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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 Development of a Project-Based Learning Approach in Requirement Engineering Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin Shamsul Sahibuddin Fakulti Industri Teknologi Maklumat, Advanced Informatics School, UTM International Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL) Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Kamaruzaman Jusoff Nur Hafizah Hidayat Faculty of Forestry, Fakulti Industri Teknologi Maklumat, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM ) Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL) 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia email@example.com nur_hafizah @unisel.edu.my Abstract—Project failure is due to the lack of Requirement Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) does not represent Engineering (RE) practice. The Industry needs to allocate their skill . In addition, academic supply does not meet the another cost to send their employee for additional training before industry demands . Recent trends with the effects of the the employee can contribute to the job specification. It indicates recession, the unemployment rate is increasing. Because of this that current practices of delivery mechanisms at the university economic situation, something needs to be done for the fail to deliver graduates with employability skills. The objective students to prepare themselves before entering into the work of this research is to identify weaknesses in current practice of force and these new graduates must understand what skills the teaching Software Engineering undergraduate in Requirement industry is seeking . Based on that reason, this research Engineering. Additionally, this paper emphasized that Project- carried out the first objective that is to identify weaknesses in Based Learning (PjBL) is a right method for delivery mechanisms to enhance Software Engineering undergraduate current practice of teaching Software Engineering skills particularly in RE. The PjBL is a superset to Problem- undergraduate in Requirement Engineering. Based Learning, Individual-Collaborative Learning and Product- Based Learning. The intersection can strongly assist in the II. INDUSTRY AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING EDUCATION learning environment. Future work should be carried out to PERSPECTIVE design the framework of PjBL, measuring the effectiveness of PjBL and the electronic Learning eNvironment (eLIN) system as A. Industry Collaboration a supportive tools to make PjBL successful. The report shown in Table 1 marked a decrease in project Keywords-Software Engineering education; Project-Based success rates, with 32% of all projects surveyed were Learning (PjBL); Requirement Engineering; Problem-Based successful defined as projects delivered on time and within Learning; Individual & Collaborative Problem Solving and budget, with required features and functions. Another 44% of Product-Based Learning.) all projects surveyed were challenged defined as late, over budget, and/or with less than the required features and functions. The remaining 24% of all projects surveyed failed I. INTRODUCTION defined as cancelled prior to completion or delivery and never The number, size, and application domains of computer used . In software development industry, companies will programs have grown dramatically. As a result, hundreds of usually tackle three main problems: cost minimization, tight billions are being spent on software development, and the deadlines and quality product. An engineering approach in livelihood and lives of most people depend on the effectiveness software development will help them to overcome these of this development. Since the dawn of computing in the problems. 1940s, the use of computers and its applications have grown at a staggering rate. Software plays a central role in almost all aspects of our daily lives: in government, banking and finance, education, transportation, entertainment, medicine, agriculture, and law . The current trend shows that students’ 298 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 TABLE 1. THE TREND OVER THE PAST 15 YEARS BY STANDISH oriented environment with increasingly complex team GROUP’S CHAOS (2009) REPORT. structures and compositions. Software Engineering is an Year ‘09 ‘06 ‘04 ‘02 ‘00 ‘98 ‘96 ‘94 appropriate course to meld all of these ideas together to (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) produce better simulates a real world environment . It is Successful 32 35 29 34 28 26 27 16 because software products have helped people to be more Project efficient and productive such as Collaborative Application Challenged 44 19 53 15 23 28 40 31 Lifecycle Management Solutions from IBM Rational (2010). Projects It make more effective problem solvers, and it provide with an Failed 24 46 18 51 49 46 33 53 environment for work and play which is often safer, more Projects flexible, and less confining. As a result, Software Engineering curriculum should involve five complementary elements  Industry needs employees who are skilled in developing including principles practices, applications, tools and new application system, but they do not have the time or mathematics. trainers to complete the training. It is supported by Bernhart et The researcher outlines the similarity of the technological al (2006). He states that if students fail to deliver a minimum characteristics from Engineering Education that needs to be quality at the beginning, succeeding phases may receive a adapted into Software Engineering Education to increase reduced quality as a work basis. This may reduce the learning employability. The profiles may be conveniently sketched in experience in later phases . Some researchers have terms of three components  that include knowledge, skills concluded