
    -lauss ’-less’: fA-lauss ’moneyless,’ ˚tta-lauss ’without
                                          A
fear.’

    -ligr ’-ly’: undr-ligr ’wonderful,’ sann-ligr ’probable’
( sannr , true).

           ¨
   -samr: lAkn-samr ’gracious,’ skyn-samr ’intelligent.’

       ˜                   ˜
   -verAr ’-ward’: ofan-verAr ’upper.’

   (c) Verbs

                                                        ¨
   175. -na: brotna ’be broken’ ( brotinn , broken), hvAtna
’become white,’ vakna ’awake.’ Used to form intransitive and
inchoative verbs of the third conj.

   (d) Adverbs

                                                  ¨
    176. -liga ’-ly’: undar-liga ’wonderfully,’ stArk-liga
               ¨
’strongly’ ( stArkr , strong).

   -um, dat. pl.: st˚rum ’greatly’ ( st˚rr , great).
                    A                  A

   SYNTAX

   177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has
several peculiarities of its own.

   Concord

     178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir
   ¨      ¨                                             ¨
mAnn vAru b˚nir ’all the men were ready,’ allir vAru drepnir
                A
’all were killed.’

    179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different
(natural or grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: AA˜¨
gekk hann upp, ok meA                               ˜ ¨
                       ˜ honum Loki (masc.), ok AjAlfi (masc.),
      ¸               ˜¨     ˜               ¸ ˜ ¨
 ok RCskva (fem.). AA er Aau (neut.) hCfAu lAtla hriA      ˜
  ¨                                          ˜ and R. When they
gAngit... ’he landed, and with him L., and A.,
had walked for some time...’

   Cases

   180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very
characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb
can be considered as the instrument of the action expressed by
the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spj˚ti ’throw a
                                                  A
spear’ (lit. ’throw with a spear’), hann helt hamarskaptinu

                                       35
                                             ˜ ¨
’he grasped the handle of the hammer,’ heita AvA ’promise
        ¨ ˜ ¨
that,’ jAta AvA ’agree to that.’

   Adjectives

   181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the
                 ˜
definite article, Aessi and other demonstratives. annarr
(other) is always strong.

   182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to
                          ¨     `
denote part of it: eiga hAlft dErit ’to have half of the
          ¸       ˜                              ˜     ¨
animal,’ Cnnur Aau ’the rest of them,’ of miAja nAtt ’in the
middle of the night.’

   Pronouns

           ¨
    183. sA is often put pleonastically before the definite article
                                          ¨             ˜
 inn , both before and after the subst.: sA inn ungi maAr ’that
                    ˜
young man,’ hafit Aat it dj˚pa ’the deep sea.’
                             A

    184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or
                   ¨
else einn , einnhvArr is used.

    185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a
dual pron. of the first and second persons, or a plur. of the
               ˜    ¨                                        ˜ ˜
third person: Ait fAlagar , ’thou and thy companions,’ meA Aeim
¨                    ¨                ¨     ˜A
Aka ’with him and Aki.’ Similarly stAndr A˚rr upp ok Aeir  ˜
 ¨
fAlagar ’Thor and his companions get up.’

                        ¨     ˜¨
    186. The plurals vAr , AAr are sometimes used instead of the
                ˜ ˚ , especially when a king is speaking or being
singulars ek , AA
spoken to.

                     ¨
    187. sik and sAr are used in a strictly reflexive sense,
referring back to the subject of the sentence, like se in
         ˜        ˜                      ˜ ¨
Latin: Aorr bauA honum til matar meA sAr ’Thor asked him to
supper with him.’

   Verbs

    188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active,
and all those of the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries
 skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with the infin. and
ptc. pret., much as in modern English.

   189. The historical present is much used, often alternating
abruptly with the preterite.

  190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense:
spara ’spare,’ sparask ’spare oneself, reserve one’s

                                       36
                                 ˚
strength.’ (2) intransitively: bAa ’prepare,’ b˚ask ’become
                                                 A
                    ¨             ¨
ready, be ready’; sAtja ’set,’ sAtjask ’sit down’; sEna `
          `
’show,’ sEnask ’appear, seem.’ (3) reciprocally: bArja¨
           ¨
’strike,’ bArjask ’fight’; hitta , ’find,’ hittask ’meet.’
In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often
emphasizing the idea of energy or effort: koma ’come,’ komask
’make one’s way.’

    191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in
                ¨                    ˜
Icelandic: rak A storm (acc.) fyrir Aeim ’a storm was driven
in their face.’

   192. The indef. ’one’ is expressed in the same way by the third
pers. sg., and this form of expression is often used when the
                                              ˜      ¨˜ A
subject is perfectly definite: ok freista skal Aessar AAr˚ttar
’and this feat shall be tried (by you).’

    193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration
                                              ˜
is very common: Haraldi konungi var sagt at Aar var komit
       `        ¨ ¨ ¨          ˜
bjarndEri, ’ok A AslAnzkr maAr,’ ’King Harold was told that a
bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.’ The direct
narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at ’ek
      ¨˜         ¨
skal rAAa til HAljar’ ’he answers that he will ride to Hel.’

   TEXTS

    [Note: The asterisks are to help find the spots mentioned in the
notes. (I took out the line numbers to keep the line width as
close to 65 characters as possible.) –B.C.]

   I. THOR

    ˜˚       ¨                 ¨          ˜    ¨ ˜A     ˜
    AArr er Asanna framastr, sA er kallaAr er Asa-A˚rr eAa
¸                      ¨              ˜
     ˜ ˚rr; hann er stArkastr allra guAanna ok manna.
Cku-AA
       ¨ ˜     ¨      ˜ A˜
Hann A Aar rAki er Ar˚A-vangar heita, en hCll hans heitir []
                                              ¸
     ¨         ˜                          ˜ A
            ¨ Aeim sal eru fimm hundruA g˚lfa ok fj˚rir tigir;
BilskArnir; A                                      A
˜                   ¨      ¨
Aat er h˚s mest, svA at mAnn hafa gC` []
         A                             ¸ Irt.

     ˜˚ ¨             ¨       ¨
    AArr A hafra tvA, er svA heita, Tann-gnj˚str ok Tann-
                                               A
                  ˜¨           ¨                        ˜
               ˜ AA er hann Akr, en hafrarnir draga reiAina;
grisnir, ok reiA
    ¨               ˜ ¸ ˜A               ¨    ˜ ¨
˜ A er hann kallaAr CkuA˚rr. Hann A ok ArjA kost-gripi.
Av
      ˜                        ¸           ¨ ˜
Einn Aeira er hamarrinn MjCllnir, er hrAm-Aursar ok berg-
        ¨
risar kAnna, A   ¨           ˜     ¨           ˜
               ˜ A er hann kAmr A lopt, ok er Aat eigi undarligt:
                                 ¨ ¨˜        ˜   ˜
        ¨ lamit margan haus A fAArum eAa frAndum Aeira.
hann hAfir                                                 ˜
Annan grip A            ¨        ¨         ˜
              ¨ hann bAztan, mAgin-gjarAar; ok er hann
   ¨       ˜              ˜¨ ¨           ¨    ¨     ¨
spAnnir Aeim um sik, AA vAx honum As-mAgin hAlfu. En []
    ˜         ¨        ˜                     ¨ ˜         ¨
˜ Aja hlut A hann Aann er mikill gripr er A, Aat eru jArn-
Ari
          ˜       ¨                    ˜
  ˚far; Aeira mA hann eigi missa viA hamarskaptit. En
glA
            ¨ A˜         ¨
engi er svA fr˚Ar at tAlja kunni Cll st˚r-virki hans.
                                     ¸   A



                                      37
                     ˜
    II. THOR AND ˚GARAALOKI
                 A

     ˜                    ˜        ¨        ¸ ˜A A
     Aat er upp-haf Aessa mAls at CkuA˚rr f˚r meA hafra sAna []    ˜          ¨
        ˜           ˜            ¨ ¨
ok reiA, ok meA honum sA Ass er Loki er kallaAr; koma         ˜
˜                            A            ¨ ˜        ¨
Aeir at kveldi til eins b˚nda ok fA Aar nAtt-staA. En um        ˜
           A ˜A                 ¨                 ¨˜ ¨
kveldit t˚k A˚rr hafra sAna, ok skar bAAa; Aptir Aat vAru          ˜       ¨
˜        ¨                        ¨                 ˜
Aeir flAgnir ok bornir til kAtils; en er soAit var, AA sAttisk [] ˜¨ ¨
˜A           ¨          ˜       ˜             ¨        ˜A
A˚rr til nAtt-verAar ok Aeir lags-mAnn. A˚rr bauA til matar         ˜
     ˜ ¨ A
meA sAr b˚ndanum, ok konu hans, ok bCrnum Aeira; sonr¸          ˜
            ¨ ˜ ¨                       A         ˜¨
b˚nda hAt AjAlfi, en RCskva d˚ttir. AA lagAi A˚rr hafr-
 A                             ¸                            ˜ ˜A
   ¸                    ¨                   ˜
stCkurnar utar frA eldinum, ok mAlti at b˚ndi ok heima-mAnn
                                                       A                     ¨
                         ¨
hans skyldu kasta A hafrstCkurnar beinunum. AjAlfi, sonr
                                  ¸                           ˜ ¨
                ¨ ˜ ¨                              ¨      ¨
b˚nda, helt A lAr-lAgg hafrsins, ok sprAtti A knAfi sAnum, ok []
 A                                                               ¨    ¨
              ¨           ˜A         ˜      ˜          ¨
braut til mArgjar. A˚rr dvalAisk Aar of nAttina; en A ˚ttu []         ¨ A
              A˜                       ˜
fyrir dag st˚A hann upp, ok klAddi sik, t˚k hamarinn  A
    ¸             ¨              ¨ ˜
MjCllni ok brA upp, ok vAgAi hafrstCkurnar; st˚Au AA upp
                                               ¸                A˜ ˜ ¨
                       ˜¨                   ¨
hafrarnir, ok var AA annarr haltr Aptra f˚ti. Aat fann A˚rr,
                                                     A       ˜           ˜A
        ˜                   ˜
ok talAi at b˚ndinn eAa hans hj˚n mundi eigi skynsamliga
                A                        A
                 ˜                         ¨
hafa farit meA beinum hafrsins: kAnnir hann at brotinn var
 ˜ ¨                     ˜             ¨ ˜ ¨           ¨
lArlAggrinn. Eigi Aarf langt frA AvA at sAgja: vita mAgu Aat            ¨    ˜
          ¨         ˜
allir hvArsu hrAddr b˚ndinn mundi vera, er hann sA at A˚rr
                            A                                       ¨      ˜A
 ¨ ¨           `                                  ˜
lAt sAga brEnnar ofan fyrir augun; en Aat er sA augnanna, []  ¨
˜¨         ˜
AA hugAisk hann falla mundu fyrir sj˚ninni einni samt; hann []
                                                A
  ¨ ˜ ¨                                          ¨
hArAi hAndrnar at hamar-skaptinu svA at hvAtnuAu kn˚arnir.  ¨      ˜       A
                   ¸ Ir ˜         ¨
En b˚ndinn gC` Ai sem vAn var, ok Cll hj˚nin: kClluAu Aka-
       A                                        ¸       A          ¸ ˜ ¨
          ¨˜     ¨        ˜       ˜                 ˜
fliga, bAAu sAr friAar, buAu at fyrir kvAmi alt Aat er Aau       ˜        ˜
¨                         ¨   ˜      ˜        ˜¨
Attu. En er hann sA hrAzlu Aeira, AA gekk af honum
  A˜                    ˜                 A       ˜
m˚Arinn, ok sefaAisk hann; ok t˚k af Aeim A sAtt bCrn      ¨ ˜        ¸
˜         ˜ ¨                        ¸ Ir ˜      ˜       ˜¨
Aeira, AjAlfa ok RCsku, ok gC` Ausk Aau AA skyldir Aj˚nustu-
                          ¸                                             ˜ A
   ¨
mAnn AA                      ˜
          ˜ ˚rs, ok fylgja Aau honum jafnan sAAan.      ¨˜

      ¨          ˜ ¨                            ˜ ¨ ˜
     LAt hann Aar Aptir hafra, ok byrjaAi fArAina austr A         ¨
JCtun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok A
  ¸                                         ¨ A
                                          ˜ A f˚r hann ˚t yfir
                                                         A
       ˜                                             ˜¨
hafit Aat it dj˚pa; en er hann kom til lands, AA gekk hann
                 A
              ˜                     ˜ ¨           ¸
upp, ok meA honum Loki, ok AjAlfi, ok RCskva. AA er Aau     ˜¨     ˜
hCfAu
  ¸        ¨      ¨˜ ¨               ˜        ˜
     ˜ lAtla hrAA gAngit, varA fyrir Aeim mCrk st˚r; gengu
                                                      ¸     A
˜     ˜                                ˜ ¨
Aau Aann dag allan til myrkrs. AjAlfi var allra manna []
                            ` ˜A
f˚t-hvatastr; hann bar kEl A˚rs, en til vista var eigi gott.
 A
   ¨                    ˜         ˜ ˜         ¨       ¨     ˜
˜ A er myrkt var orAit, leituAu Aeir sAr til nAttstaAar, ok []
A
fundu fyrir sAr      ¨                                  ¨
                ¨ skAla nakkvarn mjCk mikinn, vAru dyrr A
                                          ¸                        ¨
¨
Anda, ok jafn-breiAar        ¨           ˜         ˜ ˜
                      ˜ skAlanum; Aar leituAu Aeir sAr nAtt- ¨     ¨
  A               ˜      ¨       ˜            ¨
b˚ls. En of miAja nAtt varA land-skjAlfti mikill, gekk jCrAin    ¸ ˜
        ˜
undir Aeim skykkjum, ok skalf h˚sit. A A         ¨ A˜ ˜A
                                              ˜ A st˚A A˚rr upp, ok
  ¨ ¨           ¨      ¨              ˜
hAt A lagsmAnn sAna; ok leituAusk fyrir, ok fundu af-h˚s til     A
  A                   ˜        ¨                     ˜
h˚gri handar i miAjum skAlanum, ok gengu Aannig; sAttisk       ¨
˜A ¨                   ¸       ˜       ¨            ¨
A˚rr A dyrrin, en Cnnur Aau vAru innar frA honum, ok vAru            ¨
˜        ˜
Aau hrAdd, en AA                                          ˜
                   ˜ ˚rr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugAi at vArja   ¨
      ˜¨        ˜ ˜                           `
sik; AA heyrAu Aau ym mikinn ok gnE. En er kom at
dagan, A    ¨       ˜A A             ¨          ¨    ˜
          ˜ A gekk A˚rr ˚t, ok sAr hvar lA maAr skamt frA []      ¨
honum A A                          ¨        ¨
          ¨ sk˚ginum, ok var sA eigi lAtill; hann svaf, ok hraut


                                             38
   ¨            ˜ ¨ ˜A           ˜A
stArkliga. AA A˚ttisk A˚rr skiIja hvat lAtum verit hafAi of¨                     ˜
  ¨                     ¨                ¨
nAttina; hann spAnnir sik mAgingjCrAum, ok ˚x honum ¸ ˜             A
¨ ¨                ¨ ˜ ¨                      ˜ ¨
AsmAgin; en A AvA vaknar maAr sA, ok st˚A skj˚tt upp; en       A˜       A
˜¨                  ˜A          ˜
AA er sagt at A˚r varA bilt einu sinni at slA hann meA ham- [] ¨              ˜
                     ˜                               ¨ ¨
rinum; ok spurAi hann at nafni, en sA nAfndisk SkrEmir: []                `
            ˜                 ˜                          ˜
’en eigi Aarf ek,’ sagAi hann, ’at spyrja Aik at nafni: kAnni                  ¨
         ˜A        ¨ ˜A                   ¨        ¨     ˜A ¨
ek at A˚ ert AsaA˚rr; en hvArt hAfir A˚ drAgit A braut hanzka            ¨
                       ˜¨        `
minn?’ Seildisk AA SkrEmir til, ok t˚k upp hanzka sinn;
                                                     A
  ¨ ˜A ˜ ¨              ˜          ˜                        ¨
sAr A˚rr AA at Aat hafAi hann haft of nAttina fyrir skAla, en                    ¨
            ˜          ˜
afh˚sit Aat var Aumlungrinn hanzkans. SkrEmir spurAi ef
    A                                                          `              ˜
˜A                                                   ˜A
A˚rr vildi hafa fCru-neyti hans, en A˚rr jAtti AvA. AA t˚k
                       ¸                                     ¨       ˜ ¨ ˜¨ A
     `
SkrEmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bj˚sk til at eta dCgurA,
                                                        A                     ¸      ˜
     ˜A ¨ ¸ ˜                   ˜                 ¨
en A˚rr A CArum staA ok hans fAlagar. SkrEmir bauA AA at         `             ˜ ˜¨
˜       ¨ ˜                                   ˜A       ¨
Aeir lAgAi mCtu-neyti sitt, en A˚rr jAtti AvA; AA batt SkrEmir
                   ¸                                          ˜ ¨ ˜¨                   `
       ˜            ¨                              ˜ ¨
nest Aeira alt A einn bagga, ok lagAi A bak sAr; hann gekk        ¨
                                    ¨
fyrir of daginn, ok steig hAldr st˚rum, en sAAan at kveldi
                                               A               ¨˜
      ˜         `      ˜          ¨        ˜
leitaAi SkrEmir Aeim nAttstaAar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli.
˜¨ ˜               `            ˜A
AA mAlti SkrEmir til A˚rs at hann vill lAggjask niAr at    ¨              ˜
               ˜¨          ˜                              A ˜
sofna; ’en AAr takiA nest-baggann, ok b˚iA til nAtt-verAar []         ¨          ˜
  ˜      ˜ ¨ ˜                        `
yAr.’ AvA nAst sofnar SkrEmir, ok hraut fast; en A˚rr t˚k               ˜A        A
                                                ¨           ¨
nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en svA er at sAgja, sem ˚-tr˚ligt             A A
        ˜
mun Aykkja, at engi kn˚t fekk hann leyst, ok engi Alar-
                                 A                                       ¨
¨                         ¨      ˜¨ ˜
Andann hreyft, svA at AA vAri lausari en AAr. Ok er hann      ¨˜
  ¨        ˜                 ¨          `           ˜¨
sAr at Aetta verk mA eigi nEtask, AA varA hann reiAr, greip  ˜              ˜
˜¨
AA hamarinn MjCllni tveim hCndum, ok steig fram CArum
                        ¸                   ¸                              ¸˜
 A         ˜             `         ¨         `
f˚ti at Aar er SkrEmir lA, ok lEstr A hCfuA honum; en¨ ¸ ˜
     `                                   ¨
SkrEmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvArt laufs-blaA nakkvat felli A  ˜                     ¨
  ¸ ˜                  ˜        ¨ ˜             ¨ ˜ ˜¨
hCfuA honum, eAa hvArt Aeir hAfAi AA matazk, ok sA b˚nir                       ¨ A
      ¨           ˜A       ¨          ˜                ˜¨
til rAkkna. A˚rr sAgir at Aeir munu AA sofa ganga. Ganga
˜
Aau A     ¨            ˜                ˜ ˜¨                      ¨
       ˜ A undir aAra eik. Er Aat AAr satt at sAgja, at ekki var []
   ¨ A                                        ˜       ¨ ˜¨
˜ A ˚ttalaust at sofa. En at miAri nAtt AA heyrir A˚rr at
A                                                                         ˜A
     `
SkrEmir hrEtr,               ˜               ¨
                 ` ok sAfr fast, svA at dunar A sk˚ginum. AA  ¨ A                 ˜¨
   ¨                            ¨
stAndr hann upp, ok gAngr til hans, reiAir               ˜ hamarinn tAtt ok    ¨
              `             ¨     ˜
hart, ok lEstr ofan A miAjan hvirfil honum; hann kAnnir at                ¨
                ˜         ˜
hamars-muArinn sAkkr dj˚pt A ¸       A                 ˜           ¨ ˜ ¨
                                            ¨ hCfuAit. En A AvA bili vaknar
     `               ˜
SkrEmir, ok mAlti: ’hvat er n˚? fell akarn nakkvat A hCfuA
                                          A                               ¨ ¸ ˜
           ˜                ¨           ˜       ˜A
   ¨ eAa hvat er tAtt um Aik, A˚rr?’ En A˚rr gekk aptr
mAr?                                                            ˜A
                                                 ˜¨ `
skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var AA nEvaknaAr, sagAi at AA        ˜        ˜        ˜¨
var miA        ¨                 ˜        ¨               ˜¨
          ˜ nAtt, ok enn vAri mAl at sofa. AA hugsaAi A˚rr Aat,         ˜ ˜A ˜
                ˜        ¨ ¨ A                ¨             ˜ ˜
ef hann kvAmi svA A f˚ri at slA hann it AriAja hCgg, at aldri           ¸
skyldi hann sjA               ¨˜                           ˜
                   ¨ sik sAAan; liggr n˚ ok gAtir ef SkrEmir []
                                                  A                      `
sofnaAi                  ¨                         ˜¨
        ˜ fast. En lAtlu fyrir dagan AA heyrir hann at SkrEmir                    `
mun sofnat hafa; stAndr A   ¨         ¨
                                    ˜ A upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiAir            ˜
   ¨                                      `       ¨ ˜
˜ A hamarinn af Cllu afli ok lEstr A Aunn-vangann Aann er
A                       ¸                                                 ˜
                ˜       ˜¨
upp vissi; sAkkr AA hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En SkrE-                          `
        ¨
mir sAttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok mAlti: ’hvArt         ˜           ¨
                                        ¨ ¨
munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja A trAnu yfir mAr? mik grunaAi,     ¨                    ˜
er ek vaknaAa,   ˜ at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli A hCfuA          ¨ ¸ ˜
   ¨         ¨            ˜A ˜A                ¨
mAr; hvArt vakir A˚, A˚rr? MAl mun vera upp at standa
ok klA    ˜                          ˜¨ A                    ˜
       ˜ Aask, en ekki eigu AAr n˚ langa leiA fram til borgar-


                                                  39
           ¸ ˜      ˚      ˜           ¨         ˜¨
innar er kClluA er At-garAr. Heyrt hAfi ek at AAr hafiA     ˜
        ¨       ˜            ˜          ¨      ˜    ¨
kvisat A milli yAvar at ek vAra ekki lAtill maAr vAxti, en sjA¨
       ˜¨ ˜              ¨       ˜¨         ˜ ¨ A      ˜
skulu AAr Aar st˚rri mAnn, er AAr komiA A ˚tgarA. N˚ mun
                  A                                         A
    ¨˜      ˜       ˜˜     ¨ ˜¨                       ˜
ek rAAa yAr heil-rAAi: lAti AAr eigi st˚rliga yfir yAr, ekki
                                          A
          ˜ ¨           ˜            ˜    ˜ ¨ ¨
munu hirAmAnn ˚tgarAa-loka vel Aola AvAlAkum kCgur-
                  A                                     ¸
           ¸       ˜         ¸˜                 ˜
sveinum kCpur-yrAi; en at CArum kosti hverfiA aptr, ok
˜      ˜        ˜     ¨                     ˜¨      ˜
Aann Atla ek yAr bAtra af at taka. En ef AAr viliA fram []
      ˜¨ ¨       ˜¨ ¨                 ¨ A      ˜    ˜
fara, AA stAfni AAr A austr, en ek A n˚ norAr leiA til fjalla
˜                    ˜¨    ¨           ¨      `
Aessa er n˚ munu AAr sjA mega.’ TAkr SkrEmir nest-bag-
           A
                 ¨       ¨        ` ˜ ¨ ¨             ¨ A
garm, ok kastar A bak sAr, ok snEr AvArs A braut A sk˚ginn
  ¨ ˜            ˜                 ˜         ˜˜ ˜¨
frA Aeim, ok er Aess eigi getit at Asirnir bAAi AA heila []
hittask.

     ˜A A                ¨    ˜       ˜      ¨
     A˚rr f˚r fram A leiA ok Aeir fAlagar, ok gekk fram til miAs                  ˜
         ˜¨ ¨ ˜                          ¨ ¸
dags; AA sA Aeir borg standa A vCllum nCkkurum, ok sAttu []
                                                         ¸                  ¨
              ¨        ¨           ¨˜ ˜
hnakkann A bak sAr aptr, AAr Aeir fengu sAt yfir upp; ganga ¨
                                                      ˜
til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hliAinu, ok lokin aptr.
˜A             ¨
A˚rr gekk A grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er Aeir            ˜
˜                         ¨              ˜¨             ˜
Areyttu at komask A borgina, AA smugu Aeir milli spalanna
      A         ¨         ¨ ˜¨ ¸
ok k˚mu svA inn; sA AA hCll mikla, ok gengu Aannig; var        ˜
     ˜            ˜¨           ˜                 ¨ ˜
hurAin opin; AA gengu Aeir inn, ok sA Aar marga mAnn                   ¨
¨ ¨ ¨                                  A      ˜ ¨ ˜
A tvA bAkki, ok flesta ˚rit st˚ra. AvA nAst koma Aeir fyrir []
                              A                                       ˜
                      ˜
konunginn, ˚tgarAaloka, ok kvCddu hann, en hann leit seint
               A                         ¸
     ˜                        ¸             ˜
til Aeira, ok glotti um tCnn, ok mAlti: ’seint er um langan []
                   ¨˜           ˜
veg at spyrja tAAinda, eAa er annan veg en ek hygg, at Aessi []            ˜
                 ¨ ¸ ˜A
svein-stauli sA CkuA˚rr? en meiri muntu vera en mAr lAzk              ¨ ¨
˜A ˜               ¨˜ A            ˜        ˜¨ ¨
A˚; eAa hvat AAr˚tta er Aat er AAr fAlagar Aykkizk vera viA   ˜                    ˜
                         ¨             ˜        ¨
b˚nir? Engi skal hAr vera meA oss sA er eigi kunni nakkvars
  A
               ˜
konar list eAa kunnandi um fram flesta mAnn.’ AA sAgir sA¨       ˜¨ ¨           ¨
er sA   ˜                                            ˜¨ ¨˜ A
      ¨ Aast gekk, er Loki heitir: ’kann ek AA AAr˚tt, er ek em
                                        ¨ ¨
al-b˚inn at reyna, at engi er hAr sA inni er skj˚tara skal eta []
      A                                                       A
mat sinn en ek.’ A      ¨                  ˜            ¨˜ A
                      ˜ A svarar ˚tgarAaloki: ’AAr˚tt er Aat, ef
                                    A                                   ˜
       ¨                         ˜¨ ˜           ¨˜ A
˜ ˚ Afnir, ok freista skal AA Aessar AAr˚ttar;’ kallaAi utar A []
AA                                                                     ˜         ¨
   ¨
bAkkinn at sA                                        ¨ A
                 ¨ er Logi heitir skal ganga A g˚lf fram, ok freista
  ¨ ¨ A                   ˜¨         ¨
sAn A m˚ti Loka. AA var tAkit trog eitt, ok borit inn A hallar-           ¨
                        ¨       ¨                   ¸  ˜
g˚lfit, ok fylt af slAtri; sAttisk Loki at CArum Anda, en Logi
  A                                                            ¨
     ¸˜            ¨       ¨       ¨               ¨˜
at CArum, ok At hvArr-tvAggja sem tAAast, ok m˚ttusk A miAju        A         ¨      ˜
troginu; hafAi     ˜¨                  ¨
                ˜ AA Loki etit slAtr alt af beinum, en Logi hafAi              ˜
            ¨                         ˜          ¨
ok etit slAtr alt ok beinin meA, ok svA trogit; ok sEndisk n˚      `           A
 ¸
Cllum sem Loki hAf         ˜ ¨                  ˜¨
                       ¨ Ai lAtit leikinn. AA spyrr ˚tgarAaloki
                                                              A       ˜
         ¨                 ˜                        ˜ ¨
hvat sA inn ungi maAr kunni leika. En AjAlfi sAgir at hann     ¨
                    ¨
mun freista at rAnna skeiA ¸                      ˜            ¨
                                 ˜ nCkkur viA einn-hvArn Aann er      ˜
         ˜
˚tgarAaloki fAr
A                                   ¨               ˜
                  ˜ til. Hann sAgir, ˚tgarAaloki, at Aetta er
                                           A                      ˜
  A˜ ¨ ˜ A                     ˜               ¨
g˚A AAr˚tt, ok kallar Aess meiri vAn at hann sA vel at sAr []    ¨            ¨
b˚inn of skj˚tleikinn, ef hann skal Aessa A
  A             A                             ˜           ˜ A
                                                        ¨ Ar˚tt inna; en A˚   ˜A
                       ˜                             ¨
  ˜ hann skj˚tt Aessa skulu freista. StAndr AA upp ˚tgarAa-
lAtr             A                                           ˜¨          A      ˜
            ¨
loki, ok gAngr A                  ˜                ˜        ¨
                   ˚t, ok var Aar gott skeiA at rAnna Aptir slAttum ¨         ¨
   ¨      ˜¨                 ˜             ¨
vAlli. AA kallar ˚tgarAaloki til sAn sveinstaula nakkvarn, er
                     A
   ¨
nAfndr er Hugi, ok baA                   ¨       ¨ ¸
                             ˜ hann rAnna A kCpp viA AjAlfa. AA˜ ˜ ¨         ˜¨
        ˜
taka Aeir it fyrsta skeiA,                      ˜ ¨
                             ˜ ok er Hugi AvA framar at hann


