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ANTARCTIC AND BIPOLAR SCIENCE Report of a Workshop held at the

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					ANTARCTIC AND BIPOLAR SCIENCE




         Report of a Workshop
                 held at the
    Arctic Institute of North America
             Calgary, Alberta
            October 16, 1999




 Edited by Olav H. Loken and Kevin Hall
The Canadian Polar Commission

The Canadian Polar Commission is Canada’s national advisory agency on polar affairs. It has
responsibility for:

   •   monitoring, promoting, and disseminating knowledge of the polar regions;

   •   contributing to public awareness of the importance of polar science to Canada;

   •   enhancing Canada’s profile in the Arctic and Antarctic; and

   •   recommending polar science policy direction to government.



                                         Board of Directors

                                           Wayne Adams

                                           Richard Binder

                                          Julie Cruikshank

                                            Jean Dupuis

                                 Peter Johnson, Vice-Chairperson

                                  Michael Robinson, Chairperson

                                             Josie Sias


                                   Canadian Polar Commission
                                  Suite 1710, Constitution Square
                                         360 Albert Street
                                          Ottawa, Ontario
                                              Canada
                                             K1R 7X7

                                       Tel.: (613) 943-8605
                                       Fax: (613) 943-8607
                                    Toll-free: 1-888-POLAR01
                                       mail@polarcom.gc.ca
                                       www.polarcom.gc.ca
                                         Table of Contents

Foreword

Introduction 1

1. Opening Statements 2
1.1. Welcome—Michael Robinson 2
1.2. Background and Rationale for the Strategy Development—Warwick Vincent 4

Current Canadian Activities 5
2. Antarctic and Bipolar Activities 5
2.1. Universities 5
       University of British Columbia 5
       University of Northern British Columbia 6
       University of Calgary/Arctic Institute of North America 6
       University of Alberta 7
       Lakehead University 7
       University of Western Ontario 7
       University of Toronto 8
       Trent University 9
       Queen’s University 9
       University of Ottawa 9
       Université du Québec à Montréal 10
       McGill University 10
       Université Laval 11
       Université du Québec à Rimouski 12
       University of New Brunswick 12

2.2. Federal Departments and Agencies 13
       Canadian Museum of Nature 13
       Environment Canada 13
       Fisheries and Oceans Canada 14
       Natural Resources Canada 15

2.3. Commercial Activities 16
       Expedition Logistics Ltd. 16
       Icefield Instruments Inc. 17
       Biozyme Systems Ltd. 17

2.4   Related Activities 17
       Natural Resources Canada (Polar Continental Shelf Project) 17
       Foreign Affairs and International Trade 18
       Canadian Polar Commission 19
3. Canadian Strategy for Antarctic and Bipolar Science—Kevin Hall, Rapporteur 19

4. Closing Remarks —Warwick Vincent, Chair CCAR 22

Appendices 24

Appendix A—Workshop Agenda 24
Appendix B—Workshop Participants 25
Appendix C—Recent Canadian Contributions to Antarctic and Bipolar Science 30
Appendix D—Canadian Scientists in Antarctica during Austral Summer 1999–2000 41
Appendix E—List of Acronyms 44




                                                                                   3
Foreword

In July 1998, Canada became a full member of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
(SCAR), with the Canadian Polar Commission (CPC) as the adhering body. At the same time,
the Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research (CCAR) was established as Canada’s National
Antarctic Committee for SCAR, and began developing a strategic plan for Canada’s participation
in antarctic and bipolar science. A discussion paper, Antarctic and Bipolar Science: A Strategic
Plan for Canada, was distributed in the late summer of 1999 as a means of stimulating
discussion and obtaining input from a wide group of stakeholders; much valuable feedback was
received.

For more detailed discussions, CCAR arranged a workshop at the Arctic Institute of North
America, University of Calgary, in October 1999. A number of Canadians with firsthand
experience in antarctic and arctic science were invited. Roughly half the 19 participants were
from the academic sector, representing eight Canadian universities. Other participants were
scientists from four federal government departments and agencies, and representatives of two
Canadian tour companies operating in Antarctica. The following is an account of the workshop.

O.H. Loken & K. Hall
Editors




4
Introduction

The workshop opened with an overview of the Canadian Polar Commission’s perspective on
polar science, presented by Commission Chairperson Michael Robinson. Professor Warwick
Vincent, Chair of CCAR, provided additional background on the development of the discussion
paper. As a prelude to future planning workshop participants were then invited to outline their
current and proposed activities with respect to antarctic science; summaries of these are reprinted
in Section 2 of the report. (Several groups active in antarctic research were not represented at the
workshop; to the extent that information is available, activities at seven universities and two
private companies are mentioned briefly.) In addition to research, scientific issues related to the
Antarctic Treaty System were also presented.

Canadian antarctic researchers participate in several international research projects and are
involved in a wide range of activities within several scientific disciplines (e.g., studies of UV
effects on biological systems; genetic characteristics of seal populations; offshore sediment
sampling in areas until recently covered by large ice shelves; studies related to Lake Vostok;
permafrost investigations; and weathering studies.) Lakehead University is planning a second
field trip to Antarctica, and a private company plans to arrange educational tours for high school
students starting next austral summer. A private company has announced plans to start an
antarctic krill fishery in late 2000.

In the second half of the workshop, participants addressed issues related to the discussion papers
and the means by which Canada can benefit through future participation in antarctic science.
After considering several options, the group concluded that, in view of the important roles the
two polar regions—Arctic and Antarctic—play in the global ecosystem, Canadian scientists
should seek increased participation in antarctic and bipolar science. Canada’s commercial
interests and treaty obligations in Antarctica lend further support to this argument. It was felt, as
well, that Canadian participation should be based on Canada’s expertise in arctic science. An
essential prerequisite for increased participation in antarctic science would be the strengthening
of Canada’s arctic science programs which have been seriously eroded by recent budgetary
cutbacks. Increased awareness of antarctic issues among the public, bureaucrats, politicians, and
scientists is also required to overcome the perception that funding provided for antarctic research
automatically reduces allocations to arctic studies. This discussion is summarized in Section 3 of
the report.

The report includes five appendices: Workshop Agenda; Workshop Participants; Canadian
Contributions to Antarctic and Bipolar Science, which lists 78 publications written since an


                                                                                                        1
earlier bibliography was compiled in mid-1997; Canadian Scientists in Antarctica During the
1999–2000 Austral Summer, which lists 18 individuals; and List of Acronyms.

Opening Statements

1.1 Welcome

Mike Robinson
Chairperson, Canadian Polar Commission
Executive Director, Arctic Institute of North America

Mr. Robinson welcomed everyone to AINA's facilities, located on the campus of the University
of Calgary, and provided a brief overview of the Institute. AINA was created by Act of
Parliament in 1945 as a non-profit, tax-exempt research and educational organization. Originally
based at McGill University in Montreal, the Institute moved to the University of Calgary in
1976. In 1979 the Institute became part of the University of Calgary as a university research
institute.

The Institute's mandate is to advance the study of Canada's North through the natural and social
sciences, and the arts and humanities, and to acquire, preserve, and disseminate information on
physical, environmental, and social activities in the North.

Kluane Lake Research Station (KLRS) is one of two research facilities operated by AINA.
Established in 1991, near the Alaska Highway, 220 km north-west of Whitehorse, Yukon, on the
south shore of Kluane Lake, the station has fostered research projects in a number of
disciplines—glaciology, geomorphology, geology, biology, botany, zoology, hydrology,
limnology, climatology, high-altitude physiology, anthropology, and archaeology. Kluane Lake
Research Station is supported by an infrastructure grant from the Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council.

Devon Island Research Station (DIRS) is located on the north coast of Devon Island, Nunavut,
approximately 315 km north-east of Resolute. Since its establishment in 1960, the station has
provided a base for numerous research programs on all aspects of the Truelove Lowland
environment and on the interrelationships between the glacier ice of Devon Island, the marine
environment of Jones Sound, and the ambient atmosphere.

Mr. Robinson noted that Canada has invested heavily in the intellectual capital and technical
expertise of its polar scientific community. However, research and development in the Arctic is

2
hampered by an aging support infrastructure, a situation that demands Canada adopt a strategy to
bolster the state of Arctic research and support the intellectual growth and regeneration of the
scientific community in the North. Canada’s strengths in arctic science should serve as a support
to important research initiatives in Antarctica. This will require organizational development,
fiscal planning, and a coherent strategy for raising public awareness. Canada must look beyond
the traditional parameters of research and funding strategies to find new initiatives. Bipolar
science is, in fact, global science, and Canada can and should be a leader in this area.

As Chairperson of the CPC, Mr. Robinson thanked the members of CCAR for the important
work they have undertaken with respect to antarctic research, and for keeping the Commission
apprised of Canadian research activities in the region. He indicated that the Commission is
impressed with Committee’s work and is looking forward to carrying on a productive and
rewarding partnership with CCAR as the national advisory body to the Commission on antarctic
issues.

Mr. Robinson outlined the Polar Commission's mandate for monitoring the state of Canadian
polar knowledge and reporting regularly and publicly. He noted that the CPC is a “multi-tasking”
body, advising the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs on polar matters, promoting the
development and dissemination of polar knowledge, providing information on polar research to
Canadians, enhancing Canada's profile as a circumpolar nation, and promoting co-operative
initiatives among organizations involved in polar research. As such, the Commission engages a
range of intellectual resources, from traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom, to scientific
and professional expertise, to governmental and policy-making capacities.

In February 1999, a new board of directors was appointed to the Commission: Josie Sias, a Crow
Clan elder from Yukon; Richard Binder, a traditional Inuvialuit resource person; Julie
Cruikshank, an anthropologist from the University of British Columbia; Jean Dupuis, a
community science and local government specialist from northern Quebec; Peter Johnson,
President of the Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies, from Ottawa; and
Wayne Adams, a former provincial environment minister from Halifax.

In concluding, Mr. Robinson wished CCAR members much success with their meeting, and
expressed his desire to learn more about Canada's research activities in the Antarctic.




                                                                                                    3
1.2. Background and Rationale for the Strategy Development

Prof. Warwick Vincent
Chair, Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research

In 1839–43, British explorer James Clark Ross led an expedition to Antarctica jointly sponsored
by the Royal Navy and the Royal Society of London. It was a voyage that yielded a series of
remarkable discoveries, including a sea route to latitude 78ΕS, the 900-km-long ice cliffs at the
edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, and unusual marine life-forms at a depth of several kilometres in the
Southern Ocean. These accomplishments, in the region now known as the Ross Sea Sector of
Antarctica, were the result of Ross's consummate skill in polar exploration and science, acquired
in the course of his five expeditions to the Canadian Arctic earlier in the century.

