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G bacteria septicemia

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					          G- bacteria

    Genera: Brucella, Fracisella,
Bordetella, Alcaligenes, Acinetobcter
  Vibrionaceae, Aeromonadaceae
         O: Campylobacterales
•   F. Campylobacteriaceae
•   G: Campylobater
•   C. jejuni
•   Arcobater
•   F: Helicobacteriaceae
•   G: Helicobacter
         Genus: Campylobacter
•   Spiral or curved rods
•   motile
•   microaerofilic
•   carbohydrates are not utilized
•   oxidase positive
•   urease negative
            Campylobacter
• Habitat:intestinal tracts of mammals and
  birds
• Pathogenicity for animals and man
  (foodborne infections with C.jejuni)
       Campylobacter species
• C. fetus
• C.fetus subsp. fetus- oral infection- ovine
  abortion
• C.fetus subsp. veneralis- veneric infection -
  bovine abortion and nfetility
       Campylobacter species
• C.jejuni subsp. jejuni - normal intestinal
  flora in many animal species
• - aetiol. agent of diarrhea in:
  – young animals
  – humans= campylobacteriosis

• C.coli - normal intestinal flora in pigs and
  poultry
Patogenesis of C.jejuni infection
     -intracellular infection
• Adherence is mediated by bacterial proteins
(attachment by fibronectin binding proteins..)
• Invasion (depends on virulence)
endocytosis (internalization) after 72 h period
   exponential growth is observed.
• Bacterial cells can be found in granulocytes and
   monocytes
• Inracellular survival in macrofages can contribute
   to disease severity and symptoms
          Genus: Helicobacter
•   helical or curved G- rods
•   motile
•   microaerophilic
•   oxidase positive
•   catalase postive
•   urease positive
              Helicobacter
• Habitat: stomach , small intestine, liver



• Pathogenicity for man and some animal
  species
         Helicobacter species
• H.hepaticus - heatitis in mouse and rats
• H.bilis-hepatitis in mouse
• H.pylori - human gastritis (monkey-
  primates, and cat ?
• H.felis-gastritis in cats and dogs
• H.canis-gastroenteritis in dogs
• H.pullorum- gastroenteritis
            Genus: Arcobacter
•   curved to spiral small rods
•   aerotolerant
•   catalase positive
•   DNAse positive
•   susceptible to nalidixic acid
          Arcobacter species
• A.cryaerophilus- late term abortions in
  swine, cattle, horses, sheep and dogs
•                  - mastitis in cows

• A.butlzleri-diarrhea in humans and animals
• A.skirrowii
            F: Brucellaceae
• G: Brucella
• B.melitensis
  – B.abortus, B. suis,
  – B.canis, B.ovis, B.neotomae
  G: Brucella (F.Brucellaceae)
• G-, coccobacilli or rods, aerobic,

• B.melitensis
• brucelosis-zoonotic illness
              Clasical species
•   B.abortus (cattle-abortion, orchitis)
•   B.melitensis (goats-abortion, orchitis)
•   B.ovis (sheep - ram epididymitis)
•   B.suis (pigs, hares-abortion)
•   B.canis (dogs, epididymitis)
          F:Alcaligenaceae
• G: Alcaligenes
• Achromobacter
• Bordetella
             G: Bordetella
• G- rods, catalase+
• asaccharolytic
• habitat: upper respiratory tract of mammals
  and birds
         Bordetella Species
• B.pertussis (humans - whooping cough)
• B.bronchiseptica (pig, dog, laboratory
  animals)
• B.avium (turkey coryza)
              Alcaligenes
• A.calcoaceticus
                G Moraxella
•   G- coccobacilli
•   M.bovis -pinkeye
•   M.ovis-pinkeye
•   M.canis- dog bite infections
          F:Francisellaceae
• G: Fancisella
• F. tularensis
                Francisella
•   F.tularensis
•   tularemia-zoonotic illeness
•   rodents-reservoir
•   vector-artropods (Dermacentor, Ixodes)

