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CANCER

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					CANCER
                     CANCER TERMS
   Cancer-is the abnormal uncontrolled growth of
    cells in the body
     The cancerous cells divide over and over, until they take
      over and crowd out the healthy cells.
     When this happens, a tumor is formed. There are two
      types of tumors – benign and malignant
         Benign-Non Cancerous
         Malignant- Cancerous

   Tumor- This gradual increase in the number of
    dividing cells creates a growing mass of tissue
    called a tumor
CANCER TERMS
                  TYPES OF CANCER
Cancer can originate almost anywhere in the body.
   Carcinomas, the most common types of cancer, arise
    from the cells that cover external and internal body
    surfaces. Lung, breast, and colon are the most frequent
    cancers of this type in the United States.
   Sarcomas are cancers arising from cells found in the
    supporting tissues of the body such as bone, cartilage,
    fat, connective tissue, and muscle.
   Lymphomas are cancers that arise in the lymph nodes
    and tissues of the body's immune system.
   Leukemias are cancers of the immature blood cells that
    grow in the bone marrow and tend to accumulate in
    large numbers in the bloodstream.
                 INVASION AND METASTASIS
   Cancers are capable of spreading throughout the body by two
    mechanisms: Invasion and metastasis.
         Invasion refers to the direct migration and penetration by cancer
          cells into neighboring tissues.
         Metastasis refers to the ability of cancer cells to penetrate into
          lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and
          then invade normal tissues elsewhere in the body.
                  DIAGNOSIS

 Biopsy- the surgical removal of a small piece of
  tissue for microscopic examination
 Regular Exams- go to doctor at least once a
  year for regular check-up
 Self-exams- (skin, breast, testicular) once a
  month
            CANCER PREVENTION


 Limit tobacco and alcohol use
 Avoid excessive sunlight/UV rays

 Eat a diet high in fiber low in fat

 Exercise regularly

 Know your health history

 Self-exams

 Avoid cancer viruses (HPV, Hepatitis)
          EARLY WARNING SIGNS

 C -Change in bowel habits
 A- A sore that does not heal

 U- unusual bleeding or discharge

 T- Thickening or lump on skin

 I- Indigestion

 O- Obvious change in a wart or mole

 N-Nagging cough or hoarseness
                TREATMENT OPTIONS

   Surgery- removal of cancerous tumor
     Usually not an option if cancer has metastasized
     Usually used in conjunction with another treatment
      (Chemo, Radiation)
     Best option if it is available
               TREATMENT OPTIONS

   Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a
    cancer treatment that uses high doses of
    radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from
    spreading.
     Given in high doses, radiation kills or slows the
      growth of cancer cells.
                     TREATMENT OPTIONS
   Chemotherapy- (also called chemo) is a type of cancer
    treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells.

       Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells,
        which grow and divide quickly. But it can also harm healthy cells that
        divide quickly, Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Often,
        side effects get better or go away after chemotherapy is over.

       Make a tumor smaller before surgery or radiation therapy.

       Destroy cancer cells that may remain after surgery or radiation therapy.

       Destroy cancer cells that have come back (recurrent cancer) or spread
        to other parts of your body (metastatic cancer
           THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW
 Be aware of the most common cancers
 This disease is the 2nd leading cause of death
  in the US.
 Cancers prone to men
     Testicular-(ages 15-30)
     Prostate- (ages 50 and older

   Cancers prone to females
     Breast- (ages 40 and older)
     Cervical-(ages 15-25)
        Increasedrisk with certain STD’s
        *these numbers are averages only*

				
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