Over the last 100 years, Canadians have continued the Ross tradition of North–South research
and exploration, and many place names in Antarctica bear testament to the links with Canada.
For example, the Canada Glacier and Canada Stream in the Taylor Valley of southern Victoria
Land were named as a result of the 1911 expedition to the region by Griffith Taylor who went on
to become Canada's first professor of geography. These days, Canada is most conspicuous in
Antarctica because of its many commercial interests in the south polar region: ecotourism,
clothing, radar imagery, aviation services, snow and ice vehicles, marine harvesting (beginning
in 2000), housing, camp facilities, and other goods and services based on Canada's broad
expertise in cold regions science and technology. In addition, a small number of Canadian
scientists conduct research in Antarctica each year, generally within programs led and supported
by other nations. There is increasing awareness, however, that Canada also has much to gain by
developing its research interests in Antarctica, and by placing its northern research in a bipolar,
global perspective.

The opportunities for Canadian scientists to conduct bipolar and antarctic research have recently
been augmented by Canada's acceptance in July 1998 as a full member of the Scientific
Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), the umbrella organization which oversees all work in
the Antarctic region. As a required step in this process, the Canadian Committee for Antarctic
Research (CCAR) was established as the National Antarctic Committee for Canada. One of
CCAR's immediate tasks was to formulate a science strategy for Canada in Antarctica. As a first
step in this process, CCAR prepared a discussion paper, Antarctic and Bipolar Science: A
Strategic Plan for Canada, which was distributed in August–September 1999 to interested
parties throughout Canada, including polar scientists, Canadian businesses active in Antarctica,
science policy groups, and government agencies concerned with fulfilling Canada's Antarctic
Treaty obligations.

4
Early on in its discussions, CCAR sought to define Canadian antarctic and bipolar science. The
strategy document takes a broad view of science that includes the natural sciences, medical and
other life sciences, the social sciences (including political science), and engineering and
technology development. The term “bipolar” is taken to mean any research in which a
comparison is made between the Arctic and Antarctica, or in which information from both polar
regions is relevant. This refers to research programs that involve in situ data collection in both
polar regions, but also includes research conducted in one polar region with comparisons to data
published or otherwise available from the other polar region. For some Canadian researchers, the
bipolar component or comparison is simply part of a much larger global analysis.

Antarctic research similarly encompasses a broad range of approaches: in situ data collection
(e.g., the Canadian Museum of Nature’s collaboration with National Science Foundation [NSF]
researchers on the marine biology of McMurdo Sound; McGill University’s collaboration with
the NSF McMurdo Long-Term Ecological Research [LTER] program on permafrost, and ground
ice research and work by the University of Northern British Columbia with the British Antarctic
Survey [BAS] in the Antarctic Peninsula region); remote sensing (e.g., the use of RADARSAT
imagery of the Antarctic ice sheet by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing); analysis of
material from Antarctica (e.g., of microbial life forms in the deep ice from Lake Vostok, East
Antarctica, at Université du Québec à Montréal); experiments using organisms from Antarctica
(e.g., the University of Western Ontario's research on photosynthesis by micro-algae from the
McMurdo Dry Valley lakes; work at the University of British Columbia on Southern Ocean
viruses; Laval University’s work on antarctic cyanobacteria); and theoretical and modelling
studies based on the analysis of existing data (e.g., work at the Institute of Ocean Sciences on a
model for circulation in Lake Vostok). By “Canadian” we mean the participation by Canadian
institutions in this antarctic or bipolar research, either as principal investigators or as
collaborators.

Current Canadian Activities

2. Antarctic and Bipolar Science

2.1. Universities

University of British Columbia—Peter Suedfeld

Prof. Suedfeld is continuing his studies of human adaptation to living in isolated and
environmentally challenging situations. Prof. Curtis Suttle and students at the same university

                                                                                                     5
study the effects of UV radiation on viruses in the Southern Ocean, and extract DNA samples to
determine the genetic diversity of natural viral communities. They also have ice cores from
Ellesmere Island for studies of viral content and seek to obtain samples from the Vostok core for
comparative studies.

University of Northern British Columbia—Kevin Hall

Prof. Kevin Hall, Department of Geography, studies weathering and periglacial processes in the
Mars Oasis, Alexander Island, and will do fieldwork in the area in November–December 1999,
as part of the Arctic–Antarctic Exchange Program. He co-operates with the British Antarctic
Survey (BAS) and with a French scientist.

Profs. Hall and J. Arocena, (also of UNBC) analyse weathering rinds from the Cape Roberts drill
core as a means of reconstructing past terrestrial environmental conditions in co-operation with J.
Smellie, BAS.

University of Calgary, Arctic Institute of North America—Gerald Holdsworth

A conceptual synoptic-scale polar front cyclone model, incorporating the fractionation scheme
for the stable isotopes of water (snow), has been developed for the Pacific Northwest region and
applied to explain the vertical variations of the stable isotopes of snow in the St Elias Mountains
up to 5920 m. One important result of this model is that for high-altitude ice core sites (> about
3200 m), changes in the strength of cyclones will result in changes in thickness of the warm front
zone of the cyclone. Any ice core site located in this zone will receive an isotopic signal related
to changes in wind speed as well as from temperature. These isotopic changes can be abrupt and
may swamp the temperature signal. An example of this is the isotopic shift seen in ice cores at
the Greenland summit (72o N; 3220 m) traversing the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene (LGM-
Holocene) transition. The cyclone model is applicable here and can be used to show that a wind-
induced shift on top of a temperature shift could have caused most of the disagreement between
the isotopic thermometer (ca 9o C) and the borehole thermometer (ca 18o C) results.

The model can be applied to the ice core data from Vostok, Antarctica (79o S; 3500 m) which is
predominantly supplied by cyclonic precipitation. Instead of the roughly 8–9o C (LGM-
Holocene) temperature shift derived from the “isotopic thermometer”, it can be shown
realistically how the shift may have been twice this value, making it more in accordance with the
Greenland borehole thermometry result.




6
University of Alberta—Curtis Strobeck

Prof. Curtis Strobeck, PhD student Corey Davis, and Dr. Ian Stirling of the Canadian Wildlife
Service continue to study the genetic characteristics of antarctic seals, based on laboratory
analyses of specimens collected by scientists from several countries. Davis and Stirling will
spend six weeks in the Antarctic during the austral summer of 1999–00 collecting additional
specimens. At the same university; Prof. Foght studies hydrocarbon degrading bacteria at fuel-
contaminated sites in Antarctica in co-operation with a New Zealand scientist. She expects to
continue her studies during a sabbatical in New Zealand next year with emphasis on bipolar
comparisons of active bacteria.

Lakehead University, School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism—Margaret Johnston

M. Johnson has studied Antarctic tourism, specifically the regulation of behaviour. Her primary
interest is in the strategies used to control the activities of tourists and the tourism industry and
how this is reflected in tourist use of sites in the Antarctic. Johnson has explored the general
framework of tourist regulation and in December 2000 hopes to be part of a research
project led by Dr. Bernard Stonehouse of the Scott Polar Research Institute to examine tourism
planning at the Polish Arctowski base.

Related to this research is an Antarctic field trip offered for senior-year students at Lakehead (12
students in 1998 and 12 in 1999). This course focuses on the historical development of tourism,
patterns, issues, and regulation. It includes a field trip aboard a cruise ship during which students
gain firsthand experience of Antarctic tourism and are able to set that experience into the
context provided by the course material.

The Antarctic tourism course and a course on the Geography of Polar Regions are part of the
Minor in Northern Studies. The Northern Studies Committee provided some support to the
students who participated last year in the Antarctic field trip, and will contribute again this year.

University of Western Ontario—Norman Huner

Prof. Huner, post-doctoral fellow A. Ivanov, and PhD student R. Morgan study photo-chemical
processes in a green alga collected from Lake Bonney, McMurdo Dry Valleys.




                                                                                                        7
University of Toronto—Marianne Douglas

A number of University of Toronto researchers are currently involved in bipolar and, more
specifically, antarctic research.

Physicist Kent Moore and his students study air–sea interactions with regard to open ocean
polynyas with support from NSERC, the Office of Naval Research, and colleagues at the British
Antarctic Survey (BAS). Real-time monitoring of the ice pack off Antarctica allows for the early
detection of developing polynyas and increased understanding of the formation of Antarctic
Bottom Water. They are also studying the physics of an anomalous cloud type resulting from
strong fall and winter inversions.

Physics Professor R. Peltier and associates are developing models to track the Holocene stability
of the great polar ice sheets, determine the extent of continental Antarctic ice-mass loss between
21,000 and 6,000 Yr BP, and place Earth rotational constraints on the global sea-level rise.
Supported by NSERC and NERC funds, Prof. Peltier collaborates with colleagues in Britain and
Denmark.

Prof. B. Netterfield (Astronomy and Physics departments) was involved in the BOOMERANG
Telescope experiment and participated in the field phase during the austral summer 1998–1999.
This circumpolar balloon flight, roughly along latitude 78ΕS in early 1999, examined cosmic
microwave background. The work was conducted in collaboration with NASA, NSF, the Italian
Space Agency, and NSERC.

Geologist Prof. N. Eyles participated in the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 178 (Spring
1998) when cores were collected off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. His PhD student,
N. Januszczak, will participate in Leg 188 (Spring 2000) when target locations in the Prydz Bay
area, East Antarctica, will be drilled. Core data from offshore drilling is used to establish
sedimentation models to track the growth history of the continental margins. The project is
funded by NSERC and ODP.

Prof. M. Douglas (Geology Department) spent January 1999 in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, as
part of the Canadian Arctic–Antarctic Exchange program, to conduct a bipolar comparison of
freshwater algae and paleolimnology. This project was partially sponsored by the Polar
Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), the Northern Scientific Training Program (NSTP), and NSF.




8
Trent University—John Marsh

Prof. Marsh and his students continue research related to Antarctic and Arctic tourism, and Prof.
March also continues to assist the World Conservation Union’s World Commission on Protected
Areas in addressing protected area issues in Antarctica.

Queen’s University—Robert Gilbert

Prof. Gilbert and graduate student Åsa Chong have spent two summers along the Antarctic
Peninsula studying fiord sediments, building on experience from similar studies in arctic Canada
and Greenland. Gilbert will return in May 2000 to collect sediment cores in areas that have
become accessible for the first time due to the recent extensive break-up of the northern part of
the Larsen Ice Shelf.