that businesses and universities share some similar and attitudes. However, sustainable world-class performance challenges, and increased cooperation between the two entities will not occur if there is a misalignment between a university will assist in shared solutions for both . Therefore, student programmes objectives and actual market requirements. In should be taught seriously in software development process as addition, effective faculty wide coordination in relation to a field of Software Engineering [5, 25]. market driven initiatives is essential for ensuring the effective use of company resources . Employers now focus on B. Future Challenges in Software Engineering Education adaptation, cost reduction, increased productivity, and new Boehm (2006) identifies future challenges in Software markets, products and services. Engineering education with his simple hypothesis: “software people don’t like to see Software Engineering done III. REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING unsuccessfully, and try to make things better”. Mead (2009) was look into the challenges from global reach of education, A. Requirement Engineering Challenges new creative evolution of delivery mechanism, new Requirement Engineering (RE) practice appears to have professional efforts and the need of engage in leadership in improved collaboration ties and may have led to cultural Software Engineering education [10, 13, 27, 39]. The study changes that values cooperation, quality, and customer looked into the curriculum of undergraduate particularly in satisfaction . Currently the success of a software system developing mission-critical system and non-critical system. depends on how well it fits the needs of its users and its Furthermore, the continuous research is still looking for environment. Requirements encompass more than desired methods on how to maintain vitality and how to develop a new functionality – users increasingly demand systems that are generation of Software Engineering educators through usable, reliable, secure and economical, while product conference, working groups and committees electronic developers want to be able to adapt and enhance products publishing [10, 39]. They also encourage others to join rapidly, in response to changing both user’s needs and Software Engineering profession. Licensing or certification environmental conditions . Education become a kick-start will become a major trend in the future and will create new in developing skills amongst the students (future employee) to specialization. However, looking at the fundamental concepts cater the problem part (RE) before continues to solution part have not changed significantly since progress took shape some (other software artifacts such as design, development, testing, thirty years ago. As in hardware design, the technology quality and maintenance) to improved productivity, quality evolves, but the concepts remain . Students usually learn and risk management. This is because customer satisfaction is best by physically doing something. Students of course will be the most pertinent priority in producing the successful product. more interested to come to school if they think that education Zave (1997) provides one of the clearest definitions of RE: is fun and beneficial in the future and not as a burden . “Requirements Engineering is the branch of Software Engineering concerned with the real-world goals for, functions of, and constraints on software systems. It is also concerned with the relationship of these factors to precise specifications C. Improvement should be included into Software of software behavior, and to their evolution over time and Engineering Education across software families". Many of the skills that students are expected to have can only be learned by doing hands-on practices. Furthermore, Jackson (2007) discussed on interacting with real customers on tight deadlines and budgets with high expectations, and being able to work effectively in an almost exclusively team 299 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 IV. PROJECT-BASED LEARNING methodology for their project. The implementation of the tool in blended PjBL will not only make the decision making A. The Comparative Study of Universities Experience in process more effective but also help them with better learning using PjBL . Hence, a few experiences from universities with a variety Sixthly, Department of Mechanical Engineering, of domain that implemented project-based works in their Politeknik Kota Bharu, tested Project-Based Learning module delivery mechanism are discussed. Firstly, Technological based on socio-constructivist approach in Diploma in Education Institute of Larissa, Greece, use PjBL to allow Automotive. The project development ran a pilot test within students to improve their cognitive, collaborative, six month to explore the influence of the utilization of the methodological and technical skills on Enterprise Resource PjBL module on students’ meta-cognition, motivation and Planning (ERP) systems through active participation in self-regulation. In addition, it transforms teaching from challenging and interdisciplinary ERP projects . ‘lecturers/supervisors telling’ to ‘engineering students doing’. Secondly, Oregon State University in general, analyse and The result shows that the overall engineering students reported synthesize the collaborative and Project-Based Learning higher level of motivation, self-confidence and self-regulation features resulted in 32 design features that were placed in the throughout the process. The PjBL also enhances the cognitive following six categories: (i) learning group size, (ii) functional and critical thinking in engineering problem solving among spaces for learning activities, (iii) adjacencies, (iv) furnishings, students. The use of PjBL module enables students to plan (v) psychological and