                                                40
   `             ¨ ˚                           ˜ ¨
snEsk aptr A mAti honum at skeiAs Anda. AA mAlti ˚tgarAa-      ˜¨ ˜ A               ˜
         ˜                  ˜ ¨            ¨         ˜
loki: ’Aurfa muntu, AjAlfi, at lAggja Aik meir fram, ef A˚                      ˜A
                                ˜A       ˜
skalt vinna leikinn; en A˚ er Aat satt, at ekki hafa hAr komit             ¨
˜          ¨            ¨ ˜
Aeir mAnn er mAr Aykkja f˚thvatari en svA.’ AA taka Aeir []
                                       A                      ¨ ˜¨              ˜
                      ˜       ˜¨
aptr annat skeiA, ok AA er Hugi er kominn til skeiAs Anda,              ˜ ¨
                `             ˜¨
ok hann snEsk aptr, AA var langt k˚lf-skot til AjAlfa. AA
                                                  A                ˜ ¨         ˜¨
   ˜ A            ˜                ˜            ¨ ˜ ¨
mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’vel Aykkir mAr AjAlfi rAnna; en eigi        ¨
tr˚i ek honum n˚ at hann vinni leikinn, en n˚ mun reyna,
  A                     A                                       A
    ˜        ¨           ˜ ˜           ˜       ˜¨
er Aeir rAnna it AriAja skeiAit.’ AA taka Aeir Ann skeiA; en ˜      ¨           ˜
                                    ˜ ¨
er Hugi er kominn til skeiAs Anda ok snEsk aptr, ok er []`
˜ ¨             ˜¨               ¨              ˜      ˜¨ ¨
AjAlfi eigi AA kominn A mitt skeiAit; AA sAgja allir at reynt
           ˜               ˜¨                    ˜
er um Aenna leik. AA spyrr ˚tgarAaloki A˚r, hvat Aeira
                                       A                   ˜A             ˜
¨˜ A
AAr˚tta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir Aeim, svA             ˜           ¨
                            ¨
miklar sCgur sem mAnn hafa gC` um st˚rvirki hans. AA
             ¸                              ¸ Irt          A                   ˜¨
   ˜      ˜A            ¨                  ˜
mAlti A˚rr at hAlzt vill hann Aat taka til, at Areyta drykkju     ˜
   ˜            ¨                      ˜           ¨
viA einnhvArn mann. ˚tgarAaloki sAgir at Aat mA vel vera;
                                A                              ˜        ¨
       ¨            ¨ ¸
ok gAngr inn A hCllina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, biAr at                ˜
                 ¨             ˜             ˜ ¨
hann taki vAtis-horn Aat, er hirAmAnn eru vanir at drekka af.
˜ ¨ ˜             ˜                                   ˜
AvA nAst kAmr fram skutilsveinn meA horninu, ok fAr A˚r A                  ˜ ˜A ¨
  ¸        ˜¨ ˜ A                ˜
hCnd. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’af horni Aessu Aykkir AA     ˜        ˜          ˜¨
                     ¨                      ¨
vel drukkit, ef A einum drykk gAngr af, en sumir mAnn                    ¨
               ¨
drekka af A tveim drykkjum, en engi er svA lAtill drykkju-  ¨ ¨
     ˜                          ¨ ˜            ˜A       ¨ ¨
maAr, at eigi gangi af A Arimr.’ A˚rr lAtr A hornit, ok sEnisk                    `
                         ˜A ¨
ekki mikit, ok er A˚ hAldr langt, en hann er mjCk Ayrstr;           ¸ ˜
 ¨
tAkr at drekka, ok svelgr allst˚rum, ok hyggr at eigi skal
                                         A
˜              A                       ¨
Aurfa at l˚ta optar at sinni A hornit. En er hann Araut []              ˜
˜                              A                      ¨
Arindit, ok hann laut ˚r horninu, ok sAr hvat leiA drykkinum, []      ˜
      ¨                   ¨              ¨
ok lAzk honum svA, sem all-lAtill munr mun vera at n˚ sA                     A ¨
 ˜        ¨                 ¨˜ ˜¨ ˜ A
lAgra A horninu en AAr. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’vel er       ˜
drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k tr˚a, ef mAr vAri
                                                         A            ¨     ˜
sagt frA,         ¨ ˜A
          ¨ at AsaA˚rr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en
˜A                   ˜A
A˚ veit ek at A˚ munt vilja drekka af A CArum drykk.’   ¨ ¸˜
                            ¨              ¨
˜ ˚rr svarar engu, sAtr hornit A munn sAr, ok hyggr n˚ at
AA                                                       ¨                    A
                                                ˜
hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok Areytir A drykkjuna, sem   ¨
                          ˜              ¨ ¨
honum vannsk til Arindi, ok sAr Ann at stikillinn hornsins
vill ekki upp svA                                   ¨
                      ¨ mjCk sem honum lAkar; ok er hann t˚k
                             ¸                                                A
hornit af munni sAr                ¨     ¨                  A ¨
                         ¨ ok sAr, lAzk honum n˚ svA, sem minna
       ˜             ¨
hafi Aorrit en A inu fyrra sinni; er n˚ gott beranda borA
                                                   A                           ˜
                  ˜¨ ˜ A               ˜
¨ horninu. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’hvat er n˚, A˚rr?
A                                                                A    ˜A
muntu n˚ eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en AAr mun
             A                                                        ˜¨
hagr A                  ¨ ¨          ¨       ˜A
        ¨ vera? SvA lAzk mAr, ef A˚ skalt n˚ drekka af horninu
                                                             A
      ˜ ˜                            ˜
inn AriAja drykkinn, sem Aessi mun mestr AtlaAr; en ekki []   ˜ ˜
muntu mega hAr               ˜                   ¨
                     ¨ meA oss heita svA mikill maAr sem Asir     ˜          ˜
         ˜                                          ˜¨
                   ˜ ˚ gC` eigi meira af AAr um aAra leika en mAr
kalla Aik, ef AA ¸ Irir                                           ˜                  ¨
                    ˜                        ˜¨
 ¨ sem um Aenna mun vera.’ AA varA A˚rr reiAr, sAtr
lAzk                                                    ˜ ˜A            ˜      ¨
           ¨            ¨                         ¨
hornit A munn sAr, ok drekkr sem Akafligast mA hann, ok              ¨
˜                  ¨
Areytir sem lAngst A                                           ¨ ¨
                            ¨ drykkinn; en er hann sA A hornit, AA               ˜¨
                 ¨                         ¨ ¨
     ˜ n˚ hAlzt nakkvat munr A fAngizk, ok AA bEAr hann upp
hafAi A                                                         ˜¨ `˜
                                               ˜¨ ˜ A
hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki:              ˜
          ¨                  ¨       ˜
     ˜ At er n˚ at mAttr Ainn er ekki svA mikill sem vAr
’auA-s              A                                     ¨                    ¨


                                                  41
     ˜                                         ¨ ¨ A
hugAum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? SjA mA n˚, at
       `    ˜A ¨         ˜A                      ¨    ¨
ekki nEtir A˚ hAr af.’ A˚rr svarar: ’freista mA ek Ann of
                                       ¨ ˜          ˜¨
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mAr Aykkja, AA er ek var
           ˜ ¨          ˜ ¨ ¨              ˜      ¨ ¨
heima meA Asum, ef AvAlAkir drykkir vAri svA lAtlir kallaAir. En˜
               ˜ ¨ A A˜            ¨  ˜¨ ˜ A           ˜
hvat leik vili AAr n˚ bj˚Aa mAr?’ AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’Aat     ˜
  ¸ Ira ¨                     ¨                  ˜
gC` hAr ungir sveinar er lAtit mark mun at Aykkja, at hAfja   ¨
          ¸ ˜
upp af jCrAu kCtt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at mAla
                 ¸                                       ˜
˜ ¨ ¨         ˜ ¨ ˜A             ¨ ˜       ¨          ˜A
AvAlAkt viA AsaA˚r, ef ek hAfAa eigi sAt fyrr at A˚ ert miklu
              ˜¨            ˜      ˜ ¨ ˜
minni fyrir AAr en ek hugAa.’ AvA nAst hlj˚p fram kCttr
                                               A          ¸
         ¨ ¨                     ¨              ˜A
einn grAr A hallarg˚lfit, ok hAldr mikill; en A˚rr gekk til, ok
                      A
       ¨             ˜            ˜      ˜
t˚k hAndi sinni niAr undir miAjan kviAinn, ok lypti upp, en
 A
                ˜ ¨             ¨     ˜A     ¨
kCttrinn beygAi kAnginn, svA sem A˚rr rAtti upp hCndina; en
  ¸                                                     ¸
    ˜A               ¨                        ¨    ¨        ˜¨ ¨
er A˚rr seildisk svA langt upp sem hann mAtti lAngst, AA lAtti
                   A       ˜ ˜A                 ˜
kCttrinn einum f˚ti, ok fAr A˚rr eigi framit Aenna leik. AA
  ¸                                                          ˜¨

        ˜ A          ˜            ¨ A ˜
     mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’svA f˚r Aessi leikr sem mik varAi;        ˜
  ¸               ¨                 ˜A        ¨        ¨
kCttrinn er hAldr mikill, en A˚rr er lAgr ok lAtill hjA st˚r-  ¨ A
   ¨       ˜ ¨           ¨         ˜        ˜¨ ˜       ˜A
mAnni AvA sem hAr er meA oss.’ AA mAlti A˚rr: ’svA lAtinn         ¨ ¨
         ¨        ˜        ˜¨                        ¨
sem pAr kalliA mik, AA gangi n˚ til einnhvArr, ok fAisk viA
                                        A                      ¨        ˜
                        ˜    ˜¨                 ˜
mik; n˚ em ek reiAr.’ AA svarar ˚tgarAaloki, ok litask um
         A                                A
¨ ¨                    ˜            ¨     ˜
A bAkkina, ok mAlti: ’eigi sA ek Aann mann hAr inni, er  ¨
              ¨      ˜˜ ¨ ˜               ¨      ˜ ˜
eigi mun lAtil-rAAi A Aykkja at fAsk viA Aik;’ ok Ann mAlti  ¨        ˜
             ¨                   ¨           ¨
hann: ’sjAm fyrst, kalli mAr hingat kArlinguna, f˚stru mAna []
                                                           A         ¨
¨            ¨     ˜A       ˜                        ¨     ¨
Alli, ok fAisk A˚rr viA hana, ef hann vill; fAlt hAfir hon AA         ˜¨
   ¨            ¨                    A ¨               ˜A
mAnn er mAr hafa litizk eigi ˚-stArkligri en A˚rr er.’ AvA        ˜ ¨
  ˜            ¨ ¸           ¨                    ˜¨ ˜ A
nAst gekk A hCllina kArling ein gCmul. AA mAlti ˚tgar-
                                          ¸
˜                                      ˜ ¨ ˜A
Aaloki, at hon skal taka fang viA AsaA˚r. Ekki er langt um.
at gC`           ¨ A           ˜      ˜ ¨       ˜        ˜A
      ¸ Ira: svA f˚r fang Aat at AvA harAara er A˚rr kn˚Aisk at   A˜
             ˜ ¨              A˜         ˜¨ A      ¨
fanginu, AvA fastara st˚A hon; AA t˚k kArling at leita til
˜      ˜             ˜ ˜A ˜ ¨            ¨ A
AragAa, ok varA A˚rr AA lauss A f˚tum, ok vAru AAr svip- ¨     ˜˜
                  ˜              ¨
tingar all-harAar, ok eigi lAngi A       ˜      ˜A         ¨     ¨ ¸˜
                                       ¨ Ar en A˚rr fell A knA CArum
f˚ti. A
 A         ¨                   ˜          ˜ ˜      ˜
        ˜ A gekk til ˚tgarAaloki, baA Aau hAtta fanginu, ok
                       A
     ˜      ¨      ˜A                  ˜           A˜
sagAi svA, at A˚rr mundi eigi Aurfa at bj˚Aa fleirum mCnnum           ¸
fang A                      ˜¨        ˜ ¨ ¨           ¨ ˜ A
       ¨ hans hCll; var AA ok liAit A nAtt, vAsaAi ˚tgarAaloki
                   ¸                                                ˜
˜A          ˜       ¨ ¸            ˜           ¨       ˜
A˚r ok Aeim fAlCgum til sAtis, ok dvAljask Aar nAtt-langt A  ¨            ¨
 A  ˜
g˚Aum fagnaAi.     ˜

                    ˜            ˜   ¨     ˜A
    En at morgni, Aegar dagaAi, stAndr A˚rr upp ok Aeir˜
 ¨
fAlagar, klA  ˜                                    ˜¨
            ˜ Aa sik, ok eru b˚nir braut at ganga. AA kom
                               A
˜ A         ˜           ¨ ¨        ˜      ˜        ˜¨
Aar ˚tgarAaloki, ok lAt sAtja Aeim borA; skorti AA eigi
    ˜
g˚Aan fagnaA,
 A                                      ˜
               ˜ mat ok drykk. En er Aeir hafa matazk, AA˜¨
   A     ˜           ˜
                  ¨ Aar. ˚tgarAaloki fylgir Aeim ˚t, gAngr
sn˚ask Aeir til fAr       A       ˜           ˜   A    ¨
    ˜ ˜                                     ˜ ˜¨ ˜ A
meA Aeim braut ˚r borginni; en at skilnaAi AA mAlti ˚tgar-
                   A
˜           ˜A                 ¨            ˜      ¨ ˜ ¨
Aaloki til A˚rs, ok spyrr hvArnig honum Aykkir fArA sAn
   ˜
orAin, eAa      ¨          ¨         ¨
          ˜ hvArt hann hAfir hitt rAkara mann nakkvarn en
      ˜A                             ˜    ¨
sik. A˚rr svarar at eigi mun hann Aat sAgja, at eigi hafi
hann mikla A A       ˜       ¨ ˜       ˜             ˜A
              ˚-s˚mA farit A Aeira viA-skiptum; ’en A˚ veit []
ek at A  ¨        ˜              ¨                ¨
       ˜ Ar munuA kalla mik lAtinn mann fyrir mAr, ok uni ek
˜ ¨         ˜¨ ˜ A            ˜                 ¨   ˜¨
AvA illa.’ AA mAlti ˚tgarAaloki: ’n˚ skal sAgja AAr it sanna,
                                       A
    ˜ ˚ ert ˚t kominn ˚r borginni–ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k
er AA       A           A

                                           42
  ¨˜ ˜¨                                ¨
rAAa, AA skaltu aldri optar A hana koma; ok Aat veit tr˚a     ˜            A
   ¨                 ¨ ˜ ˜A ¨
mAn, at aldri hAfAir A˚ A hana komit, ef ek hAfAa vitat AAr at ¨ ˜            ¨˜
˜A ¨ ˜             ¨                        ˜ ˜¨
A˚ hAfAir svA mikinn krapt meA AAr, ok A˚ hafAir svA nAr  ˜A        ˜       ¨ ˜
                                               ¨
haft oss mikilli ˚-f˚ru. En sj˚n-hvArfingar hAfi ek gC` AAr,
                     A A               A                    ¨         ¸ Irt ˜ ¨
    ¨                                   ˜ ¨ A
svA at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann Aik A sk˚ginum, kom ek til
             ˜ ˜           ˜¨       ˜A
fundar viA yAr; ok AA er A˚ skyldir leysa nestbaggann, AA                   ˜¨
     ˜                    ˜         ¨          ˜A
hafAa-k bundit meA gres-jArni, en A˚ fannt eigi hvar upp
                      ˜ ¨ ˜                 ˜A
skyldi l˚ka. En AvA nAst laust A˚ mik meA hamrinum Arj˚
          A                                               ˜                 ˜ A
  ¸                                             ˜A ¨
hCgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var A˚ svA mikit, at mAr                 ¨
          ¨                         ¨ ¨ ˜
mundi Andask til bana, ef A hAfAi komit; en Aar er A˚ sAtt  ˜         ˜A ¨
   ¨ ¸                                ˜      ¨             ¨ ˜ ¨
hjA hCll minni set-berg, ok Aar sAtt-u ofan A ArjA dala fer-
                        A            ˜      ¨
skeytta ok einn dj˚pastan, Aat vAru hamarspor Ain; setber-      ˜
          ¨               ¸                  ¨ ˜A ˜
ginu brA ek fyrir hCggin en eigi sAtt A˚ Aat. SvA var ok of      ¨
               ˜¨ ˜             ˜ ˜          ˜ ¨
leikana, er AAr AreyttuA viA hirAmAnn mAna. AA var Aat it¨       ˜¨         ˜
                      ¸ Ir ˜
fyrsta, er Loki gC` Ai; hann var mjCk soltinn, ok At tAtt; en
                                               ¸                  ¨ ¨
  ¨              ¨ ˜                                 ¨
sA er Logi hAt, Aat var villi-eldr, ok brAndi hann eigi seinna
   ¨                            ˜ ¨ ˜               ¨
slAtrit en trogit. En er AjAlfi Areytti rAsina viA Aann er      ˜ ˜
          ¨ ˜                                     ˜ ¨
Hugi hAt, Aat var hugi minn, ok var AjAlfa eigi vAnt at           ˜
˜                           ˜                  ˜A
Areyta skj˚t-f˚ri viA hann. En er A˚ drakkt af horninu, ok
              A A
˜A        ˜¨            ¨˜          ˜
A˚tti AAr seint lAAa,–en Aat veit tr˚a mAn, at AA varA Aat
                                                  A     ¨         ˜¨        ˜ ˜
                                  A                ˜
undr, er ek munda eigi tr˚a at vera mAtti; annarr Andir            ¨
                  A ¨               ˜      ¨
hornsins var ˚t A hafi, en Aat sAttu eigi; en n˚, er A˚ kAmr  A       ˜A ˜
      ˜           ˜¨                ¨             ¨     ˜ ˜ ˜A ¨
til sAvarins, AA mun-tu sjA mega, hvArn AurA A˚ hAfir drukkit
¨ ˜             ˜                              ˜
A sAnum.’ Aat eru n˚ fjCrur kallaAar. Ok Ann mAlti hann:
                             A ¸                          ¨        ˜
       ˜A         ¨                                    ˜A
’eigi A˚tti mAr hitt minna vera vert, er A˚ lyptir upp kAt-                ¨
               ˜¨               ¨       ˜¨      ˜
tinum, ok AAr satt at sAgja, AA hrAddusk allir Aeir er sA,      ˜           ¨
    ˜A                ¸ ˜                               ¨ ¸
er A˚ lyptir af jCrAu einum f˚tinum; en sA kCttr var eigi
                                        A
       ˜¨ `               ˜             ˜     ˜
sem AAr sEndisk; Aat var MiAgarAs-ormr, er liggr um lCnd                  ¸
¸                                        ¨ ˜
Cll, ok vannsk honum varliga lAngAin til, at jCrAina t˚ki   ¸ ˜        A
       ˜         ¸ ˜            ¨                    ˜A
sporAr ok hCfuA; ok svA langt seildisk A˚ upp at skamt var
   ¨
˜ A til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er A˚
A                                                                        ˜A
fekkzk viA      ¨             ˜ ¨              ¨       ¨ ˜
             ˜ Alli; fyrir AvA at engi hAfir sA orAit, ok engi
            ˜          ¨                   ¨      ¨˜
mun verAa, ef svA gamall er at Alli bAAr, at eigi komi Allin             ¨
Cllum til falls. Ok er n˚ Aat
¸                              A         ¨         ¨
                                  ˜ sAtt at sAgja, at vAr munum ¨
                       ˜¨ ¨            ¨       ¨
skiljask, ok mun AA bAtr hvArratvAggju handar at AAr komiA            ˜¨         ˜
                                          ¨
eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun Ann annat sinn vArja borg       ¨
   ¨          ˜ ˜ ¨ ¨             ¨        ˜ ¸˜
mAna meA AvAlAkum vAlum eAa CArum, svA at ekki vald munu      ¨
   ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨                      ˜A           ˜ ˜
˜ Ar A mAr fA.’ En er A˚rr heyrAi Aessa tClu, greip hann til
A                                                         ¸
                          ˜ ¨
hamarsins, ok bregAr A lopt; en er hann skal fram reiAa, AA           ˜ ˜¨
              ˜        ¨             ˜              ˜¨ `
  ¨ hann Aar hvArgi ˚tgarAaloka, ok AA snEsk hann aptr til
sAr                           A
                      ˜         ˜¨
borgarinnar, ok Atlask AA fyrir at brj˚ta borgina; AA sAr
                                                  A                 ˜¨ ¨
                        ¨˜
         ˜ vCllu vAAa ok fagra, en enga borg. SnEsk hann
hann Aar ¸                                                      `
˜¨                 ¨        ˜            ˜
AA aptr, ok fArr leiA sina, til Aess er hann kom aptr A Ar˚A-          ¨ ˜ A˜
vanga.

    III. BALDER

                A ˜                        ¨
   Annarr sonr ˚ŒAins er Baldr, ok er frA honum gott at
 ¨               ¨                                   ¨
sAgja: hann er bAztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er svA fagr
¨                         `                                ¨
                    ¨ at lEsir af honum; ok eitt gras er svA
A-litum ok bjartr svA

                                              43
   ¨                             ¨ ˜                     ¨
hvAtt at jafnat er til Baldrs brAr, Aat er allra grasa hvAtast;
    ˜ ¨         ¨                   ¨ ˜ ˜˜ ¨ ¨
ok Aar Aptir mAttu marka hans fAgrA, bAAi A hAr ok A lAki; ¨ ¨
                 ¨             ¨        ˜        ¨
hann er vitrastr Asanna, ok fAgrstr taliAr ok lAknsamastr. En
 A ¨ A                               ¨
s˚ nAtt˚ra fylgir honum at engi mA haldask d˚mr hans. []
                                                  A
       ` ˜                      ˜      ˜        ¨        ¨ ˜
Hann bEr Aar sem heitir BreiAa-blik, Aat er A himni; A Aeim
   ˜ ¨                            ¨      ¨ ¨
staA mA ekki vera ˚-hreint, svA sem hAr sAgir:
                    A

        ˜             ˜            ¨
   BreiAablik heita, Aar er Baldr hAfir
 ¨
sAr of gC`
         ¸ Irva sali;
¨ ˜ ¨
A AvA landi er ek liggja veit
 ˜
fAsta feikn-stafi.

    IV. THE DEATH OF BALDER

     ˜                    ˜
     Aat er upphaf Aessar sCgu, at Baldr inn g˚Aa dreymAi
                                     ¸                          A˜            ˜
               A           ˜               ¨
drauma st˚ra ok hAttliga um lAf sitt. En er hann sagAi                   ˜
¨                            ˜¨ ¨         ˜
Asunum draumana, AA bAru Aeir saman rAA sAn, ok var Aat      ¨˜ ¨                ˜
                 ˜        ˜
gC` at beiAa griAa Baldri fyrir alls konar hAska; ok Frigg
  ¸ Irt                                                        ¨
 A                      ˜
t˚k svardaga til Aess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jArn                ¨
                      ¨                   ¸ ˜            ˜
ok alls konar mAlmr, steinar, jCrAin, viAirnir, s˚ttirnar, dErin,  A            `
                                       ˜
fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er Aetta var gC` ok vitat, AA var
                                                        ¸ Irt            ˜¨
˜         ¨                       ¨
Aat skAmtun Baldrs ok Asanna at hann skyldi standa upp A                         ¨
˜                         ˜                            A ¨
Aingum, en allir aArir skyldu sumir skj˚ta A hann, sumir
                            ¨
hCggva til, sumir bArja grj˚ti. En hvat sem at var gC`
  ¸                                  A                                 ¸ Irt,
       ˜                       ˜A      ˜
sakaAi hann ekki, ok A˚tti Aetta Cllum mikill frami. En er []
                                                ¸
˜          ¨                             ˜¨ ¨ ˜
Aetta sA Loki Laufeyjar-son, AA lAkaAi honum illa er Baldr
       ˜                                ¨
sakaAi ekki. Hann gekk til FAn-salar til Friggjar, ok brA                  ¨
 ¨ ¨              ¨      ˜¨
sAr A konu lAki; AA spyrr Frigg ef s˚ kona vissi hvat Asir
                                                   A                      ˜
  ¸ ˜            ¨ ˜                         ˜
hCfAusk at A Ainginu. Hon sagAi at allir skutu at Baldri,
     ˜
ok Aat, at hann sakaAi                   ˜¨ ˜
                              ˜ ekki. AA mAlti Frigg: ’eigi munu
  ¨        ˜      ˜                            ˜      ¨
vApn eAa viAir granda Baldri; eiAa hAfi ek AAgit af Cllum       ˜¨        ¸
˜
Aeim.’ A      ¨                                              ˜
           ˜ A spyrr konan: ’hafa allir hlutir eiAa unnit at eira
             ˜¨                        ¨       ˜
Baldri?’ AA svarar Frigg: ’vAx viAar-teinungr einn fyrir
                  ¸
vestan Val-hCll; sA                                    ˜      ¨ ˜A
                         ¨ er Mistilteinn kallaAr; sA A˚tti mAr ungr []   ¨
        ¨       ˜
at krAfja eiAsins.’ Av         ¨ ˜                          ¨
                           ˜ A nAst hvarf konan A braut; en Loki
                                                       ˜
t˚k Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til Aings. En HCAr st˚A
 A                                                                    ¸˜       A˜
utarliga A                             ˜ ¨
             ¨ mannhringinum, AvA at hann var blindr. AA mAlti         ˜¨ ˜
          ˜                ¨ ` ˜A
Loki viA hann: ’hvA skEtr A˚ ekki at Baldri?’ Hann svarar:
     ¨            ¨                                  ˜
 ˜ A at ek sA eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok Aat annat, at ek em
’Av
vapnlauss.’ A       ¨ ˜                         ˜ ˜A ¨ ¨
                 ˜ A mAlti Loki: ’gC` Au A˚ A lAking annarra,
                                          ¸ Ir-
                                 A ˜             ˜
manna, ok veit Baldri s˚mA sem aArir mAnn; ek mun vAsa     ¨                 ¨
   ¨                          ¨
˜ Ar til, hvar hann stAndr; skj˚t at honum vAndi Aessum.’
A                                         A                    ¨     ˜
   ¸˜ A
HCAr t˚k Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvAsun Loka;         ¨
flaug skotit A         ¨                                         ˜
                 ¨ gAgnum hann, ok fell hann dauAr til jarAar; ok         ˜
         ˜                                            ˜
  ¨ Aat mest ˚-happ verit unnit meA goAum ok mCnnum. []
hAfir                  A                                     ˜           ¸
˜¨                                ˜¨              ¸
AA er Baldr var fallinn, AA fellusk Cllum Asum orA-tCk, ok  ¨        ˜ ¸
   ¨ ¨                                       ¨      ¨
svA hAndr at taka til hans; ok sA hvArr til annars, ok vAru []               ¨
allir meA                         ˜                       ˜
           ˜ einum hug til Aess er unnit hafAi verkit; en engi
   ¨        ¨        ˜             ¨               ˜
mAtti hAfna: Aar var svA mikill griAa-staAr. En AA er       ˜        ˜¨
˜
Asirnir freistuAu               ˜     ˜¨                ˜A
                    ˜ at mAla, AA var hitt A˚ fyrr, at grAtrinn []      ¨


                                                44
              ¨           ¨   ¸˜          ¨        ˜ ˜
kom upp, svA at engi mAtti CArum sAgja meA orAunum frA         ¨
 ¨                  A ˜            ˜             ¨
sAnum harmi. En ˚ŒAinn bar Aeim mun vArst Aenna skaAa, ˜       ˜
                                  ¨
sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvArsu mikil af-taka ok missa
¨              ¨ ¨                          ˜          ˜
Asunum var A frA-falli Baldrs. En er goAin vitkuAusk, AA    ˜¨
   ˜                  ˜     ¨    ¨ ˜          ˜ ¨
mAlti Frigg ok spurAi, hvArr sA vAri meA Asum, er eignask
            ¨                                      ¨˜ ¨ ¨
vildi allar Astir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann rAAa A hAl-veg []
                     ¨                      A˜      ¨
ok freista ef hann fAi fundit Baldr, ok bj˚Aa HAlju ˚t-lausn,
                                                         A
             ¨                     ¨ ¨       ˜        ¨
ef hon vill lAta fara Baldr heim A As-garA. En sA er nAfndr¨
  ¨ A˜                      A ˜               ˜
HArm˚Ar inn hvati, sonr ˚ŒAins, er til Aeirar farar varA. AA ˜ ˜¨
      ¨                     A ˜
var tAkinn Sleipnir, hestr ˚ŒAins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig
  ¨ A˜ ¨ ˜                           ˜
HArm˚Ar A Aann hest, ok hleypAi braut.