University of Ottawa—Hugh French

H. French participated in Project 2a.I.3 of the Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide
(PNRA) during the 1998–1999 austral summer. The PNRA maintains a research station at Terra
Nova Bay, Northern Foothills, Northern Victoria Land, latitude 74Ε50' S. A wide range of
scientific research activities is supported by way of excellent logistics support and a station
capable of supporting 120 persons which is open from October to February each year. The
station was established in 1984–85. Principal investigator for Project 2a.1.3 is Professor
Francesco Dramis, Department of Geology, University of Rome. Working with Dr. Mauro
Guglielmin, a geologist attached to the Lombardy Regional Survey, Prof. French’s
responsibilities were for permafrost distribution and periglacial/ snow-ice phenomena. Assisted
by technician Luigi Bonnetti, also of the Lombardy Regional Survey, H. French set up two
permafrost monitoring stations in the vicinity of Terra Nova station during the period October
25–December 5, 1999.

H. French has had earlier involvement with PNRA: In February 1994 and November 1996, he
was invited to lecture at universities in Rome, Camerino, Naples, Florence, and Milan.

A draft three-year agreement on Arctic–Antarctic co-operation in permafrost and earth science
research between the University of Ottawa and the University of Rome is currently being
circulated among the interested parties. PNRA and PCSP have been proposed as the respective
logistics sponsors. The University of Ottawa has agreed in principle and is awaiting finalization
from the Italian side.


                                                                                                    9
In the 1999-2000 austral summer, A. G. Lewkowicz (Department of Geography) will be at Terra
Nova Bay October 25–December 6. In the 2000–2001 austral summer, H. French will again visit
Terra Nova Bay and possibly Cape Roberts or the Dome C drilling sites.

Université du Québec à Montréal—David Bird

Prof. Bird and students study the microbial ecology of bacteria in arctic and antarctic
environments, including microbial activities in the Vostok ice core.

McGill University—Wayne Pollard

Three departments have current or recent research interests relating to Antarctica, including:
Geography (W. Pollard, D. Andersen, and D. Mueller), Biology (Eleanor Bell), and Oceanic and
Atmospheric Studies (L. Mysak).

Research interests at McGill include:

Landscape and Paleoclimatic Evolution—W. Pollard in collaboration with Peter Doran and
Robert Wharton, United States Antarctic Program (USAP)–McMurdo Long-Term Ecological
Research program (LTER), Chris Mackay, NASA Ames-USAP, and Warren Dickenson,
Victoria University, New Zealand. This research was the first to utilize the Canadian Arctic–
Antarctic Exchange Program and resulted in a paper presented to the 8th International Symposia
on Antarctic Earth Science; a second paper has been submitted for publication.

Extreme Environment Ecology—Dale Andersen and Derek Mueller both focus on aspects of
microbial ecology. Andersen, who has extensive Antarctic experience with NASA Ames, is
currently studying saline springs on Axel Heiberg Island. Mueller is doing a bipolar comparison
of microbial communities in cryoconite holes (Canada Glacier, White Glacier). Dr. Eleanor Bell,
a biologist, has studied plankton in a stratified saline lake in the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica,
work which is linked to that of Chris Mackay (NASA Ames), Peter Doran and Chris Fritzen
(McMurdo LTER), Marianne Douglas (University of Toronto), and Warwick Vincent
(Université Laval). D. Mueller also went south as part of the Canadian Arctic–Antarctic
Exchange Program.




10
Ocean Circulation and Sea Ice—Work in this area has been conducted by Lawrence Mysak,
Oceanic and Atmospheric Studies.

McGill also maintains a working relationship with the McMurdo LTER and NASA where their
work at Expedition Fiord is being used for comparative analysis with research in Antarctica.
Other activities include W. Pollard's participation on CCAR and the SCAR Geology Working
Group.

Université Laval—Warwick Vincent

More than 80 graduate students, their professors and many undergraduates work in the North
each year associated with three Université Laval research institutes: Centre d'études nordiques
(CEN); Groupe interuniversitaire de recherches en océanographie du Québec (GIROQ); and
Groupe d'études inuit et circumpolaires (GETIC). U Laval maintains a permanently staffed
research station on the shores of Hudson Bay (CEN, Kuujjuarapik) similar to some winter-over
stations in Antarctica; a CEN field camp on Bylot Island analogous to semi-permanent Antarctic
field stations; and a network of automated weather stations (AWS) mostly throughout subarctic
Québec and linked by satellite back to CEN (similar to the American AWS network in
Antarctica). U. Laval is also the centre of operations for the 30 million CAN$ Northern Open
Water program (NOW) in Arctic Canada (details at the GIROQ website:
www.fsg.ulaval.ca/giroq/now ).

Ongoing links with antarctic research and researchers have been a small but active part of this
focus on high latitude science. U. Laval has a Memorandum of Understanding with the Alfred
Wegener Institute, Germany, for collaborative work in the Antarctic as well as Arctic. Many of
the overseas participants in NOW conduct similar work in Antarctica, and Prof. Louis Legendre
(GIROQ) is co-organizer of an ongoing series of Gordon Conferences on polar oceans. For
example, he chaired the 1999 meeting in California that involved 120 invited researchers active
in Antarctic and/or Arctic oceanography. Prof. Warwick Vincent (CEN) has been conducting
research in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica from 1979 onwards. He and his students work
primarily on global change processes in northern lakes, but they also continue to be involved in a
variety of Antarctic initiatives such as the " Long Term Ecological Research " program in the
McMurdo Dry Valleys (National Science Foundation, USA) and the "Polar Microbial Consortia"
program led by New Zealand. The laboratory maintains a culture collection of high latitude
micro-organisms, including antarctic cyanobacteria. Dr. Vincent has an ongoing interest in
environmental management in the polar regions and helped lead the development of an
Environmental Code of Conduct for the McMurdo Dry Valleys.


                                                                                                     11
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Institut des Sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER)—
Serge Demers

The Institut des Sciences de la mer de Rimouski has two important research programs in
Antarctica. The first deals with the biodegradation of oil in Antarctica. This program is
conducted in collaboration with the Institut Français pour la recherche et la technologie polaires,
with the aim of studying the long-term effect of contamination by oil in three particular
environments of the Austral Ocean: sea ice, coastal soil, and subantarctic intertidal sediment.

The second considers the responses of marine ecosystems to enhanced Ultraviolet-B (UV-B)
radiation at different latitudes. Adverse effects on organisms have been observed at several
different trophic levels. Moreover, organisms from various ecosystems (i.e. tropical, temperate,
and polar) have been shown to be affected. Most investigations have been reductionist in
approach, considering single species or limited assemblages of organisms. Such studies are
difficult to extrapolate to predict community responses, and harder still to assess with respect to
latitudinal differences. In comparison with marine ecosystems at high latitudes, those at low
latitudes experience an environment that is more stable with respect to a number of
environmental variables and, although acclimatized to higher levels of irradiance, are
hypothesized to be less able to accommodate anticipated increases in UV-B radiation. Our
project examines the responses of planktonic ecosystems at various latitudes to realistic future
levels of UV radiation from North to South poles. Results will be of value in elucidating the
sensitivity of the base of the food web to UV radiation. This program will be carried out in
collaboration with researchers from Argentina, Brazil and United States.

University of New Brunswick—Jack Terhune

Prof. Jack Terhune continues collaboration with Australian scientists in the study of vocalization
dialects among Antarctic seals. As part of this study, a graduate student, will spend the austral
winter of 2000 at the Australian Mawson station.




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2.2 Fede ral Departments and Agencies

Canadian Museum of Nature—Kathy Conlan

Three scientists are currently conducting research on antarctic biology.

Dr. Michel Poulin worked on the benthic and epizoic diatoms from the Maritime Antarctic from
1994–1997. The materials were supplied from the polar studies of the Alfred Wegener Institute
for Polar and Marine Research, Germany. From 1998–1999, research shifted to sea-ice diatoms
and work with C. Riaux-Gobin in the French sector. Dr. Poulin will be visiting Antarctica
with the French team in October–December 1999.

Dr. Kathleen Conlan has had seven field trips to Antarctica since 1991, and has been active in
antarctic research and public outreach for nine years. Her research in the Antarctic deals with the
ecology of sea floor disturbance, reproductive synchrony to the annual plankton bloom, and
biodiversity and evolution. In addition to her research publications, Dr. Conlan has written
popular articles on Antarctica and has appeared on television and radio, and in magazines and
newspapers. She has made special efforts to educate children about the Arctic and Antarctic by
giving talks in schools and linking with groups by e-mail while in Antarctica. She plans to write
an autobiography for children of her Antarctic experiences, continue conducting bipolar
research, and expand polar teaching. Through her representation of Canadian biologists in
SCAR, Dr. Conlan hopes to enhance opportunities for Canadian scientists to work in Antarctica.

Environment Canada, Atmospheric and Climate Science Directorate/AES—Barry Goodison

Observation and modelling are essential in our weather, climate, and air quality initiatives. By
nature, the processes involved are commonly global, even when the particular focus is on a
region. Weather and climate models are global and require global observations, including both
polar regions. The Climate Research Branch (CRB) led the international WMO Solid
Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison, and several enquiries have been received on
precipitation measurement and the associated errors for Antarctica; this is one area in which
Canadian researchers can partner with others to address a common observational challenge
(contact: Barry Goodison). For climate modelling, atmospheric and ocean processes are basically
similar in both polar regions, but the process of sea ice formation is different and is currently not
well represented in models. The CRB Climate modelling group, CCCma, is planning a specific
experiment to study the effect of the recession of the Antarctic ice shelves on regional climate
and ocean water mass properties; this is a global model experiment, but focussed on the
Antarctic problem. Greg Flato is the contact person with the Climate Research Branch.

                                                                                                        13
The Air Quality Research Branch (AQRB) has strong polar interests. The extent to which ozone
depletion, as observed in Antarctica, might be replicated in the Arctic has been a particular
research focus. A special observatory was built in 1992 at Eureka, N.W.T., as a centre for
Canadian and international Arctic ozone studies. There are still considerable uncertainties in the
science of Arctic ozone depletion, more than with the Antarctic case. Canadian scientists run
models that simulate both polar regions, but their measurements are almost exclusively done in
the Arctic. The increasing UV-B radiation in the Arctic is also being monitored. EC scientists
participate in NASA ER-2 projects and these are sometimes focused on antarctic ozone, the last
being the Arctic Southern Hemisphere Experiment (ASHOE) during the spring of 1995 (David
Wardle, AQRB). A proposed Branch project with Germany to determine if the mercury
depletion phenomenon first observed in spring 1995 at Alert also occurs during the spring in
Antarctica, remains unfunded. This information is used in the formulation of hemispherical
and/or global mercury models currently being developed (Bill Schroeder, AQRB).