physiological support of the learners, their project easily, work collaboratively with peers with and (vi) structural aspects. It can be used for architect, minimal supervision from supervisors or lecturers and educator, planner and learner . successfully complete their project on time . Thirdly, Department of Computer Engineering, Boğaziçi Seventhly, Civil engineering degree at University of University in subject Cmpe450 previously used lecture Malaya, Engineering Surveying Camp (Year-I of a four-year) oriented course, small group projects were assigned to test Outcome Based Education Using Project Based Learning students, in expectation that they should apply the theory to in two-week field course. The aims are to evaluate the practice and they were expected to submit well-documented effectiveness, and to identify potential improvement. The need findings. Then, they changed to emphasize the project in terms to change the paradigm of the majority of lecturers that are of its size, scope, complexity and grading. The project topics used to the conventional teaching methods, which worked on included an e-learning system, various versions of department were real project to be completed within a short duration of automation portal and a purchase automation system for the the course. The students were primarily focused on the whole university. The first demonstrations were total disasters. achievement of course outcomes. The academics, though, had It is after the first demonstration that they realize the severity another goal of ensuring that the project was completed with of the expectations and what failure means. Therefore the quality outputs to ensure the other aspects including the day to documentation should be very precise to enable hiring of an day running of the camp, transportation, logistics, health and administrator for the final product. It is too hard and often not safety on top of the course outcomes. The technical aspects applicable to map the theory and the practice part of the course were achievable though with lesser degree for the engineering . design. On soft skills, students demonstrated an overall improvement of competency but it was difficult to ascertain Fourthly, Rowan University in Glassboro, NJ and Fairfield the levels for the average students while the best and poor University in Fairfield, CT is introducing PjBL in their performers were easily observed . theoretical Software Engineering course. Local-Remote Team Organization and Communication Techniques (represent PjBL B. Project-Based Learning Method in Requirement tool) was used in the theoretical Software Engineering course. Engineering Education Three of the projects were to extend existing products and one project was completely new. This research argues that students Experiential method refers to the terms of evaluation or can be prepared to effectively join industry and keep the US what has changed or improved as a result. Because of that, technology workforce competitive through a curriculum that Project-Based Learning (PjBL) is a model that organizes includes a theoretical Software Engineering course with real- learning around projects. According to the definitions found in world projects and the collaboration of paired teams across PjBL handbooks for teachers, projects are complex tasks, two or more universities. It was also appealing that all team based on challenging questions or problems, that involves members, local and remote, could have instant access to their students in designing, problem-solving, decision making, or materials from anywhere . investigative activities; gives students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over extended periods of time; and Fifthly, College of Arts and Sciences (Applied Science) culminate in realistic products or presentations [31, 48]. Universiti Utara Malaysia called the method as Blended Project Based Learning. In support of the use of PjBL, a Other defining features found in the literature include prototype known as md-Matrix has been used to assist authentic content, authentic assessment, teacher facilitation but students in choosing an appropriate development methodology not direction, explicit educational goals , cooperative based on their project requirements. The proposed decision learning, reflection, and incorporation of adult skills . To tool can be considered as necessary to assist the students these features, particular models of PjBL added a number of (novice developers) in choosing an appropriate development unique features. Definitions of ‘Project-Based Instruction’ 300 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 include features relating to the use of an authentic (driving) question, a community of inquiry, and the use of cognitive Project-Based (technology-based) tools [32, 36] and expeditionary learning Learning adds features of comprehensive school improvement, community service, and multidisciplinary themes . Product-Based Problem- Based Learning The assignment encourages students to use problem- Learning Solving solving skills and collaboration to successfully complete the project. The university will benefit very much in these projects Individual & as it involves hardware and/or software that is not available at Collaborative the institution. The cooperating organization gains by having a Problem Solving low priority project completed without any cost. Based on the experience of the author, companies that do end up implementing the student-developed results are often quite willing to make a contribution (hardware, software or money) Figure 1. Problem-Based Learning, Individual & Collaborative Problem to the university . PjBL helps make learning relevant and Solving and Product-Based Learning are a subset to Project-Based Learning useful to students by establishing connections to life outside Additionally the researcher identified that