         ˜          ˚     ¨                             ˜
    En Asirnir tAku lAk Baldrs ok fluttu til sAvar. Hring-
         ¨
horni hAt skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann
          ˜             ¨          ¸ Ira ˜ ¨ ¨ ¸
vildu goAin fram sAtja, ok gC` Aar A bAl-fCr Baldrs; en
                  ¨             ˜¨        ¨ ¨ ¸
skipit gekk hvArgi fram. AA var sAnt A JCtunheima Aptir           ¨
  ` ˜                         ¨
gEgi Aeiri er Hyrrokin hAt; en er hon kom, ok reiA vargi,    ˜
        ˜ ¸                             ˜¨
ok hafAi hCgg-orm at taumum, AA hlj˚p hon af hestinum,
                                                A
    A ˜               ˜           ¨                  ˜
en ˚ŒAinn kallaAi til ber-sArki fj˚ra at gAta hestsins, ok fengu
                                           A
˜                           ˜     ¨              ˜¨
Aeir eigi haldit, nema Aeir fAldi hann. AA gekk Hyrrokin A []          ¨
                ¸                            ¨            ˜
fram-stafn nCkkvans, ok hratt fram A fyrsta viA-bragAi, svA      ˜      ¨
at eldr hraut ˚r hlunnunum, ok lCnd Cll skulfu. AA varA
                 A                       ¸     ¸             ˜¨      ˜
˜A         ˜                                        ˜¨
A˚rr reiAr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi AA brj˚ta hCfuA     A      ¸ ˜
  ¨        ¨˜            ˜ ¸       ¨˜      ¨         ˜
hAnnar, AAr en goAin Cll bAAu hAnni friAar. AA var borit    ˜¨
A ¨             ¨                    ˜      ¨
˚t A skipit lAk Baldrs; ok er Aat sA kona hans, Nanna, Neps
  A       ˜¨
d˚ttir, AA sprakk hon af harmi, ok d˚; var hon borin A
                                               A                   ¨
  ¨           ¨      ¨        ˜ ¨ A˜ ˜A                   ¨ ˜ ¨
bAlit, ok slAgit A eldi. AA st˚A A˚rr at, ok vAgAi bAlit meA               ˜
MjCllni; en fyrir f˚tum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, sA er
    ¸                  A                                        ¨
       ¨            ˜A                      ¨       ¨
Litr nAfndr; en A˚rr spyrndi f˚ti sAnum A hann, ok hratt
                                      A
honum A                                           ˜
         ¨ eldinn, ok brann hann. En at Aessi brAnnu s˚tti ¨       A
margs konar AjA       ˜             ¨         ¨ A ˜
                 ˜ ˚A: fyrst at sAgja frA ˚ŒAni, at meA honum    ˜
f˚r Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr ˚k A kArru
 A                                                          A ¨ ¨
meA     ¨     ˜                                   ˜      ¨˜
    ˜ gAlti Aeim er Gullin-bursti heitir eAa SlAArug-tanni; en
                 ˜        ˜
Heimdallr reiA hesti Aeim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja
            ¨
kCttum sAnum. Aar ˜
  ¸                                                    ¨ ˜
                      ˜ kAmr ok mikit f˚lk hrAmAursa, ok berg-
                                               A
       A     ˜
risar. ˚ŒAinn lagAi        ¨ ¨                   ˜
                        ˜ A bAlit gullhring Aann er Draupnir
                       ˜ ¨˜        A ¨ A
heitir; honum fylgAi sAAan s˚ nAtt˚ra, at hina nAundu hvArja  ¨          ¨
                            ¨
  ¨ drupu af honum Atta gullhringar jafn-hCfgir. Hestr
nAtt                                                    ¸
                       ¨ ¨         ˜ ¸
Baldrs var leiddr A bAlit meA Cllu reiAi.       ˜

        ˜          ¨      ¨ ¨ A˜                    ˜ ¨
    En Aat er at sAgja frA HArm˚Ai, at hann reiA nAu nAtr   ˜
  ˜
dAkkva dala ok dj˚pa, svA
                   A                   ¨
                            ¨ at hann sA ekki, fyrr en hann
         ¨                      ˜ ¨
kom til Arinnar Gjallar, ok reiA A Gjallar-br˚na; hon er
                                              A
     ˜ `               ˜ ˜        ¨      ˜ A
˜ ¸ kA lEsi-gulli. M˚AguAr er nAfnd mAr s˚ er gAtir br˚ar-
AC                   A                               ˜     A
innar; hon spurAi                  ˜ ˜            ˜
                 ˜ hann at nafni eAa Att, ok sagAi at hinn
            ˜                             ˜
fyrra dag riAu um br˚na fimm fylki dauAra manna; ’en eigi
                      A
dynr brA                         ˜¨            ¨     ˜A
        ˚in minnr undir einum AAr, ok eigi hAfir A˚ lit dauAra ˜
manna; hvA    ¨ ˜ ˜A ¨ ¨ ¨
           ¨ rAAr A˚ hAr A hAlveg?’ Hann svarar at ’ek
      ¨˜        ¨                      ˜    ¨      ¨    ˜A
skal rAAa til hAljar at leita Baldrs, eAa hvArt hAfir A˚ nakkvat
           ¨ ¨                      ˜
 ¨ Baldr A hAlvegi?’ En hon sagAi at Baldr hafAi Aar
sAt                                                 ˜ ˜


                                            45
   ˜                A          ˜         ˜         ¨
riAit um Gjallarbr˚; ’en niAr ok norAr liggr hAlvegr.’ AA   ˜¨
     ˜ ¨ A˜ ˜                                ¨
reiA HArm˚Ar Aar til er hann kom at hAl-grindum; AA steig ˜¨
                            ˜
hann af hestinum, ok gyrAi hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrAi   ˜
                                       ¨
hann sporum, en hestrinn hlj˚p svA hart, ok yfir grindina, at
                                 A
               ¨      ˜ ˜¨        ˜ ¨ A˜
hann kom hvArgi nAr. AA reiA HArm˚Ar heim til hallar- []
                                      ¨ ¸        ¨ ˜
innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn A hCllina, sA Aar sitja A ¨
                    A˜                   ˜      ¨ A˜ ˜
Cndvegi Baldr, br˚Aur sinn; ok dvalAisk HArm˚Ar Aar um
 ¸
   ¨                      ˜¨               ¨ A˜
nAttina. En at morgni AA beiddisk HArm˚Ar af HAlju at   ¨
                ¨˜             ˜                 ˜   ¨
Baldr skyldi rAAa heim meA honum, ok sagAi hvArsu mikill
    ¨          ˜ ¨              ¨      ˜    ˜             ¨
grAtr var meA Asum. En HAl sagAi at Aat skyldi svA reyna, []
     ¨               ¨ ¨      ˜
hvArt Baldr var svA Ast-sAll sem sagt er; ’ok ef allir hlutir A   ¨
                            ˜       ¨          ˜¨
heiminum, kykvir ok dauAir, grAta hann, AA skal hann fara
     ¨                         ˜ ¨                    ˜
til Asa aptr, en haldask meA HAlju, ef nakkvarr mAllr viA,    ˜
  ˜              ¨     ˜ ¨ A˜ ¨ A˜
eAa vill eigi grAta.’ AA st˚A HArm˚Ar upp, en Baldr leiAir      ˜
                            A                          ¨
hann ˚t ˚r hCllinni, ok t˚k hringinn Draupni, ok sAndi ˚ŒAni
       A A ¸                                                  A ˜
                       ¨                    ¨
til minja, en Nanna sAndi Frigg ripti ok Ann fleiri gjafar,
                   ˜¨     ˜ ¨ A˜                ˜ ¨
Fullu fingr-gull. AA reiA HArm˚Ar aptr leiA sAna, ok kom A          ¨
¨      ˜         ˜ ¸     ¨˜        ˜               ˜ ¨
AsgarA, ok sagAi Cll tAAindi Aau er hann hafAi sAt ok heyrt.

     ˜ ¨ ˜     ¨      ˜                   ˜
    AvA nAst sAndu Asir um allan heim Arind-reka, at biAja  ˜
           ˜    ¨      A ¨                 ¸ Ir ˜ ˜       ¨
at Baldr vAri grAtinn ˚r hAlju; en allir gC` Au Aat, mAnninir,
                  ¸ ˜                          ¨           ¨
ok kykvendin, ok jCrAin, ok steinarnir, ok trA, ok allr mAlmr;
   ¨      ˜A        ¨           ˜                ¨     ˜¨
svA sem A˚ munt sAt hafa, at Aessir hlutir grAta, AA er Aeir ˜
                  ¨       ˜¨      ¨       ¨
koma ˚r frosti ok A hita. AA er sAndi-mAnn f˚ru heim, ok
       A                                         A
  ¸ ˜            ¨ ˜              ˜     ¨ ¨        ¸
hCfAu vel rekit sAn Arindi, finna Aeir A hAlli nCkkurum hvar []
 `             ¨        ˜¸     ˜      ˜              ¨
gEgr sat; hon nAfndisk ACkk. Aeir biAja hana grAta Baldr
A ¨
˚r hAlju. Hon svarar:

    ˜¸           ¨ ˜          ¨
   ’ACkk mun grAta Aurrum tArum
         ¨
Baldrs bAlfarar;
       ¨     ˜
kyks nA dauAs naut-k-a-k karls sonar; []
           ˜ ¨    ¨
        ¨ AvA es hAfir!’
haldi HAl

        ˜          ¨      ˜
    En Aess geta mAnn, at Aar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son,
                        ˜ ¨
          ¨ ilt gC` meA Asum.
er flest hAfir     ¸ Irt

        ˜         ¸
   V. HEAINN AND HCGNI

               ¨      ¸        ¨       ¨
    Konungr sA er HCgni er nAfndr Atti d˚ttur, er Hildr hAt.
                                              A                ¨
        A       ¨
Hana t˚k at hAr-fangi konungr sA           ¨˜        ¨
                                   ¨ er HAAinn hAt, Hjarranda-
       ˜¨       ¸                     ¨              ¨
son. AA var HCgni konungr farinn A konunga-stAfnu; en er
hann spurAi        ¨        ¨ ¨
            ˜ at hArjat var A rAki hans, ok d˚ttir hans var A
                                                 A              ¨
        ¨
braut tAkin, A   ¨ A            ˜ ¨        ˜             ¨˜
              ˜ A f˚r hann meA sAnu liAi at leita HAAins, ok
      ˜              ¨˜         ˜             ˜     ˜
spurAi til hans at HAAinn hafAi siglt norAr meA landi. AA [] ˜¨
      ¸
er HCgni konungr kom A                   ˜
                         ¨ Noreg, spurAi hann at HAAinn¨˜
    ˜                      ˜¨           ¸     ¨
hafAi siglt vestr um haf. AA siglir HCgni Aptir honum allt
                                                   ¨
                                ˜ sem heitir HA-ey, AA []
til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom Aar                         ˜¨
                 ¨˜        ˜ ˜         ˜¨ A            ¨
     ˜ fyrir HAAinn meA liA sitt. AA f˚r Hildr A fund fCAur
var Aar                                                        ¸˜
 ¨
sAns, ok bauA             ¨       ˜         ¨      ¨˜
              ˜ honum mAn at sAtt af hAndi HAAins, en A CAru  ¨ ¸˜
   ˜      ˜          ¨˜       ˜     A           ¨
orAi sagAi hon at HAAinn vAri b˚inn at bArjask, ok Atti    ˜


                                       46
   ¸                            ˜ ˜         ¨
HCgni af honum engrar vAgAar vAn. HCgni svArar stirt ¸        ¨
  ˚                                    ¨˜            ˜
dAttur sinni; en er hon hitti HAAin, sagAi hon honum, at
                       ˜            ˜
HCgni vildi enga sAtt, ok baA hann b˚ask til orrostu, ok
   ¸                                              A
    ¨ ¸ Ira ˜          ¨        ¨
svA gC` Aeir hvArir-tvAggju, ganga upp A eyna, ok fylkja  ¨
  ˜         ˜¨           ¨˜       ¨ ¸
liAinu. AA kallar HAAinn A HCgna, mAg sinn, ok bauA ¨                  ˜
            ˜                                    ˜¨
honum sAtt ok mikit gull at b˚tum. AA svarar HCgni:
                                     A                           ¸
      ¨˜             ˜           ˜A          ˜           ˜ ¨
’of sAA bauzt-u Aetta, ef A˚ vill sAttask, AvA at n˚ hAfi ek         A ¨
    ¨        ¨                             ¸ Ir ˜
drAgit DAins-leif, er dvergarnir gC` Au, er manns bani skal
     ˜        ¨             ¨                             ¨ ¸
verAa, hvArt sinn er bArt er, ok aldri bilar A hCggvi, ok ekki
  ¨              ˜                   ˜¨
sAr gr˚r, ef Aar skeinisk af.’ AA svarar HAAinn: ’sverAi
          A                                             ¨˜             ˜
  A ˜A ˜                           ˜                          ¨
h˚lir A˚ Aar, en eigi sigri; Aat kalla ek gott hvArt er dr˚ttin-         A
             ˜¨ A ˜                     ˜¨             ˜
holt er.’ AA h˚fu Aeir orrostu AA er HjaAninga-vAg er kallat,     ¨
       ¸ ˜       ˜
ok bCrAusk Aann dag allan, ok at kveldi f˚ru konungar til
                                                       A
                                ¨
skipa. En Hildr gekk of nAttina til valsins, ok vakAi upp        ˜
     ˜ ¸                 ˜¨           ˜       ¨
meA fjClkyngi alla AA er dauAir vAru; ok annan dag gengu
                 ¨ ¨      ¸               ¸ ˜
konungarnir A vAg-vCllinn ok bCrAusk, ok svA allir Aeir er  ¨        ˜
                                       ¨ A
fellu hinn fyrra daginn. F˚r svA s˚ orrosta hvArn dag Aptir
                                A                           ¨           ¨
                   ˜                    ¸      ¨      ˜         ¨
annan, at allir Aeir er fellu, ok Cll vApn Aau er lAgu A vAgvAlli,   ¨ ¨ ¨
        ¨ ¨           ˜           A                     ˜
ok svA hlAfar, urAu at grj˚ti. En er dagaAi, st˚Au upp allir  A˜
      ˜      ¨           ¸ ˜
dauAir mAnn, ok bCrAusk, ok Cll vApn vAru AA nE. SvA er
                                        ¸       ¨       ¨    ˜¨ `           ¨
        ¨     ˜˜              ˜                      ¨ ¨˜
sagt A kvAAum, at HjaAningar skulu svA bAAa ragna-rAkrs.                  ˜

   VI. THE DEATH OF OLAF TRYGGVASON

                         ˚      ¨     ¨         ¨˜
     Sveinn konungr tjAgu-skAgg Atti SigrAAi hina st˚r-rAAu.  A ¨˜
      ¨˜                           A ¨
SigrAAr var hinn mesti ˚-vinr ˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggva-sonar;
                           A
          ˜                A ¨                     ˜
ok fann Aat til saka at ˚ŒlAfr konungr hafAi slitit einka-mAlum       ¨
   ˜                         ¨                 ¨     ˜
viA hana, ok lostit hana A and-lit. Hon AggjaAi mjCk Svein   ¸
                                  ˜ A ¨
konung til at halda orrostu viA ˚ŒlAf konung Tryggvason, ok
kom hon svA       ¨
             ¨ sAnum for-tClum at Sveinn konungr var full-
                              ¸
              ¸ Ira ˜       ¨˜
kominn at gC` Aetta rAA. Ok snimma um vArit sAndi     ¨       ¨
                     ¨
Sveinn konungr mAnn austr til SvA-        ˜ A˜ ¨
                                        ¨ Aj˚Aar A fund ˚ŒlAfsA ¨
             ¨
konungs SvAa-konungs, mAgs          ¨            ¨
                               ¨ sAns, ok EirAks jarls; ok lAt sAgja¨ ¨
˜
Aeim at ˚ŒlAfr,
          A                                 ˜     ˜
                ¨ Noregs konungr, hafAi leiAangr ˚ti, ok AtlaAi
                                                           A         ˜ ˜
at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. FylgAi        ˜        ˜ ¨
                                              ˜ Aat orA-sAnding
                     ˜        ¨                   ¨
Dana-konungs, at Aeir SvAakonungr ok EirAkr jarl skyldi
                                      ˜
  ¨ ˚ti hafa, ok fara til m˚ts viA Svein konung, skyldu
hAr A                          A
˜      ˜¨              ¨                     ˜ A ¨
Aeir AA allir samt lAggja til orrostu viA ˚ŒlAf konung Tryggva-
son. En ˚ŒlAfr
          A            ¨                   ¨
               ¨ SvAakonungr ok EirAkr jarl vAru Aessar¨     ˜
     ˜                          ˜¨                   ¨
 ¨ Aar al-b˚nir, ok dr˚gu AA saman skipa-hAr mikinn af SvAa-
fAr          A            A                                             ¨
  ¨
vAldi, fCru Av
         ¸        ¨ ˜
              ˜ A liAi suAr til Dan-markar ok kvAmu Aar svA, []
                            ˜                            ¨      ˜     ¨
    A ¨                                  ˜ ¨˜
at ˚ŒlAfr konungr Tryggvason hafAi AAr austr siglt. Aeir          ˜
    ¨
SvAakonungr ok EirAkr                                  ˜
                        ¨ jarl heldu til fundar viA Danakonung,
      ¸ ˜ ˜¨
ok hCfAu AA allir saman ˚-grynni hArs.
                              A            ¨

                     ˜¨             ˜ ¨     ¨      ¨
     Sveinn konungr, AA er hann hafAi sAnt Aptir hArinum,
   ¨ ¨                                                   ¨ ˜
˜ A sAndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at nj˚sna um fArA
A                                               A
      ¨                                     ¨
˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra svA til, at fundr
A
˜                       ˜       ˜     ¨ ˜¨
Aeira Sveins konungs mAtti verAa. FArr AA Sigvaldi jarl
leiA   ¨                 ¨
    ˜ sAna, ok kom fram A Vindlandi, f˚r til J˚msborgar, ok
                                       A      A

                                            47
 ¨˜      ¨       A ¨                               ¨   ˜
sAAan A fund ˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggvasonar. VAru Aar mikil
     ¨       ¨ ˜     ¨     ˜             ¨ ¨
vinAttu-mAl Aeira A meAal, kom jarl sAr A hinn mesta kArleik˜
   ˜ A ¨               ¨ ¨˜
viA ˚ŒlAf konung. AstrAAr kona jarls, d˚ttir Burizleifs konungs,
                                            A
                A ¨                      ˜
var vinr mikill ˚ŒlAfs konungs, ok var Aat mjCk af hinum
                                                ¸
          ¨ ˜                              ˜ ¨
fyrrum tAngAum, er ˚Œlafr konungr hafAi Att Geiru, systur []
                        A
  ¨                             ˜         ¨˜
hAnnar. Sigvaldi jarl var maAr vitr ok rAAugr; en er hann
        ¨ ¨ ¨˜      ¨ ˜ ˜ A ¨                 ˜¨      ˜
kom sAr A rAAa-gArA viA ˚ŒlAf konung, AA dvalAi hann mjCk         ¸
 ¨ ˜                                      ˜        ¸ `
fArAina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til Aess mjCk Emsa hluti. []
       ˜ A ¨               ¨                ¨       ¨
En liA ˚ŒlAfs konungs lAt geysi illa, ok vAru mAnn mjCk   ¸
                ˜     ¨                 ˜        ˜
heim-f˚sir, er Aeir lAgu alb˚nir, en veAr byr-vAn. Sigvaldi
        A                      A
                                          ˜¨
jarl fekk nj˚sn leyniliga af DanmCrk, at AA var austan kominn
             A                       ¸
  ¨       ¨                  ¨         ˜ ˜¨
hArr SvAakonungs, ok EirAkr jarl hafAi AA ok b˚inn sinn hAr,
                                                   A           ¨
     ˜      ¸ ˜                   ˜¨
ok Aeir hCfAingjarnir mundu AA koma austr undir Vindland,
     ˜      ¸ ˜ ¨       ˜       ˜           ¨˜ A ¨
ok Aeir hCfAu A kveAit, at Aeir mundu bAAa ˚ŒlAfs konungs
   ˜     ˜¨       ¸ ˜             ¨ ˜                   ¨
viA ey AA er SvClAr heitir, svA Aat, at jarl skyldi svA til stilla []
    ˜       ˜   ˜         A ¨
at Aeir mAtti Aar finna ˚ŒlAf konung.

     ˜¨
     AA kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana-
              ¨ ˜ ¨ A               ¸ Ir ˜        ¨  ¨
konungr hAfAi hAr ˚ti, ok gC` Aisk brAtt sA kurr, at Sveinn
                                        A ¨
Danakonungr mundi vilja finna ˚ŒlAf konung. En Sigvaldi
        ¨                         ˜       ¨˜
jarl sAgir konungi: ’ekki er Aat rAA Sveins konungs at
 ¨                         ˜ ˜        ˜           ¨
lAggja til bardaga viA Aik meA Dana-hAr einn saman, svA              ¨
            ¨          ˜¨      ˜             ˜
mikinn hAr sem AAr hafiA. En ef yAr er nakkvarr grunr A               ¨
˜ ¨        A ˜                     ˜¨                    ˜
AvA, at ˚-friAr muni fyrir, AA skal ek fylgja yAr meA mAnu []    ˜ ¨
  ˜        ˜A      ˜
liAi, ok A˚tti Aat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem J˚ms-vAkingar
                                                       A        ¨
      ˜    ¸ ˜                       ¨ ˜¨
fylgAu hCfAingjum; mun ek fA AAr ellifu skip vel skipuA.’          ˜
              ¨     ˜            ˜¨ ¨           ˜
Konungr jAtti Aessu. Var AA lAtit veAr ok hag-st˚tt; lAt     A     ¨
           ˜¨                           ¨
konungr AA leysa flotann, ok blAsa til brott-lCgu. Dr˚gu¸         A
   ¨      ˜¨          ¨                          ¨         ¸
mAnn AA segl sAn, ok gengu meira smA-skipin Cll, ok sigldu []
˜
Aau undan A                                   ˜
                ¨ haf ˚t. En jarl sigldi nAr konungs-skipinu,
                        A
          ˜       ˜          ˜                  ¨     ¨
ok kallaAi til Aeira, baA konung sigla Aptir sAr: ’mAr er      ¨
               ¨
kunnast,’ sAgir hann, ’hvar dj˚past er um eyja-sundin, en
                                     A
˜¨             ˜ ˜       ˜        ˜ ˜
AAr munuA Aess Aurfa meA Aau in st˚ru skipin.’ Sigldi
                                                 A
˜¨                    ˜ ¨                            ˜
AA jarl fyrir meA sAnum skipum. Hann hafAi ellifu skip,
                        ¨
en konungr sigldi Aptir honum meA          ˜ sinum st˚r-skipum,
                                                     A
     ˜          ˜                                      ¨
hafAi hann Aar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hArrinn sigldi
˚t A
A                                                        ¸ ˜ ˜¨
     ¨ hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at SvClAr, AA
        ¨ A ˜                         ˜      ¨
  ˜ A m˚ti Aeim sk˚ta ein. Aeir sAgja jarli at hArr Dana-
rAri                       A                                 ¨
konungs lA      ˜ ¨ ¸                     ˜       ˜¨ ¨
            ¨ Aar A hCfninni fyrir Aeim. AA lAt jarl hlaAa        ˜
                        ˜
seglunum, ok r˚a Aeir inn undir eyna.
                   A

                              ˚ ¨        ¨
    Sveinn Danakonungr ok AŒlAfr SvAakonungr ok EirAkr      ¨
           ˜ ˜¨         ˜         ¨       ˜¨
       ¨ Aar AA meA allan hAr sinn; AA var fagrt veAr
jarl vAru                                                 ˜
                            ˜            ¨ A
ok bjart s˚l-skin. Gengu Aeir n˚ upp A h˚lminn allir
           A                       A
  ¸  ˜
hCfAingjar meA                                ¨
                 ˜ miklar sveitir manna, ok sA er skipin sigldu
    ¨                                      ¨ ˜
˚t A hafit mjCk mCrg saman. Ok n˚ sjA Aeir hvar siglir
A              ¸     ¸                A
                      ˜       ˜¨ ˜         ¨˜
eitt mikit skip ok glAsiligt; AA mAltu bAAir konungarnir:
 ˜                        ¨             ˜
’Aetta er mikit skip ok Akafliga fagrt, Aetta mun vera Ormrinn
           ¨                    ¨             ˜
langi.’ EirAkr jarl svarar ok sAgir: ’ekki er Aetta Ormr hinn
langi.’ Ok svA                      ˜ ˜           ¨
              ¨ var sem hann sagAi; Aetta skip Atti EindriAi  ˜


                                         48
                   ¨       ¨˜        ¨ ˜
af Gimsum. LAtlu sAAar sA Aeir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu
                          ˜¨ ˜
meira en hit fyrra. AA mAlti Sveinn konungr: ’hrAddr er             ˜
A ¨                          A          ˜
˚ŒlAfr Tryggvason n˚, eigi Aorir hann at sigla meA hCfuAin             ˜ ¸ ˜
¨           ¨        ˜¨ ¨              ¨
A skipi sAnu.’ AA sAgir EirAkr jarl: ’ekki er Aetta konungs    ˜
          ¨          ˜                            ˜ ¨
skip, kAnni ek Aetta skip ok seglit, AvA at stafat er seglit, Aat                 ˜
¨                 ¨            ¨                ˜¨ ¨
A Erlingr SkjAlgsson; lAtum sigla AA, bAtra er oss skarA ok                  ˜
         ¨         A ¨                          ˜
missa A flota ˚ŒlAfs konungs en Aetta skip Aar svA b˚it.’ En   ˜         ¨ A
            ¨˜       ¨ ˜             ¨
stundu sAAar sA Aeir ok kAndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku
˜      ˜               A               ˜¨ ¨ ˜
Aan Aannig at h˚lmanum. AA sA Aeir hvar sigldu Arj˚ skip,               ˜ A
                                  ˜     ˜¨
ok var eitt mikit skip. MAlti AA Sveinn konungr, biAr AA                ˜ ˜¨
                               ¨           ˜      ¨
ganga til skipa sinna, sAgir at Aar fArr Ormrinn langi. EirAkr                   ¨
         ˜         ¸            ˜
jarl mAlti: ’mCrg hafa Aeir Cnnur st˚r skip ok glAsilig en
                                       ¸            A               ˜
                         ¨˜        ¨         ˜¨ ˜
Orm hinn langa, bAAum Ann.’ AA mAltu mjCk margir mAnn:         ¸                 ¨
                ¨           A ¨                      ¨      ¸˜
’eigi vill EirAkr jarl n˚ bArjask, ok hAfna fCAur sAns; Aetta         ¨      ˜
       ¸                  ¨
er skCmm mikil, svA at spyrjask mun um Cll lCnd, ef vAr    ¸ ¸               ¨
             ¨       ˜                    ˜         A ¨
liggjum hAr meA jafn-miklu liAi, en ˚ŒlAfr konungr sigli A                        ¨
       A ¨           ¨         ¨                     ˜
hafit ˚t hAr hjA oss sjAlfum.’ En er Aeir hCfAu Aetta talat  ¸ ˜ ˜
         ¨˜ ˜¨ ¨ ˜
um hrAA, AA sA Aeir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af
˜               ¨
Aeim var drAki all-mikill ok mjCk gull-b˚inn. AA st˚A upp
                                            ¸            A       ˜ ¨ A˜
                             ˜          ¨
Sveinn konungr, ok mAlti: ’hAtt mun Ormrinn bera mik A                         ¨
                               `        ˜¨ ˜
kveld, honum skal ek stEra.’ AA mAltu margir, at Ormrinn
          ˜                        ¨
var furAu mikit skip ok frAtt, ok rausn mikil at lAta gC`          ¨       ¸ Ira
   ¨            ˜¨ ˜               ¨                ¨
slAkt skip. AA mAlti EirAkr jarl, svA at nakkvarir mAnn                   ¨
      ˜       ˜A A ¨                            ¨ ˜
heyrAu: ’A˚tt ˚ŒlAfr konungr hAfAi ekki meira skip en Aetta,                     ˜
˜¨                                   ˜               ¨
AA mundi Sveinn konungr Aat aldri fA af honum meA einn                   ˜
                   ¨             ˜¨ A
saman DanahAr.’ Dreif AA f˚lkit til skipanna, ok rAku af               ¨
   ¸            ˜ ˜
tjCldin, ok AtluAu at b˚ask skj˚tliga. En er hCfAingjar r˚ddu
                                A            A                   ¸ ˜             A
˜                ¨            A               ˜¨ ¨ ˜
Aetta milli sAn, sem n˚ er sagt, AA sA Aeir, hvar sigldu Arj˚                  ˜ A
                         A ˜ ¨˜                          ˜
skip all-mikil, ok fj˚rAa sAAast, ok var Aat Ormrinn langi.
     ˜
En Aau hin st˚ru skip, er A
                   A                   ˜
                                     ¨ Ar hCfAu siglt, ok Aeir hugAu
                                              ¸  ˜               ˜           ˜
at Ormrinn vAri,        ˜
                  ˜ Aat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sAAara            ¨˜
                             ˜¨        ˜        ¨
Ormrinn skammi. En AA er Aeir sA Orminn langa, kAndu                     ¨
                     ˜¨         ¨ A              ˜
              ˜ AA engi A m˚t, at Aar mundi sigla ˚ŒlAfr
allir, ok mAlti                                                       A ¨
Tryggvason; gengu A         ¨                                ˜
                          ˜ A til skipanna, ok skipuAu til at-
  ¸              ¨     ˜               ¨ ˜             ¸ ˜
lCgunnar. VAru Aat einkamAl Aeira hCfAingja, Sveins konungs,
˚ŒlAfs
A                           ¨                          ˜ ˜
       ¨ konungs, EirAks jarls, at sinn AriAjung Noregs skyldi
               ¨ ˜              ˜        ¨      A ¨
eignask hvArr Aeira, ef Aeir fAldi ˚ŒlAf konung Tryggvason;
en sA    ˜            ˜                              ¨
      ¨ Aeira hCfAingja er fyrst gengi A Orminn, skyldi eignask
                   ¸
                             ˜                          ¨ ˜
     ˜ hlut-skipti er Aar fengisk, ok hvArr Aeira Aau skip
alt Aat                                                             ˜
                 ˜        ¨                ˜         ˜
      ¨ hryAi. EirAkr jarl hafAi barAa einn geysi mikinn,
er sjAlfr
                                  ¨              ˜
er hann var vanr at hafa A viking; Aar var skAgg A ofan-      ¨     ¨
verAu         ˜         ¨       ¨                  ˜
     ˜ barAinu hvArutvAggja, en niAr frA jArn-spCng Aykk ok
                                                         ¨ ¨          ¸     ˜
svA         ˜            ˜
    ¨ breiA sem barAit, ok t˚k alt A sA ofan.
                                     A          ¨ ˜

   ˜¨      ˜                 ˜                      ˜¨ ¨
   AA er Aeir Sigvaldi jarl rAru inn undir h˚lminn, AA sA
                                            A
    ˜     ˜    ¨     ˜                     ˜
˜ Aeir AorkAll dyArill af Trananum ok aArir skip-stj˚rn-
Aat                                                    A
     ¨     ˜          ˜                      ˜
ar-mAnn, Aeir er meA honum f˚ru, at jarl snAri skipum
                                A
                 ˜ ¨ A˜ ˜                      ˜    ¨
undir h˚lmann; AA hl˚Au Aeir ok seglum, ok rAru Aptir
        A
honum, ok kClluAu
             ¸          ˜         ˜     ¨ ˜            ¨
                 ˜ til Aeira, spurAu, hvA Aeir f˚ru svA. Jarl
                                                A
 ¨                     ˜ A ¨                             ¨
                     ¨ Aa ˚ŒlAfs konungs: ’ok er meiri vAn at
sAgir, at hann vill bA

                                                49
A ˜ ¨                    ¨    ˜    ˜¨ A             ˜
˚friAr sA fyrir oss.’ LAtu Aeir AA flj˚ta skipin, Aar til er
˜      ¨    ¨             ˜                     ˜
AorkAll nAfja kom meA Orminn skamma, ok Aau Arj˚ skip ˜ A
                ˜          ¨   ˜     ¸ ˜
er honum fylgAu. Ok vAru Aeim sCgA hin sCmu tAAindi;
                                              ¸       ¨˜
  A˜ ˜         ˜¨      ¨                  ¨
hl˚Au Aeir AA ok sAnum seglum, ok lAtu flj˚ta, ok biAu
                                               A          ˜
A ¨                      ˜¨
˚ŒlAfs konungs. En AA er konungrinn sigldi innan at h˚l-   A
          ˜¨ ˜            ¨       A ¨             ˜¨
manum, AA rAri allr hArrinn ˚t A sundit fyrir AA. En er
˜       ¨ ˜     ˜    ¨˜ ˜                        ˜ ¨
Aeir sA Aat, Aa bAAu Aeir konunginn sigla leiA sAna, en
 ¨                          ˜   ¨          ¨
lAggja eigi til orrostu viA svA mikinn hAr. Konungr svarar
  ¨          A˜       ¨                 ¨
hAtt, ok st˚A upp A lyptingunni: ’lAti ofan seglit, ekki skulu
   ¨       ¨            ¨ A           ¨        ` ¨
mAnir mAnn hyggja A fl˚tta, ek hAfi aldri flEit A orrostu, rAAi  ¨˜
     ˜        ¨    ¨                      ¨ A     ¨
GuA fyrir lAfi mAnu, en aldri mun ek A fl˚tta lAggja.’ Var svA   ¨
gC` sem konungr mAlti.
  ¸ Irt                 ˜

    A ¨                  ¨      ¨
    ˚ŒlAfr konungr lAt blAsa til sam-lCgu Cllum skipum sAnum.
                                             ¸    ¸              ¨
                    ¨      ˜      ˜      ˜ ¨             ˜
Var konungs skip A miAju liAi, en Aar A annat borA Ormrinn
              ¨              ˜               ˜¨
skammi, en A annat borA Traninn. En AA er Aeir t˚ku  ˜   A
     ¨             ¨
at tAngja stafna A Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma,
                  ¨ ˜            ˜        ¨        ˜ ˜¨ ¨
ok er konungr sA Aat, kallaAi hann hAtt, baA AA lAggja
        ¨                            ¨ ˜
fram bAtr hit mikla skipit, ok lAta Aat eigi aptast vera allra
       ¨ ¨           ˜¨                         ˜
skipa A hArinum. AA svarar ˚lfr hinn rauAi: ’ef Orminn
                                   A
      ˜ ¨ ¨                ¨                      ¨
skal AvA lAngra fram lAggja, sem hann er lAngri en Cnnur   ¸
       ˜¨        ¨            ˜       ¸    ¨
skip, AA mun A-vint verAa um sCxin A dag.’ Konungr sAgir:      ¨
                      ˜                   ˜˜        ˜
’eigi vissa ek at ek Atta stafnb˚ann bAAi rauAan ok ragan.’
                                    A
        ˜       ¨ ˜A
˚lfr mAlti: ’vAr A˚ eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun
A
                             ¨              ˜ ¸ ¨      ¨
stafninn.’ Konungr helt A boga, ok lagAi Cr A strAng, ok
   ˜                    ˜                                  ¨ ˜
snAri at ˚lfi. ˚lfr mAlti: ’skj˚t annan veg, konungr A Aannig
          A     A                  A
               ˜¸       ˜¨              ˜
sem meiri er ACrfin; AAr vinn ek Aat er ek vinn.’