CRYSYS (Cryospheric System Study) focuses on the variability and change in the cryospheric
system in Canada. Led by CRB (Principal Investigator, Barry Goodison) the study currently
involves 15 Canadian universities and four federal departments. The cryosphere is a global
phenomenon, and CRYSYS will provide a Canadian focus for the proposed new World Climate
Research Program project CLIC (Climate and Cryosphere), which will have a strong Antarctic
focus. CLIC could offer opportunities for Canadian scientists with cryosphere/climate interests to
link with foreign investigations in Antarctica.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada—Eddy Carmack

High-latitude ocean climate research, by its very nature, requires a bipolar perspective. For
example, the global thermohaline circulation, sometimes called “the great conveyor belt”, is
driven by convective forcing in both hemispheres, and comparative studies of ocean convection
are essential if we are to adequately understand and model the ocean's role in climate.
Thermohaline (T/S) structures in both Arctic and Antarctic seas show remarkable similarity to
one another, again lending argument to comparative study. Indeed, such bipolar considerations
form the basis for high-latitude ocean researches planned under the World Climate Research
Program's CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Prediction) and CLIC (Climate and Cryosphere)
programmes. DFO scientists have participated in the planning phases of these programmes (e.g.
A Clarke, Bedford Institute of Oceanography; E. Carmack, Institute of Ocean Sciences).
However, participation in fieldwork in the southern Ocean has not been possible due to funding
constraints and other priorities.


14
Much ongoing international work in the Southern Ocean is presently co-ordinated through the
International Antarctic Zone programme (IAnZone) and this body forms a natural basis for
modest Canadian participation in future international research. Again, similarities to Arctic
programs and Canadian strengths are obvious: IAnZone is currently focusing on shelf-basin
interaction, processes which have been the focus of Canadian work in the Beaufort Sea over the
past two decades.

Efforts to bring oceanographic modelling approaches to Antarctic freshwater
bodies are also underway. One example is recent work to predict circulation in Lake Vostok, a
freshwater lake roughly the size of Lake Ontario that is covered by almost 4000 m of glacial ice.
(see Wuest and Carmack, 2000). Lake Vostok is also considered as an analogue to planetary
exploration; in turn, proposals are being developed to test new technologies.

Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada—Roy Koerner

Presently the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Arctic program falls into two basic parts:
Glacier/ice-cap mass balance; and ice-core/climate studies.

The GSC continues to measure the mass balance of: the northern catchment of the Agassiz Ice
Cap (started 1977); the Meighen Ice Cap (1960); the Melville Ice Cap (1964); and the Devon Ice
Cap (1961). These measurements show no overall trend in either winter snow accumulation or
summer melt over the 30–40 year period, indicating the eastern Arctic is not presently taking part
in continuing global warming. The ice core/pollution program, begun in 1964 with the Polar
Continental Shelf Project, has drilled four surface-to-bed cores on the Devon Ice Cap, five on the
Agassiz Ice Cap, and one on the Meighen Ice Cap. These have provided climatic/snow chemistry
records covering the last glacial period. The program includes annual snow sampling on the four
mass balance ice caps and wherever ice drilling is in progress.

There is no active glaciology field program in Antarctica. The work presently undertaken is
with the use of satellite imagery, modelling, and the use of data generated by various Antarctic
field programs of other nations.

Tom James, a post-glacial rebound modeller, is working on Antarctica "both in terms of
contributions to sea-level since the last Glacial Maximum, and in terms of present-day
contributions to sea level change. This is effected by changing surface load caused by ice sheet
fluctuations on the solid Earth." Most of the work is done in close collaboration with E. Ivins
(Jet Propulsion Lab). James and Ivins are also refining the ice sheet history of the Antarctic


                                                                                                     15
Peninsula. James is also working on Roosevelt Island data to calculate the uplift rate that could
be measured on the nearest bedrock exposure.

Laurence Gray (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing) continues to work on the RADARSAT
AMM interferometric data for ice motion with his CCRS colleagues and with Joughin (Jet
Propulsion Laboratory) and Bindschadler (NASA) on the tributary system feeding the West
Antarctic Ice Streams and the ice flux draining through the Filchner Ice Shelf.

Drs. James and Gray have published several papers in international journals on this Antarctic
work.



2.3 Commercial Activities

Expedition Logistics—Geoff Green

Geoff Green represented the Canadian Antarctic tour operator, Marine Expeditions Inc., and his
own company, Expedition Logistics. Mr. Green was a representative at this year's meeting of the
International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) in Hamburg, Germany. A
Canadian expedition leader, Mr. Green has led 42 expeditions to Antarctica, as well as many to
the Arctic, and contracts his leading and consulting services to several organizations around the
world, including the World Wildlife Fund, the Smithsonian Institution, the Discovery Channel,
and the National Audubon Society. He also conducts an educational lecture series on the polar
regions to student groups and corporations across Canada and the U.S..

Mr. Green described his "Students to Antarctica" expedition, which is a project to take 100 high
school students on an educational journey to Antarctica in December 2000. This is a
ship-based expedition leaving from Ushuaia, Argentina, and concentrating on the Antarctic
Peninsula. A tailored educational program will be an integral part of each student's experience,
and live Internet links will allow students from across Canada and the world to share in the
journey. It was explained that the “Students to Antarctica” expedition is a flagship for annual
student expeditions to Antarctica and the Canadian Arctic, as well as a catalyst in developing an
Antarctic–Arctic educational curriculum for Canadian schools. Mr. Green proposed that CCAR
consider becoming involved with the student expedition as an academic sponsor. This could
involve CCAR assistance in developing an Antarctic educational curriculum and/or CCAR
members implementing or participating in shipboard research projects during the expedition.
Benefits to CCAR/CPC would include: exposure to schools across Canada; the raising of public


16
awareness of CCAR/CPC and Canadian polar science; facilitation of polar research projects; and
the potential for funding spin-offs to the CCAR community.

Icefield Instruments Inc.

Icefields Instruments Inc., Whitehorse, Yukon, has developed ice-coring equipment and
improved methods for analysis of core samples and has worked on glaciers in many countries.
The company is currently working for the U.S. component of the International Trans-Antarctic
Scientific Expeditions (ITASE).\

Biozyme Systems Ltd.

Biozyme Systems Inc. of North Vancouver specializes in bioprocessing of marine raw materials
and plans to start commercial scale fishing of krill in the South Atlantic in late 2000 within the
precautionary fishery regime of CCAMLR (Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Marine Living Resources). The company and its partners urge more active participation by
Canada in antarctic science; in particular, the group feels that Canada should become a member
of the CCAMLAR Commission.

2.4 Related Activities—Olav H. Loken

As it was not possible to gather all Canadian scientists involved in antarctic and bipolar science
some activities have not been reported. The following paragraphs address some of these gaps,
but CCAR is also seeking information on other initiatives or activities which may be relevant.
From west to east in Canada, CCAR noted the following activities:

Natural Resources Canada (Polar Continental Shelf Project)—Bonni Hrycyk

Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), Natural Resources Canada, works in collaboration with
the Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research in managing the Canadian Arctic–Antarctic
Exchange Program. Established in 1996, the Program is designed to encourage scientific
collaborations among Canadian Arctic research scientists and their Antarctic colleagues. In
addition, the Canadian Polar Commission has designated the PCSP to represent Canada on the
Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), which serves as a co-
ordinating body among national Antarctic operators, and on the affiliated logistics co-ordinating
body for Antarctica, Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistics and Operations (SCALOP).
Efforts have advanced to establish a similar co-ordination mechanism for circumpolar Arctic


                                                                                                     17
countries, the Forum of Arctic Research Operators (FARO) which Canada (PCSP) currently
chairs.

Foreign Affairs and International Trade—Fred Roots

Several recent and ongoing developments affect the policy setting in which Canadian bi-
polar and antarctic research is carried out and supported. Within Canada, international and
antarctic relations will now be focused on the newly created Aboriginal and Circumpolar Affairs
Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT). Antarctic policy
matters are the responsibility of the Deputy Director, Elaine Koren. Canada’s Ambassador for
Circumpolar Affairs, Mary Simon, has also been appointed Ambassador to Denmark and
Greenland, while keeping her circumpolar portfolio. She has stated her intention to use her
double responsibilities and enhanced connections with Greenland to pursue increased
circumpolar scientific co-operation, especially in the social sciences.

Dr. Fred Roots is scientific adviser to both the Office of the Circumpolar Ambassador and the
Aboriginal and Circumpolar Affairs Division. Since 1991, Dr. Roots has been the Canadian
delegate to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and attended the XXIII ATCM in Lima,
Peru in 1999. During that meeting, on behalf of Canada, Dr. Roots: prepared and presented the
report from Canada; prepared and presented the report on circumpolar scientific developments in
the Arctic that are relevant to the Antarctic; prepared a Working Paper on the relevance of the
Antarctic Treaty to the World Conference on Science, which was sponsored jointly by Canada
and Ecuador; attended all sessions of the ATCM Committee on Environmental Protection, and
on Science and Operations; participated in the special international workshop on criteria and
delineation of protected areas in Antarctica; provided the Canadian contact and address for a web
site on information exchange on environmental issues in Antarctica; and agreed on behalf of
Canada to adoption of guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment on Antarctica. At the
United Nations (UNESCO/ICSU) World Conference on Science held in Budapest, Hungary
June–July 1999, Dr. Roots was instrumental in ensuring that research in the polar regions was
noted specifically in the Science Agenda for the 21st Century that was endorsed by 154
countries. It may be noted that the Canadian presentation to the plenary assembly was the only
national statement that specifically referred to "Antarctic and polar research" by name.




18
Other science-related, policy-connected activities include:

    •   promotion and liaison of research and international co-ordination of technical
        specifications for ship navigation in Arctic and Antarctic waters, under the International
        Maritime Organization (working group led by Canada)

    •   assessment of proposals for research on climate change in polar regions, in response to
        Canadian commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

Canadian Polar Commission—Alan Saunders

Alan Saunders, Canadian Polar Commission, is National Antarctic Data Co-ordinator and
Canadian representative to the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM), a
joint committee of SCAR and COMNAP. In June 1999, the Commission hosted the first joint
meeting of the JCADM and the International Arctic Environmental Data Directory (ADD)
Council. Arctic and Antarctic Data Management: The Bipolar Context, a report based on the
proceedings of the meeting, is now being prepared in conjunction with L. Belbin, Australian
Antarctic Division, M. Thorley, British Antarctic Survey, D. Henry, GRID-Arendal, and T.
Northcutt, Global Change Master Directory. Representatives of polar research groups from close
to 40 countries participated in the four-day meeting.

