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STUDY ON THE CONTROL OF VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA VHS IN POLAND

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STUDY ON THE CONTROL OF VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA VHS IN POLAND Powered By Docstoc
					Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 50, 293-297, 2006




                       STUDY ON THE CONTROL
             OF VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA (VHS)
                            IN POLAND
                      JERZY ANTYCHOWICZ, WITOLD MAZUR2, MICHAŁ REICHERT1,
                            KRYSTYNA PASZOWSKA2 AND MAREK MATRAS

                                  Department of Fish Diseases, 1 Department of Pathology,
                               National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
                       2
                         Regional Veterinary Inspectorate in Szczecin, Regional Veterinary Laboratory,
                                                  75 – 816 Koszalin, Poland
                                               e-mail: antych@piwet.pulawy.pl

                                                 Received for publication May 05, 2006.



                           Abstract                                    Inspectorate in Szczecin, experimental programme of
                                                                       controlling this disease in one chosen river catchment.
          In 2000 the Department of Fish Diseases of the
National Veterinary Research Institute started monitoring the
frequency of the presence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia                           Material and Methods
(VHS) virus in 140 Polish salmonid farms which makes about
70% of all salmonid farms in the country. Special attention
was paid to 19 farms situated in A river catchment (river name
                                                                                In 2000 the Department of Fish Diseases of the
is coded) and in these farms we started in 1999 the realization        National Veterinary Research Institute started examining
of the first in Poland experimental VHS control programme.             the frequency of VHS virus prevalence in 140 Polish
The routine monitoring performed in other 121 farms                    salmonid farms which makes about 70% of all salmonid
(independently of the farms situated in A river) gave                  farms in the country.
encouraging results i.e. resulted in gradually decrease in the                  Special attention was payed to 19 farms
prevalence of VHS cases in Poland. These results have shown            situated in A river catchment (river name is coded) and
that the simple monitoring connected with immediate                    in these farms in which the realization of the first in
eradication could decrease the prevalence of VHS virus but not         Poland experimental VHS control programme has begun
in such an extent as might have been achieved by applying the
established programme of VHS control in which all fish farms
                                                                       already in 1999. All fish farmers, which were users of A
located in certain river catchment participate in its realization.     river and its tributaries, regional fish disease specialist
                                                                       and the head of the Fish Disease Department of the
        Key words: fish,                 viral     haemorrhagic        National Veterinary Research Institute accepted the
septicaemia, disease control.                                          principles of the programme realization based on the
                                                                       EU Directives and eradication methods which had been
                                                                       applied in Denmark since 1965 (9, 10).
          Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is the                           The particular hatcheries supplied with well
most serious disease of farmed rainbow trout but affects               water were appointed as the source of fishes for
also some other inland and marine fish species. The                    restocking the ponds after eradication. One isolated farm
disease is widespread in the world and causes significant              (number 1, Table 1) situated as the last one near the
production losses and for that reason is listed in OIE                 outlet of the A river, and supplied with water from a
Aquatic Animal Health Codes (8) and in EU Directives                   small tributary was chosen as a place in which quick
(6, 7).                                                                fattening of fish survivors of the VHS infection took
          Many countries run a control programme on                    place.
VHS and as result some of them achieved the status                              Twice a year, since 1999 up to now, in spring
officially free of this disease. Officially there are no               and autumn, at the water temperature below 15°C,
VHS free farms or river catchments in Poland though                    regional fish disease specialist surveyed all farms in A
the disease cases are decreasing (1, 5). Therefore the                 river catchment and selected 140 – 150 fryes and
Fish Disease Department of the National Veterinary                     fingerlings or 30 two year old fish from each farm for
Research Institute started VHS monitoring in the whole                 virological investigations. Sampled fishes were
country and, independently, together with the Veterinary               euthanized and sent to the Fish Disease Department in
                                                                       containers cooled inside to 4 - 8°C.
294




                                                       Table 1
                           VHS prevalence in rainbow trout farms in A river catchment in 1999 – 2005

          Farm 1999             2000         2001             2002         2003           2004           2005
          1*     VHS            -            VHS              VHS          VHS            -              -
          2      VHS            -            -                -            VHS            -              VHS
          3      -              -            -                -            VHS            -              -
          4      VHS            -            -                -            -              -              -
          5      -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          6      -              -            VHS              -            -              -              -
          7      -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          8      -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          9      -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          10     -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          11     VHS            -            VHS              -            VHS            VHS            -
          12     VHS            -            VHS              -            -              -              -
          13     VHS            -            VHS              -            VHS            -              -
          14     -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          15     -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          16     -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          17     -              -            VHS              -            -              -              -
          18     -              -            -                -            -              -              -
          19     -              -            VHS              -            -              -              -
         * Farm used for quick fatening of VHS survivors.