    A ¨                     A˜ ¨              ¨
    ˚ŒlAfr konungr st˚A A lyptingu A Orminum, bar hann hAtt []       ¨
mjCk; hann hafAi
   ¸                                               ˜      ¨
                    ˜ gyltan skjCld ok gull-roAinn hjAlm; var
                                 ¸
           ˜ ¨          ¨ ¸˜           ¸
hann auA-kAndr frA CArum mCnnum: hann hafAi rauAan        ˜    ˜
kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er ˚ŒlAfr  A                 ¨
                                                   ¨ konungr sA at
      ˜                            ¨       ¨     ¨
  ˜ Ausk flotarnir, ok upp vAru sAtt mArki fyrir hCfAingjum,
riAlu                                                       ¸ ˜
˜¨                      ¨       ¸ ˜                ˜ ˜ ¨
AA spyrr hann: ’hvArr er hCfAingi fyrir liAi AvA er gAgnt     ¨
oss er?’ Honum var sagt at Aar  ˜ var Sveinn konungr
  A        ¨        ˜        ¨
tj˚guskAgg meA DanahAr. Konungr svarar: ’ekki hrAAumk        ˜˜
            ˜     ˜˜                  ¨ ¸
  ¨ bleyAur AAr, engi er hugr A DCnum. En hvArr hCfAingi
vAr                                                       ¨   ¸ ˜
        ˜         ¨
fylgir Aeim mArkjum er Aar                   ¨ ¨ ¨ A
                              ˜ eru ˚t AfrA A h˚gra veg?’ Honum
                                         A
                ˜       A ¨                     ˜    ¨
var sagt at Aar var ˚ŒlAfr konungr meA SvAa-hAr. ˚ŒlAfr   ¨ A ¨
             ¨        ¨
konungr sAgir: ’bAtra vAri           ¨
                             ˜ SvAum heima at sleikja um bl˚t-     A
         ¨                ¨                    ¨     ˜
bolla sAna en ganga A Orminn undir vApn yAur. En hvArir         ¨
      ˜                          ˜            A ¨           ˜
eigu Aau hin st˚ru skip, er Aar liggja ˚t A bak-borAa DCnum?’
                    A                                             ¸
              ¨     ˜        ¨            ¨
 ˜ er,’ sAgja Aeir ’EirAkr jarl HAkonar-son.’ AA svaraAi
’Aar                                                     ˜¨      ˜
A ¨                                ˜                   ˜
˚ŒlAfr konungr: ’hann mun Aykkjask eiga viA oss skapligan
fund, ok oss er vAn                                ˜ ¨ ˜ ˜
                     ¨ snarpligrar orrostu af AvA liAi; Aeir eru
     ˜ ¨                ¨
NorA-mAnn, sem vAr erum.’

      ¨˜       ˜               A˜        ˜
    SAAan greiAa konungar at-r˚Ar. LagAi Sveinn konungr
                                      ¨
           ˚ti Orminum langa, en ˚ŒlAfr konungr S˚nski
sitt skip mA                     A                 A
    ˜ A    ¨                                 A ¨
lagAi ˚t frA, ok stakk stCfnum at yzta skipi ˚ŒlAfs konungs
                         ¸

                                       50
                  ¸˜                ¨                ˜ ˜¨
Tryggvasonar, en CArum megin EirAkr jarl. T˚ksk Aar AA
                                               A
 ¸ ˜                         ¨           ˜ ¨               ˜
hCrA orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl lAt skotta viA sAn skip, ok lagAi
ekki til orrostu.

     ˜
     Aessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-sk˚A. Fram-   A˜
           ¨
byggjar A Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum
 A ˜                          ¨ ¨
f˚rAu akkeri ok stafn-ljA A skip Sveins konungs, en Attu            ¨
  ¨                   ˜           A      ¨          ˜ ˜
vApnin at bera niAr undir f˚tr sAr; hruAu Aeir Cll Aau skip    ¸ ˜
    ˜
er Aeir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok Aat liA er    ˜       ˜
                  `˜ ¨ ¸                        ˜
undan komsk flEAi A Cnnur skip, ok Aar nAst lCgAu Aeir  ˜      ¸ ˜ ˜
  ¨ A            ¨          A ˜           ¨        ¨
frA ˚r skot-mAli. Ok f˚r Aessi hArr svA sem gat ˚ŒlAfr          A ¨
                           ˜¨      ˜ ˜            ¨
konungr Tryggvason. AA lagAi Aar at A staAinn ˚ŒlAfr    ˜       A ¨
    ¨                 ˜          ˜                ˜
SvAakonungr; ok Aegar er Aeir koma nAr st˚rskipum, AA   A             ˜¨
 A ˜                           ˜      ¨       ˜
f˚r Aeim sem hinum, at Aeir lAtu liA mikit ok sum skip sAn,               ¨
      ¸ ˜     ¨ ˜        ¨ A                 ¨            ¨
ok lCgAu frA viA svA b˚it. En EirAkr jarl sA-byrAi BarAanum      ˜       ˜
   ˜                 A ¨                              ˜
viA hit yzta skip ˚ŒlAfs konungs, ok hrauA hann Aat, ok hj˚       ˜           A
˜       ˜ A ¨                          ˜ ˜¨          ˜ ¨
Aegar Aat ˚r tAngslum, en lagAi AA at AvA, er Aar var nAst,     ˜           ˜
        ˜        ˜          ˜             ˜        A ˜¨ ˜
ok barAisk til Aess er Aat var hroAit. T˚k AA liAit at hlaupa
               ˜                               ¨ A
af hinum smArum skipunum, ok upp A st˚rskipin. En EirAkr                  ¨
             ¨ A ¨                        ¨             ˜
jarl hj˚ hvArt ˚r tAngslunum, svA sem hroAit var. En Danir
        A
       ¨     ¸ ˜ ˜¨ ¨                ¨
ok SvAar lCgAu AA A skotmAl ok Cllum megin at skipum ˚ŒlAfs
                                             ¸                              A ¨
                   ¨           ¨ ¨         ¨          ˜
konungs, en EirAkr jarl lA Avalt sAbyrt viA skipin, ok Atti           ¨
  ¸                      ¨          ¨             ¨
hCgg-orrostu. En svA sem mAnn fellu A skipum hans, AA                 ˜¨
          ˜          ¨      ˜          ¨
gengu aArir upp A staAinn, SvAar ok Danir. AA var orrosta  ˜¨
                           ˜¨      ¸     ˜
hin snarpasta, ok fell AA mjCk liAit, ok kom svA at lykAum,  ¨         ˜
          ¨        ˜          A ¨
at Cll vAru hroAin skip ˚ŒlAfs konungs Tryggvasonar nema
    ¸
                        ˜ ˜¨             ˜ ¨             ˜
Ormrinn langi; var Aar AA alt liA A komit, Aat er vAgt var          ¨
                 ˜¨      ˜       ¨                ˜
hans manna. AA lagAi EirAkr jarl BarAanum at Orminum
         ¨                ˜      ¸
langa sAbyrt, ok var Aar hCggorrosta.

        ¨            ¨               ¨       ¨         ˜
    EirlAkr jarl var A fyrir-r˚mi A skipi sAnu, ok var Aar fylkt
                               A
meA                      ˜¨ ˜˜ ¸
    ˜ skjald-borg. Var AA bAAi hCggorrosta, ok spj˚tum lagit,
                                                     A
            ¸    ˜ ¨         ¨
ok kastat Cllu AvA er til vApna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti
  ˜                    ˜     ¨          ¨       ˜ ¨
eAa hand-skoti. Var Aa svA mikill vApnaburAr A Orminn, at
         ¨      ¨
varla mAtti hlAfum viA                  ¨ ˜
                         ˜ koma, er svA Aykt flugu spj˚t ok Crvar;
                                                      A      ¸
˜ ¨       ¸              ¸ ˜      ¨
AvA at Cllum megin lCgAu hArskip at Orminum. En mAnn     ¨
A ¨                 ¨     ˜¨     ¨ A˜       ˜     A        ¨
˚ŒlAfs konungs vAru AA svA ˚Air, at Aeir hlj˚pu upp A borAin,    ˜
    ˜
til Aess at nA     ˜      ˜
              ¨ meA sverAs-hCggum at drepa f˚lkit. En margir
                                ¸               A
 ¸ ˜           ¨                      ˜        ¨ ¸
lCgAu eigi svA undir Orminn, at Aeir vildi A hCggorrostu vera.
    A ¨         ¨                           ˜          ¨˜
En ˚ŒlAfs mAnn gengu flestir ˚t af borAunum, ok gAAu eigi
                                    A
            ˜
annars en Aeir bAr   ˜     ¨ ¨           ¨            ˜
                  ¨ Aisk A slAttum vAlli, ok sukku niAr meA  ˜
  ¨         ¨
vApnum sAnum.

           ˜           ¨        ¨                 ¨
   Einarr Aambar-skAlfir var A Orminum aptr A krappa-r˚mi;   A
                                             ˜
hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna harA-skeytastr.
                    ¨                  ¨ `
Einarr skaut at EirAki jarli, ok laust A stEris-hnakkann fyrir
ofan hCfuA
      ¸                             ¨
          ˜ jarli, ok gekk alt upp A reyr-bCndin. Jarl leit til,
                                            ¸
        ˜    ˜             ¨
ok spurAi ef Aeir vissi, hvArr skaut. En jafn-skj˚tt kom
                                                 A
¸      ¸     ¨ ˜                         ¨˜
Cnnur Cr svA nAr jarli, at flaug milli sAAunna ok handarinnar,
     ¨       ¨ ¸ ˜       ¸                A˜ A
ok svA aptr A hCfAa-fjClina, at langt st˚A ˚t broddrinn. AA   ˜¨


                                            51
   ˜          ˜          ˜              ¨
mAlti jarl viA mann Aann er sumir nAfna Finn, en sumir
  ¨               ˜            ¨
sAgja at hann vAri Finskr, sA var hinn mesti bog-maAr:˜
                  ˜                ¨
’skj˚t-tu mann Aann hinn mikla A krappar˚minu!’ Finnr
     A                                       A
                ¸      ¨               ˜      ¨ ˜ ¨
skaut, ok kom Crin A boga Einars miAjan, A AvA bili er Einarr
   A ˜ ˜                            ˜¨          ¨ ¨
dr˚ it AriAja sinn bogann. Brast AA boginn A tvA hluti. AA  ˜¨
   ˜ A ¨                              ˜      ¨ ¨
mAlti ˚ŒlAfr konungr: ’hvat brast Aar svA hAtt?’ Einarr
                 A ¨         ˜¨
svarar: ’Noregr ˚r hAndi AAr, konungr!’ ’Eigi mun svA  ¨
                    ˜        ¨
mikill brestr at orAinn,’ sAgir konungr, ’tak boga minn, ok
                    ˜
skj˚t af,’ ok kastaAi boganum til hans. Einarr t˚k bogann,
    A                                            A
       A ˜                                 ˜
ok dr˚ Aegar fyrir odd Crvarinnar, ok mAlti: ’ofveikr,
                           ¸
                                  ˜                 A ˜¨
ofveikr allvalds boginn!’ ok kastaAi aptr boganum; t˚k AA
    ¸                 ˜        ˜
skjCld sinn ok sverA, ok barAisk.

    A ¨                          A˜ ¨            ¨
    ˚ŒlAfr konungr Tryggvason st˚A A lypting A Orminum, ok
skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum
    ¸                       ¨            ¨       ¨
gaflCkum, ok jafnan tveim sAnn. Hann sA fram A skipit, ok
 ¨ ¨        ¨     ˜       ˜      ¸         ¨        ¨
sA sAna mAnn reiAa sverAin ok hCggva tAtt, ok sA at illa bitu;
  ˜    ˜¨ ¨         ¨      ˜ ˜¨     ¨ ˜             ˜       ¨
mAlti AA hAtt: ’hvArt reiAi AAr svA slAliga sverAin, er ek sA
         ¨     ˜      ˜               ˜ ¨           ˜
at ekki bAta yAr?’ MaAr svarar: ’sverA vAr eru slA ok
               ˜¨                    ¨
brotin mjCk.’ AA gekk konungr ofan A fyrirr˚mit ok lauk
          ¸                                  A
      ¨ ˜             A ˜ A                  ˜
upp hAsAtis-kistuna, t˚k Aar ˚r mCrg sverA hvCss, ok fekk
                                   ¸              ¸
                             ˜         A       ¨
mCnnum. En er hann t˚k niAr hinni h˚gri hAndi, AA sA
  ¸                   A                               ˜¨ ¨
  ¨         A˜
mAnn at bl˚A rann ofan undan bryn-st˚kunni; en engi vissi
                                       A
                ¨
hvar hann var sArr.

                         ¨                       A˜
     Mest var vCrnin A Orminum ok mannsk˚Aust af fyrirr˚ms-
                  ¸                                                A
                             ˜           ¨     ¨
mCnnum ok stafnb˚um; Aar var hvArttvAggja, valit mest
   ¸                   A
                     ˜       ˜         ˜
mann-f˚lkit ok hAst borAin. En liA fell fyrst um mitt skipit.
         A
      ˜¨      ¨      A˜                             ˜ ˜¨ ¨˜
Ok AA er fAtt st˚A manna upp um siglu-skeiA, AA rAA EirAkr           ¨
                ¸
jarl til upp-gCngunnar, ok kom upp A                    ˜
                                         ¨ Orminn viA fimtAnda [] ¨
         ˜¨         ¨ A                          ¨ A ¨
mann. AA kom A m˚t honum Hyrningr, mAgr ˚ŒlAfs konungs,
meA                          ˜ ˜           ˜
    ˜ sveit manna, ok varA Aar inn harAasti bardagi, ok lauk
   ¨              ¸              ¨     ˜          ˜
svA, at jarl hrCkk ofan aptr A BarAann; en Aeir mAnn er   ¨
honum hCfAu¸                                    ¨     ˜ ˜
              ˜ fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir vAru sArAir. Aar     ˜
varA   ¨                                    ˜¨
     ˜ Ann in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu AA margir mAnn A   ¨     ¨
                     ˜
Orminum. En er Ayntisk skipan A      ¨ Orminum til varnarinnar,
˜¨ ¨˜          ¨                            ¸       ¨
AA rAA EirAkr jarl annat sinn til uppgCngu A Orminn. VarA            ˜
  ¨ ¨           ˜ ˜                ˜       ¨
˜ A Ann hCrA viA-taka. En er Aetta sA stafnb˚ar A Orminum,
A            ¸                                        A    ¨
˜¨           ˜           ¨
AA gengu Aeir aptr A skipit, ok sn˚ask til varnar m˚ti jarli, ok
                                       A                   A
           ˜      ˜ ¸              ˜ ¨     ˜¨           ¨
veita harAa viAtCku. En fyrir AvA at AA var svA mjCk fallit    ¸
  ˜ ¨                    ¨˜    ¨       ˜     ˜
liA A Orminum, at vAAa vAru auA borAin, t˚ku AA jarls mAnn
                                                    A     ˜¨          ¨
vA  ˜                           ˜     ˜    ˜ ¨ A˜
  ¨ Aa upp at ganga. En alt Aat liA er AA st˚A upp til varnar
¨                          ¨        ˜
A Orminum s˚tti aptr A skipit, Aar sem konungr var.
                 A

         ¸                      ¨                     ˜
    KolbjCrn stallari gekk upp A lypting til konungs; Aeir
  ¸
hCfAu˜ mjCk lAkan klAAa-b˚naA ok vApna, KolbjCrn var ok []
              ¨        ˜˜         ˜    ¨
          ¸                  A                      ¸
                         ¨˜         ˜ A ¨       ¨
allra manna mestr ok frAAastr. VarA n˚ Ann A fyrirr˚minu
                                                       A
                               ˜¨ ¸       ˜¨        ¨
in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir AA sCk at AA var svA mikit
                ¨               ˜                 ¨     ¨
f˚lk komit upp A Orminn af liAi jarls sem vera mAtti A skipinu,
 A
              ¸  ˜ at Cllum megin utan at Orminum, en
en skip hans lCgAu      ¸

                                        52
 ¨             ¨                ˚       ¨             ¨    A ˜A ˜
lAtit fjCl-mAnni til varnar mAti svA miklum hAr, n˚ A˚tt Aeir
         ¸
   ¨       ˜     ˜˜   ¨           A        ˜¨
mAnn vAri bAAi stArkir ok fr˚knir, AA fellu n˚ flestir A lAtilli
                                                      A          ¨ ¨
               A ¨                ¨         ˜
stundu. En ˚ŒlAfr konungr sjAlfr ok Aeir KolbjCrn bAAir ¸      ¨˜
   A      ˜¨           ˜     ¨           ˜     ¨
hlj˚pu AA fyrir borA, ok A sitt borA hvArr. En jarls mAnn        ¨
  ¸ ˜                     ¨ A               ¨    ˜¨      ¨
hCfAu lagt utan at smA-sk˚tur, ok drApu AA er A kaf hlj˚pu.        A
     ˜¨                 ¨       ˜ ¨                        ˜
Ok AA er konungr sjAlfr hafAi A kaf hlaupit, vildu Aeir taka
                      A       ¨               A ¨
hann hCndum, ok f˚ra EirAki jarli. En ˚ŒlAfr konungr brA
         ¸                                                          ¨
                              ˜     ¨                 ¸
yfir sik skildinum, ok steypAisk A kaf; en KolbjCrn stallari
                                   ¨ ˜ ¨         ¨ ˜ ¨
skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlAfAi sAr svA viA vApnum er
                     ˜                ¨
lagt var af skipum Aeim er undir lAgu, ok fell hann svA      ¨
¨ ˜               ¸          ˜
A sAinn at skjCldrinn varA undir honum, ok komsk hann AvA          ˜ ¨
      ¨         ¨   A           ˜                ¨
eigi A kaf svA skj˚tt, ok varA hann hand-tAkinn ok drAginn     ¨
      ¨ A                  ˜ ˜         ˜      ˜
upp A sk˚tuna, ok hugAu Aeir at Aar vAri konungrinn. Var
        ˜¨                          ˜          ˜
hann AA leiddr fyrir jarl. En er Aess varA jarl varr at Aar   ˜
             ¸           A ¨                  ˜¨ ¨
var KolbjCrn, en eigi ˚ŒlAfr konungr, AA vAru Kolbirni griA           ˜
             ¨ ˜                                    ˜
gefin. En A Aessi svipan hlj˚pu allir fyrir borA af Orminum,
                               A
˜         ˜¨ ¨      ¨ ¨ A ¨                       ¨
Aeir er AA vAru A lAfi, ˚ŒlAfs konungs mAnn; ok sAgir Hall-   ¨
    ˜          ˜˜    ¨        ˜    ¨      ¨                 A˜
freAr vandrAAa-skAld, at AorkAll nAfja, konungs br˚Air, hlj˚p         A
  ¨˜
sAAast allra manna fyrir borA.  ˜

        ¨
    SvA var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fCruneytis viA
                                                   ¸              ˜
A ¨              ¨                     ˜ ¨              ˜
˚ŒlAf konung A Vindlandi, ok hafAi tAu skip, en Aat hit ellifta,
    ¨ ¨      ¨     ¨ ¨˜
er A vAru mAnn AstrAAar konungs-d˚ttur, konu jarls. En
                                          A
˜¨       A ¨                  ˜           ˜
AA er ˚ŒlAfr konungr hafAi fyrir borA hlaupit, AA ˚pAi ˜¨ A ˜
  ¨                       ˜¨         ˜     ¨      ¨ ˜
hArrinn allr sigr-˚p, ok AA lustu Aeir Arum A sA Sigvaldi
                  A
               ¨          ˜
jarl ok hans mAnn, ok rAru til bardaga. En s˚ Vinda-
                                                 A
   ¨          ¨ ¨˜          ¨     ¨     ¨ ˜
snAkkjan, er AstrAAar mAnn vAru A, rAri brott ok aptr undir
                   ˜                       ¨ ˜
Vindland; ok var Aat margra manna mAl Aegar, at ˚ŒlAfr   A ¨
                                 ¨              ¨
konungr mundi hafa steypt af sAr brynjunni A kafi, ok kafat
   ¨ A                                   ¨˜
svA ˚t undan langskipunum, lagizk sAAan til VindasnAkkj-     ¨
               ˜     ¨    ¨ ¨˜
            ¨ Ai mAnn AstrAAar flutt hann til lands. Ok
unnar, ok hAf
      ˜            ¨              ¨ ˜ A ¨
eru Aar margar frA-sagnir um fArAir ˚ŒlAfs konungs gC`         ¸ Irvar
    ˜                                 ¨
 ¨ Aan af sumum mCnnum. En hvArn veg sem Aat hAfir
sA                    ¸                              ˜     ¨
        ˜¨      A ¨                                     ¨˜
verit, AA kom ˚ŒlAfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sAAan til rAkis       ¨
¨ Noregi.
A

          ˜
   VII. AUAUN

       ˜    ¨      ˜                            ¨ ¨
    MaAr hAt AuAun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok fA-lAtill; hann f˚r    A
                 ¨ ¸ ˜           ˜      ¨˜ ˜
            ˜ A fjCrAum meA um-rAAi Aorsteins b˚nda g˚As,
utan vestr Aar                                           A      A˜
    ˜A      `               ˜        ˜ ˜
ok A˚ris stEri-manns, er Aar hafAi Aegit vist of vetrinn meA    ˜
˜              ˜            ˜
Aorsteini. AuAun var ok Aar, ok starfaAi                   ˜A
                                          ˜ fyrir honum A˚ri,
    ˜¨ ˜                              ¨ ˜
ok AA Aessi laun af honum–utan-fArAina ok hans um-sjA.       ¨
          ˜
Hann AuAun lagAi                      ¨ ˜
                  ˜ mestan hluta fjAr Aess er var fyrir m˚AurA˜
 ¨
sAna, A  ˜             ¨                   ˜ ¨ ˜
       ¨ Ar hann stigi A skip, ok var kveAit A Ariggja vetra
                     ˜             ˜        ¨    ˜
bjCrg. Ok n˚ fara Aeir utan heAan, ok fArsk Aeim vel, ok
   ¸         A
       ˜                ¨
var AuAun of vetrinn Aptir meA       ˜A     `
                                  ˜ A˚ri stErimanni; hann Atti¨
     ¨ A                       ¨          ˜
 ˚ A M˚ri. Ok um sumarit Aptir fara Aeir ˚t til Gr˚n-lands,
bA                                             A         A
        ˜                ˜         ˜            ˜
ok eru Aar of vetrinn. Aess er viA getit at AuAun kaupir
˜            `
Aar bjarn-dEri eitt, gC`                      ˜
                       ¸ Irsimi mikla, ok gaf Aar fyrir alla

                                         53
        ¨            ˚                    ¨     ˜¨
eigu sAna. Ok nA of sumarit Aptir AA fara Aeir aptr til     ˜
                  ˜              ˜           ¨
Noregs, ok verAa vel reiA-fara; hAfir AuAun dEr sitt meA˜       `             ˜
  ¨        ˜        A                 ˜               ¨
sAr, ok Atlar n˚ at fara suAr til DanmArkr A fund Sveins    ¨
                                    `
konungs, ok gefa honum dErit. Ok er hann kom suAr A                 ˜ ¨
          ˜                                    ˜¨ ¨
landit, Aar sem konungr var fyrir, AA gAngr hann upp af []
                ˜ ¨            ¨ `                       ¨     ¨
skipi, ok leiAir Aptir sAr dErit, ok leigir sAr hAr-bArgi. Haraldi   ¨
                          ¨         ˜
konungi var sagt brAtt at Aar var komit bjarndEri, gC`          `       ¸ Irsimi
              ¨ ¨ ¨                 ˜
mikil, ’ok A As-lAnzkr maAr.’ Konungr sAndir Aegar mAnn  ¨       ˜          ¨
¨                               ˜
Aptir honum, ok er AuAun kom fyrir konung, kvAAr hann             ¨˜
                             A              ¨˜
konung vel; konungr t˚k vel kvAAju hans, ok spurAi sAAan:           ˜ ¨˜
 ¨
’Attu gC`                     ¨            `
          ¸ Irsimi mikla A bjarndEri?’ Hann svarar, ok kvezk
        `             ¨                      ˜
eiga dErit eitthvArt. Konungr mAlti: ’villtu sAlja oss dErit  ¨            `
   ˜ ¨            ˜          ˜A
viA slAku verAi sem A˚ keyptir?’ Hann svarar: ’eigi vil ek
˜                         ˜¨        ¨
Aat, herra!’ ’Villtu AA,’ sAgir konungr, ’at ek gefa AAr tvau []      ˜¨
     ˜ ¨                  ˜       ¨            ˜A ¨
verA slAk, ok mun Aat rAttara, ef A˚ hAfir Aar viA gefit alla  ˜        ˜
˜¨                                ˜                ¨
AAna eigu.’ ’Eigi vil ek Aat, herra!’ sAgir hann. Konungr
   ˜                        ¨ ˜¨
mAlti: ’villtu gefa mAr AA?’ Hann svarar: ’eigi, herra!’
               ˜
Konungr mAlti: ’hvat villtu AA af gC`   ˜¨       ¸ Ira?’ Hann svarar:
          ¨                             ¨
’fara,’ sAgir hann, ’til DanmArkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.’
                        ¨             ¨           ˜A
Haraldr konungr sAgir: ’hvArt er, at A˚ ert maAr svA ˚vitr       ˜      ¨ A
    ˜A ¨                       A ˜ ˜                ¨
at A˚ hAfir eigi heyrt ˚friA Aann er A milli er landa Aessa,               ˜
  ˜ ˜          ˜A           ˜¨           ¨
eAa Atlar A˚ giptu AAna svA mikla, at A˚ munir Aar komask˜A           ˜
     ˜ ¸ Irsimar, er aArir fA eigi komizk klakk-laust, A˚ at
meA gC`                     ˜       ¨                                  ˜A
      ˜                       ˜
nauA-syn eigi til?’ AuAun svarar: ’herra! Aat er A yAru   ˜        ¨ ˜
                    ¨           ¨ ¸˜            ˜
valdi, en engu jAtum vAr CAru en Aessu er vAr hCfum AAr       ¨     ¸        ¨˜
˜         ˜¨ ˜                             ¨              ˜
Atlat.’ AA mAlti konungr: ’hvA mun eigi Aat til, at A˚ farir            ˜A
    ˜ ˜¨              ˜A                     ˜¨          ¨
leiA AAna, sem A˚ vill, ok kom AA til mAn, er A˚ fArr aptr,       ˜A ¨
      ¨      ¨       ¨
ok sAg mAr, hvArsu Sveinn konungr launar AAr dErit, ok      ˜¨ `
        ˜               ˜A ¨ ˜                 ˜
kann Aat vera, at A˚ sAr gAfu-maAr.’ ’AvA heit ek AAr,’ ˜ ¨             ˜¨
sagAi˜ AuAun.˜