3. Canadian Strategy for Antarctic and Bipolar Science

Rapporteur's Report
Kevin Hall

The discussion centred around six potential strategies as outlined by the workshop chair:

1) withdraw from the Antarctic Treaty and SCAR;
2) be a "great polar nation" via substantial dollar input;
3) maintain the status quo in Antarctic/bipolar research;
4) encourage a moderate scaling up of "in situ research" in Antarctica;
5) increase awareness in Canada regarding the importance of antarctic/bipolar science; and
6) strengthen Canada's northern research.

Points 4 and 5 were the key elements of the discussion paper produced by CCAR and circulated
to all participants prior to the workshop.(Antarctic and Bipolar Science: A Strategic Plan for
Canada)

                                                                                                     19
Extensive debate enabled all participants to make their views known. In general, it was felt that
Canada's accession to the Antarctic Treaty, as a non-consultative party, was done without a
broad commitment to fulfilling Treaty obligations, and many governmental bodies now affected
by it have been—and probably still are—unaware of all the implications. “Education” was
therefore identified as a major consideration. It became clear that there is a great need to improve
awareness, from kindergarten through to the ministerial level, of the CPC and CCAR, of
Canada's history in the Antarctic, and of the significance of Antarctic studies to Canada's
scientific undertakings and economic initiatives (e.g., relevance of antarctic
glacial/oceanic/climatic elements to the northern hemisphere; income derived by Canadian
companies as a result of Antarctic tourism, goods, or services.) This increased awareness also
needs to be communicated to the private sector, as Canada is "potentially poised to be central to
bipolar commercial undertakings". This educational component is critical and needs to be
packaged in a professional way.

A central issue underpinning the entire debate, and one of particular sensitivity within the
Canadian context, is the current need for more Arctic research and the inadequacy of the current
logistical infrastructure that supports it. Current budgets are woefully small, older research
stations are no longer viable while others are used to capacity, and in many instances Canadian
research can only be done by "piggy-backing" on foreign undertakings without which very little
could be achieved. The parochialism with respect to the Arctic also engenders serious
antagonism in some quarters with respect to increased support for a Canadian Antarctic program.
The situation is often portrayed as a zero-sum game in which any funding for the Antarctic is
perceived as a loss for Arctic research, which is itself grossly underfunded. The existing situation
is viewed as conflictual rather than mutually supportive, and one which scientific peers and
colleagues have frequently exacerbated—rightly or wrongly—by open opposition or lack of
support at the granting (e.g., NSERC/SSHRC) level. In some respects, the problems facing
Arctic research in Canada have further complicated an already untenable situation in which
Canada finds itself party to an agreement without strong and broadly based commitment or an
adequate knowledge of the historical context.

Any strategy for the future must be viewed as credible, as the issue is one of national importance.
At present, much of the research work in the Arctic is undertaken on a "shoestring" budget; at the
same time, there is little support for Antarctic research. (Following the workshop, in response to
the CCAR Discussion Paper, some government groups have expressed strong optimism for
future support for bipolar and Antarctic research.) At the national level, this should be
recognized in comparison with other countries. For example countries, such as Peru, Lithuania,
Venezuela, and Ukraine, are prepared to fund Antarctic research, including an Antarctic base and

20
logistical support; other "non-polar" nations, such as Holland, France, Germany, the United
Kingdom, and Italy have active programs in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Canada is paying lip-
service to its polar role by underfinancing polar research, even in its own "backyard".

With these comments, it was suggested that withdrawal from international Antarctic Treaty
obligations (point 1) was impractical and would be counter-productive. A significant increase in
funding (point 2) was viewed as unrealistic; however, government should be prepared to answer
the question, “Why not?”, particularly when other countries can achieve this despite their own
economic problems. The status quo, while it would allow for some work to continue, was not
seen as a satisfactory way forward. In discussion around all three points, it was noted that
Canada has lacked an organization and voice to tackle these issues adequately and in a timely
fashion.

The consensus among participants was that a moderate scaling up of Canadian Antarctic research
(point 4) is the most appropriate strategy, but it was noted that this can only be achieved in
conjunction with increased awareness of the importance of antarctic/bipolar science (point 5) and
a strengthening of Canada's northern research (point 6). Strengthening Arctic research would
create a critical mass of Canadian polar scientists whose expertise would be valuable in the
Antarctic, and an organizational infrastructure in which that Antarctic experience would, in turn,
be utilized in Canada. With this as the way forward (points 4, 5, and 6) the creation of a
"Canadian Foundation for Antarctic Research” should be strongly considered, with input from
the private sector. Such a body would provide a small measure of financial support to help
maintain and encourage Canada's present (and not inconsequential) Antarctic involvement. The
steps by which to implement this and obtain financial support will be examined.

There is strength in Canadian Antarctic research, but future development depends on the health
of Canada’s Arctic research programs. Canada has placed itself in a contentious situation under
the Antarctic Treaty, and this must be addressed, in part through the establishment of a better
system of communications. Overwhelmingly, the consensus was that Canada clearly has the
potential to be a real player of significance and that it is a duty that must be undertaken for future
generations if Canada is to play any meaningful role in the Arctic, the Antarctic or science in
general.




                                                                                                         21
4. Closing Remarks—Warwick F. Vincent, Chair CCAR

A number of important themes and conclusions have emerged from this workshop, and we must
now follow up on these. The first is the remarkable breadth of antarctic and bipolar science
activities undertaken by Canadians over the last few years. This is underscored not only by the
diversity of scientific interests among the workshop participants, but also by the number of
Canadian scientists in Antarctica each year (Appendix D) and the large output of publications by
Canadians in the international scientific literature (Appendix C). This significant level of
contribution is to be expected given the longstanding expertise of Canadians in cold regions
research. CCAR will continue to identify these contributions.

Second, our discussions reaffirmed the strong commercial presence of Canadians in the Antarctic
region. Given the vital importance of cold regions science and technology to everyday life in
much of Canada throughout winter, this Canadian presence in Antarctica again seems logical and
likely to expand in the future.

Third, there is limited awareness of Canada’s obligations and commitment to the Antarctic
Treaty. The Treaty, specifically the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic
Treaty, devotes this region to “Peace and Science” (Article 2). The commitment to peace and
focus on cold regions science and technology makes this agreement by 44 adherent nations a
remarkably “Canadian” international treaty, but we need to look more closely at defining
Canada’s role as a signatory.

Fourth, any discussion about Antarctica in Canada is necessarily linked to discussions about the
Arctic, and Canadian arctic research. CCAR has a role to play in helping place Canadian arctic
research in a more global, bipolar context (thereby also contributing toward our Antarctic Treaty
commitments) and in helping the CPC and others strengthen northern research in Canada.

Fifth, given Canada’s other priorities, it is not appropriate to consider a major scaling up of
Canadian research activities in Antarctica. There was little enthusiasm for a Canadian Antarctic
base, although cost-sharing of existing facilities may be of interest. Reciprocal arrangements
such as the Canada Arctic–Antarctic Exchange Program, run by the Polar Continental Shelf
Project in collaboration with CCAR, would seem a preferable approach, to the benefit of all
countries. Some support does seem necessary for Antarctic research undertaken by Canadians.
NSERC has affirmed that antarctic research is eligible for consideration under all of its
programs. Of course, these programs are already stretched to the limit and in the past have had
difficulty supporting northern research to the extent that it deserves. An alternative option that
was endorsed by this workshop is the establishment of a Canadian Foundation for Antarctic

22
Research that could work in partnership with Canadian industry and others toward providing a
small amount of support to Canadian researchers (e.g., travel costs).

CCAR will now work with these ideas and with additional input from the written responses to
the Strategy discussion paper, and will, in concert with the CPC, prepare a Canadian
antarctic/bipolar science plan that builds on the discussion paper and reflects these ideas.

Finally I would like to thank all of you who contributed toward making this workshop a success.
Our workshop was hosted by the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA), and on behalf of
CCAR I thank the Executive Director of AINA, Michael Robinson, and his staff for their
gracious hospitality in such an appropriate setting. We are also grateful to Professor Kevin Hall
for his superb work as rapporteur during the workshop and for his co-editing and contributions to
this report. I thank all the participants at the Calgary meeting for their stimulating presentations
and feedback (and look forward to it continuing); and the Canadian Polar Commission for their
support of CCAR activities; and Mr. Alan Saunders (CPC) for his assistance as production
editor. Finally, I extend a special thanks to Dr. Olav Loken, secretary to CCAR, for his excellent
work in editing the discussion paper and the current report, and for ensuring the smooth
organization and running of this productive meeting. If you have additional comments on the
strategy paper or on issues raised in this report, we would be very pleased to hear from you.




                                                                                                       23
APPENDIX A

Agenda—CCAR Workshop
October 16, 1999, 0900-1700hrs

Arctic Institute of North America, MacKimmie Library Tower,
11th floor, 2500 University Drive, University of Calgary.