• infection in mammals and birds
• Cat (USA)
       Subsecies of F.tularensis
•   ssp.tularensis (North America)
•   holarctica (Asia nad Europe, NA)
•   mediaasiatica (Central Asia)
•   novicida (USA, Canada)
          Class Flavobacteria
• O: Flavobacteriales
• F: Flavobacteriaceae
• Genera:
  –   Flavobacterium
  –   Capnocytophaga
  –   Chryseobacterium
  –   Ornithobacterium
       Class Betaproteobacteria
•   O: Burkholseriales
•   F: Burkholderiaceae
•   G: Burkholderia
•   F: Alcaligenaceae
•   G: Alcaligenes
•   Bordetella
•   Taylorella
Ornitobacterium rhinothracheale
• Hosts: Turkey, chickens, duks, geese

• Respiratory disease, decreased egg
  production, artritis
• 7 serotypes A- G
• aerosacculitis, necrotizing pneumonia,
  suppurative pericarditis
                Diagnostics:
•   Cultivation on blood agar plates
•   Catalase -, oxydase ´+
•   Gram staining
•   PCR identification
•   ATB
    – Resistance to aminoglycosides
               Burkholderia
• B.mallei glanders (maleus) in horses, mules and
  donkeys

• B.psudomallei- melioidosis or pseudoglanders in
  cat, cattlem dog, horse, pig, ruminants
• Nodular form, or systemic
• Habita: soil, surface water, rodents- a source o
  infection

• Group B category of patogens
               Bordetella
• B.bronchiseptica
• B.avium
              Alcaligenes
• A. faecalis
• A.calcoaceticus
               Taylorella
• T.equigenitalis
• Contagious equine metritis
    Order: Pseudomonadales
• F: Pseudomonadaceae

• G: Pseudomonas

• F: Moraxellaceae
              Pseudomonas
• Habitat in soil, water, vegetation
• Most important species:
  – P.aeruginosa
  – opportunistic pathogen in animals, humans
  – resistence to antibiotics is wide
        Pseudomonas species
• P.aeruginosa- oportunistic pathogen
  – pyogenic infections in many animal species
    (mammals,birds, fish, snakes)
• P.fluorescens- sporadic infections,
  patogenicity in poultry, fish and cattle
          Virulence factors of
             P. aeruginosa
• Capsule/pilli
• Proteases
• Elastases
• Phospholipase C
• Rhamnolipid (lecithinase)
• Toxins: cytotoxin, exotoxin A, endotoxin,
  pyocyanin, pyoverdin, both
• Resistance to antibiotics
           F: Moraxellaceae

•   G: Moraxella
•   SG: Moraxella (rods) M. lacunata
•   SG:Branhamella (cocci)
•   G: Acinetobacter
•   A.calcoaceticus, A. abumanii
                Moraxella
• M. bovis
• Host: cattle- infectious bovine
  keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)
• M.ovis – small ruminants : pinkeye

• „M.equi“ – horse : conjunctivitis
     Family Enterobacteriaceae
• Gr negative, non-sporing rods, 2-3 micrometers in
  lenth , often motile, capsulate or non capsulate,
  fimbriated, catalase positive, ferment
  glucose,oxydase negative, reduce nitrate to nitrite
• easily cultivable on blood agar and Mac Conky
  agar
• Habitat: intestine of animals and humans
• may occur on plants and in the soil
    Family Enterobacteriaceae
• Pathogens: E.coli (pathogenic strains),
  Salmonella, Yersinia
• Oportunic pathogens: Proteus spp.,
  Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.,
• Other minor pathogns: Edwardsiella tarda,
 Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens
Genera
            Genera in family
           Enteroacteriaceae
• Genera fermentering   • Genera lactose negative:
  lactose (coliform     • Salmonella
  bacteria)             • Shigella (nonhuman
                          primates)
• Escherichia
                        • Proteus
• Klebsiella
                        • Plesiomonas
• Enterobacter          • Morganella
• Citrobacter           • Edwardsiella
                        • Yersinia
    Biochemical differntiation -
       commonly used tests
• Fermentation of sugars
• ONPG test for beta
  galactosidase
• hydrogen sulfid
  production
• urea hydrolysis
• decarboxylases
  (arginine, lysine)
           Antigenic structure