            ¨     A ¨˜          ˜     ˜            ¨ ¨
     Hann fArr n˚ sAAan suAr meA landi, ok A VAk austr, ok AA        ˜¨
          ¨
til DanmArkr; ok er A     ¨         ¨     ¨            ¨
                        ˜ A uppi hvArr pAnningr fjArins, ok verAr  ˜
       ˜¨ ˜                 ˜˜                       `
hann AA biAja matar bAAi fyrir sik ok fyrir dErit. Hann
  ˜
kAmr A          ¨                             ˜
        ¨ fund Ar-manns Sveins konungs, Aess er Aki hAt,¨      ¨
ok baA                             ˜˜
       ˜ hann vista nakkvarra bAAi fyrir sik ok fyrir dErit:  `
     ˜       ¨                                       `
’ek Atla,’ sAgir hann, ’at gefa Sveini konungi dErit.’ Aki   ¨
        ¨
 ¨ sAlja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. AuAun kvezk
lAzk                                                     ˜
                                          ˜A ¨
ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; ’en ek vilda A˚,’ sAgir hann, ’at
˜         ˜
Aetta kvAmisk til leiAar             ˜      `
                        ˜ at ek mAtta dErit f˚ra konungi.’
                                                  A
’Ek mun fA     ˜¨                 ˜     ˜
            ¨ AAr vistir, sem it AurfiA til konungs fundar;
     ˜ ¨ A                      ¨     `          ¨       ¨ ˜
en Aar A m˚ti vil ek eiga hAlft dErit, ok mAttu A Aat lAta,      ¨
                              ˜¨ ˜        ˜      ˜
      ` mun deyja fyrir AAr, Aars it AurfuA vistir miklar, en
at dErit
 ¨ ¨                          ˜   ˜A        ˜¨           `
fA sA farit, ok er b˚it viA at A˚ hafir AA ekki dErsins.’ Ok []
                      A
               ¨ ˜          `                      ¨
           ¨ A Aetta, sEnisk honum nakkvat Aptir sem []
er hann lAtr
¨      ˜        ˜                       ˜       ˜      ¨ ˜
ArmaArinn mAlti fyrir honum, ok sAttask Aeir A Aetta, at
             ¨     ¨      `                       ¨˜
        ¨ Aka hAlft dErit, ok skal konungr sAAan meta alt
hann sAlr
                ˜             ¨˜    A ¨
saman. Skulu Aeir fara bAAir n˚ A fund konungs; ok svA           ¨
  ¸     ˜                ¨˜ ¨
    ` Aeir: fara n˚ bAAir A fund konungs, ok st˚Au fyrir
gCIra                A                                  A  ˜
     ˜                ¨      ¨˜     ¨ ˜            ˜
borAinu. Konungr AhugAAi, hvArr Aessi maAr myndi vera,

                                               54
             ¨                ˜     ¨˜            ˜
er hann kAndi eigi, ok mAlti sAAan til AuAunar: ’hvArr        ¨
           ¨                                    ¨ ¨
er-tu?’ sAgir hann. Hann svarar: ’ek em AslAnzkr maAr,        ˜
           ¨
herra,’ sAgir hann, ’ok kominn n˚ utan af Gr˚nlandi, ok n˚ []
                                       A            A              A
                  ˜ ˜                  ˜          ` ˜
af Noregi, ok AtlaAa-k at f˚ra yAr bjarndEri Aetta; keypta-k
                                A
˜         ˜                              ˜A ¨ ˜
Aat meA allri eigu minni, ok n˚ er A˚ A orAit mikit fyrir
                                    A
   ¨        ¨ A ¨               `        ¨                 ¨˜
mAr; ek A n˚ hAlft eitt dErit,’ ok sAgir konungi sAAan, hvArsu       ¨
           ˜      ˜ ˜       ¨    ¨
farit hafAi meA Aeim Aka Armanni hans. Konungr mAlti:         ˜
     ˜           ¨               ¨                ˜      ¨
’er Aat satt, Aki, er hann sAgir?’ ’Satt er Aat,’ sAgir hann.
               ˜          ˜A     ˜¨ ˜                 ˜
Konungr mAlti: ’ok A˚tti AAr Aat til liggja, Aar sem ek
  ¨        ˜                         ¨    ˜       ˜ ¨
sAtta-k Aik mikinn mann, at hApta Aat eAa tAlma er maAr           ˜
  ¸ Ir ˜
gC` Aisk til at f˚ra mAr gC`
                    A       ¨ ¸ Irsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok
  ¨ ˜                              ¨˜     ¨                 ¨
sA Aat Haraldr konungr at rAAi at lAta hann fara A friAi, ok er ˜
         ¨ A                  ˜A      ˜¨     ¨            ˜
hann vArr ˚vinr? Hygg A˚ at AA, hvA sannligt Aat var Ainnar       ˜
               ˜     ˜                 ˜A ˜
handar, ok Aat vAri makligt, at A˚ vArir drepinn; en ek
                 ˜                                  ˜
mun n˚ eigi Aat gC` en braut skaltu fara Aegar ˚r landinu,
         A             ¸ Ira,                               A
                         ¨˜        ¨ ¨        `
ok koma aldri aptr sAAan mAr A aug-sEn! En AAr, AuAun!  ˜¨      ˜
             ¨     ˜¸           ˜A         ¨        `
kann ek slAka ACkk, sem A˚ gefir mAr alt dErit, ok ver hAr          ¨
     ˜ ¨        ˜ ˜¨                            ˜
meA mAr.’ Aat AAkkisk hann, ok er meA Sveini konungi
um hrAA. ¨˜

               ˜                             ˜¨ ˜
     Ok er liAu nakkvarir stundir, AA mAlti AuAun viA konung:  ˜        ˜
          `
’braut fEsir mik n˚, herra!’ Konungr svarar hAldr seint:
                        A                                    ¨
                ˜¨       ¨                  ˜A
’hvat villtu AA,’ sAgir hann, ’ef A˚ vill eigi meA oss vera?’  ˜
         ¨            ˜                           ˜A
Hann sAgir: ’suAr vil ek ganga.’ ’Ef A˚ vildir eigi svA gott            ¨
 ¨˜              ¨                  ˜¨                 ¨
rAA taka,’ sAgir konungr, ’AA myndi mAr fyrir Aykkja A, er A˚     ˜         ¨   ˜A
 `       ¨
fEsisk A braut’; ok n˚ gaf konungr honum silfr mjCk mikit,
                            A                                       ¸
     A               ˜ ¨˜             ˜ A          ¨
ok f˚r hann suAr sAAan meA R˚m-fArlum, ok skipaAi konungr               ˜
          ¨ ˜               ˜                        ¨
til um fArA hans, baA hann koma til sAn, er kvAmi aptr.          ˜
  A A                ¨ ˜                               ˜
N˚ f˚r hann fArAar sinnar, unz hann kAmr suAr A R˚ma-borg.      ˜ ¨ A
Ok er hann hAfir         ˜                                ¨˜
                  ¨ Aar dvalizk, sem hann tAAir, AA fArr hann    ˜¨ ¨
               ˜¨ A
        ¨ AA s˚tt mikla, gC` hann AA Akafliga magran;
aptr; tAkr                            ¸ Irir          ˜¨ ¨
  ¨      ˜¨                ¨ ˜
gAngr AA upp alt fAit Aat, er konungr hafAi gefit honum     ˜
        ˜               ¨     ¨˜
     ¨ Aarinnar; tAkr sAAan upp staf-karls stAg, ok biAr sAr
til fAr                                                      ¨            ˜ ¨
matar. Hann er A         ¨                   ¨           ˜
                      ˜ A koll˚ttr ok hAldr ˚-sAlligr; hann kAmr
                                A                   A                      ˜
aptr A             ˜         ¨           ˜
       ¨ DanmArk at pAskum, Aangat sem konungr er AA                     ˜¨
                  ˜ ˜                  ¨        ¨
staddr; en ei AorAi hann at lAta sjA sik; ok var A kirkju-       ¨
                   ˜ ˜¨                     ˜
            ˜ Ai AA til fundar viA konung, er hann gengi
skoti, ok Atla
                                                   ¨
til kirkju um kveldit; ok n˚ er hann sA konunginn ok
                                  A
    ˜
hirAina fagrliga b˚na, AA        ¨ ˜ ˜                         ¨
                               ˜ A AorAi hann eigi at lAta sjA sik.     ¨
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju A ¸                        ˜¨          ˜
                                           ¨ hCllina, AA mataAisk AuAun       ˜
˚ti, sem siAr
A                                 ¨           ˜      ˜
              ˜ er til R˚mfArla, meAan Aeir hafa eigi kastat staf
                            A
ok skreppu. Ok n˚ of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveld-
                        A
  ¸       ˜ ˜           ˜
sCngs, AtlaAi AuAun at hitta hann, ok svA mikit sem honum¨
                                          ¨       ˜
˜ ˚tti fyrr fyrir, j˚k n˚ miklu A, er Aeir vAru druknir
AA                      A A                               ¨
        ¨                   ˜                            ˜¨ ˜¨ ˜
    ˜ Anninir; ok er Aeir gengu inn aptr, AA AAkAi konungr
hirAm
             ˜A                               ˜
mann, ok A˚ttisk finna at eigi hafAi frama til at ganga fram
at hitta hann. Ok nA                 ˜                   ˜¨
                           ˚ er hirAin gekk inn, AA veik konungr
            ˜                ¨ A
˚t, ok mAlti: ’gangi sA n˚ fram, er mik vill finna; mik
A
               ¨                    ˜           ˜¨
grunar at sA muni vera maArinn.’ AA gekk AuAun fram,            ˜
ok fell til fA                                ¨
              ˚ta konungi, ok varla kAndi konungr hann; ok


                                               55
˜                              ¨
Aegar er konungr veit, hvArr hann er, t˚k konungr A hCnd
                                               A              ¨ ¸
              ˜            ˜
honum AuAuni, ok baA hann vel kominn, ’ok hAfir A˚ mikit  ¨    ˜A
                           ¨˜           ¨         ˜
skipazk,’ segir hann, ’sAAan vit sAmk’; leiAir hann Aptir sAr ¨         ¨
                 ˜     ¨                 ˜
inn, ok er hirAin sA hann, hl˚gu Aeir at honum; en konungr
                                  A
     ˜          ˜      ˜¨                     ˜    ˜ ¨
sagAi: ’eigi Aurfu AAr at honum at hlAja, AvA at bAtr hAfir     ¨       ¨
         ¨               ¨ ¨           ¨     ˜¨ ¨
hann sAt fyr sinni sAl hAldr en Ar.’ AA lAt konungr gC` []        ¸ Ira
                                  ¨˜        ˜˜
honum laug, ok gaf honum sAAan hlAAi, ok er hann n˚ meA          A       ˜
           ˜                       ¨                ¨
honum. Aat er n˚ sagt einhvArju sinni of vArit at konungr
                     A
  `˜        ˜                  ˜ ¨ ¨ ¨ ˜
bEAr AuAuni at vera meA sAr A-lAngAar, ok kvezk myndu
                                        ¨                  A˜
gC` hann skutil-svein sinn, ok lAggja til hans g˚Aa virAing.
  ¸ Ira                                                              ˜
     ˜      ¨          ˜ ˜        ˜
AuAun sAgir: ’GuA Aakki yAr, herra! s˚ma Aann allan er
                                                A      ˜
˜¨         ˜       ¨ ¨                        ¨ ¨
AAr viliA til mAn lAggja; en hitt er mAr A skapi at fara ˚t          A
     ¨                      ¨      ˜        `         ¨
til Aslands.’ Konungr sAgir: ’Aetta sEnisk mAr undarliga
              ˜      ˜            ¨       ˜
kosit.’ AuAun mAlti: ’eigi mA ek Aat vita, herra!’ sAgir      ¨
                        ¨                      ˜ ˜
hann, ’at ek hafa hAr mikinn s˚ma meA yAr, en m˚Air mAn []
                                     A                       A˜         ¨
     ˜               ¨ A ¨ ¨               ˜ ¨
troAi stafkarls stAg ˚t A Aslandi; AvA at n˚ er lokit bjCrg Aeiri
                                                    A               ¸ ˜
           ˜        ¨˜                ¨
er ek lagAa til, AAr ek f˚ra af Aslandi.’ Konungr svarar:
                             A
            ˜      ¨
’vel er mAlt,’ sAgir hann, ’ok mannliga, ok muntu verAa         ˜
            ˜ ˜                    ¨                   ¨
giptu-maAr; Aessi einn var svA hlutrinn, at mAr myndi eigi []
       ¨        ˜A A      ¨             ˜
mis-lAka at A˚ f˚rir A braut heAan; ok ver n˚ meA mAr Aar til
                                                       A     ˜ ¨ ˜
                            ¸ Irir ¨
er skip b˚ask.’ Hann gC` svA.
           A

                     ¨     ˜ ¨
     Einn dag, er A leiA vArit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan A                ¨
                  ¨        ¨     ˜¨
bryggjur, ok vAru mAnn AA at, at b˚a skip til Emissa landa,
                                                A               `
¨                ˜                       ¨ ˜ A˜          ˜
A austr-veg eAa Sax-land, til SvAAj˚Aar eAa Noregs. AA koma              ˜¨
˜          ˜                       ¸            ¨
Aeir AuAun at einu skipi fCgru, ok vAru mAnn at, at b˚a  ¨                A
          ˜¨        ˜                   ¨        ¨
skipit. AA spurAi konungr: ’hvArsu lAzk AAr, AuAun! A  ˜¨          ˜      ¨
˜
Aetta skip?’ Hann svarar: ’vel, herra!’ Konungr mAlti:            ˜
 ˜                     ˜¨
’Aetta skip vil ek AAr gefa, ok launa bjarndErit.’ Hann  `
˜
AakkaAi ¸             ¨
         ˜ gjCfina Aptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leiA stund, ok   ˜
skipit var alb˚it, A
                 A       ¨ ˜                                 ˜
                       ˜ A mAlti Sveinn konungr viA AuAun: ’A˚      ˜       ˜A
villtu n˚ A
          A             ˜¨
             ¨ braut, AA mun ek n˚ ekki lAtja Aik, en Aat hAfi ek
                                         A           ¨      ˜         ˜      ¨
                                              ˜
spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yAru, ok eru vA             ˜ ˜ ˜
                                                                 ¨ Aa ArAfi ok
  ˜                A ` ˜A                 `
hAtt skipum; n˚ brEtr A˚, ok tEnir skipinu ok fAnu; lAtt sAr     ¨       ¨     ¨
       ˜¨ ¨        ˜A
˜ AA A, at A˚ hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum
Aat
gC`             ¨˜       ¨                             ˜
  ¸ Irsimi.’ SAAan sAldi konungr honum leAr-hosu fulla af
silfri, ’ok ertu A  ¨ ¨              ¨              ˜ ¸       ˜A ˜A
                  ˜ A Ann eigi fA-lauss meA Cllu, A˚tt A˚ brj˚tir             A
skipit, ef AA     ˜            ˜             ˜       ¨
             ˜ ˚ fAr haldit Aessu. VerAa mA svA Ann,’ sAgir¨ ¨          ¨
                ˜A `         ˜         ¨ ¨          ` ˜A ˜ ¨ ˜
konungr, ’at A˚ tEnir Aessu fA; lAtt nEtr A˚ AA Aess, er A˚                   ˜A
fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum gCIrsimi.’ SA ¸ `              ˜
                                                               ¨ Aan dr˚  A
                        ¨       ¨                  ˜
konungr hring af hAndi sAr, ok gaf AuAuni, ok mAlti: ’A˚          ˜       ˜A
       ¨          ˜       ˜A        A                  `
at svA illa verAi, at A˚ brj˚tir skipit ok tEnir fAnu, eigi     ¨
        ¨
ertu fAlauss, ef AA        ˜        ¨         ˜ ¨
                    ˜ ˚ kAmsk A land, AvA at margir mAnn hafa         ¨
gull A    ¨ ¨                           ¨ ˜¨           ˜A ¨
       ¨ sAr A skips-brotum, ok sAr AA at A˚ hAfir fundit Svein
               ˜A ¨                            ˜
konung, ef A˚ hAldr hringinum; en Aat vil ek rAAa AAr,’        ¨˜ ˜¨
 ¨
sAgir hann, ’at AA                                         ˜A ˜
                    ˜ ˚ gefir eigi hringinn, nema A˚ Aykkisk eiga
   ¨
svA mikit gott at launa nCkkurum gCfgum manni, AA gef
                                 ¸              ¸                   ˜¨
˜
Aeim hringinn, Av       ¨
                    ˜ A at tignum mCnnum s˚mir at Aiggja, ok
                                           ¸           A           ˜
far n˚ heill!’
       A



                                              56
        ¨˜       ˜             ¨             ˜       ¨
      SAAan lAtr hann A haf, ok kAmr A Noreg, ok lAtr flytja           ˜
              ˜              ˜
upp varnaA sinn, ok Aurfti n˚ meira viA Aat en fyrr, er
                                        A              ˜ ˜
             ¨                       ¨      A ¨˜
hann var A Noregi. Hann fArr n˚ sAAan A fund Haralds       ¨
                       ¨       ˜                  ¨
konungs, ok vill Afna Aat er hann hAt honum, AAr hann            ¨˜
                   ¨              ¨˜
f˚r til DanmArkr, ok kvAAr konung vel. Haraldr konungr
 A
               ¨˜                    ¨         ˜      ¨
t˚k vel kvAAju hans, ok ’sAzk niAr,’ sAgir hann, ’ok drekk
  A
   ¨       ˜                ¨ ¸ Irir              ˜¨
hAr meA oss’; ok svA gC` hann. AA spurAi Haraldr kon-        ˜
             ¨             ˜
ungr: ’hvArju launaAi Sveinn konungr AAr dErit?’ AuAun˜¨ `                 ˜
            ˜ ¨                          ˜¨          ¨
svarar: ’AvA, herra! at hann AA at mAr.’ Konungr sagAi:                     ˜
                         ˜¨ ˜ ¨                   ¨
’launat mynda ek AAr AvA hafa; hvArju launaAi hann Ann?’         ˜          ¨
      ˜                               ¨                 ˜ ¸
AuAun svarar: ’gaf hann mAr silfr til suAr-gCngu.’ AA sAgir            ˜¨ ¨
                             ¸           ¸
Haraldr konungr: ’mCrgum mCnnum gefr Sveinn konungr
             ˜ ¸            ˜                         ˜A
silfr til suArgCngu eAa annarra hluta, A˚tt ekki f˚ri honum         A
gC`                       ¨
   ¸ Irsimar; hvat er Ann fleira?’ ’Hann bauA mAr,’ sAgir  ˜ ¨         ¨
      ˜            ˜
AuAun, ’at gArask skutilsveinn hans, ok mikinn s˚ma til            A
    ¨        ¨                     ˜       ˜        ¨
mAn at lAggja.’ ’Vel var Aat mAlt,’ sAgir konungr, ’ok
                           ¨                    ˜
launa, myndi hann Ann fleira.’ AuAun sagAi: ’gaf hann mAr   ˜                    ¨
     ¸       ˜           ˜                          ¨
knCrr meA farmi Aeim er hingat er bAzt varit A Noreg.’ Aat       ¨             ˜
        A                    ¨
var st˚r-mannligt,’ sAgir konungr, ’en launat mynda ek AAr                   ˜¨
˜ ¨                     ˜           ˜ ¨
AvA hafa. LaunaAi hann AvA fleira?’ AuAun svaraAi: ’gaf    ˜            ˜
           ¨      ˜                                     ˜
hann mAr leArhosu fulla af silfri, ok kvaA mik AA eigi fAlausan, ˜¨          ¨
                 ˜ ¨ ˜A                                   ˜ ¨
ef ek helda AvA, A˚ at skip mitt bryti viA Asland.’ Konungr
      ˜    ˜           ¨ ˜                        ˜
sagAi: ’Aat var A-gAtliga gC` ok Aat mynda ek ekki gC`
                                      ¸ Irt,                                  ¸ Irt
                              ˜                       ˜ ˜
hafa; lauss mynda ek Aykkjask, ef ek gAfa Aer skipit; hvArt                  ¨
         ˜                        ¨          ¨
launaAi hann fleira?’ ’SvA var vAst, herra!’ sAgir AuAun,       ¨         ˜
                     ˜                   ¨
’at hann launaAi: hann gaf mAr hring Aenna er ek hAfi  ˜                 ¨
¨ ¨                    ˜     ¨
A hAndi, ok kvaA svA mega at berask, at ek tEnda fAnu           `       ¨
 ¸               ˜         ˜¨          ¨
Cllu, ok sagAi mik AA eigi fAlausan, ef ek Atta hringinn,   ˜
         ˜                                 ˜
ok baA mik eigi l˚ga, nema ek Atta nCkkurum tignum manni
                        A                            ¸
svA                                                    A ¨
    ¨ gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en n˚ hAfi ek Aann            ˜
fundit, Av     ¨      ˜A ¨                              ¨
           ˜ A at A˚ Attir kost at taka hvArttvAggja frA mAr,  ¨         ¨ ¨
                ¨ ¨                 ˜A ¨
   ` ok svA lAf mitt, en A˚ lAzt mik fara Aangat A friAi,
dErit                                                        ˜         ¨      ˜
         ˜
sem aArir nA       ˜                                 ˜ ¸
                 ¨ Au eigi.’ Konungr t˚k viA gjCfinni meA blAAu,
                                             A                         ˜ ¨˜
              ˜       ¨ A A˜                        ¨˜
ok gaf AuAuni A m˚ti g˚Aar gjafir, AAr en Aeir skilAisk.        ˜         ˜
      ˜
AuAun varAi          ¨          ¨          ¨ ˜
                ˜ fAnu til Aslands-fArAar ok f˚r ˚t Aegar um
                                                           A A     ˜
                ¨                ˜A
sumarit til Aslands, ok A˚tti vera inn mesti gAfumaAr.         ˜       ˜

         ˜        ˜
    VII. ARYMS-KVIAA

          ˜      ˜¨       ˜A                ˜
   1. VreiAr var AA Ving-A˚rr, er hann vaknaAi,
                        ˜
     ¨ hamars of saknaAi:
ok sAns
  ¨                    ¸          `
skAgg nam at hrista, skCr nam at dEja,
   ˜    ˜               ˜
 ¨ A JarAar burr um at Areifask.
rA

                 ˜     ˜                 ˜
    2. Ok hann Aat orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
                                 ˜
       ˜ n˚, Loki! hvat ek n˚ mAli,
’heyr-Au A                    A
                ˜     ¨
er engi veit jarAar hvArgi []
  ¨               ¨
nA upp-himins: Ass er stolinn hamri!’

             ˜
    3. Gengu Aeir fagra Freyju t˚na, []
                                A

                                                57
         ˜    ˜                   ˜
ok hann Aat orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
          ¨             ˜         ¨
’muntu mAr, Freyja! fjaAr-hams ljA,
                   ˜
ef ek minn hamar mAtta-k hitta?’

             ˜
   Freyja kvaA:

      ˜A                ˜ ¨ ˜A A          ˜
   4. A˚ munda-k gefa AAr, A˚tt ˚r gulli vAri,
   ˜A ¨         ˜ A
ok-A˚ sAlja at vAri ˚r silfri.’ []

         A ˜¨         ˜         ˜
   5. Fl˚ AA Loki, fjaArhamr dunAi,
                  ¨     ˜
unz fyr utan kom Asa garAa,
                  ¸
ok fyr innan kom jCtna heima.

       ˜        ¨        ˜
   6. Arymr sat A haugi, Aursa dr˚ttinn,
                                 A
         ¨           ¸     ˜
greyjum sAnum gull-bCnd snAri
     ¸     ¨
ok mCrum sAnum mCn jafnaAi.
                   ¸        ˜

   ˜        ˜
   Arymr kvaA:

                 ˜ ¨               ˜ ¨
   7. ’Hvat er meA Asum? hvat er meA Alfum?
  ¨                   ¨ ¸
hvA er-tu einn kominn A JCtunheima?’

           ˜
   Loki kvaA:

             ˜ ¨              ˜ ¨
   ’Ilt er meA Asum, ilt er meA Alfum;
 ¨     ˜A A ˜
hAfir A˚ Hl˚-riAa hamar of f˚lginn?’
                              A

   ˜        ˜
   Arymr kvaA:

           ¨     A ˜
   8. ’Ek hAfi Hl˚riAa hamar of f˚lginn
                                  A
¨      ¸         ¸ ˜    ˜
Atta rCstum fyr jCrA neAan;
             ˜
hann engi maAr aptr of heimtir,
                           ¨
            ¨ Freyju at kvAn.’ []
nema f˚ri mAr
       A

         A ˜¨          ˜
   9. Fl˚ AA Loki, fjaArhamr dunAi,˜
                   ¸
unz fyr utan kom jCtna heima
                  ¨      ˜
ok fyr innan kom Asa garAa;
m˚tti hann AA
  A                  ˜     ˜
             ˜ ˚r miAra garAa,
                ˜                ˜
         ˜ orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
ok hann Aat

          ¨     ˜A ˜           ¨ ˜
   10. ’HAfir A˚ Arindi sem ArfiAi?
     ˜ ¨                ¨˜
 ¨ Au A lopti lCng tAAindi:
sAg-              ¸
               ¸
opt sitjanda sCgur of fallask,
                      ¨
ok liggjandi lygi of bAllir.’

           ˜
   Loki kvaA:

          ¨   ¨ ˜      ˜
   11. ’HAfi-k ArfiAi ok Arindi:
˜           ˜            ˜
         ¨ Ainn hamar, Aursa dr˚ttinn;
Arymr hAfir                     A
            ˜ aptr of heimtir,
hann engi maAr

                                       58
            ˚               ¨
nema honum fAri Freyju at kvAn.’

                ˜
    12. Ganga Aeir fagra Freyju at hitta,
          ˜      ˜                ˜
ok hann Aat orAa alls fyrst of kvaA:
        ˜              A˜    ¨
’bitt-u Aik, Freyja, br˚Aar lAni!
                      ¨ ¸
vit skulum aka tvau A JCtunheima.’

             ˜     ˜ ˜¨            ¨ ˜
     13. VreiA varA AA Freyja ok fnAsaAi,
      ¨                ˜
allr Asa salr undir bifAisk,
   ¸      ˜            ¨     ¨
stCkk Aat it mikla mAn BrAsinga:
                 ˜
’mik veizt-u verAa ver-gjarnasta,
        ¨     ˜ ˜¨ ¨ ¸
ef ek Ak meA AAr A JCtunheima.’

        ¨      ¨   ˜        ¨ ˜
   14. SAnn vAru Asir allir A Aingi
   ¨             ¨ ¨
ok Asynjur allar A mAli,
      ˜    ¨˜    ¨    ¨
ok of Aat rAAu rAkir tAvar,
  ¨ ˜       A ˜
hvA Aeir Hl˚riAa hamar of s˚tti.
                            A

        ˜¨      ˜ ˜                 ¨   ¨
    15. AA kvaA Aat Heimdallr, hvAtastr Asa
                                  ˜
(vissi hann vel fram, sem vanir aArir):
           ¨ ˜A ˜ ¨ A˜
’bindum vAr A˚r AA br˚Aar lAni,  ¨
                      ¨    ¨
hafi hann it mikla mAn BrAsinga!

         ¨
   16. LAtum und honum hrynja lukla
           ¨˜        ¨
ok kvenn-vAAir of knA falla,
   ¨             ˜
en A brj˚sti breiAa steina,
        A
               ¸ ˜
ok hagliga of hCfuA typpum!’

        ˜¨     ˜ ˜ ˜˚       ˜ A˜  ¨
    17. AA kvaA Aat AArr, Ar˚Augr Ass:
            ˜
’mik munu Asir argan kalla,
               ˜    A˜    ¨
ef ek bindask lAt br˚Aar lAni.’

        ˜¨     ˜ ˜
    18. AA kvaA Aat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
   ¨ ˜A A ˜A          ˜       ˜
 ˜ Agi A˚ [n˚], A˚rr! Aeira orAa;
’A
˜            ¸     ¨     ˜ b˚a,
Aegar munu jCtnar AsgarA A
       ˜A ˜           ˜¨
nema A˚ Ainn hamar AAr of heimtir.’

              ˜   ˜A ˜ ¨ A˜      ¨
   19. Bundu Aeir A˚r AA br˚Aar lAni
                   ¨
              ¨ BrAsinga.
ok inu mikla mAni

         ¨
   20. LAtu und honum hrynja lukla
           ¨˜        ¨
ok kvenn-vAAir of knA falla,
                 ˜
   ¨ brj˚sti breiAa steina,
en A    A
               ¸ ˜      ˜
ok hagliga of hCfuA typAu.

        ˜¨     ˜ ˜
    21. AA kvaA Aat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
              ˜ AAr ambAtt vera,
’mun ek ok meA ˜ ¨       ¨
                    ¨ ¸
                 ˜ A JCtunheima.’
vit skulum aka tvAr

        ¨    ¨
   22. SAnn vAru hafrar heim of reknir,

                                      59
             ¸                  ¨
skyndir at skCklum, skyldu vel rAnna:
  ¸          ˜          ¸ ˜
bjCrg brotnuAu, brann jCrA loga,
A A ˜            ¨ ¸
˚k ˚ŒAins sonr A JCtunheima.