1. Introduction and Welcome (Warwick Vincent, Chair, CCAR/CCRA)

2. Welcome to Calgary/A CPC Perspective (Michael Robinson, Chairperson, Canadian Polar
Commission.)

3. Overview of Discussion Paper. How did it come about? What do we seek to achieve? Where are we at?
(Olav Loken)

4. The Context. Who in Canada is doing/planning what in Antarctic related actvities? Information
exchange. A series of short presentations (5–10 min. each)

        a) In the universities

        b) In government departments/agencie s

        c) In the private sector

LUNCH

Afternoon session
Rapporteur : Prof. Kevin Hall (University of Northern British Columbia)

5. Comments on the discussion paper (all).

6. Discussion of key points to arrive at consensus about the next steps.

7. Canadian Foundation for Antarctic Research (CFAR). What is the best way to go about it?

8. Summary: Action to Be Taken

9. Closing Remarks




24
APPENDIX B

ATTENDANCE AT CCAR WORKSHOP, CALGARY, AB, OCT. 16/1999

Steven Bigras
Executive Director
Canadian Polar Commission
Suite 1710, Constitution Square
360 Albert St.
OTTAWA ON, K1R 7X7
Tel: (613) 943-8605
Fax: (613) 943-8607
bigrass@polarcom.gc.ca

Eddy Carmack
Research Scientist
Institute of Ocean Sciences
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
P.O. Box 6000, Stn Main
SIDNEY, B.C., V8L 4B2
Tel: (250) 363-6585
Fax: (250) 363-6746
CarmackE@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Kathy Conlan
Research Scientist
Canadian Museum of Nature
P.O. Box 3443, Stn. D
OTTAWA, ON, K1P 6P4
Tel:(613) 364-4063
Fax: (613) 364-4027
kconlan@mus-nature.ca

Serge Demers
Directeur
Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski
Université du Québec à Rimouski
310 allée des Ursulines
RIMOUSKI QC, G5L 3A1
Tél: (418) 723-1986 Ext. 1651
Fax: (418) 724-1842
serge_demers@uqar.uquebec.ca
                                                         25
Marianne Douglas
Professor
Department of Geology
University of Toronto
22 Russell Street
TORONTO ON, M5S 3B1
Tel: (416) 978-3709
Fax: (416) 978-3938
msvd@opal.geology.utoronto.ca

Hugh French
Professor
Department of Geology and Geography
University of Ottawa
P.O.Box. 450, Station A
OTTAWA, ON, K1N 6N5
Tel: (613) 562-5800
Fax: (613) 562-5192
hfrench@science.uottawa.ca

Barry Goodison
Chief
Climate Processes and Earth Observation Division
Climate Research Branch
Atmospheric Environment Servic e
4905 Dufferin Street
DOWNSVIEW, ON, M3H 5T4
Tel: (416) 739-4345
Fax: (416) 739-5700
Barry.Goodison@ec.gc.ca

Geoff Green
Expedition Logistics Inc.
R.R.#2
CARRYING PLACE, ON, K0K 1L0
Tel: (613) 392-2207
Fax: (613) 392-0694
GeoffGreen@compuserve.com




26
Kevin Hall
Professor and Chair
Geography Programme
University of Northern British Columbia
3333 University Way
PRINCE GEORGE, B.C., V2N 4Z9
Tel: (250) 960-5864
Fax: (250) 960-5539
hall@unbc.ca

Gerald Holdsworth
Research Associate
The Arctic Institute of North America
2500 University Drive N.W.
CALGARY, AB, T2N 1N4
Tel: (403) 220-7515
Fax: (403) 282-4609
gholdswo@ucalgary.ca

Bonni Hrycyk
Director
Polar Continental Shelf Project
Natural Resources Canada
Polar Continental Shelf Project
615 Booth Street, Room 491
OTTAWA, ON, K1A 0E9
Tel: (613) 947-1601
Fax: (613) 947-1611
bhrycyk@nrcan.gc.ca

Margaret E. Johnston
Director
School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism
Lakehead University
THUNDER BAY, ON, P7B 5E1
Tel: (807) 343-8377
Fax: (807) 346-7836
Margaret.Johnston@lakeheadu.ca




                                                  27
Roy Koerner
Research Scientist, Glaciology
Terrain Sciences Division
Geological Survey of Canada
601 Booth St.
OTTAWA, ON, K1A 0E8
Tel: (613) 996-7623
Fax: (613) 996-5448
koerner@gsc.nrcan.gc.ca

David Lertzman
The Arctic Institute of North America
2500 University Drive N.W.
CALGARY, AB, T2N 1N4
Tel: (403) 220-4045
Fax: (403) 282-4609
Lertzman@ucalgary.ca

Olav Loken
Consultant
1170 Bonnie Crescent
OTTAWA, ON, K2C 1Z5
Tel. & Fax.: (613) 225-4234
oloken@sympatico.ca

Wayne Pollard
Professor
Department of Geography
McGill University
805 Sherbrooke St.
MONTREAL, PQ, H3A 2K6
Tel: (514) 398-4454
Fax: (514) 398-7437
pollard@felix.geog.mcgill.ca




28
Michael Robinson
Chair
Canadian Polar Commission
c/o The Arctic Institute of North America
2500 University Drive N.W.
CALGARY, AB, T2N 1N4
Tel: (403) 220-7515
Fax: (403) 282-4609
mrobinso@ucalgary.ca

Fred Roots
Science Advisor Emeritus
Environment Canada
351 St. Joseph Boul., First Floor
OTTAWA, ON, K1A 0H3
Tel: (819) 997-2393
Fax: (819) 997-5813
fred.roots@ec.gc.ca

Warwick Vincent
(Chair CCAR/CCRA)
Professor
Departement de biologie
Université Laval
SAINTE-FOY, QC, G1K 7P4
Tel: (418) 656-5644
Fax: (418) 656-2043
warwick.vincent@bio.ulaval.ca




                                            29
APPENDIX C

Recent Canadian Contributions to Antarctic and Bipolar Science

This list contains papers published since the Bibliography of Canadian Contributions to
Antarctic and Bipolar Science was compiled in mid-1997, and is thus an extension of that
document. It also contains a few older publications we were not aware of when the previous
document was compiled. Efforts have been made to include all publications, but we suspect
some are missing. We would welcome your help in identifying omission so that the list can be as
complete as possible.

Names of Canadian co-authors are underlined, except when all are Canadians. As before the
publications are listed according to SCAR subsidiary groups in the following sequence:

Biology
          UV effects
          Marine
          Terrestrial-Freshwater

Hydrology

Geodesy and Geographical Information

Geology
       Bedrock
       Geomorphology

Glaciology

Human Biology and Medicine

Solid-Earth Geophysics

Environmental Affairs

Global Change and the Antarctic

Others

30
Biology
UV Effects

Belzile, C., S. Demers, D.R.S. Lean, B. Mostajir, S. Roy, S. de Mora, M. Gosselin, D. Bird, J.-P.
Chanut, and M. Levasseur,1998: “An experimental tool for the study of the effects of ultraviolet
radiation of planktonic communities: a mesocosm approach”. Environ. Technol. 19 : 667–682.

Belzile, C., S. Johannessen, M. Gosselin, S. Demers, and W.L. Miller. (In press): “UV
attenuation by dissolved and particulate constituents of first-year ice during late spring in an
Arctic polyna.” Limnol. Oceanogr.

Chatila, K., S. Demers, B. Mostajir, J.-P. Chanut, and P. Monfort 1999: “Bacterivory of a natural
heterotrophic protozoan population exposed to different intensities of ultraviolet radiation”.
Aquat. Micro. Ecol. 20: 59–74.

Chatila, K., S. Demers, B Mostajir, M. Gosselin, J-P. Chanut, P. Montfort, and D. Bird (In
press): “The responses of a natural bacterioplankton community to different levels of ultraviolet-
B radiation: a food web perspective. Microbial Ecology.

de Mora, S., S. Demers, and M. Vernet 2000: The effects of UV Radiation in the marine
environment. Cambridge University Press. 320 pp.

Fauchot, J., M. Gosselin, M. Levasseur, B. Mostajir, C. Belzile, S. Demers, and S. Roy 2000:
“Influence of UV-B radiation on nitrogen utilization by a natural assemblage of phytoplankton”.
J. Phycol. 36.

Ferreyra, G. A., S. Demers, P. del Giorgio, and J.-P. Chanut. 1997: “Responses of phytoplankton
productivity and community structure to UV radiation in the Redberry Lake”. Can. J. Fish.
Aquat. Sc. 54 : 705–714.

Ferreyra, G. A., I. R. Schloss, S. Demers, and P. Neale 1995: “Phytoplankton responses to
natural UV irradiance during early spring in the Weddell-Scotia confluence”. Antarctic J.
29:268–270.

Markager, S. and W.F. Vincent 2000: “Spectral light attenuation and the absorption of UV and
blue light in natural waters”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45: 642–650.



                                                                                                     31
Mostajir, B., S. Demers, S. de Mora, C. Belzile, J.-P. Chanut, M. Gosselin, S. Roy, P. Z.
Villegas, J. Fauchot, J. Bouchard, D. Bird, P. Monfort and M.. Levasseur 1999: “Experimental
test of the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation in a planktonic community”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44:
586–596.

Mostajir, B., T. Sime-Ngando, S. Demers, S. Roy, S. de Mora, J.-P. Chanut, C. Belzile, J.
Fauchot, and M. Levasseur 1999: “Ecological implications of changes in cell size and
photosynthetic capacity of marine Prymnesiophyceae induced by ultraviolet-B radiation”. Mar.
Ecol. Progr. Ser. 187: 89–100.

Mostajir, B., S. Demers, S. J. de Mora, R. P. Bukata, and J. H. Jerome 2000: “Implications of
UV radiation on the food web structure and consequences on the carbon flow”. In: de Mora, S.,
S. Demers and M. Vernet (eds). The effects of UV Radiation in the marine environment.
Cambridge University Press. p. 310–320.

Mousseau, L., M. Gosselin, M. Levasseur, S. Demers, B. Mostajir , P. Villegas, and S. Roy.
2000: “Long-term effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on community structure and on simultaneous
transport of carbon and nitrogen by estuarine phytoplankton during a mesocosm study”. Mar.
Ecol. Progr. Ser. 199: 69–81.

Neale, P.J., R.F. Davis, and J.J. Cullen. 1998: “Interactive effects of ozone depletion and vertical
mixing on photosynthesis of Antarctic phytoplankton. Nature 392: 585–589.

Nozais, C., G. Desrosiers, M. Gosselin, C. Belzile, and S. Demers. 1999: “Effects of ambient
UVB radiation in a microbenthic community of a tidal mudflat”. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 189:
149–158.

Quesada, A. and W.F. Vincent, 1997: “Strategies of adaptation by Antarctic cyanobacteria to
ultraviolet radiation”. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 335–342

Rae, R., Howard-Williams, C., Hawes, I., and W.F. Vincent. (In press) “Temperature-
dependence of photosynthetic recovery from solar damage in Antarctic phytoplankton”. SCAR,
Christchurch.




32
Roos, J. & Vincent, W.F. 1998: “Temperature dependence of UV radiation effects on Antarctic
cyanobacteria”. J. Phycol. 34: 78–85.

Sakka, A., M. Gosselin, M. Levasseur, S. Michaud, and S. Demers 1997: “Effects of utraviolet
radiation on the marine production dimethylsulfopropionate and dimethylsulfide during a
microcosm study”. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 149 : 227–238.

Scully, N, Lean, D.R.S, and Vincent, W.F. 2000: “Exposure to ultraviolet radiation in aquatic
ecosystems: estimating the effect of surface layer mixing”. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57 (suppl.
1): 43–51.