• O antigen- antigenic groups within a species
• K antigen surfice antigen - enhance the virulece of
  bactria
• H flagelar antigens
• F fimbrial antigens (F4, F5, F6)
           Genus Escherichia
• Non pathogenic strains • Pathogenic strains
  – autochtonic microflora   • Enterotoxigenic (ETEC)
  – normal intestinal        • Enteropatogenic
    microflora                 (EPEC)
                             • Enterohemorrhagic
                               (EHEC)
                             • Necrotoxigenic (NTEC)
       E.coli pathogenic strains
       Adhezins    Toxins     Site    Clinical signs



ETEC   fimbrial K88 LT1,LT2
       F4,F5,F6
                              SI -    diarrhea AA
                   STa,STb
                              SI+LI
EPEC   intimin     ?                  diarrhea
                                      P,C,R,Ca
EHEC   Attaching
       Affacing
                   VT1,VT2    LI      haemor. diarrhea
                   VTE2a              oedema disseases
NTEC   ENT         CNF1,2     SI      diarrhea C,P
   Susceptibility to atimicrobial
               agents
• Succeptibility to:      • Acquired plasmid
  Colistine                 resistence
                          • streptomycine
                          • kanamycine
• Acquired resistence to: • gentamicine
• ampicllin/amoxicillin   • chloramphenicol
                          • tetracyclines
• fluorochinolones        • sulfonamides
Salmonella (about 2500 serovars)
• Habitat:parasites of animals and man
  – found in sawage and pond water
  – food borne infections (zoonoses)
• Species: S.enterica (2443), S.bongori (20)

• Antigenic structure:
• The Kauffamann- White diagnostic scheme
               S. enterica
• S.enterica subspecies (6):
• S.enterica subsp.enterica
• ..salamae, arizone, diarizone, houtenae,
  indica
• Serovars of S.enterica subsp. enterica
• S. Typhimurium DT 104
• S. Enteritidis
 Salmonella serovars non adapted
           to the host
• S.Typhimurium   • Animals - vertebrates,
• S.Enteritidis     Humans
                  • Poultry- subclinical
• S.Derby           inf.
                  Animals- enteritis
                  Human -food borne inf.
                  • Catle, sheep, horse,
                    dog- enteritis,
                    septicemia
Salmonella serovars with host
         specificity
• S.Choleraesuis   • Pig- enterocolitis and
                     septicemia
                   • Poultry(chickens),
• S.Pullorum         acute diarrhoeal diseases
                   • Poultry (broilers),
• S.Gallinarum     • fowl thyphoid

                   • Cattle, enteritis,
                     septicemia
• S.Dublin
                     Yersinia
• Y.enetrocolitica       •   Pig, dog
                         •   Man
• Y.pseudotuberculosis   •   Ruminants
                         •   Pig
• Y.pestis               •   Man

                         • Rodents
                         • Cat
                 Klebsiella
• Non motile, capsuated
• K.pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. arogenes

• Habitat: large intesine, respirator tract, soil
  and water
Family Enterobactericeae
              Enterobacter
• Motile, less ofen capsuleted than Klebsiella
• Habitat: soil and water
                  Proteus
• Swarming growth on agar media (film on
  surfice)
• P. mirabilis
• P.vulgaris

• diarrhea in rumiants
• urinary tract infections in pets and horses
            G Plesiomonas
• P.shigeloides
• cat-diarrhea
             O: Pasteurellales
• F. Pasteurellaceae
• Genera:
  –   Pasteurella
  –   Actinobacillus
  –   Haemopilus
  –   Gallibacterium G.anatis
  –   Mannheimia
             Order: Vibrionales
• F: Vibrionaceae
• G: Vibrio
• S: V. cholarae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus
    – V.metchnikovii
•   G:Listonella
•   L.anguillarum
•   G: Photobacterium
•   P.damselae
•
      Order. Aeromonadales
• F: Aeromonadaceae
• G: Aeromonas
• S: A. hydrophila, A.salmonicida, A. caviae