         ˜¨    ˜ ˜ ˜         ˜
    23. AA kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                    A
        ˜      ¸            ¨ ˜ ¨
’standiA upp, jCtnar! ok strAiA bAkki!
            ¨             ¨
n˚ f˚ra mAr Freyju at kvAn,
  A A
     ˜
NjarAar d˚ttur, ˚r N˚a-t˚num.
           A     A A A

                 ¨        ˜              `
    24. Ganga hAr at garAi gull-hyrndar kEr,
˜               ¸
Axn al-svartir jCtni at gamni;
  ¸ ˜ ¨         ˜       ¸ ˜ ¨     ¨
fjClA A ek meiAma, fjClA A ek mAnja,
         ¨          ¨      ˜
einnar mAr Freyju Avant Aykkir.’

             ˜
    25. Var Aar at kveldi of komit snimma,
        ¸      ¸
ok fyr jCtna Cl fram borit;
      ¨        ¨
einn At oxa, Atta laxa,
   ¨           ˜˜
krAsir allar, AAr er konur skyldu,
                   ¨ ˜ A        ˜
drakk Sifjar verr sAld Arj˚ mjaAar.

         ˜¨    ˜ ˜ ˜        ˜
    26. AA kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                   A
        ¨      A˜   ¨
’hvar sAttu br˚Air bAta hvassara?
 ¨          A˜    ¨     ˜
sAk-a-k br˚Air bAta breiAara,
  ¨              ¸˜
nA inn meira mjCA mey of drekka.’

                            ¨
    27. Sat in al-snotra ambAtt fyrir,
     ˜            ˜ ¸        ¨
er orA of fann viA jCtuns mAli:
 ¨ ˜              ¨      ¨
’At vAtr Freyja Atta nAttum,
   ¨          A˜ A ¨ ¸
svA var hon ˚A-f˚s A JCtunheima.’

                 ¨
   28. Laut und lAnu, lysti at kyssa,
               ¸   ¨
en hann utan stCkk And-langan sal:
   ¨ eru Cnd˚tt augu Freyju?
’hvA     ¸ A
˜        ¨ A                     ¨
Aykkir mAr ˚r augum eldr of brAnna.’

                           ¨
    29. Sat in alsnotra ambAtt fyrir,
er orA            ˜ ¸        ¨
      ˜ of fann viA jCtuns mAli:
                   ¨     ¨
        ˜ Freyja Atta nAttum,
’svaf vAtr
   ¨          A˜ A ¨ ¸
svA var hon ˚Af˚s A JCtunheima.’

                           ¸
     30. Inn kom in arma jCtna systir,
           A˜ ¨         ˜ ˜ ˜
hin er br˚A-fjAr of biAja AorAi:
  ¨      ˜¨
’lAttu AAr af hCndum hringa rauAa,
                 ¸                ˜
           ˜        ¨       ¨
    ˜ ˚ CAlask vill Astir mAnar,
ef AA ¸
¨         ¨
Astir mAnar, alla hylli!’

        ˜¨    ˜ ˜ ˜          ˜
   31. AA kvaA Aat Arymr, Aursa dr˚ttinn:
                                  A
                     ˜     ¨
     ˜ inn hamar br˚Ai at vAgja,
’beriA             A
 ¨    ˜    ¸   ¨           ¨
lAggiA MjCllni A meyjar knA,
     ˜              ¨     ¨
  ¨ A okkr saman VArar hAndi!’
vAgi

                                         60
           A A ˜           ¨
    32. Hl˚ Hl˚riAa hugr A brj˚sti,
                              A
       ˜     ˜            ˜¨ ˜
er harA-hugaAr hamar of AAkAi;
˜                         ˜
Arym drap hann fyrstan, Aursa dr˚ttin,
                                A
    ˜    ¸            ˜
ok Att jCtuns alla lamAi.

                         ¸        ¸
    33. Drap hann ina Cldnu jCtna systur,
         ˚˜ ¨           ˜
hin er brAAfjAr of beAit hafAi; ˜
hon skell of hlaut fyr skillinga,
en hCgg hamars fyr hringa fjClA.
     ¸                          ¸ ˜
   ¨      A ˜              ¨
SvA kom ˚ŒAins sonr Andr at hamri.

   NOTES

   The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar.

   I. THOR

                   ¨ ˜     ¨        ˜ A˜
   Line 3. Hann A Aar rAki er Ar˚A-vangar heita, ’he reigns
                           ˜
(there) where it is called A.,’ i.e. in the place which is called
˜                                     ˜ A˜
A. The plur. heita agrees with Ar˚Avangar , as in l. 14
         ˜         ¨
below: Aat eru jArngl˚far ’that is (his) iron gloves.’
                         A

          ˜                  ¨     ¨
    l. 5. Aat er h˚s mest, svA at mAnn hafa gC` ’that is the
                  A                              ¸ Irt,
largest house, so that men have made (it),’ i.e. the largest
house that has been built. Note the plur. h˚s of a single
                                             A
house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being
often a detached building.

            ¨     ˜         ˆ
   l. 13. spAnnir Aeim, Gr. A 154; cp. 2. 49.

                     ˜
   II. THOR AND ˚TGARAALOKI
                A

                ˜        ¨           ˜          ¨ ¨
    l. 1. f˚r meA hafra sAna...ok meA honum sA, Ass er... We
           A
see here that meA ˜ generally takes an acc. to denote passive,
and a dat. to denote voluntary accompaniment.

           ˜                                   ¨
   l. 5. soAit refers to some such subst. as slAtr (meat)
understood.

             ¨    ¨    ¨
   l. 11. sprAtti A... A is here an adv.

               ¨
   l. 12. til mArgjar. til here implies intention–to get at
the marrow.

           ˜       ¨
    l. 20. Aat er sA augnanna, ’the little he saw of the eyes.’–
Thor frowned till his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the
man felt as if he were going to fall down dead at the mere sight
of them.



                                       61
   l. 21. The second hann refers, of course, to Thor.

   l. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark.

           ˜
    l. 36. Aeir, the masc. instead of the neut. pl., as in l. 32
                         ˜
foll., showing that leituAu is meant to refer only to the men
                                   ¸             ˆ
of the party, and not to include RCskva. (Gr. A 179.)

            ¨        ¨   ˜
    l. 46. sAr hvar lA maAr, ’saw where a man lay,’ i.e. saw a man
lying.

   l. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life.

           ¨          `
   l. 52. nAfndisk SkrEmir, said his name was Skr.

            A ˜              ¨      ˜    ˜
   l. 66. b˚iA til ( prp. ) nAtt-verAar yAr, prepare supper for
yourselves.

             ˜ ˜¨              ¨
  l. 77. Er Aat AAr satt at sAgja. satt is in apposition to
˜
Aat –’that is to be told you as the truth, (namely) that...’

            ¨
   l. 88. sjA sik, see himself alive.

           ˜      ˜
   l. 104. Aann = Aann veg , that way, course.

               ˜        ˜˜ ˜¨
    l. 108. at Asirnir bAAi AA heila hittask. The full sense is,
                                                         `
’that Thor and Loki expressed a wish that they and SkrEmir might
meet again safe and sound.’

                  ¨                ¨      ¨
   ll. 111, 112. sAttu hnakkann A bak sAr aptr, threw back the
backs of their heads till they touched their backs, i.e. threw
back their heads.

   l. 118. ˚rit st˚ra, ’rather big,’ i.e. very big.
           A      A

                       ¸
    l. 120. glotti um tCnn, ’grinned round a tooth,’ i.e. showed
                                                 ˜
his teeth in a malicious grin. Two MSS. read viA instead of
 um .

    l. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is it otherwise than
as I think, namely that...? i.e. am I not right in thinking
that...?

                    ¨ ¨                         ¨        ¨
   l. 127. engi er hAr sA inni er... = engi er hAr-inni sA-er...

                             ˆ
   l. 129. freista skal, Gr. A 192.

                   ˜           ¨           ¨
    l. 140. kallar Aess meiri vAn at hann sA... ’says that there
is more probability of that, namely that he is...than of the



                                          62
contrary,’ i.e. says that he will have to be...

            ˚                ¨
   l. 150. fAthvatari en svA, ’more swift-footed than so–under
these circumstances,’ i.e. than you.

                 ˜ ¨        ˜¨             ˜¨    ˜ ¨
   l. 156. ok er AjAlfl eigi AA kominn... = AA er AjAlfi eigi
kominn...

   l. 172. at sinni, this time.

   l. 172. hann, acc.

   l. 173. laut ˚r horninu, bent back from the horn.
                A

   l. 188. mestr refers to drykkr understood.

                      ˆ
   l. 218. kalli, Gr. A 192.

           ˜˚
   l. 241. AA refers to uni .

   III. BALDER

                           ˚
   l. 7. engi agrees with dAmr .

   IV. THE DEATH OF BALDER

   l. 11. hann, acc.

   l. 20. ungr, too young.

                                     ˜
   l. 31. ˚-happ is in apposition to Aat ; cp. 3. 7.
          A

                ¨     ˜
   ll. 33, 34. vAru meA einum hug til... had the same feelings
towards.

   l. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, prevented.

   l. 42. vili, subj. ’whether he will’;–change of construction.

   l. 55. nema, ’unless,’ here = ’until.’

    l. 89. heim. This use of heim in the sense of ’someone
else’s home.’ is frequent. Cp. our ’drive a nail home.’

            ¨
   l. 94. svA refers to ok ef allir hlutir... , the ok being
pleonastic.

   l. 108. hvar, cp. 2. 46.




                                         63
   l. 113. karl, ’old man,’ here = Odin.

       ¨˜
   V. HAAINN AND HEGNI

          ¨˜
   l. 6. HAAinn = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a
pronoun is frequent.

         ˜
   l. 9. Aar. Cp. 1. 3.

   VI. THE DEATH OF OLAF TRYGGVASON

            ¨
   l. 17. svA at, so that, i.e. just when.

   l. 30. er, namely that.

  l. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of apposition to
 ¨ ˜
fArAina .

            ¨
   l. 40. svA, also.

   l. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impending.

   l. 53. meira, adv., better, faster.

                     ¨
   l. 149. bar hann hAtt, impers. w. acc.; he was in a conspicuous
place.

             ˜    ¨
   l. 244. viA fimtAnda mann, one of fifteen, with fourteen men.

            ¨
   l. 259. vApna is governed by the second half of the genitival
              ˜˜    A ˜
compound klAAa-b˚naA , which is here considered as two
independent words.

          ˜
   VII. AUAUN

   l. 17. var fyrir, was to be found.

                  ˜ ¨
   l. 26. tvau verA slAk, double the price you gave.

           ¨
   l. 55. fA is probably dat. here, but may be nom.

          ¨
   l. 56. Aptir sem..., according as, in accordance with what.

           ˚ A
   l. 64. nA...n˚, lately...just now.

            ¨
   l. 116. hAldr is here used pleonastically in a kind of
                               ¨
apposition to the preceding bAtr .

   l. 125. en, and = while.



                                         64
            ˜                 ¨
    l. 129. Aessi einn var svA hlutrinn, at..., this single thing
is the case, namely that... i.e. the only thing is that...

         ˜       ˜
   VIII. ARYMSKVIAA

            ˜                    ¨
   l. 7. jarAar is governed by hvArgi .

  l. 9. t˚na. Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of
         A
motion.

          ˜˚                                  ¨     ˜A
   l. 15. AA goes with the following at = ok sAlja, A˚at
  ˜˚       ˜ A
( AAtt ) vAri ˚r silfri .

           ˚
   l. 32. fAri may be either sg. or pl. 3 pers.

   GLOSSARY

    ˜          ˜ ˜             ¨                      ˜ ¸
   A follows aA, A follows d, A follows e, ˚ follows oA, C
                                           A
           ˜         ¸ ˜
follows o, A follows C, A follows t.

   The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given.

   (-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom. is kept in inflection.

   A

    -a adv. not.
¨
A sf. river.
¨
A see eiga.
¨ prp. w. acc. and dat. on, in.
A
¨˜
AAr adv., cj. before.
  ˜
aArir see annar.
˜         ¨
Asir see Ass.
˜                              ˜
Atla wv. 3, consider, deem: ’Atlask fyrir,’ intend.
˜
Att sf. 2, race, descent, family.
˜
Atta see eiga.
af prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. ’drekka af,’ drink off.
af-h˚s sn. out-house, side room.
     A
afl sn. strength, might.
af-taka wf. damage, injury.
¨ ˜
AgAtliga adv. splendidly.
aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.).
¨
Akafliga adv. vehemently, hard–’kalla a.’ call loudly.
akarn sn. acorn.
akkeri sn. anchor.
¨     ¨
Alar-Andir sm. thong-end, end of a strap.
al-bA˚inn adj. w. gen. quite ready.
aldinn adj. old.
aldri adv. never.
¨ ¨ ˜
A-lAngAar adv. for some time.

                                        65
¨
Alfr sm. elf.
¨                                        ¨
A-lit snpl. appearance, countenance [lAta].
         ˜
all-harAr adj. very hard, very violent.
     ¨
all-lAtill adj. very little.
                A˜
all-mann-sk˚Ar adj. (very injurious to men), very murderous
                   ˜
(of a battle) [skaAi, ’injury’].
all-mikill adj. very great.
                           ˜ ¸
allr adj. all, whole; ’meA Cllu,’ entirely; ’alls fyrst,’
first of all.
all-st˚rum adv. very greatly.
      A
all-valdr sm. monarch, king.
al-snotr adj. very clever.
al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black.
alt adv. quite.
      ¨
ambAtt sf. 2, female slave, maid.
                     ¨
and-lit sn. face [lAta].
annarr prn. second; following, next; other; one of the two–
’annar...annarr,’ one...the other.
aptann sm. evening.
aptastr adj. most behind.
aptr adv. back, backwards, behind.
¨
Ar sf. oar.
¨
Ar sn. year.
¨
Ar see A.   ¨
argr adj. cowardly, base.
¨        ˜
Ar-maAr sm. steward.
armr adj. wretched.
¨      ¨
As-mAgin sn. divine strength.
¨
Ass sm. 3, (Scandinavian) god.
¨
Ast sf. 2, affection, love, often in pl.
¨      ˜                            ˜
Ast-sAll adj. beloved, popular. [sAll, ’happy’].
¨                                      ¨
Asynja wf. (Scandinavian) goddess [Ass].
¨ see eta.
At
at prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance
with, after.
at adv. to.
-at adv. not.
                        ¨
at-laga wf. attack [lAggja].
at-r˚Ar
     A  ˜ (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, attack.
¨
Atta num. eight.
¨
Atta see eiga.
   ˜ ¨
auA-kAndr adj. easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable.
   ˜
auAr adj. desert, deserted, without men.
   ˜ ¨
auA-sAnn adj. evident.
auga wn. eye.
       `
aug-sEn sf. sight.
auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of what is added ’j˚kA
              ¨
n˚ miklu A,’ much was added to it (his hesitation increased).
  A
austan adv. from the east.
           ˜
aust-maAr sm. Easterner, Norwegian.

                                     66
                    ¨
austr sn. the east–’A au.,’ eastwards.
austr adv. eastwards.
austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Russia.
¨
Avalt adv. continually, all the time.
¨                                                  ¨
A-vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in ’einnar mAr Freyju
¨      ˜
Avant Aykkir,’ Freyja alone I seem to want.
¨                                                     ¨
A-vinnr adj. toilsome, only in the impers. neut. ’mun A-vint
   ˜       ¸
verAa um sCxin,’ it will be a hard fight at the prow.

   B

        ˜
    baA see biAja. ˜
  ¨˜                                       ˜˜
bAAir prn. both, neut. as adv. in ’bAAi...ok,’ both...and.
  ¨˜
bAAu see biAja.  ˜
  ¸˜
bCAa see biAja. ˜
  ¸˜
bCAi see bAAir.¨˜
baggi wm. bag; bundle.
                     ¨
bak sn. back, ’vArja eitt baki,’ defend a thing with the back,
i.e. turns one’s back to it = be a coward.
          ˜
bak-borAi wm. larboard.
  ¨
bAl sn. flame; funeral pile.
  ¨ ¸
bAl-fCr sf. funeral.
bani wm. death.
bar see bera.
bardagi wm. battle.
     ˜
barA sn. edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by
the continuation of the keel.
     ˜
barAa see bArja.¨
     ˜
barAi wm. war-ship with a sharp prow, ram.
barn sn. child.
batt see binda.
     ˜
bauA see bj˚Aa. A˜
    ˜ wv. 1, w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers. benefited ,
beiAa
ask, demand.
bein sn. bone.
  ¨
bAkkr sm. 2, bench.
  ¨
bAlla wv. 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a bad
sense .
bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear, endure. berask at, happen.
                                    ¨       ˜
b. fram, bring forward, out. b. vApn niAr, shoot down. b.
rA  ˜ ¨
  ¨ A sAn saman, hold council, deliberate.
berg-risi wm. hill-giant.
  ¨                                           ¨
bArja wv. 1b, strike–’b. grj˚ti,’ stone. bArjask, fight.
                                A
  ¨
bArr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword).
       ¨
ber-sArkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion. [Literally
’bear-shirt,’ i.e. one clothed in a bear’s skin.]
  ¨
bAtr see vel.
  ¨           A˜
bAtri see g˚Ar.
  ¨
bAzt see vel.
  ¨
bAztr see g˚Ar.A˜

                                    67
beygja wv. 1, bend, arch.
  ¨˜
bAAa sv. 6, w. gen. wait for; w. acc. abide, undergo.
   ˜
biAja sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of thing, acc. of the
pers. asked, and dat. of the person benefited ; express a
               ˜
wish, bid–’baA hann vel kominn’ (vera understood ), bad
him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell.
bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake.
bil sn. moment of time.
bila wv. 2, fail.
                                                  ˜
bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. ’einum verAr bilt,’ one
hesitates, is taken aback, is afraid.
binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress.
birta wv. 1, show [bjartr].
  ¨
bAta sv. 6, bite; cut.
bittu see binda.
             ¨
bitu see bAta.
         `
bjarn-dEri sn. bear.
bjartr adj. bright, clear.
bj˚ see b˚a.
   A         A
   A˜
bj˚Aa sv. 7, w. acc. and dat. offer, propose–’b. einum
fang,’ challenge to wrestling; invite. b. upp, give up.
bjCrg sf. help; means of subsistence, store of food.
    ¸
   ¨
blAsa sv. 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal.
       ˜
bleyAa wf. coward.
   ¨˜
blAAa wf. gentleness, friendliness.
blindr adj. blind.
   A˜
bl˚A sn. blood.
bl˚t-bolli wm. sacrificial bowl.
   A
b˚tr see b˚t.
  A           A
boga-skot sn. bowshot.
bogi wm. bow.
         ˜
bog-maAr sm. bowman, archer.
b˚ndi sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [b˚a].
  A                                                  A
      ˜
borA sn. side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the
rim of a vessel and the liquid in it–’n˚ er gott beranda
                                       A
     ¨
b. A horninu,’ now there is a good margin for carrying the
horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be
lifted without spilling.
borg sf. fortress, castle.
         ˜
borg-hliA sn. castle gate.
b˚t sf. 3, mending, improvement; plur. b˚tr,
  A                                            A
compensation.
  ¸
bCrn see barn.
    ¨
brA sf. eyelid.
    ¨
brA see bregAa. ˜
bragA                               ˜
       ˜ sn. trick, stratagem [bregAa].
                ¨
brann see brAnna.
brast see bresta.
    ¨
brAtt adv. quickly.
                  ¨
braut sf. way–A braut, adv. away.

                                    68
braut see brj˚ta.
               A
braut, brott adv. away.
     ˜
bregAa sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise
(to strike). change, transform.
     ˜
breiAr adj. broad.
   ¨
brAnna wf. burning; incremation.
   ¨
brAnna sv. 3, burn intr.
   ¨
brAnna wv. 1, burn trans.
bresta sv. 3, break, crack, burst.
brestr sm. crack; loss.
brj˚st sn. breast.
   A
brj˚ta sv. 7, break–’b. (skip)’ suffer shipwreck, also
   A

                            `
    impers. ’skip (acc.) brEtr,’ the ship is wrecked.
broddr sm. point.
   A˜
br˚Air sm. 4, brother.
brotinn see brj˚ta.
                  A
brotna wv. 3, break intr.
brott see braut.
brott-laga sf. retreat.
br˚ sf. bridge.
   A
   A˜ ¨
br˚A-fA sn. bridal gift.
   A˜
br˚Ar sf. 2, bride.
br˚n sf. 3, eyebrow.
   A
bryggja wf. pier.
brynja wf. corslet.
   `
brEnn see br˚n. A
bryn-st˚ka wf. corslet-sleeve.
        A
bryti see brj˚ta.
               A
   `
brEtr see brj˚ta.
                A
b˚ sn. dwelling, home.
  A
b˚a sv. 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare. b˚ask, get
  A                                              A
                                  ˜
ready, prepare intr. ’er b˚it viA at...’ it is likely to
                            A
be that..., there is danger of...
   ˜
buAu see bj˚Aa.A˜
                                                 ˜     ¨ A
b˚inn adj. ready; in a certain condition–’(viA) svA b˚it’
  A
 adv. under such circumstances; capable, fit for–’vel at
 ¨ A
sAr b˚inn,’ very capable, very good (at).
bundu see binda.
burr sm. son.
  `˜
bEAr see bj˚Aa.A˜
  ` see b˚a.
bEr          A
byrja wv. 3, begin.
      ˜
byr-vAnn adj. promising a fair wind.

   D

   daga wv. 3, dawn.
dagan sf. dawn.
dagr sm. day.

                                      69
dalr sm. valley.
     ˜
dauAr adj. dead.
 ¨
dAgi see dagr.
deyja sv. 2, die.
dj˚pr adj. deep.
  A
d˚ see deyja.
 A
d˚mr sm. decision.
 A
d˚ttir sf. 3, daughter.
 A
       ˜                     ˜        ˜      ¨      ˜
dCgurAr sm. breakfast [-urA = -verAr, cp. nAttverAr].
 ¸
d˚kkr (-vir) adj. dark.
 A
draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman, collect.
drakk see drekka.
drap see drepa.
draumr sm. dream.
  ¨
drAginn see draga.
              ¨
dreif see drAfa.
  ¨
drAki wm. dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragon’s head as a
beak.
drekka sv. 3, drink.
drepa sv. 5, strike; kill.
dreyma wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing
dream [draumr].
  ¨
drAfa sv. 6, drive; hasten.
drj˚pa sv. 7, drop.
   A
dr˚ see draga.
  A
dr˚gu see draga.
  A
dr˚ttinn sm. lord.
  A
dr˚ttin-hollr adj. faithful to its master.
  A
drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk.
drupu see drj˚pa.
                A
drykkja wf. drinking [drekka].
            ˜
drykkju-maAr sm. drinker.
drykkr sm. 2, draught.
duna wv. 3, resound.
     ˜
dunAi see dynja.
     ˜           ¨
dvalAa see dvAlja.
   ¨                       ¨
dvAlja wv. 1b, delay. dvAljask, dwell, stop.
dvergr sm. dwarf.
   ˜
dyArill sm. (?).
 `
dEja wv. 1b, shake.
dynja wv. 1b, resound.
 `
dEr sn. animal, beast.
dyrr sfnpl. door.

   E

     ˜
   eAa cj. or.
ef cj. if.
¨
Afna wv. 1, perform, carry out.
¨
Aggja wv. 3, incite.

                                   70
  ˜
eiAr sm. oath.
eiga wf. property.
eiga swv. possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have in
the sense of must.
eigi adv. not; no.
eign sf. property.
eignask wv. 3, appropriate, gain.
eik sf. 3, oak.
          ¨
einka-mAl snpl. personal agreement, special treaty.
einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain, a; alone, only–
’einn saman,’ alone, mere.
         ¨
einn-hvArr prn. a certain, some, a.
eira wv. 1, w. dat. spare.
eitr sn. poison.
ek prn. I.
¨
Ak see aka.
ekki prn. neut. nothing; adv. not.
eldr sm. fire.
¨
Alli wf. old age.
ellifti adj. eleventh.
ellifu num. eleven.
em see vera.
en cj. but; and.
en adv. than, after compar.
¨
Andask wv. 1, end, suffice for.
¨       ¨
Andi, Andir sm. end.
¨                                     ¨
And-langr adj. the whole length–’Andlangan sal,’ the whole
length of the hall.
¨
Andr adv. again.
engi prn. none, no.
¨
Ann adv. yet, still; besides; after all.
¨
Aptir prp. w. acc. after (of time). w. dat. along, over;
in quest of, after; according to, by. adv. afterwards;
behind [aptr].
¨
Aptri adj. compar. hind.
er prn. rel. who, which, rel. adv. where; when; because,
that.
er see vera.
er see A˚.˜A
      ˜
¨ Ai sn. work; trouble.
Arfi
ert see vera.
eru see vera.
eta sv. 5, eat.
ey sf. island.

   F

     ¨                                             ¨
    fA sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able. fAsk,
              ¨
          ¨ A, be obtained, be.
wrestle. fAsk
  ˜
faAir sm. 4, father.

                                       71
 ˜
fAr see fA.  ¨
 ˜
fAstr see fAr. ¨
        ˜
fagnaAr sm. 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality.
fagr adj. beautiful, fair, fine.
fagrliga adv. finely.
fall sn. fall.
falla sv. 1, fall. fallask, be forgotten, fail.
fang sn. embrace, grasp; wrestling.
fann see finna.
 ¨                        ¨                ¨
fAr adj. few– neut. fAtt w. gen. : ’fAtt manna,’ few men.
                                                   ¨ ˜
fara go, travel– w. gen. in such constr. as ’f. fArAar
sinnar,’ go his way; fare (well, ill); happen, turn out;
                     ˜
experience; ’f. meA einu,’ deal with, treat; destroy, use
                                      ¨    ˜
up w. dat. farask impers. in ’fArsk Aeim vel,’ they
have a good passage.
farmr sm. lading, cargo.
fastr adj. firm, fast, strong.
 ¨
fA sn. property, money.
 ¨˜
fAArum see faAir.  ˜
fekk see fA.  ¨
 ¨ ˜
fAgrA sf. beauty [fagr].
 ¨
fAgrstr see fagr.
feikn-stafir smpl. 2, wickedness.
fela sv. 3, hide.
 ¨
fAlagi wm. companion.
 ¨
fA-lauss adj. penniless.
 ¨ ¨
fA-lAtill adj. with little money, poor.
fell see falla.
 ¨
fAlla wv. 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla].
           ¨
fengu, fAnginn see fA.  ¨
 ¨ see fara.
fAr
 ¨ ˜
fArA sf. 2, journey [fara].
fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered.
fimm num. five.
      ¨
fimtAndi adj. fifteenth.
finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see.
    ˜
fjaAr-hamr sm. feathered (winged) coat.
fjall sn. mountain.
  ¨
fjAr see fA.  ¨
fjara sf. ebb-tide; beach.
fjogur see fj˚rir.
                 A
  A ˜
fj˚rAi adj. fourth.
fj˚rir num. four.
  A
  ¸ ˜
fjClA wf. quantity.
  ¸
fjCl-kyngi sn. magic.
  ¸      ¨
fjCl-mAnni sn. multitude; troop [maAr].   ˜
fjCrAr
  ¸   ˜ sm. 3, firth.
  ¸
fjCrur see fjara.
  ¨
flA sv. 2, flay, skin.
flaug see flj˚ga. A

                                   72
  ¨
flAginn see flA.   ¨
flestr see margr.
flj˚ta sv. 7, float, drift.
   A
flj˚ga sv. 7, fly.
   A
fl˚ see flj˚ga.
  A        A
floti wm. fleet [flj˚tal.
                    A
                      `
fl˚tti wm. flight [flEja].
  A
flugu see flj˚ga.
             A
fluttu see flytja.
  `
flEja wv. 1, flee.
flytja wv. 1b. remove, bring.
   ¨
fnAsa wv. 3, snort.
f˚ra wv. 1, bring, take; fasten [fara].
 A
f˚rir see fara.
 A
f˚ti see f˚t.
 A         A
f˚lginn see fela.
 A
f˚lk sn. multitude, troop; people.
 A
f˚r see fara.
 A
      ¸
for-tClur wpl. representations, arguments [tala].
f˚stra wf. nurse.
 A
f˚t-hvatr adj. swift-footed.
 A
f˚tr sm. foot; leg.
 A
 ¸˜            ˜
fCAur see faAir.
 ¸
fCr sf. journey [fara].
fCru-neyti sn. company [nj˚ta].
 ¸                          A
  ¨                                              ¨ ¨
frA prp. from, away from; about, concerning. ’A frA’ adv.
away.
  ˜
frAndi sm. 4, relation.
  ¨
frA-fall sn. death.
fram adv. forward, forth. compar. framar, ahead.
framastr adj. superl. chief, most distinguished.
frami wm. advantage, courage.
       ˜          ¨
framiAr see frAmja.
fram-stafn sm. prow.
  ¨ ¸
frA-sCgn sf. narrative, relation.
freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test.
  ¨
frAmja wv. 1b, perform [fram].
   ˜
friAr sm. 2, peace.
  ¨ Ar adj. beautiful, fine.
frA ˜
  A˜
fr˚Ar adj. learned, wise.
fr˚kn adj. bold, daring.
  A
frost sn. frost.
fugl sm. bird.
full-kominn adj. ( ptc. ) complete; ready (for).
fullr adj. full.
fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna].
fundu see finna.
    ˜
furAu adv. awfully, very.

   f˚ss adj. eager.
    A

                                   73
fylgja wv. 1, w. dat. follow; accompany.
fylki sn. troop [f˚lk].
                     A
fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up (troops) [f˚lk].
                                            A
fylla wv. 1, fill [fullr].
fyr, fyrir prp. w. acc. and dat. before; beyond, over–’f.
    ˜
borA,’ overboard; instead of–’koma f.’ adv. be given as
                                   ˜ ¨
compensation; for; because of. ’f. AvA at,’ because.
  ¨          ¨
’lAtill. f. sAr,’ insignificant.
fyrir-r˚m sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin.
       A
                ˜
fyrirr˚ms-maAr sm. man in the fore-hold.
      A
fyrr adv. compar. before, formerly. superl. fyrst, first.
fyrri adj. compar. former. superl. fyrstr, first.
 `                                           `
fEsa wv. 1, hasten trans.–impers. ’braut fEsir mik,’ I feel
a desire to go away [f˚ss].
                        A

   G

       ¨
     gA wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for.
 ˜
gAfa wf. luck [gefa].
 ˜
gAta wv. 1, watch, take care of [geta].
gaf see gefa.
 ˜       ˜
gAfu-maAr sm. lucky man.
gaflak sn. javelin.
gamall adj. old.
gaman sn. amusement, joy.
                                                          ¨
ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in poetry ; attack–’g. A
skip,’ board a ship. g. af, be finished. g. til, come up.
g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended (of money).
     ˜
garAr sm. enclosure, court; dwelling.
gat see geta.
gefa sv. 5, give.
 ¨         ¨ ¨
gAgnum, A gAgnum prp. w. gen. through.
gekk see ganga.
 ¨            ¸
gAlti see gCltr.
 ¨          ¨
gAnginn, gAngr, gengu see ganga.
geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak of; guess, suppose.
geysi adv. excessively.
gipta wf. luck [gefa].
          ˜
giptu-maAr sm. lucky man.
gjafar see gjCf.¸
   ¸
gjCf sf. gift.
glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin.
   ˜
glAsiligr adj. magnificent.
    `
gnEr sm. din, noise.
 A˜
g˚Ar adj. good–’gott er til eins,’ it is easy to get at,
obtain.
g˚lf sn. floor; apartment, room.
 A
            A˜
gott see g˚Ar.
  ¸
gCfugr adj. distinguished [gefa].
  ¸
gCltr sm. 3, boar.