Scully, N., Vincent, W.F., Lean, D.R.S., and Cooper, W. 1998 : “Implications of ozone depletion
for surface water photochemistry”. Aquatic Sciences 59: 260–274.

Vincent, W.F. and Neale, P.J. 2000. “Mechanisms of UV damage to aquatic organisms”. In: S.J.
de Mora et al. “Effects of UV Radiation on Marine Environments”. Cambridge University Press,
United Kingdom p.149–176.

Vincent, W.F., Rae, R., Laurion, I., Howard-Williams, C., and J. Priscu. 1998: “Transparency of
Antarctic ice-covered lakes to solar UV radiation”. Limnol. oceanogr. 43: 618-624..

Vincent, W.F., and A. Quesada. 1997: “Microbal niches in the polar environment and the escape
from UV radiation in non-marine habitats”. In: Battaglia, B, J.Valencia and D.W.H. Walton
(eds.) 1997: Antarctic Communities—Species, Structure and Survival. Cambridge University
Press. 388–396.

Whitehead, R., S. de Mora, and S. Demers 2000: “Enhanced UV radiation—a new problem for
the marine environment”. In: de Mora, S., S. Demers and M. Vernet (eds). The effects of UV
Radiation in the marine environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 1–33.

Whitehead, R. F., S. de Mora, S. Demers, D. Lean, M.. Gosselin, and B. Mostajir (In press).
“Influence of UV-B enhanced solar radiation on carbon cycling in a mesocosm experiment”.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 45: 278–291.




                                                                                                   33
Marine

Bird, D.F. and D.M. Karl. 1999: Uncoupling of bacteria and phytoplankton during the austral
spring bloom in Gerlache Strait, Antarctic Peninsula. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 19: 13-27.

Chatila, K., S. Demers, B. Mostajir, J.-P. Chanut and P. Monfort 1999: An endogenous
periodicity exhibited in the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community. Can. J. Microbiol.
45: 555-564.

Conlan, K. E. 1998: Influence of the McMurdo Station sewage outfall on coastal
marine fauna. New Zealand Natural Sciences 23 Supplement: 36.

Conlan, K. E., G. H. Rau and G. A. McFeters. ( In press): Influence of McMurdo Station sewage
on antarctic marine benthos: evidence from stable isotopes, bacteria, and biotic indices.
Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 1998 Semiannual Review Issue (2).

Conlan, K. E., G. H. Rau, G. A. McFeters, and R. G. Kvitek. (In press): “Influence of McMurdo
Station sewage on antarctic marine benthos: evidence from stable isotopes, bacteria, and biotic
indices”. Proceedings of the VII SCAR International Biology Symposium, 31 Aug.–4 Sept., 1998,
Christchurch, New Zealand.

Legendre, L. and Michaud, J. 1999: “Chlorophyll a to estimate the particulate organic carbon
available as food to large zooplankton in the euphotic zone of oceans”. J.Plankton Res. 21:
2067–2083

McFeters, G. A., D. D. Edwards, J. J. Smith, W. L. Jones, J. P. Barry, J. P. Howington,
M. I. Venakatesan, and K. E. Conlan. 1998: “Distribution, fate and impact of a sewage
outfall in an Antarctic marine environment”. New Zealand Natural Sciences 23
Supplement: 111.

Robinson, D.H., K.R. Arrigo, Z. Kolber, M. Gosselin, and C.W. Sullivan 1998:
“Phytophysiological evidence of nutrient limitation of platelet ice algae in McMurdo
Sound, Antarctica”. Journal of Phycology 34: 788-797.




34
Terrestrial–Freshwater

Karl, D.M., D.F. Bird, K. Björkman, T. Houlihan, R. Shackelford, and L. Tupas. 1999:
“Microorganisms in the accreted ice of Lake Vostok, Antarctica”. Science 286: 2144–2147.

Kepner, R.L., R.A.Wharton, and C.A. Suttle. 1998: “Viruses in Antarctic lakes”. Limnology and
Oceanography 43:1754–61.

Markager, S., Vincent, W.F., and E.P.Y. Tang. 1999: “Carbon fixation in high Arctic lakes:
Implications of low temperature for photosynthesis”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 597–607.

Morgan R.M., Ivanov A.G., Priscu J.C., Maxwell D.P., and Huner N.P.A. 1998: “Structure and
composition of the photochemical apparatus of the Antarctic green alga, Chlamydomonas
subcaudata”. Photosynthesis Research, 56: 303–314.

Tang, E.Y., Tremblay, R. & Vincent, W.F. 1997: “Cyanobacterial dominance of polar
freshwater ecosystems: are high latitude mat-formers adapted to the low temperature
environment?” J. Phycol. 33: 171–181.

Tang, E.P.Y. and Vincent, W.F. 1999: “Strategies of thermal adaptation by high latitude
cyanobacteria”. New Phytol. 142: 315–323.

Vézina, S. & Vincent, W.F. 1997: “Arctic cyanobacteria and limnological properties of their
environment: Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, Canada”. (73ΕN, 80ΕW). Polar Biology 17:
523–534.

Vincent, W.F. 1999a: “Antarctic Biogeochemistry: Icy life on a hidden lake”. Science 286:
2094–95.

Vincent, W.F. 1999b: “Cyanobacterial dominance in the polar regions”. In B.Whitton and M.
Potts.: Ecology of the Cyanobacteria: their Diversity in Space and Time. Kluwers Academic
Press p. 321–40.

Vincent, W.F. 2000: “De la vie dans le lac Vostok?” La Recherche, March: 14–16.

Vincent, W.F. 2000: “Evolutionary origins of Antarctic microbiota: invasion, selection, and
endemism.” Antarctic Science (in press).


                                                                                                35
Vincent, W.F., Bowman, J., Powell, L., and McMeekin, T. 1999: “Phylogenetic diversity of
picocyanobacteria in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems”. In: M. Brylinsky, C. Bell, and P.
Johnson-Green (eds): Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers. Proceedings of the 8th International
Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, p. 317–322.

Vincent, W.F., J.A.E. Gibson, R. Pienitz, V. Villeneuve, P.A. Broady, P.B. Hamilton, and C.
Howard-Williams (2000): “Ice shelf microbial ecosystems in the high Arctic and implications for
life on Snowball Earth”. Naturwissenschaften, 87: 137–141.

Vincent. W.F., & Howard-Williams, C. 2000: “Life on Snowball Earth.” Science 287: 2421.

Hydrology

Scully, N., Vincent, W.F., Lean, D.R.S., and S. MacIntyre. 1998: “Hydrogen peroxide as natural
tracer for mixing in surface layers”. Aquatic Sciences 60: 169–186.

Wuest, A. and E. Carmack. 2000: “A Priori estimates of mixing and circulation in Lake Vostok:
A hard-to-reach natural water body”. Ocean Modelling.



Geodesy and Geographical Information

Ivins E.R. and T.S.James, 1999: “Simple models for late Holocene and present-day Patagonian
glacier fluctuations and predictions of a geodetically detectable isostatic response”.
Geophys.J.Int, vol 138: 601–624.



Geology

Bedrock

Eyles, N., J. Daniels, L. Osterman, and N. Januszczak. 2000: “Ocean Drilling program Leg 178
(Antarctic Peninsula): sedimentology of glacially-influenced continental shelf ‘topsets’ and
‘foresets’". Marine Geology.

Rees, M.N., B.R. Pratt, and A.J. Rowell, 1989: “Early Cambrian reefs and associated lithofacies
of the Shackleton Limestone, Transantarctic Mountains”. Sedimentology, v. 36, pp. 341–361.


36
Rowell, A.J., M.N. Rees, R.A. Cooper, and B.R. Pratt, 1988: “Early Palaeozoic history of the
central Transantarctic Mountains: evidence from the Holyoake Range, Antarctica”. New Zealand
Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 31, pp. 397–404.

Geomorphology

Bockheim, J.G. and K. Hall. 1999: “Permafrost, active layer dynamics and periglacial
environments of continental Antarctica”, In: J. Lee-Thorp and H. Clift (eds.): Book of Abstracts,
XV International Congress, International Union for Quaternary Research, 26.

Bockheim, J.G., and C. Tarnocai 1998: “Nature, occurrence and origin of dry permafrost”. In:
Lewkowicz, A.G. and M. Allard (eds.): Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on
Permafrost, Université Laval. p.57–64.

L. Bonnetti, M. Guglielmin, and H. M. French 1999: “Studio dell’evoluzione paleoclimatica
delle aree deglaciate della Terra Vittorias Settentrionale, attraverso l’analisi della distribuzione
del permafrost e del ghiaccio sepolto. Rapporto sulla Campagna Antartica Estate Austral 1998–
99. Progetto Antartide 99/4, 16–17.

French, H. M. and M. Guglielmin 1999: “Observations on the ice-marginal periglacial
geomorphology of the Terra Nova Bay region, Northern Foothills, Northern Victoria Land,
Anatarctica”. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 10 (4): 331–348.

French, H. M. and M. Guglielmin 2000: “Permafrost-related landforms and processes, Terra
Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. A preliminary report”. Geografiska Annaler, 82.

Hall, K. 1997: “The impact of temperature record interval and sensor location on weathering
inference in periglacial environments”. Supplementi di Geografia Fisica e Dinamica
Quaternaria, III, 196.

Hall, K.1998a: “Rock temperatures and implications for cold region weathering: II. New data
from Rothera, Adelaide Island (Antarctica)”. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 9, 47–55

Hall, K.1998b: “Nivation or cryoplanation: different terms, same features”? Polar Geography,
22, 1–16.

Hall, K. 1998c: “Some observations and thoughts regarding Antarctic cryogenic weathering”.
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Permafrost, p. 151–152.

                                                                                                       37
Hall, K. 1998d: “Nivation or cryoplanation: Is there a difference”? Proceedings of the 7th
International Conference on Permafrost, p. 149–150.

Hall, K. 1999a: “The role of thermal stress fatigue in the breakdown of rock in cold regions”, in
R. Giardino and R Marston (Eds): Changing the Face of the Earth: Engineering
Geomorphology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Hall, K.1999b: “Terrestrial Environments”, In: A. Lewkowicz (ed.): Poles Apart: Arctic and
Antarctic. A Study in Contrasts. University of Ottawa, p. 213–216.

Hall, K. 1999c: “Present and Quaternary periglacial processes and landforms of the maritime and
sub-Antarctic region: A review”, In: J. Lee-Thorp and H. Clift (eds.): Book of Abstracts, XV
International Congress, International Union for Quaternary Research: 77.