          In the laboratory the fish internal organs were                               Results
pooled, homogenized and subsequently supernatants
were used for the inoculation of the BF – 2 and RTG – 2                  Cases of VHS virus infections accompanied
cell line cultures. VHS virus was identified using ELISA       with clinical symptoms were detected only in rainbow
and RT-PCR methods. Besides regular monitoring in              trout. In some cases the haemorrhagic changes were also
each case of VHS suspicion, 30 fish with clinical              observed in rainbow trouts after smoking. Numbers of
symptoms were sampled and immediately examined in              VHS virus infected rainbow trout farms in A river
regional laboratory using quick direct ELISA method,           catchment in 1999 – 2005 are presented in Fig. 1. VHS
then the samples were sent to the Fish Disease                 prevalence in rainbow trout farms in A river catchment
Department of the National Veterinary Research                 in 1999 – 2005 is shown in Table 1 and the results of
Institute for confirmation.                                    monitoring of VHS in 121 farms in Poland are depicted
          Occasionally the smoked rainbow trouts were          in Fig. 2. Typical, most often observed symptoms of
checked on the eventual symptoms changes                       VHS in live rainbow trouts are illustrated in Figs 3, 4, 5
characteristic of viral diseases.                              and in smoked fish in Fig. 6.
          The fish farms were being closed each time
when suspicion of the VHS virus presence had been
noted i.e. when clinical signs in fish or cytopathic effect                           Discussion
in cell culture had appeared. The eradication ensued if
the VHS virus presence was confirmed.                                   Up to this time in Poland clinical symptoms of
          Since 2000, independently of realization of the      VHS has been observed only in rainbow trout and this
VHS control programme in A river catchment, also the           phenomenon confirmed that this fish is most susceptible
routine monitoring has started in other 121 farms. In this     to VHS virus infection. In one case the presence of the
case the samples of 30 fish were being collected twice a       virus was found in symptomless brook trout kept in the
year and sent to above mentioned Fish Disease                  ponds neighbouring those in which VHS had appeared
Department for virological examinations. Furthermore,          in rainbow trout. It suggests that the brook trout could be
in each case of VHS suspicion 30 fish with clinical            infected with the virus from rainbow trout and could be
symptoms were sampled and examined virologically. In           a potential carrier of VHS virus later.
the majority of cases samples consisted of rainbow trout.
During 6 years of this monitoring brook trout was sent
from 12 farms and brown trout from 6 farms only.
                                                                                                                                                                  295



                                                                10
                                                                 9
                                 number of VHS infected farms
                                                                 8
                                                                 7
                                                                 6
                                                                 5
                                                                 4
                                                                 3
                                                                 2
                                                                 1
                                                                 0
                                                                         year
                                                                 year 1999           2000          2001         2002           2003        2004         2005


                                                                     Fig. 1. Numbers of VHS infected rainbow trout farms in A river catchment in 1999 – 2005.



                                16
                                14
     number of positive farms




                                12
                                10
                                8
                                6
                                4
                                2
                                0
                                                      1
                                               year 2000                                2
                                                                                      2001              3
                                                                                                       2002              4
                                                                                                                        2003              5
                                                                                                                                        2004               6
                                                                                                                                                         2005
                                                                                                               year


                                                                        Fig. 2. The results of monitoring of VHS in 121 salmonid farms in Poland
                                                                excluding farms situated in A river catchment (National Veterinary Research Institute data).




Fig. 3. Haemorhages in the base of breast fins in VHS                                                             Fig. 4. Haemorhages in rump muscles in VHS affected
              affected rainbow trout.                                                                                               rainbow trout.
296