• A.hydrophila- hemorrhagic septicemia in
  reptiles, fish ..frogs: red leg
• A.salmonicida furunculosis in salmonid fish
Pasteurelaceae
         Mambers of the family
•   Haemophilus
•   Histophilus
•   Pasteurella
•   Mannheimia
•   Actinobacillus
            Haemophillus
• Definition of the genus: pleomorphic noon-
  motile, rods to coccobacilli (filaments),
  requires factor X (hemin) and/ or V (NAD)
  in blood
• Habitat: mucose membranes, associated
  with the host
• Prefix para – require only factor V
             Haemophillus
• H.paragallinarum – infectious coryza in
  chickens and hens
•
• H.parasuis Glasser diseases (polyserositis,
  polysynovitis, and memningitis) in piglets
• Habitat: nasal cavity, toncils, and trachea
                  H. parasuis
• Primary agents in nursery mortality /mathernal
  antibodies
• Pathogenesis
• Pathogenicity: izolates from upper respiratory
  tract x pulmonic
• Clinical signs: fever, swolen joints, respiratory
  distres,
• Therapy.penicillin, resitance to tetracyclines
• Vaccination of piglets
              Histophilus
• Definition: catalase negta. Capnophilic,
  yelow pigment, non dependent on V and X
• H. sumnus
• H.ovis
• H.agni
                H. somnus
• Habitat: mucosal surfaces in ruminants
• Et. Agent of multisystemic diseases
  (H.somnus complex)
• Bronchopneumonia, necrotic laryngitis,
  myocarditis, artritis, otitis, myelitis,
  conjunctivitis, myositis, abortions,
• CNS infection „sleepr syndrom!
  Thromboembolic encephalistis
•   Myocarditis acute/ chronic
•   Arthritis
•   Otitis
•   Conjunctivitis
•   Genital tract infection- vaginitis,
    endometritis veneral transmission
              Diagnostics
• Serology ante mortem – seroconvertion

• Cultivation / PCR
               Pasteurella
• Definition of the genus
              Mannheimia
• Definition of the genus
            Actinobacillus
• Definition of the genus: rods and coccal
  shape ( Morse code apereance, non motole,
  oxidase positive, aded CO 2 is required ,
• Mac Conkey agar +,
             Actinobacillus
•   A. pleuropneumonie
•   A.suis
•   A.equuli
•   A.lignieresii
A.pleropneumoniae
A.equuli
       O: Desulfovibrionales
• F: Desulfovibrionaceae
• G:Lawsonia
• L. intracellularis
 L. intracellulararis (Mc Orist et
              al.1995)
• Obligate intracellular pathogen
• Host: pig, wilde pig, horse, hamster
• Porcine proliferative entheropathy (PPE)

• Infection of enterocytes –ileum, colon
• Acute d.: haemorrhagic diarhoea
• Chronic d. : porcine intestinal adenomatosis
         Diagnostics of PPE
• PCR: nested PCR for individual pigs

• IFAT or ELISA : antibodies in serum (herd
  test)
• Treatment: macrolides, tetracyclines,
  pleuromutilins
• Prevention: commercial vaccine
    Phylum: Class: Bacteroidetes
    O: Bacteroidales
•   F: Bacteroidaceae
•   G. Bacteroides
•   F: Pophyromonadaceae
•   G: Porphyromonas
•   F: Prevotellaceae
•   G: Prevotella
           Phylum: Chlamydiae
           Class: Chlamydiae
•   O: Chlamydiales
•   F: Chlamydiaceae
•   G: Clamydia
•   S: Ch. trachomatis, Ch. suis
•   G: Chlamydophilla
•   S: Ch. psittaci
•      Ch. pneumoniae
              O: Rickettsiales
•   F :Rickettsiaceae
•   G: Rickettsia
•   F: anaplasmataceae
•   G: Anaplasma
•   Aegyptianella
•   Cowdria
•   Ehrlichia
•   Neorickettsia

				
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posted:1/19/2011
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