Project-Based the classroom, addressing larger concerns, enhancing their Learning is a superset for Individual & Collaborative Problem critical skills, and shaping their learning process by being Solving [20, 22, 34], Problem-Based Learning [4, 41, 46] and active participants . What differentiates PjBL from Product-Based Learning [1, 33]. In contrast, all of them are traditional class lessons is that the teacher acts more like a subset to Project-Based Learning and have an intersection with facilitator than like the sage on the stage. each other. All major generic skills scheme such as conceptual Jazayeri (2004) states that class teaching should integrate ‘thinking’ and interpersonal ‘teamwork’ skills will be a with projects. This is often recognized as a very critical issue significant factor in PjBL [6, 44]. in Software Engineering education. Replaying the complexity If the PjBL wants to be implemented successfully for of real-life projects in an educational environment can be undergraduate Software Engineering, they need to identify impossible. Thus we need to find innovative ways of suitable tools, the people with the know-how in PjBL and the integrating project work in curricula [19, 30]. They argued that needs to come up with a guideline that refers to tertiary projects should be realistic, but students should be aware of culture. By the time the need is identified, the courses have the differences with the real life, in terms of team size, developed, the students trained and the new technology has requirements for compatibility with legacy systems and changed. The education that succeeds will be the one that unavailability of real stakeholders. facilitates lifelong learning, equipping students with the skills All the literature reviewed in previous section discussed they will need to adapt to change. Lacking information on the significance of skill for employability among what PjBL practices are most productive, evidence of PjBL's undergraduate is an undeniable fact. The undergraduates make relative effectiveness in comparison to other methods, and an the most numbers of contributors for employability rather than overall framework to guide their planning and collaborations post-graduate. The discussion scope is focused on Software . Engineering undergraduates in the industry nowadays. Moreover, the difficulties in choosing project type based Software Engineering is the most significant in the present on level (diploma, degree or master level) of project will be industry. Due to the failure of product and deliverables in the faced by educators. The educator should form a project team industry, the literature shows that Requirement Engineering is and identify their roles [11, 47]. a factor to that failure. To solve the problem, higher learning education is a platform to assist the Software Engineering As a result, a Project-Based Learning curriculum addresses undergraduate in enhancing their skills through learning. In real-life issues, stresses problem-solving skills, has the teacher addition, the Project-Based Learning should be a method to serve as facilitator, and lets student’s self-assess progress. help the learning environment. It can be supported by the tools. If the students enhance their skill, it will benefit the V. CONCLUSION industry in term of cost in sending the students to training courses and thus employer will attain employability skills. The It can be concluded that current practice of teaching student will get a skill without wasting their time (to attend Software Engineering undergraduate in Requirement other training course) and is more confident on acquiring the Engineering is weak. The superset of Project-Based Learning job. Software Engineering education; particularly Requirement (PjBL) is strongly recommended to enhance Software Engineering education will come out most prominent backed Engineering undergraduate skills in Requirement Engineering. with an effective learning environment in using PjBL to Future work will be discussed on the next objective is to enhance student skills. design the framework of (PjBL) to be implemented in Requirement Engineering and to measure the effectiveness of Project-Based Learning in teaching Requirement Engineering to enhance Software Engineering undergraduate skills. 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How did Software get so Reliable without Proof? 1- into Research Methods Teaching: Student and Facilitator Evaluation, 17. 25(7), 527-541.  IBM. (2010). Collaborative Application Lifecycle Management  Cheng, B. H., & Atlee, J. M. 2007. Research Directions in Requirement Solutions from IBM Rational. International Business Machines Engineering. Future of Software Engineering, 2007. FOSE '07 In Future Corporation. of Software Engineering, 2007. pp: 285-303.  Jackson, D. E. 2007. Software for Dependable Systems-Sufficient  Cheng, B. H., & Atlee, J. M. 2009. Current and Future Research Evidence? IEEE. Directions in Requirements Engineering. Design Requirements Engineering: A Ten-Year Perspective, pp. 11-43.  Jayazeri, M. 2004. Education of a Software Engineer. IEEE.  Clarke, E. (2009). Elizabeth Clarke, 2009. Learning outcomes from  Jones, B., Rasmussen, C. M., & Moffitt, M. 1997. 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In the Service of Learning, Getting to the Management, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 32(7), 433- heart of Problem-based Learning. Summary Report, PBL Symposium. 453. 302 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010  Martin, R., Villeneuve-Smith F., Marshall, L., & McKenzie, E., (2008). AUTHORS PROFILE Employability skills explored research report. Learning and Skills Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin is a Lecturer for Network. Bachelor of Science Software Engineering and Head  Marx, R. W., Blumenfeld, P. C., Krajcik, J. S., Blunk, M., Crawford, B., of Developer for Master Degree Software Engineering program at Universiti Industri Selangor. Kelley, B., et al. 1994. Enacting project-based science: Experiences of She received the Master Degree in Computer Science four middle grade teachers. 