Hall, K. 1999d. “The role of thermal stress fatigue in the breakdown of rock in cold regions.”
Geomorphology, 31, 47–63.

Hall, K.J. and M-F. Sndre. (In press) “New insights into rock weathering as deduced from high-
frequency rock temperature data: An Antarctic study.” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Harris, P.T., E. Domack, R.L.Manley, R. Gilbert, and A. Leventer. 1999: “Andvord Drift: a new
type of inner shelf glacial-marine deposystem from the Antarctic Peninsula”. Geology, 27, 683–
686

Meiklejohn, I. and K. Hall, 1997: “Chemical weathering in the Antarctic: Some data from
eastern Alexander Island”. Polar Geography, 2, 101–112.

Siegmund, M. and K. Hall (In press): “A study of valley-side slope asymmetry based on the
application of GIS analysis: Alexander Island, Antarctica”. Antarctic Science.



Glaciology

Joughin I, L. Gray, R. Bindschadler, S.Price, D. Morse, C. Hulbe, K. Mattar, and C. Werner.
1999: “Tributaries of West Antarctic Ice Streams Revealed by RADARSAT interferometry”.
Science, vol. 286, 283-286.


38
Human Biology and Medicine

Grant, I., Palinkas, L., Suedfeld, P., Eriksen, H.R., and Ursin, H. 1999: “SOAP: Selection
of Antarctic Personnel”. Bergen, Norway: Univ. of Bergen. 26 pp.

Stuster, J., C. Bachelor, and P. Suedfeld, 1999: In the wake of the Astrolabe: Review and
analysis of diaries maintained by the leaders and physicians of French remote duty stations.
Santa Barbara, CA: ANACAPA Sciences.



Solid-Earth Geophysics

James T.S. and E.R.Ivins. 1998: “Predictions of Antarctic crustal motions driven by present-day
ice sheet evolution and by isostatic memory of the Last Glacial Maximum”. J. Geophys. Res.
Vol. 103, #B3. 4993–5017.

Pallas, R., T.S. James, F. Sabat, J.M.Vilaplana, and D.R. Grant 1997: “Holocene Uplift in the
South Shetland Islands: Evaluation of Tectonics and Glacio-Isostasy”. In: Ricci, C.A.(ed.): The
Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes. Terra Antarctica Publications, Siena,
Italy. p.861–868.



Environmental Affairs

Aislabie, J., J. Foght, and D. Saul, 2000: “Aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated
from soil near Scott Base, Antarctica”. Polar Biology.

Marsh, J.S. 2000: “Tourism and National Parks in Polar Regions”. In: Butler, R. and Boyd, S.
(Eds.). Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications. John Wiley, Chichester, England.

Tang, E.P.Y., W.F. Vincent, J. de la Noue, P. Lassard, and D. Proulx, 1998: “Polar
cynaobacteria versus green algae for the tertiary treatment of waste-wates in cool climates”.
Journ. of Appl. Phycology 9: 371–381.




                                                                                                  39
Global Change and the Antarctic

Rae, R. and W.F. Vincent 1998: “Effects of temperature and UV radiation on microbial food
web structure: potential responses to global change”. Freshwat. Biol. 40: 1–12.

Vincent, W.F. 1997: “Polar desert ecosystems in a changing climate: a North–South perspective.
In: Lyons, W.B., Howard-Williams, C., and Hawes, I. (eds). Ecosystem Processes in Antarctic
Ice-free Landscapes. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, p.3–14.

Vincent, W.F., Pienitz, R., and Laurion., I. 1998. “Arctic and Antarctic lakes as optical indicators
of global change”. In: Budd, W.F. (ed) Antarctica and Global Change. Annals of Glaciology 27:
691–696.

Walton, D.H., W.F. Vincent, M.H. Timperley, I. Hawes, and C. Howard-Williams 1997:
“Synthesis: polar deserts as indicators of change”. In: Lyons, W.B., Howard-Williams, C. &
Hawes, I. (eds). Ecosystem Processes in Antarctic Ice-free Landscapes. A.A. Balkema
Publishers, Rotterdam, p. 275–279.

Others

Demers, S. 1997: L’amincissement de la couche d’ozone et les besoins de recherche pour en
comprendre les effets sur les différents systèmes biologiques. Le Climat 14: 31–32.

Demers, S., S. Roy, and S. d Mora 1997: “L’impact de l’amincissement de la couche d’ozone sur
le milieu marin”. Le Climat 14: 21–28

Demers, S., S. Roy, et S. de Mora 1996: “Les conséquences en milieu marin de
l'amincissement de la couche d'ozone”. Ecodécision 19: 67–70.

Lewkowicz, A.G. (Ed.) 1999: Poles Apart: A Study in Contrasts. Proceedings of an International
Symposium on Arctic and Antarctic Issues, University of Ottawa, September 25–27, 1997.
University of Ottawa Press, 237 pp.




40
APPENDIX D

Canadian Scientists in Antarctica during the Austral Summer 1999–2000

The following Canada-based scientists have indicated plans to undertake science related
activities in Antarctica during the austral summer 1999–2000. Every effort has been made to
make the following list as comprehensive as possible; however, some names may have been
omitted. CCAR would appreciate information on any other research activities which should be
included.1

Patrick Abgrall, PhD student, University of New Brunswick, will spend the 2000 austral winter
at Mawson Station as part of the Australian Antarctic Program, studying vocalization among
Antarctic seals.

Peter Adams, MP, formerly of Trent University, visited the Scott Base/McMurdo area in late
January 2000, as a guest of Antarctica New Zealand, to discuss exchange protocol and co-
operation in polar science.

Corey Davis, PhD student, University of Alberta, was on board the US-RV Nathaniel B Palmer,
in the Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound in January–February 2000, to study the ecology of
Antarctic seals.

Mike Gerasimof, Icefield Instruments Inc., Whitehorse,YT, conducted shallow ice-coring in
West Antarctica as part of United States ITASE program, November–December1999.

Prof. Robert Gilbert, Queen’s University, will conduct offshore sediment sampling in May 2000
in the Larsen Ice Shelf area onboard the US-RV Nathaniel B Palmer, as part of United States
Antarctic Program.

Prof. Kevin Hall, University of Northern British Columbia, conducted weathering studies in
Mars Oasis, Alexander Island, November–December 1999, as part of the Canada Arctic–
Antarctic Exchange Program with the British Antarctic Survey.




1
 The emphasis here is on Canada-based scientists. For example, government and university scientists from Canada
have been included, but Canadian scientists on the staff of foreign universities have not. Likewise, participants in a
field trip arranged as part of a formal university course have been included, but Canadians engaged as guides or
lecturers on Antarctic cruise vessels are not listed.
                                                                                                                     41
Phil Holme, previously with the Geological Survey of Canada, and now a PhD student at
Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand, studied sedimentary geology, January–
February 2000, in the McMurdo Sound area as part of New Zealand Antarctic Program.

Yannick Huot, a M.Sc. student at Dalhousie University, was a participant in a National Science
Foundation post-graduate course on Antarctic ecology and biochemistry, McMurdo Station, in
January 2000.

N. Januszczak, PhD student, University of Toronto, will be involved in offshore drilling in the
Prydz Bay area, East Antarctica, as part of the Ocean Drilling Program in Spring 2000.

Prof. Margaret Johnston, Lakehead University, visited the Antarctic Peninsula area with a class
of 12 students in December 1999.

Dr. Marian Kuc, of Ottawa, conducted botanical studies on the Antarctic Peninsula in January
2000, in co-operation with the Chilean Antarctic Program.

Aron Lawton, of Trent University is conducting a tourist survey on the Antarctic Peninsula.

Prof. A.G. Lewkowicz, University of Ottawa, conducted periglacial studies at Terra Nova Base,
North Victoria Land, as part of the Italian Antarctic Program, November–December 1999.

Stewart J. Moorehead, a University of Waterloo graduate, and now a PhD student at Carnegie
Mellon University in Pennsylvania, is undertaking a rock and meteorite search at Elephant
Moraine, Victoria Land, from January to March 2000, as part of the United States Antarctic
Program.

Dr. Michel Poulin, Canadian Museum of Nature, is conducted under-ice algae studies at Dumont
d’Urville station, East Antarctica, as part of the French Antarctic Program, January 2000.

Kristi Skebo, previously with the Churchill Northern Studies Centre, worked as a field assistant
for a New Zealand ecologist at Cape Bird, Ross Island, as part of the New Zealand Antarctic
Program, October–November 1999.

Dr. Ian Stirling, Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, studied the ecology of Antarctic seals,
onboard the US-RV Nathaniel B Palmer in the Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound, January–February
2000.


42
Valérie Villeneuve, an M.Sc. student at Université Laval undertook microbiological studies on
the McMurdo Ice Shelf with the New Zealand Antarctic Program as part of the Canada Arctic–
Antarctic Exchange Program, January 2000.




                                                                                                43
APPENDIX E

List of Acronyms

AINA—Arctic Institute of North America
AMD—Antarctic Master Directory
ATCM—Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting
AWS—Automated weather stations

BAS—British Antarctic Survey

CCAMLR—Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
CCAR—Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research
CCCma—Canadian Centre for Climate modelling and analysis
CEN—Centre d’études nordiques
CLIC—Climate and Cryosphere program
CLIVAR—Climate Variability and Prediction Research program
COMNAP—Council of Managers National Antarctic Programmes
CRB—Climate Research Branch (DOE)
CPC—Canadian Polar Commission
CRYSYS—Cryosheric System Study (in Canada)

DIRS—Devon Island Research Station

FARO—Forum of Arctic Research Operators

GETIC—Groupe d’études inuit et cirqcumpolaires
GIROQ—Groupe interuniversitaire de recherches en océanographie du Québec

IAATO—International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators
ICSU—International Council of Scientific Unions
ITASE—International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expeditions

JCADM—Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management

KLRS—Kluane Lake Research Station

LGM-Holocene—Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition

44
LTER—Long Term Ecological Research program

NASA ER-2—National Aeronautic and Space Administration—ER-2 aircraft flights
NERC—Natural Environment Research Council
NOW—Northern Open Water program
NSERC—Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
NSF—National Science Foundation
NSTP—Northern Scientific Training Program

PCSP—Polar Continental Shelf Project
PNRA—Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide

SCALOP—Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistics and Operations
SCAR—Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research
SSHRC—Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

TNB—Terra Nova Base

UNESCO—United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USAP—US Antarctic Program

WMO—World Meteorological Organization




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