                                                              identified in two consecutive years (Table 1). It was
                                                              found that the uncertified fishes had been used for
                                                              restocking these farms, contrary to the previously made
                                                              decisions that fishes for restocking must be delivered
                                                              from virus free farms fed from brooks or wells.
                                                                         According to regional fish disease specialist
                                                              who was supervising the realization of the programme,
                                                              the disinfections were being performed adequately but in
                                                              farms 11, 12, 13 the majority of VHS cases appeared in
                                                              short time after introduction of uncertified fishes which
                                                              were apparently harboured by the virus. This was
                                                              obviously the cause of VHS recurrence.
                                                                        In three other cases the relationship between the
                                                              introduction of carps (as additional fish) to salmonid
                                                              farms and VHS appearance was suspected. The facilities
  Fig. 5. Haemorhages in visceral fat in VHS affected
                                                              used for carp transportations were utilized previously for
                   rainbow trout.
                                                              rainbow trout delivery so it is quite possible that
                                                              contaminated water and lack of proper disinfection were
                                                              responsible for the case of VHS occurrence.
                                                                        The random examinations of free living
                                                              rainbow trout in A river did not show the presence of
                                                              VHS virus in these fishes (unpublished data) so they
                                                              possibly could not be the source of infections.
                                                                        The routine monitoring performed in other 121
                                                              farms (independently of the farms situated in A river)
                                                              gave encouraging results i.e. a gradual decrease in VHS
                                                              cases in Poland was observed (Fig. 3). The number of
                                                              infected farms in the consecutive years of the
                                                              monitoring realization (2000 – 2005) was the following
                                                              13, 15, 13, 8, 4 and 4.
                                                                        These results have shown that the simple
                                                              monitoring connected with immediate eradication could
                                                              decrease the prevalence of VHS virus but not in such an
Fig. 6. Haemorhages marks in smoked rainbow trout left        extent as might have been achieved by applying the
      after haemorhages which had been developed              established programme of VHS control in which all fish
                 during VHS infection.                        farms located in certain river catchment participate in its
                                                              realization.
                                                                        The reason of a dramatic decrease in VHS cases
                                                              in Poland was probably the change in sampling
          In the course of VHS in farmed rainbow trout        procedures that has taken place since the half of 2003.
high morbidity and mortality rates were observed which        The results of this study showed, however, that one of
usually exceeded 50% of affected trout population. The        the main factor which positively influence VHS statistic
direct economic impact of the disease was linked to its       in Poland is the decrease in VHS cases in river A
morbidity, mortality and degraded quality of fish meat.       catchment owing to the realization of the regular VHS
For instance, the petechiae which are caused by the virus     control programme.
infection in live fishes can be also observed in smoked                 The results we have achieved during
ones (Fig. 6).                                                programme realization in A river catchment were quite
          In farms which purchased mainly eyed ova for        encouraging considering that for many years this region
the first stage of production (farms 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 15, 16,   was the most intensively affected one with VHS in
19, Table 1) the prevalence of VHS cases was much             Poland. The lack of quite satisfactory results i.e.
lower than in farms which were getting only fryes or          numerous VHS recurrence cases was caused by some
fingerlings for quick fattening (farms 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12,   farmers, who did not apply to the rules and stocked their
13, 14, 17, 18). In the first group during 7 year             pond with uncertified (cheap) fishes. Water from not
observation only 3 VHS cases were recorded i.e.               adequately disinfected transport facilities being the
approximately 0.4 case per one farm whereas in the            source of infection could also cause VHS recurrence.
second group 14 VHS cases have appeared that makes                      The positive and negative experience which
1.4 case per one farm.                                        have been gained by the participants of this first
          During the first five years of programme            experimental programme could be applied in the near
realization in some farms (farms 2, 11, 12 and 13) the        future for the eradication of the disease in other Polish
recurrence cases of VHS were observed every second            river catchments. The results of this programme
year after eradications had been completed and in one         convinced the fish breeders and field veterinarians that
farm (farm 11) additional two cases of VHS were               eradication of VHS in Polish salmonid farms could be
                                                                                                                       297


possible, however, in the long run, provided that during           VHS, IHN w dorzeczu rzeki Grabowa. Problemy
realization of such a programme all farmers will apply to          pstrągarstwa polskiego. Olsztyn 2002, pp. 97-105.
the established rules based on the principles presented in     4. Antychowicz J., Pękala A.: Viral haemorrhagic
EU Directives and also those which take into account               septicaemia (VHS) and infectious haematopoietic
                                                                   necrosis (IHN) of fish in Poland and European countries.
specificity of particular river catchments.                        Medycyna Wet 2002, 58, 341-343.
                                                               5. Antychowicz J., Reichert M., Pękala A., Matusiewicz J.:
                                                                   The case of infectious haematopoietic necrosis and viral
                       References                                  haemorrhagic septicaemia in rainbow trout fry –
                                                                   introduction of RT – PCR technique for the diagnosis of
1.   Antychowicz J.: Występowanie VHS w Polsce w latach            these diseases in Poland. Medycyna Wet 2001, 57, 894-
     1999-2000 – propozycja metod zwalczania VHS w latach          898.
     przyszłych. National conference of salmon fish farmers,   6. Council Directive 91/67/EEC, O J No. L 46, 19.2. 1991.
     Kołobrzeg, 2000, pp. 65-71.                               7. Council Directive 93/53/EEC, O J No. L 175, 19.7. 1993.
2.   Antychowicz J.: Występowanie wirusowej krwotocznej        8. OIE Aquatic Health Codes, 2001.
     posocznicy VHS. Problemy pstrągarstwa polskiego.          9. Olesen N. J.: Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicemia
     Olsztyn 2001, pp. 49-55.                                      (VHS). J Appl Ichthyol 1998, 14, 173-177.
3.   Antychowicz J., Mazur W.: Występowanie VHS, IHN i         10. Olesen N. J., Korsholm H.: Control measures for viral
     IPN w Polsce w latach 2000-2002 program zwalczania            diseases in aquaculture: eradication of VHS and IHN.
                                                                   Bull Eur Ass Fish Pathol 1997, 17, 229-233.

				
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