                                     74
  ¸
gCmul see gamall.
  ¸ Ira wv. 1c, do, make. gC`
gC`                           ¸ Irask, set about doing; be made
into, become. gC` at, accomplish, carry out.
                ¸ Ira
gC`
  ¸ Irsimi wf. article of value, treasure.
granda wv. 3, w. dat. injure.
   ¨
grAr adj. gray.
gras sn. grass; plant, flower.
   ¨
grAta sv. 1, weep, mourn for.
   ¨
grAtr sm. weeping.
     ˜
greiAa wv. 1, put in order, arrange.
              ¨
greip see grApa.
       ¨
gres-jArn sn. iron wire (?).
grey sn. dog.
    ˜
griA snpl. peace, security.
    ˜      ˜
griAa-staAr sm. sanctuary.
grind sf. 3, lattice door, wicket.
   ¨
grApa sv. 6, seize.
gripr sm. 2, article of value, treasure.
grj˚t sn. stone (collectively).
    A
gr˚a sv. 1, grow; heal.
   A
gr˚r see gr˚a.
   A         A
gruna wv. 3, impers. –’mik grunar,’ I suspect, think.
grunr sm. 2, suspicion.
gull sn. gold.
gull-band sn. gold band.
gull-b˚inn adj. adorned with gold.
       A
gull-hringr sm. gold ring.
gull-hyrndr adj. ( ptc. ) with gilt horns.
        ˜
gull-roAinn adj. ( ptc. ) gilt.
  `
gEgr sf. giantess.
gyltr adj. ( ptc. ) gilt.
     ˜
gyrAa wv. 1, gird.

   H

     ˜
    hAstr see hAr. ¨
  ˜
hAtta wv. 1, w. dat. desist from, stop.
  ˜
hAttligr adj. dangerous, threatening.
  ˜
hAttr adj. dangerous.
haf sn. sea.
                               ˜
hafa wv. 1, have; ’h. einn nAr einu,’ bring near to, expose
to; use, utilize. at hafask, undertake. til hafa, have at
hand.
hafna see hCfn.¸
hafr sm. goat.
hafr-staka wf. goatskin.
hagliga adv. neatly.
                                    ˜¨            ¨
hagr sm. condition; advantage–’AAr mun h. A vera,’ will avail
thee, be profitable to you.
       A˜
hag-st˚Ar adj. favourable.

                                       75
                                              ¨
halda sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. A ); keep. w.
acc. observe, keep (laws, etc.). intr. take a certain
direction, go.
  ¨
hAlfr adj. half.
  ¨
hAlfu adv. by half, half as much again.
               ¸
hallar see hCll.
hallar-g˚lf sn. hall floor.
        A
haltr adj. lame.
hamarr sm. hammer.
             ˜
hamars-muAr sm. thin end of hammer.
hamar-skapt sn. handle of a hammer.
hamar-spor sn. mark made by a hammer.
hana see hann.
handar see hCnd. ¸
hand-skot sn. throwing with the hand.
       ¨
hand-tAkinn ptc. pret. taken by hand, taken alive.
hann prn. he.
  ¨
hAr sn. hair.
  ¨
hAr adj. high.
    ˜       ˜
harA-hugaAr adj. stern of mood.
    ˜
harAr adj. hard; strong.
    ˜
harA-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skj˚ta].
                                       A
harmr sm. grief.
  ¨
hAski wm. danger.
  ¨ ˜
hA-sAti sn. high seat, dais [sitja].
  ¨ ˜
hAsAtis-kista sf. chest under the dais.
  ¨
hAtt adv. high; loudly.
haugr sm. mound.
hauss sm. skull.
   ˜
heAan adv. hence.
  ¨ see hafa.
hAfi
  ¨
hAfja sv. 2, raise, lift; begin.
  ¨
hAfna wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge.
heill adj. sound, safe, prosperous.
      ¸˜                                    ¨˜
heil-rCAi sn. sound advice, good advice [rAA].
heim adv. to one’s home, home (domum).
heima adv. at home (domi).
           ˜
heima-maAr sm. man of the household.
heim-f˚ss adj. longing to go home, homesick.
       A
heimr sm. home, dwelling; world.
heimta wv. 1, fetch, obtain, get back.
heita sv. 1, call; w. dat. of pers. and dat. of thing
promise; intr. ( pres. heiti) be named, called.
  ¨
hAldr see halda.
  ¨
hAldr adv. compar. more willingly, rather, sooner, more;
rather, very.
  ¨
hAl-grindr sf. the doors of hell.
  ¨
hAllir sm. cave.
helt see halda.
  ¨
hAl-vegr sm. road to hell.

                                    76
  ¨
hAlzt adv. superl. most willingly, soonest, especially, most
   ¨
[hAldr].
  ¨      ¨          ¸
hAndi, hAndr see hCnd.
  ¨        ¨
hAnnar, hAnni see hann.
  ¨
hApta wv. 1, bind; hinder, stop.
  ¨
hAr adv. here–’h. af,’ etc. here-of.
  ¨
hAr-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings.
  ¨ ˜
hArAa wv. harden, clench.
  ¨
hAr-fang sn. booty.
  ¨                                ¨
hArja wv. 3, make war, ravage [hArr].
  ¨
hArr sm. army, fleet.
herra sm. lord.
  ¨
hAr-skip sn. war-ship.
hestr sm. horse.
  ¨
hAt see heita.
heyra wv. 1, hear.
himinn sm. heaven.
hingat adv. hither.
hinn prn. that.
    ˜
hirA sf. court.
    ˜    ˜
hirA-maAr sm. courtier.
hiti wm. heat.
hitta wv. come upon, find, meet; trans. go to. hittask,
meet, intr.
   ¨
hjA prp. w. dat. by, at; in comparison with.
   ¨
hjAlmr sm. helmet.
hj˚n snpl. household.
  A
    ˜
hlaAa sv. 2, load, heap up; ’h. seglum,’ take in sails.
   ˜
hlAja sv. 2, laugh.
hlaupa sv. 1, jump, leap; run.
hlaut see hlj˚ta.
              A
hleyp see hlaupa.
hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop.
   ¨
hlAf sf. shield.
   ¨
hlAfa wv. 1, w. dat. shelter, cover, protect.
hlj˚p see hlaupa.
   A

    hlj˚ta sv. 7, get, receive.
       A
  ˚˜
hlAAu see hlaAa.˜
              ˜
hl˚gu see hlAja.
  A
hlunnr sm. roller (for launching ships).
hluti wm. portion [hlj˚ta].
                        A
hlutr sm. 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hlj˚ta].
                                                    A
hlut-skipti sn. booty.
hnakki wm. back of head.
            ¨
h˚f see hAfja.
 A
hollr adj. gracious, faithful.
h˚lmr sm. small island.
 A
hon see hann.
honum see hann.

                                       77
horn sn. horn.
h˚gri adj. compar. right (hand).
  A
h˚la wv. 1, w. dat. praise, boast of.
  A
  ¸ ˜                    ¸ ˜
hCfAingi wm. chief [hCfuA].
  ¸ ˜      ¸
hCfAa-fjCl sf. head-board (especially of a bedstead).
  ¸ ˜
hCfAu see hafa.
hCfn sf. harbour.
  ¸
  ¸ ˜
hCfuA sn. head.
hCgg sn. stroke.
  ¸
  ¸
hCgg-ormr sm. viper.
hCgg-orrosta wf. ’cutting-fight,’ hand-to-hand fight.
  ¸
  ¸
hCggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike.
  ¸
hCll sf. hall.
                            ¨        ¨
hCnd sf. 3, hand; side–’hvArra-tvAggju handar,’ on both
  ¸
sides, for both parties.
   ˜                                       ˜˜
hrAddr adj. frightened, afraid [ ptc. of hrAAask].
   ˜˜
hrAAask wv. 1, be frightened, fear.
   ˜                  ˜˜
hrAzla wf. fear [hrAAask].
hrafn sm. raven.
hratt see hrinda.
       ˜        A˜
hrauA see hrj˚Aa.
hraut see hrj˚ta.
               A
hreyfa wv. 1, move.
   ¨˜
hrAA sf. period of time.
   ¨ ˜
hrAm-Aurs sm. frost giant.
hrinda sv. 3, push, launch (ship).
hrista wv. 1, shake.
    A˜
hrj˚Aa sv. 7, strip, clear, disable.
hrj˚ta sv. 7, start, burst out.
    A
   ¸            ˜
hrCkk see hrAkkva.
   ˜
hrAkkva sv. 3, start back.
     ˜
hryAi see hrj˚ta.
                A
hrynja wv. 1b. fall down.
   `
hrEtr see hrj˚ta.
               A
      ˜
hugAa see hyggja.
hugi wm. thought.
hugr sm. mind, heart; courage, spirit.
hugsa wv. 3, consider, think.
         ˜
hundraA sn. hundred.
hurA ˜ sf. 2, door.
h˚s sn. room; house.
  A
hvar adv. where; that.
    ¨
hvArr prn. which of two; each of the two, both.
    ¨      ¨
hvArr-tvAggja prn. each of the two, both.
    ¨
hvArt adv. whether, both in direct and indirect questions .
    ¨      ¨
hvArt-tvAggja adv. ’hv...ok,’ both...and.
hvass adj. sharp.
hvat prn. neut. what.
hvart adj. brisk, bold.
    ¨
hvA adv. how.

                                    78
hverfa sv. 3, turn, go.
   ¨                         ˜
hvAr-gi adv. nowhere–’hv. jarAar,’ nowhere on earth; in no
respect, by no means.
   ¨                      ¨
hvArnig adv. how [= hvArn veg.].
   ¨
hvArr prn. who.
   ¨
hvArsu adv. how.
   ¨
hvA adv. why.
hvirfill sm. crown of head.
   ¨
hvAtna wv. 2, whiten.
   ¨
hvAtr adj. white.
hyggja wv. 1b. think, mean, determine [hugr].
hylli wf. favour [hollr].

   I

     ¨
    A prp. in.
¨
A-huga wv. 3, try to remember, consider [hugr].
illa adv. ill, badly.
illr adj. ill, bad.
inn art. the.
inn adv. in compar. innar, further in.
inna wv. 1, accomplish.
innan adv. within, inside. fyrir innan prp. w. gen.
within, in.
inni adv. in.
         ˜A
it see A˚.
it see inn.
¨ ˜ A
A-Ar˚tt sf. feat.

   J

             ˜
    jafn-breiAr adj. equally broad.
       ¸                          ¨
jafn-hCfugr adj. equally heavy [hAfja].
jafn-mikill adj. equally great.
jafn-skj˚tt adv. equally quick.
         A
jafna wv. 3, smooth; compare w. dat. of thing compared.
jafnan adv. always.
jarl sm. earl.
 ¨
jArn sn. iron.
 ¨
jArn-gl˚fi sm. iron gauntlet.
        A
 ¨       ¸
jArn-spCng sf. iron plate.
 ¨
jAta wv. 1, w. dat. agree to.
j˚k see auka.
 A
 ¸ ˜
jCrA sf. earth.
 ¸
jCtun-heimar smpl. home, world of the giants.
 ¸
jCtunn sm. giant.

   K

    ˜                             ˜
   kAr-leikr sm. love, affection [kArr, ’dear’].

                                      79
kaf sn. diving; deep water, water under the surface.
kafa wv. 3, dive.
kalla wv. 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call.
kann see kunna.
kapp sn. competition.
karl sm. man; old man.
kasta wv. 3, cast, throw.
kaupa wv. 2, buy.
  ¨
kAngr sm. bend.
  ¨
kAnna wv. 1, know; perceive.
  ¨
kArling sf. old woman [karl].
  ¨
kArra wf. chariot.
  ¨
kAtill sm. kettle.
keypta see kaupa.
keyra wv. 1, drive.
kirkja wf. church.
kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church.
kj˚sa sv. 7, choose.
  A
klakk-laust adv. uninjured.
   ˜˜
klAAa wv. 1, clothe.
   ˜˜     A ˜
klAAa-b˚naAr sm. apparel.
   ˜˜
klAAi snpl. clothes.
    ¨
knA sn. knee.
    ¨
knAfr sm. knife.
    ¸
knCrr sm. merchant-ship.
   A˜
kn˚Ai see knEja.`
kn˚i wm. knuckle.
   A
kn˚tr sm. knot.
   A
    `
knEja wv. 1b, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself
[kn˚i].
    A
k˚lf-skot sn. (distance of a) bolt-shot.
 A
koll˚ttr adj. bald.
     A
koma sv. 4. come; happen, turn out; w. dat. bring into a
certain condition. k. fyrir, be paid in atonement.
komask, make one’s way (by dint of exertion).
kona wf. woman; wife.
konr sm. kind–’alls konar,’ all kinds; ’nakkvars konar,’ of
some kind.
             ¨
konunga-stAfna wf. congress of kings.
konungr sm. king.
konungs-d˚ttir sf. king’s daughter.
            A
konungs-skip sn. king’s ship.
kosinn see kj˚sa.
               A
kost-gripr sm. precious thing, treasure.
                          ¸˜
kostr sm. 2, choice–’at CAru kosti,’ otherwise; power
[kjA˚sa].
  ¸
kCgur-sveinn sm. little boy, urchin.
  ¸
kCpp see kapp.
  ¸        ˜
kCpur-yrAi sn. boasting [orA]. ˜
  ¸
kCttr sm. 3, cat.

                                     80
 ˜
kAm see koma.
krappa-r˚m sn. back cabin.
         A
krappr adj. narrow.
kraptr sm. strength.
  ¨
krAs sf. 2, delicacy.
  ¨
krAfja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing , demand.
kunna swv. know; feel; venture; like to.
kunnandi wf. knowledge, accomplishments.
kunnusta wf. knowledge, power.
kunnr adj. known.
kurr sm. murmur, rumour.
   ˜˜
kvAAi sn. poem.
   ˜
kvAma see koma.
   ¨
kvAn sf. wife.
    ˜                    ¨
kveAa sv. 5, say. kv. A settle, agree on.
   ¨˜                       ˜
kvAAja wf. salutation [kveAa].
   ¨˜
kvAAja wv. 1b, greet.
                     ¨
kveld sn. evening–’A kv.,’ this evening.
       ¸
kveld-sCngr sm. vespers.
        ¨˜
kvenn-vAAir sfpl. woman’s clothes.
    ˜
kviAr sm. 3, stomach, belly.
kvisa wv. 3, whisper.
kvistr sm. 3, branch, twig.
   ¸            ¨˜
kvCddu see kvAAja.
kykr (-vir) adj. living.
kykvendi sn. living creature, animal.
 `
kEll sm. bag.
kyn sn. race, lineage.
 `
kEr sf. 3, cow.
kyssa wv. 1, kiss.

   L

     ¨
    lA see liggja.
 ˜            ¨
lAgri see lAgr.
      ¨
 ˜ Aggr sm. thigh-bone.
lAr-l
 ˜          ¨
lAt see lAta.
   ˜ see lAggja.
lagAa          ¨
 ¨
lAgr adj. low; short of stature [liggja].
         ˜
lags-maAr sm. companion.
lagu see liggja.
     ˜               ¨
lamAa, lamit see lAmja.
land sn. land, country.
          ¨
land-skjAlfti wm. earthquake.
langr adj. long, far.
 ¨
lAt snpl. noise.
 ¨
lAta sv. 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave,
act; say.
lauf sn. foliage.
          ˜
laufs-blaA sn. (blade of foliage), leaf.

                                        81
laug sf. bath.
laun snpl. reward.
launa wv. 3, reward, requite w. dat. of the thing given and
of the pers., and acc. of the thing requited.
lauss adj. loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation.
laust see lj˚sta.
              A
laut see l˚ta.
             A
lax sm. salmon.
   ˜
leAr-hosa wf. leather bag.
 ¨
lAggja wv. 1b, lay, put; ’l. eitt fyrir einn,’ give, settle
on; ’l. sik fram,’ exert oneself; intr. w. skip
 understood sail, row–l. at, land; attack; l. frA,¨
                                            ¨
retreat, draw off; pierce, make a thrust. lAggjask, set
out, proceed; swim [liggja].
    ˜                              ˜                ¨˜
leiA sf. way–’koma einu til leiAar,’ carry out [lAAa].
    ˜        ¨˜
leiA see lAAa.
    ˜
leiAa wv. 1, lead, conduct [lAAa].¨˜
    ˜
leiAangr (-rs) sm. levy [leiA]. ˜
leiga wv. 1, borrow.
leikr sm. game; athletic sports, contest.
leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat. seek; take to, have recourse
                               ¨
to. leitask, feel one’s way [lAta].
 ¨
lAmja wv. 1b, break.
 ¨ ˜
lAngA sf. length [langr].
 ¨
lAngi adv. long (of time) [langr].
 ¨
lAngstr see langr.
 ¨          ¨
lAt see lAta.
 ¨
lAtja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing , hinder,
dissuade.
 ¨
lAtta wv. 1, w. dat. lift.
leyniliga adv. secretly.
leysa wv. 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss].
  ˜
liA sn. troop.
 ¨ Aa sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers. lAAr, w. dat.
lA ˜                                           ¨˜
fare, get on. impers. ’lA     ˜ ¨     ¨
                            ¨ Ar A (nAttina),’ (the night) is
drawing to a close.
 ¨              ¨ ¨
lAf sn. life–’A lAfi,’ alive.
lifa wv. 2, live.
liggja sv. 5, lie. l. til, be fitting.
 ¨
lAk sn. body; corpse.
 ¨
lAka wv. 3, w. dat. please.
 ¨                 ¨
lAki sn. form [lAk].
 ¨                                  ¨
lAking sf. likeness, similarity [lAkr].
 ¨
lAknsamr adj. gracious.
 ¨
lAkr adj. like.
 ¨
lAn sn. linen; linen headdress.
list sf. art.
 ¨
lAta sv. 6, look at; regard, consider–’l. til eins.’ turn to,
                           ¨
acknowledge greeting. lAtask impers. w. dat. seem.
                                   ¨
litask wv. 3, look round one [lAta].

                                     82
 ¨                          ¨      ˜
lAtill adj. little, small–’lAtit veAr,’ not very windy
           ¨
weather. lAtlu adv. by a little, a little.
 ¨     ˜˜
lAtil-rAAi sm. degradation [rAA].¨˜
                                                ¨
litr sm. 3, colour, complexion; appearance [lAta].
 ¨           ¨
lAzk see lAta.
  ¨
ljA wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend.
lj˚sta sv. 7, strike, w. dat. of instr. and acc. of the thing
  A
            ¨       ¨ ˜
struck –’l. Arum A sA,’ dip the oars into the sea, begin to
row.
lofa wv. 3, praise.
l˚ga wv. 3, w. dat. part with.
 A
logi wm. flame.
lokinn see l˚ka.
               A
                 ¨
lopt sn. air–’A l.,’ up.
                                     `
l˚ka sv. 7, lock, close; impers. ’lEkr einu,’ it is
 A
finished, exhausted. ’l. upp,’ unlock, open.
lukla see lykill.
lustu see lj˚sta.
              A
l˚ta sv. 7, bend, bow.
 A
lygi wf. lie, falsehood.
    ˜                     ˜
lykA sf. ending–’at lykAum,’ finally.
lykill sm. key [l˚ka].
                   A
lypta wv. 1, w. dat. lift [lopt].
lypting sf. raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship
[lypta].
 `
lEsa wv. 1, shine.
 `
lEsi-gull sn. bright gold.
 `
lEst see lj˚sta.
            A
lysta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.

   M

     ¨
   mA see mega.
  ˜ sm. 4, man.
maAr
 ˜       ˜                       ˜
mAla (mAlta) wv. 1, speak–’m. viA einu,’ refuse; suggest.
 ˜ sf. virgin, maid.
mAr
 ˜
mAtta see mega.
magr (-ran) adj. thin.
 ¨
mAgr sm. kinsman, relation, connection.
makligr adj. fitting.
 ¨
mAl sn. narrative; in plur. poem; proper time, time.
 ¨
mAlmr sm. metal.
             ˜
mann see maAr.
mann-f˚lk sn. troops, crew.
       A
mann-hringr sm. ring of men.
mannliga adv. manlily.
margr adj. many, much.
mark sn. mark; importance.
marka wv. 3, infer.
marr sm. horse.

                                      83
mart see margr.
matask wv. 3, eat a meal.
matr sm. 2, food.
   ¨
mAtta see mega.
   ¨
mAttr sm. 2, might, strength.
    ˜
meA prp. w. acc. and dat. with.
    ˜               ¨
meAal s. middle–A m. w. gen. between.
    ˜
meAan adv. whilst.
mega swv. can, may.
           ¸˜                            ¸
megin –’CArum m.,’ on the other side; ’Cllum m.,’ on all sides
[ corruption of vegum].
   ¨          ˜
mAgin-gjarAar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega].
     ˜
meiAmar sfpl. treasures.
meiri see mikill.
   ¨
mAn sn. necklace, piece of jewelry.
   ¨
mAnn see maAr.   ˜
   ¨
mAr see ek.
   ¨
mArgr sm. 2, marrow.
   ¨
mArki sn. mark; banner [mark].
mest see mikill.
meta sv. 5, measure; estimate.
mey see mAr.   ˜
    ˜      ˜
miA-garAr sm. (middle enclosure), world.
    ˜     ˜
miAgarAs-ormr sm. world-serpent.
    ˜
miAr adj. middle.
mik see ek.
mikill adj. big, tall, great. mikit adv. much, very.
miklu adv. ( instr. ) much.
        ¨
milli, A milli prp. between, among.
minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial.
minn see ek.
               ¨
minni see lAtill.
minnr adv. less.
       ¨
mis-lAka wv. 3, w. dat. displease, not please.
missa wf. loss, want.
missa wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without.
mistil-teinn sm. mistletoe [teinn, ’twig’].
mitt see ek.
    ¸˜
mjCAr sm. 3, mead.
    ¸
mjCk adv. very.
  A˜
m˚Air sf. 3, mother.
  A˜
m˚Ar sm. anger.
m˚task wv. 1, meet intr. [m˚t].
  A                              A
   ¸
mCn sf. mane.
morginn sm. morning.
   ¸
mCrk sf. 3, forest.
   ¸
mCrum see marr.
                     ¨ A
m˚t sn. meeting. A m˚ti prp. w. dat. against.
  A
   ¸                                   ¨
mCtu-neyti sn. community of food–’lAggja m. sitt,’ make
their provision into a common store [matr; nj˚ta].
                                             A

                                     84
mundu see munu.
munnr sm. mouth.
                    ˜
munr sm. difference–’Aeim mun,’ to that extent.
munu swv. will, may (of futurity and probability).
myndi see munu.
myrkr sn. darkness.
myrkr adj. dark.

   N

       ¨
     nA wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in.
  ¸                                       ˜  ˜ ¨
nCr adv. w. dat. near; nearly. superl. nAst–’AvA n.,’
thereupon.
nCtr see nAtt.
  ¸           ¨
nafn sn. name.
nakkvarr prn. some, a certain. nakkvat adv. somewhat;
perhaps.
  ¨
nAtt sf. 3, night.
  ¨
nAtt-b˚l sn. night-quarters.
         A
  ¨
nAtt-langt adv. the whole night long.
  ¨        ˜
nAtt-staAr sm. night-quarters.
  ¨ A
nAtt˚ra wf. nature, peculiarity.
  ¨        ˜
nAtt-verAr sm. 2, supper.
     ˜
nauA-syn sf. necessity.
naut see nj˚ta.
              A
   ˜
neAan adv. below. fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below.
  ¨
nAfja adj. long-nosed (?).
  ¨                         ¨
nAfna wv. 1, name, call. nAfnask, name oneself, give one’s
name as [nafn].
nema sv. 4, take; begin.
nema adv. except, unless.
nest sn. provisions.
nest-baggi sm. provision-bag.
   ˜
niAr adv. down, downwards.
  ¨
nAundi adj. ninth.
nj˚sn sf. spying; news.
  A
nj˚sna wv. 3, spy; get intelligence.
  A
nj˚ta sv. 7, enjoy, profit.
  A
     ˜
norAr adv. northwards.
  ¸
nCkkvi wm. vessel, small ship.
n˚ adv. now; therefore, so.
 A
 `          ˜
nE-vaknaAr adj. ( ptc. ) newly awoke.
 ` adj. new.
nEr
 `
nEta wv. 1, profit [nj˚ta].
                       A

   O

   oddr sm. point.
A˜ A
˚A-f˚ss adj. madly eager.
A˜
˚Ar adj. mad, furious.


                                    85
˚`
AIpa wv. 1, shout [˚p, ’shout’].
                     A
˚rit adv. enough; very.
A
of prp. w. dat. over; during; with respect to, about. adv.
too (of excess).
of adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive.
of-veikr adj. too weak.
ofan adv. above; down.
         ˜
ofan-verAr adj. upper, on the top.
˚k see aka.
A
ok conj. and; also–’ok...ok,’ both...and; but.
           ˜A
okkr see A˚.
opt adv. often. compar. optar, oftener, again.
˚r prp. w. dat. out of.
A
   ˜             ¨ ¸˜      ˜
orA sn. word–’A CAru orAi,’ otherwise.
   ˜
orAinn see verAa.˜
   ˜ ¨
orA-sAnding sf. verbal message.
   ˜
orA-tak sn. expression, word.
ormr sm. serpent, dragon; ship with a dragon’s head.
orrosta wf. battle.
oss see ek.
˚tta wf. the end of night, just before dawn.
A
˚ttalaust adj. without fear.
A
˚x see vaxa.
A
oxi wm. ox.
¸˜
CAlask wv. 3, obtain.
¸˜
CAru see annarr.
¸
Cl sn. ale.
Cldnu see aldinn.
¸
Cnd˚ttr adj. fierce.
¸ A
¸
Cnd-vegi sn. high seat, dais.
¸
Cnnur see annar.
¸
Cr sf. arrow.
˜ ˜
Ar-Afi sn. harbourless coast.
˜
Arendi sn. errand.
˜
Arendi sn. holding the breath, breath.
˜
Arind-reki sm. messenger [reka].
˜
Axn see oxi.

   P

   pati sm. rumour.
 ¨
pAnningr sm. penny.

   R

    ¨˜                                      ¨        ¨˜
   rAA sn. advice; what is advisable–’sjA eitt at rAAi,’
consider advisable; plan, policy, resolution.
 ¨˜
rAAa sv. 1, advise, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers. ;
consider, deliberate; undertake, begin w. prp. til or
infin. ; dispose of, have control over w. prp. fyrir.

                                     86
 ¨˜      ¸ Ir ˜
rAAa-gC` A sf. deliberation, decision.
 ¨˜
rAAugr adj. sagacious.
         ˜
ragna-rAkr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the world. [ragna
             ¨
 gen. of rAgin neut. plur. ’gods.’]
ragr adj. cowardly.
 ¨
rAku see reka.
rann see rAnna.¨
 ¨
rAs sf. race.
     ˜
rauAr adj. red.
rausn sf. magnificence, anything magnificent.
 ¨˜
rAA see rAAa.  ¨˜
    ˜
reiA sf. chariot.
    ˜
reiA see rAAa. ¨˜
    ˜
reiAa wv. 1, swing, wield, brandish.
    ˜
reiA-fara adj. –’vera vel r.,’ have a good passage.
    ˜
reiAi sn. trappings, harness.
    ˜
reiAr adj. angry.
                                                ¸
reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform. ’r. af tjCld,’ take
down awning.
 ¨
rAkkja wf. bed.
 ¨
rAnna sv. 3, run.
 ¨
rAtta wv. 1, direct; reach, stretch. r. upp, pull up.
 ¨
rAttr adj. right, correct; equitable, fair.
reyna wv. 1, try, test.
       ¸
reyr-bCnd supl. the wire with which the arrow-head was bound
to the shaft.
 ¨˜
rAAa sv. 6, w. dat. ride.
   ˜
riAu see rAAa. ¨˜
   ˜
riAlask wv. 3, set oneself in motion.
 ¨
rAki sn. power; sovereignty, reign.
 ¨
rAkr adj. powerful, distinguished.
ripti sn. linen cloth.
rita wv. 3, write.
r˚a sv. 1, row.
 A
 A˜
r˚Aa wv. 1, talk about, discuss.
 ˜
rAra see r˚a.  A
  ¸
rCst sf. league.