94, 517-538. (Real-Time Software Engineering) from Advanced  Mead, N. R. 2009. Software Engineering Education: How far We've Informatics School (formerly known as Centre for Come and How Far We Have To Go. 82 571-575. Advanced Software Engineering (CASE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, in 2004. Currently, she is doing  Moursund, D. 1999. Project-Based Learning using Information her Doctorate in Computer Science, specialize in Technology. Eugene or International Society for Technology in Software Engineering at UTM and supervise by Prof. Education. Dr. Shamsul Sahibuddin. She is a member of  Naur, P., & Randell, B. 1969. Software Engineering Report of a Malaysian Software Engineering Interest Group, conference sponsored by the NATO Science Committee Garmisch Malaysia. Her field of expertise is in software Germany 7th-11th October 1968 . Germany: Scientific Affairs Division, requirement, analysis, system integration, and e- NATO. learning. Her current research interest is on techniques that can enhance skill among Software  Parnas, D. L. 1999. Software Engineering Programs Are Not Computer Engineering undergraduate of higher institutions in Science Programs. IEEE, 16 (6), 19-30. Malaysia using machine learning system.  Ragan, E. D., Frezza, S., & Cannell, J. (2009). Product-Based Learning Shamsul Sahibuddin received the PhD in Computer in Software Engineering Education. Science at Aston University, Birmingham, United  Rashid, R. A., Abdullah. R., Zaharim, A., Ghulman, H. A. & Masodi, M. Kingdom in 1998 and Master Science (Computer S., 2008. Engineering Students Performance Evaluation of Generic Science) at Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan in 1988. He is currently a Dean / Skills Measurement: ESPEGS Model. 5th WSEAS / IASME Professor at Advanced Informatics School, International Conference on Engineering Education. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and has been  Rugarcia, A. Felder, R. M., Woods, D. R. & Stice J. E., 2000. The a Member of the Program Committee for Asia- Future of Engineering Education I. A vision for a New Century. Chem. Pacific Conference on Software Engineering. His Engr. Education , 34 (1), 16-25. field of expertise is in software requirement, software modelling technique, software development  Rusu, Ad., Rusu, Am., Docimo, R., Santiaga, C. & Paglione, M., 2009. and software process improvement. He has been Academia-academia-Industry Collaborations on Software Engineering very active in scholarly journals-book writing and Projects Using Local-Remote Teams. ACM , 301-305. publishing.  Sarif, S. M., & Shiratuddin, N. (2009). md-Matrix: An assistive learning Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff was born in Kota Bharu, tool in blended project-based learning for mobile development course. Kelantan, Malaysia, in 1958. He received the PhD in  Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of Problem-based Learning: Definitions Forest Engineering from Cranfield University, and Distinctions The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based England, UK in 1992. He is currently a Professor Learning. 1(1). (Grade B) with Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been a Visiting Professor with The Harvard Forest,  Thomas, J. W. 2000. A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning. Harvard University, Kyoto’s Graduate School of Engineering,Yale’s Center for Earth Observation and  Thomas, J. W., Mergendoller, J. R., & Michaelson, A. 1999. Project- an Erasmus Mundus Professor in Lund University, based learning: A handbook for middle and high school teachers. Sweden and ITC, The Netherlands. His field of  Turhan, B., & Bener, A. 2007. A Template for Real World Team expertise is in airborne hyperspectral image Projects for Highly Populated Software Engineering Classes. Software processing. Research and higher education leadership Engineering, 2007. ICSE 2007. 29th International Conference on IEEE especially in creating succession planning models and talent pools have also being his current field of Computer Society , 748-753. interests. Hj. Kamaruzaman has been very active in  Windbladh, K. (2004). Requirement Engineering Closing the Gap scholarly journals-book writing and publishing and Between Academic Supply and Industry Demand. The ACM Student has published 7 books and more than 250 citation Magazine. 10 (4), August 2004. index/impact factor journal papers. Administratively, used to hold several posts in UPM as Deputy Dean,  Wolff, S. J. 2002. Design Features for Project-Based Learning. Faculty of Forestry, UPM Kampus Bintulu Designate  Zave, P. (1997). Classification of Research Efforts in Requirements Director, MACRES Deputy Director (R&D) while being active doing some consultancies on airborne Engineering. Journal ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR). 29 (4), 315- hyperspectral sensing for forestry, agriculture, marine 321. and Search-and-Rescue operations. Nur Hafizah Hidayat is a Lecturer of Information Systems at the University Industrial Selangor (UNISEL), Malaysia. She also serves as Head of Information Technology in the Center for Research and Innovation for the UNISEL. She obtained her Bachelor Science in Information Technology from University Teknologi Mara, Malaysia and Master Science in Information Management from Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. Her research interest includes information system management, project management, business intelligence and open source system. 303 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500
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