   S

     ¨
   sA prn. that; he; such, such a one.
          ¨
 ¨ see sjA.
sA
 ˜ sm. sea.
sAr
 ˜
sAra wv. 1, wound [sAr].¨
 ˜ sn. seat [sitja].
sAti
 ˜
sAtt sf. 2, reconciliation, peace.
 ˜
sAttask wv. 1, be reconciled, agree.
saga wf. narrative, history, story.
   ˜         ¨
sagAa see sAgja.
                                           ˜
saka wv. impers. w. acc. –’hann (acc.) sakaAi ekki,’ he was

                                     87
not injured.
sakna wv. 3, w. gen. miss.
 ¨
sAl sf. 2, soul.
 ¨
sAld sn. gallon.
salr sm. 2, hall.
saman adv. together.
sami weak adj. same.
sam-laga wf. laying ships together for battle.
samt adv. together.
sannligr adj. probable; suitable, right.
sannr adj. true.
 ¨
sAr sn. wound.
 ¨
sArr adj. wounded.
sat see sitja.
satt see sannr.
 ¨
sA see vera.
 ¨
sA see sjA. ¨
sefask wv. 3, be pacified.
 ¨
sAgja wv. 1b, say, relate [saga].
segl sn. sail.
seilask wv. 1, stretch intr.
seinn adj. late, slow, tedious. seint adv. slowly.
 ¨
sAlja wv. 1, give; sell.
sem adv. as; w. subj. as if; to strengthen the
superl. –’sem mest,’ the most possible, as much as possible.
 ¨
sAnda wv. 1, send.
 ¨         ˜
sAndi-maAr sm. messenger.
 ¨
sAnn adv. at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith.
 ¨
sAnn see sjA.  ¨
 ¨ see sik.
sAr
 ¨
sAr see sjA. ¨
 ¨ see sjA.
sAt          ¨
set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja].
 ¨
sAtja wv. 1, set, place. s. fram, launch (a ship).
 ¨                    ¨
sAtjask, sit down. sAtjask upp, sit up [sitja].
 ¨
sA-byrAa˜ wv. 1, w. dat. lay a ship alongside another.
               ¨                     ˜
 neut. ptc. sAbyrt, close up to [borA].
    ˜
 ¨ A adv. late. comp. sAAar, later, afterwards. superl.
sA                         ¨˜
 ¨˜
sAAast, latest, last.
 ¨˜
sAAa wf. side.
 ¨˜
sAAan adv. afterwards, then; since.
 ¨˜
sAAari adj. comp. later, second (in order).
  ˜
siAr sm. 3, custom.
 ¨
sAga sv. 6, sink.
sigla wf. mast [segl].
sigla wv. 1, sail.
          ˜
siglu-skeiA sn. middle of a ship.
sigr (-rs) sm. victory.
sigr-˚p shout of victory.
      A
sik prn. oneself.

                                    88
silfr sn. silver.
  ¨
sAn see sik.
sinn sn. time (of repetition)–’einu sinni,’ once, for once.
’eigi optar at sinni,’ not oftener than that time, i.e. only
once.
sinn see sik.
sitja sv. 5, sit. s. fyrir, sit in readiness.
   ¨     ˜
sjA = Aessi.
   ¨
sjA sv. 5, see; ’s. fyrir einu,’ look after, take care of.
              ¨   ¨ ˜ ¨
 impers. ’lAtt sAr Aat A, at’...it will hardly be seen
            ¨
that... sjAsk, see one another, meet.
   ¨
sjAlfr prn. self.
  A˜
sj˚Aa sv. 7, boil; cook.
sj˚n sf. sight.
  A
           ¨
sj˚n-hvArfing sf. ocular delusion.
  A
skal see skulu.
                ¨
skalf see skjAlfa.
    ¨
skAli wm. hall.
skammr adj. short.
skap sn. state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour.
skapligr adj. suitable, fit.
skapt sn. shaft, handle.
skar see skera.
      ˜
skarA sn. notch, gap; defect.
skaut see skj˚ta.
                A
    ¨
skAgg sn. beard; beak (of a ship).
      ˜
skeiA sn. race-course, running-ground; race–’taka sk.,’ start
in a race.
skeina wv. 1, graze.
skellr sm. knock.
    ¨
skAmtun sf. amusement, entertainment [skammr, literally
’shortening (of time)’ ].
skera sv. 4, cut, cut up; kill (animal).
skiljask wv. 1, separate, part intr.
skillingr sm. shilling, coin.
        ˜
skilnaAr sm. separation, parting.
skip sn. ship.
skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out. ’sk. til um
eitt,’ make arrangements for. skipask, take one’s place;
change, alter intr.
          ¨
skipa-hArr sm. fleet.

    skipan sf. arranging; ship’s crew.
skips-brot sn. shipwreck.
                 ˜
skip-stj˚rnar-maAr sm. (steerer), commander of a ship,
        A
captain.
skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, testudo.
   ¨
skjAlfa sv. 3, shake intr.
   ˚ta sv. 7, w. dat. shoot, throw, push.
skjA
skj˚t-f˚ri sn. swiftness.
   A A

                                      89
    ˚
skjAt-leikr sm. swiftness.
skj˚t-liga adv. swiftly, quick.
    A
skj˚tr adj. swift, quick. skj˚tt adv. quickly.
    A                         A
    ¸
skjCldr sm. 3, shield.
sk˚gr sm. forest, wood.
   A
skorta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and of thing , want,
fail.
skot sn. shot; missile [skj˚ta].
                           A
        ¨
skot-mAl sn. shot-measure, range.
                              ˜
skotta wv. 3, dangle–sk. viA drift (of ships).
skCkull sm. shaft (of a cart).
   ¸
   ¸
skCmm sf. disgrace, shame.
   ¸
skCr sf. hair of the head.
skreppa wf. bag, wallet.
                ¨
skulfu see skjAlfa.
skulu swv. shall.
skuta wf. small ship, cutter.
skutill sm. trencher, small table.
skutil-sveinn sm. page, chamberlain.
skutu see skj˚ta.
                A
skykkr sm. shake–’ganga skykkjum,’ shake.
skylda see skulu.
skyldr adj. obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu].
skyn sn. understanding, insight–’kunna, sk.’ understand.
skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in haste.
skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly.
skynsamliga adv. intelligently, carefully.
   `
skEt see skj˚ta.
               A
  ¨                   ¨      ¨
slA sv. 2, strike. ’slA eldi A,’ light a fire.
  ˜
slAliga adv. sluggishly, weakly.
  ˜
slAr adj. blunt.
  ˜ see slA.
slAr         ¨
  ¨
slAtr sn. meat.
sleikja wv. lick.
             ¨
sleit see slAta.
  ¨
slAttr adj. level, smooth; comfortable, easy.
  ¨
slAkr adj. such.
  ¨
slAta sv. 6, tear–sl. upp, pull up; w. dat. break
(agreement).
    ˜
smAri see smAr.  ¨
smAr¨ adj. small, insignificant.
    ¨
smA-skip snpl. small ships.
    ¨ ˚ta wf. small cutter.
smA-skA
smj˚ga sv. 7, squeeze through, slip.
     A
smugu see smj˚ga. A
snarpligr adj. vigorous.
snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous.
snimma adv. early.
   ˜
snAra see sn˚a.A
snA˚a sv. 1, w. dat. turn or ( trans. ) direct; twist,


                                     90
plait. sn˚ask, turn ( intr. ).
          A
   ˜            A˜
soAinn see sj˚Aa.
s˚kja wv. 1c, seek; go–’s. aptr,’ retreat.
 A
 A ˜
s˚mA sf. honour [s˚ma].A
s˚tti see s˚kja.
 A           A
sofa sv. 4, sleep.
sofna wv. 3, go to sleep.
 ¸
sCgur see saga.
                        ˜¨
sCk sf. cause–’fyrir AA s. at’..., because.
 ¸
 ˜
sAkkva sv. 3, sink.
s˚l sf. sun.
 A
s˚l-skin sn. sunshine.
 A
soltinn adj. hungry [ ptc. of ’svelta,’ starve].
s˚ma wv. 2, w. dat. , be suitable, befitting.
 A
s˚mi wm. honour.
 A
sonr sm. son.
s˚tt sf. illness.
 A
s˚tta see s˚kja.
 A            A
 ¸
sCx snpl. raised prow of a war-ship.
               ¸
spala see spClr.
sparask wv. 2, spare oneself, reserve one’s energy.
   ¨         ¨
spAnna (spAnta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing , gird, buckle on.
spj˚t sn. spear.
    A
      ˜
sporAr sm. tail.
spori sm. spur.
   ¸
spClr sm. rail.
sprakk see springa.
    ¨
sprAtta wv. 1, split.
springa sv. 3, burst.
      ˜
spurAa see spyrja.
spyrja wv. 1b, ask; hear of, learn–’sp. til eins,’ have news
of, hear of his arrival. spyrjask, be known.
spyrna wv. 1, kick.
                                           ¨˜
staddr adj. placed, staying [ ptc. of ’stAAja,’ place].
                     ¨     ˜
    ˜ sm. place–’A staAinn,’ instead.
staAr
      ˜
stafaAr adj. ( ptc. ) striped.
staf-karl sm. (staff-man), beggar.
stafn sm. prow.
stafn-b˚i wm. prow-man.
        A
        ¨
stafn-lA wm. grappling-hook.
stafr sm. 2 ( gen. sg. stafs), staff, stick.
stakk see stinga.
stallari sm. marshall.

    standa sv. 2, stand. st. upp, stand up, rise.
starfa wv. 3, work.
  ¨
stAfna wv. 1, steer; take a course, go.
            ¨
steig see stAga.
steinn sm. stone; jewel.
stela sv. 4, w. dat. of thing and acc. of pers. steal, rob.

                                      91
  ¨
stAndr see standa.
  ¨
stArkliga adv. vigorously.
  ¨
stArkr adj. strong.
steypa wv. 1, w. dat. of thing , throw; pull off. steypask,
throw oneself.
  ¨
stAga sv. 6, advance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse).
  ¨
stAgr sm. path, way.
stikill sm. point.
stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange. st. til, arrange, dispose.
stinga sv. 3, pierce; ’st. stCfnum at skipi,’ run the prow
                             ¸
against a ship’s side.
                                     ˜
stirt adv. harshly [ neut. of ’stirAr,’ stiff].
  A˜
st˚A see standa.
st˚rri see st˚r.
  A             A
st˚kkva sv. 3, spring, rebound, start back.
  A
stolinn see stela.
st˚rliga adv. bigly, arrogantly.
  A
st˚r-mannligr adj. magnificent, aristocratic.
  A
         ¨
st˚r-mAnni sn. great men (collective), aristocracy.
  A
st˚rr adj. big, great. st˚rum adv. greatly.
  A                        A
  A ¨˜
st˚r-rAAr adj. (great of plans), ambitious.
st˚r-skip sn. big ship,
  A
st˚r-virki sn. great deed.
  A
    ¨
strA wv. 1, strew, cover with straw.
strauk see strj˚ka.
                  A
    ¨
strAngr sm. 2, string.
strj˚ka sv. 7, stroke.
     A
stund sf. period of time, time.
stutt adv. shortly, abruptly [ neut. of ’stuttr’ short].
  `
stEra wv. 1, w. dat. steer.
  ` sn. rudder.
stEri
  `
stEris-hnakki wm. top piece of rudder.
styrkr sm. strength; help.
s˚ see sA.
 A          ¨
   ˜ adv. southward.
suAr
   ˜
suAr-ganga wf. journey south (to Rome).
               ˜
sukku see sAkkva.
sumar sn. summer.
sumr prn. some.
sund sn. sound, channel.
   ¨                                  ¨
svA adv. so, as; as soon as. ’ok svA,’ also.
svaf see sofa.
svara wv. 3, w. dat. of thing , answer.
svardagi sm. oath.
sveinn sm. boy.
sveinn-stauli wm. small boy.
sveit sf. troop.
svelga sv. 3, swallow, gulp.
      ˜
sverA sn. sword.
      ˜    ¸
sverAs-hCgg sn. swordstroke.

                                     92
svipan sf. jerk; moment.
svipting sf. pull, struggle.
 `
sEnask wv. 1, seem [sj˚n].
                        A
syni see sonr.
systir sf. 3, sister.

   T

     taka wv. 2, w. acc. take, seize, take possession of; w.
inf. begin; w. dat. receive (well, ill, etc.). takask,
take place, begin. t. at, choose. t. til, engage in,
try. t. upp, take to, choose.
tala wf. talk, speech.
tala wv. 3, speak, talk about, discuss.
     ˜        ¨
taliAr see tAlja.
  ¨
tAlma wv. 3, hinder.
  ¨
tAr sn. tear.
taumar smpl. reins.
  ¨
tAkinn see taka.
  ¨
tAlja wv. 1b, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say
[tala].
  ¨ ˜
tAngAir sfpl. relationship, connection by marriage.
  ¨
tAngja wv. 1, bind, fasten together.
  ¨
tAngsl snpl. cable.
  ¨˜
tAAa wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.
  ¨˜
tAAindi snpl. tidings, news.
  ¨˜                                       ¨        ˜
tAAr adj. usual, happening–’hvat er tAtt um Aik?’ what is the
                     ¨                                ¨˜
matter with you? tAtt adv. often, quickly–’sem tAAast,’
as quickly as possible.
tiginn adj. of high rank.
tigr sm. –’fj˚rir tigir,’ forty.
             A
                                                    ¨
til prp. w. gen. to; till; for (of use)–’alt er t. vApna
var,’ everything that could be used as a missile; for (of
                              ¨         ¨
object, intention)–’brj˚ta lAgg til mArgjar,’ break a leg to
                        A
get at the marrow; with respect to–’til vista var eigi
gott,’ they were not well off for provisions.
til adv. too (of excess).
      ¨
til-vAsan sf. direction, guidance.
  ¨         ¨˜
tAtt see tAAr.
  ¨
tAvi wm. god.
tjald sn. tent.
          ¨
tj˚gu-skAgg sn. forked beard.
  A
t˚ka see taka.
 A
t˚k see taka.
 A
  ¸
tCnn sf. 3, tooth.
trani wm. crane.
   ¨
trA sn. tree.
    ˜
troAa sv. tread.
trog sn. trough.
tros sn. droppings, rubbish.

                                   93
  ˚             ˜             ¨
trAa wf. faith–’Aat veit tr. mAn at...,’ by my faith.
tr˚a wv. 2, w. dat. of pers. believe, trust, rely on.
  A
t˚n sn. enclosure, dwelling.
 A
tveir num. two.
 `
tEna wv. 1, w. dat. lose.
typpa wv. tie in a top-knot.

   ˜
   A

    ˜¨
    AA see sA.   ¨
˜¨         ˜
AA see Aiggja.
˜¨
AA adv. then.
˜˜
AAr see sA.   ¨
˜ ˜
AakAr see AAkja.˜¨
˜
Aakka wv. 3, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers. thank;
requite, reward.
˜            ¨
Aambar-skAlfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?).
˜
Aann see sA.   ¨
˜                              ˜
Aannig adv. thither; so [= Aann veg].
˜                         ˜                     ˜
Aar adv. there; then; ’A. af,’ etc. , thereof. ’Aar sem,’
                   ˜
since, because. ’Aar til,’ until.
˜           ˜
Aarf see Aurfa.
˜
Aat see sA.  ¨
˜
Aau see sA.  ¨
˜                       ˜
Aegar adv. at once. ’A. er,’ as soon as.
˜¨               ˜
AAginn see Aiggja.
˜¨
AAgja wv. 1b, be silent.
˜
Aeim see sA.   ¨
˜      ˜
Aeir, Aeirra see sA. ¨
  ¨
˜ Akja wv. 1b, roof.
A
˜¨                         ˜¨
AAkkja wv. 1, notice. AAkkjask, take pleasure in; accept.
  ¨
˜ Ar see A˚.
A           ˜A
˜
Aess see sA.  ¨
˜
Aess adv. w. comp. the, so much the.
˜
Aessi prn. this.
˜
Aiggja sv. 5, receive.
˜
Aik see A˚.˜A
˜
Aing sn. meeting, parliament.
˜
Ainn see A˚. ˜A
˜ see A˚.
Ait        ˜A
˜ A˜
Aj˚A sf. nation, race.
˜A
A˚ adv. though, yet.
˜ ¸ kA see AAkja.
AC ˜           ˜¨
                                 ˜
˜ ¸ kk sf. thanks, gratitude [Aakka].
AC
˜
Aola wv. 2, endure, put up with.
˜
Aora wv. 2, dare.
˜ ¸ rf sf. need.
AC
˜                ˜
Aorrinn see Averra.
                         ˜A
˜ ˚tt adv. though [= A˚ at].
AA
               ˜
˜ ˚tta see Aykkja.
AA

                                     94
˜           ˜ A
Araut see Arj˚ta.
˜
Areifask wv. 3, grope, feel.
˜
Areyta wv. 1, make exertions, try.
˜ ˜
AriAi adj. third.
˜ ˜
AriAjungr sm. third.
˜ ¨
ArAr num. three.
˜ A
Arj˚ta sv. 7, impers. w. acc. of pers. come to an end, fail.
˜ A˜
Ar˚Augr adj. mighty.
˜A
A˚ prn. thou.
˜
Aumlungr sm. thumb of glove.
˜
Aunn-vangi wm. temple (of head).
˜ ˜
AurAr sm. diminution.
˜
Aurfa swv. often impers. require, need.
˜
Aurr adj. dry.
˜
Aurs sm. giant.
˜
Averra sv. 3, diminish.
˜
Avers adv. across.
˜ ¨
AvA see sA. ¨
˜ ¨
AvA adv. therefore; w. compar. the, so much the more.
˜ ¨
AvAlikr adj. such.
˜                                     ˜
Aykkja wv. 1c, seen, be considered. ’Aykkir einum fyrir,’
there seems to be something in the way, one hesitates.
          ¨       ˜ ¨                           ˜
’myndi mAr fyrir A. A,’ I should be displeased. Aykkjask,
think.
˜
Aykkr adj. thick, close.
˜                           ˜
Aynna wv. 1, make thin. Aynnask get thin.
˜
Ayrstr adj. ( ptc. ) thirsty.

   U

   ˚-f˚ra wf. impassable place; fix, difficulty.
   A A
A ˜
˚-friAr sm. hostility, war.
˚-grynni sn. countless number [grunnr, ’bottom’].
A
˚-happ sn. misfortune.
A
˚-hreinn adj. impure.
A
um prp. w. acc. around, about, over; of time in, at; of
superiority beyond; concerning, about.
     ¨˜
um-rAA sn. advice, help.
      ¨
um-sjA sf. care.
una wv. 1, w. dat. be contented–’u. illa,’ be discontented.
undan prp. w. dat. , adv. away (from).
undarliga adv. strangely.
undarligr adj. strange.
undir prp. w. acc. and dat. under.
undr sn. wonder.
ungr adj. young.
unninn see vinna.
unz adv. until.
upp adv. up.
upp-ganga wf. boarding (ship).

                                    95
                         ¨
upp-haf sn. beginning [hAfja].
upp-himinn sm. high heaven.
uppi adv. up; at an end.
  ˜           ˜
urAu see verAa.
˚t adv. out. comp. utar, outer, outwards, farther away.
A
utan adv. outside; outwards.
      ¨ ˜
utan-fArA sf. journey abroad.
utar see ˚t.
          A
˚ti adv. outside, out on the sea.
A
˚t-lausn sf. ransom.
A
˚-vinr sm. enemy.
A

   V

      ˜ ˜
    vAgA sf. forbearance.
  ˜
vAnn adj. likely, to be expected.
  ˜
vAri see vera.
  ˜
vAtr neut. nothing.
vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up.
vakna wv. 3, awake.
vald sn. power, control.
val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kj˚sa].
                                                   A
valr sm. corpses on the battle-field.
  ¨
vAn, sf. hope, expectation, probability.
       ˜˜      ¨
vandrAAa-skAld sn. the ’awkward’ poet, the poet who is
difficult to deal with.
       ˜˜
vandrAAi snpl. difficulty.
vangi wm. cheek.
vanr adj. accustomed.
  ¨
vApn sn. weapon.
  ¨         ˜
vApna-burA sm. bearing weapons, shower of missiles.
  ¨
vApn-lauss adj. without weapons.
var see vera.
  ¨
vAr sn. spring.
  ¨
vAr see ek.
                                                 ˜
vara wv. 2, impers. w. acc. of pers. –’mik varAi,’ I
expected.
    ˜
varA see verAa. ˜
              ¨
    ˜ see vArja.
varAi
vargr sm. wolf.
     ˜          ¨
variAr see vArja.
varla adv. scarcely.
       ˜
varnaAr sm. goods, merchandise.
  ¨
vAru see vera.
vatn sn. water.
vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase.
   ˜
veAr sn. weather.
vegr sm. road; way, manner; direction, side; in composition ,
region, tract, land.
veik see vikja.

                                     96
veit see vita.
veita wv. 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.).
  ¨
vAkja wv. 1b, wake [vaka].
  ¨
vAl sf. artifice, cunning.
  ¨
vAlja wv. 1b, choose.
  ¨
vAndi see vCndr.¸
  ¨
vAr see ek.
                                                  ¨       ˜
vera sv. exist; remain, stay, happen; be. ’hvat lAtum hafAi
verit,’ what had caused the noise. v. at, be occupied
with.
     ˜
verA sn. worth, value; price.
     ˜
verAa sv. 3, happen; happen to come. ’v. fyrir einum,’ come
in one’s way, appear before one; become; come into being, be;
’v. til eins,’ be ready for, undertake; w. infin. be
                         ¨ ˜                  ¨
obliged, must. ’n˚ er A orAit mikit fyrir mAr,’ now I have
                    A
come into a great perplexity, difficulty. v. at, happen.
     ˜
verAr adj. worth; important.
ver-gjarn adj. desirous of a husband, loose.
verit see vera.
vert see verAr. ˜
  ¨
vArja wv. 1b, defend–’v. baki,’ defend with the back, turn
one’s back on.
  ¨
vArja wv. 1b, dress; lay out money, invest.
verk sn. work, job.
verr sm. man; husband.
  ¨                                    ¨
vArr adv. comp. worse. superl. vArst, worst.
     ¸
verCld sf. world.
vestan adv. from the west. ’v. fyrir’ w. gen. or acc. , west
of.
vestr adv. westwards.
vetr sm. winter; year.
  ¨
vAx see vaxa.
  ¨
vAxti see vCxtr.¸
   ˜
viA prp. w. acc. by, near; towards (of place and time); with
(of various relations). w. dat. towards, at (laugh at,
etc.); in exchange for, for.
  ¨˜
vAAa adv. widely, far and wide, on many sides.
   ˜
viAar-teinungr sm. tree-shoot, plant.
   ˜       ˜
viA-bragA sn. push.
   ˜ sm. 3, tree.
viAr
  ¨˜
vAAr adj. wide, broad.
   ˜
viA-skipti snpl. dealings.
   ˜
viA-taka wf. reception; resistance.
  ¨
vAgja wv. 1, consecrate, hallow.
  ¨
vAgr adj. warlike, able-bodied.
  ¨
vAking sf. piracy, piratical expedition.
  ¨
vAkingr sm. pirate.
  ¨
vAkja sv. 6, turn, move, go.
vilja swv. will.
villi-eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration.

                                     97
    ¨
vinAtta wf. friendship.
    ¨       ¨
vinAttu-mAl snpl. assurances of friendship.
vinna sv. 3, do, perform; win, conquer. vinnask til,
suffice.
vinr sm. 2, friend.
    ˜                   ˜
virAing sf. honour [verAr].
  ¨
vAsa wv. 2, w. dat. show, guide.
  ¨
vAss adj. wise; certain.
vissa see vita.
vist sf. 2, board and lodging; provisions.
vit see ek.
vita swv. know; be turned in a certain direction. v. fram,
see into futurity.
  ¨
vAti sn. punishment, penalty.
  ¨
vAtis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a

    punishment).
vitkask wv. 3, come to one’s senses.
vitr (-ran) adj. wise.
  ¸
vCllr sm. 3, plain, field.
  ¸
vCndr sm. 3, twig, rod.
vCrn sf. defence, resistance.
  ¸
  ¸
vCxtr sm. 3, growth, stature.
     ˜       ˜
vreiAr = reiAr.

   Y

     ˜       ˜A
    yAr see A˚.
yfir prp. w. acc. and dat. over [ofan].
`
Emiss adj. various, different.
ymr sm. rumbling noise.
ytri adj. comp. outer. superl. yztr, outside(st) [˚t].
                                                  A

   PROPER NAMES

   ¨
   Aki sm.
¨ A˚rr sm. (divine) Thor.
Asa- ˜ A
¨ ¨˜
AstrAAr sf.
   ˜
AuAun sm.

    Baldr (-rs) sm.
     ˜
BarAi wm. ’the Ram’ (name of a ship).
       ¨
Bil-skArnir sm.
   ¨         ¨
BrAsinga-mAn sn. Freyja’s necklace.
Burizleifr sm.

     ¨                     ¨
  DAins-leif sf. relic of DAinn [’leif,’ leaving, heritage].
Dana-konungr sm. king of the Danes.
Danir smpl. the Danes.
       ¸
Dan-mCrk sf. 3, Denmark.

                                       98
Draupnir sm.

    Einarr sm.
       ˜
EindriAi wm.
   ¨
EirAkr sm.
Erlingr sm.

     ¨
    FAn-salr sm. 2.
Finnr sm.
Finskr adj. Finnish.
Freyja wf.
Freyr sm.
Frigg sf. wife of Odin.
Fulla wf. Frigg’s handmaid.

   Geira wf.
Gimsar fpl.
Gjallar-br˚ sf. the bridge over the river GjCll.
          A                                   ¸
  ¸
GjCll sf. ’the Resounder,’ the river of Hell.
Gr˚n-land sn. Greenland.
  A
Gullin-bursti wm. ’Golden-bristle.’
Gull-toppr sm. ’Gold-top.’

      ¨
    HA-ey sf. ’High-island.’
 ¨
HAkon sm.
        ˜
Hall-freAr sm.
Haraldr sm.
 ¨˜
HAAinn sm.
Heim-dallr sm.
 ¨
HAl sf. the goddess of the infernal regions.
 ¨      A˜
HAr-m˚Ar sm.
Hildr sf. [’hildr,’ war].
    ˜        ¨                        ˜
HjaAninga-vAg sn. battle of the HjaAnings.
Hjarrandi wm.
  A ˜
Hl˚riAi wm. the Thunderer, Thor.
  ¸
HCgni wm.
Hring-horni wm. ’Ring-prowed.’
Hyrningr sm.
Hyrrokin sf.
  ¸˜
HCAr sm.

    ¨
    As-land sn. Iceland.
¨        ¨ ˜
Asland-fArA sf. journey to Iceland.
    ¨
¨ Anzkr adj. Icelandic.
Asl

   J˚ms-borg sf.
    A
      ¨
 ˚ms-vAkingar smpl. the pirates of J˚msborg.
JA                                  A

         ¸
   Kol-bjCrn sm.



                                      99
    Laufey sf.
Litr sm.
Loki wm.

    A˜   ˜
  M˚A-guAr sf.
 ˚
MAri wf.

   Nanna wf.
Nepr sm.
    ˜         ¸ ˜
NjarAar see NjCrAr.
  ¸ ˜
NjCrAr sm.
N˚a-t˚n snpl.
 A A
                        ˜
Noregr sm. Norway [= norA-vegr].

        ˜A
   Cku-A˚rr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka].
   ¸
A ¨
˚ŒlAfr sm.
A ˜
˚ŒAinn sm. Odin.
Orkn-eyjar sfpl. Orkneys.

   R˚ma-borg sf. Rome.
    A
      ¨
R˚m-fArli wm. pilgrim to Rome [fara].
 A
RCskva wf.
 ¸

    Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany.
Sif sf.
     ¨˜
SigrAAr sf.
Sig-valdi wm.
    ¨
SkjAlgr sm.
    `
SkrEmir sm.
Sleipnir sm.
  ¨˜                   ¸
SlAArug-tanni wm. [tCnn].
S˚nskr adj. Swedish.
 A
Sveinn sm.
   ¨
SvAa-konungr sm. king of Sweden.
   ¨
SvAar smpl. Swedes.
   ¨ Aldi sn. Sweden [vald].
SvAa-v ¨
   ¨ ˜ A˜
SvA-Aj˚A sf. Sweden.
   ¸ ˜                                     ˜
SvClAr (-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near RAgen.

   Tann-gnj˚str sm. [tCnn].
            A          ¸
                   ¸
Tann-grisnir sm. [tCnn].
Tryggvi wm. ’Trusty.’

   ˜ ¨
   AjAlfi wm.
˜ ˚rir sm.
AA
˜     ¨
Aor-kAll sm.
˜ ˚rr sm. Thor.
AA
˜
Aor-steinn sm.
˜ A˜
Ar˚A-vangar smpl. ’plains of strength.’
˜
Arymyr sm.

                                    100
˜¸
ACkk sf.

   ˚lfr sm.
   A
      ˜
˚tgarAa-loki wm.
A
       ˜           ˜
˚t-garAr sm. ˚t-garAar pl. ’outer enclosure,’ world of
A             A
the giants.

   Vanir smpl. race of Gods.
 ¨
VAr sf. goddess of betrothal and marriage.
Vest-firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland).
 ¨
VAk sf. ’the Bay,’ the Skagerak and the Christiania fjord.
         ¨
Vinda-snAkkja wf. Wendish ship.
Vind-land sn. Wendland.
Vindr smpl. the Wends.
      ˜A
Ving-A˚rr sm. name of Thor.

   THE END.




                                    101

				
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