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					Rise of Industrialism ch 15

            Immigration
An American Tale
  Who immigrated?
  When did they come?
  Why did they come?
   Where did they
   arrive?
  How did they travel?
  What happened to
   them in America?
An American Tale:


  immigrant is a person who traels from
   another country to live in the U.S.
  Fievel is the story of immigration from
   Russia
  Be prepared to discuss the distance
   Fievel’s family traveled to reach New
   York from Russia, about their journey
   crossing Europe and the Atlantic ocean.
Class Notes

  On the right side of your notebook draw
   a simple diagram to illustrate the concept
   of immigration.
  Annotate the diagram using the terms
   border, immigrants, natives.
  Use arrows to represent patterns of
   movements and voice bubbles to list
   appropriate comments.
On the left side of notebook

  List the three countries that have the
   highest number of immigrants today
  For each country list the number of
   immigrants that have settled in that
   country and the reasons people have
   immigrated there
  Use almanac and internet and label your
   source.
2.2 Rising tide of immigration

  Write a one paragraph response on the
   left side of your notebook to this prompt.
  What do you think brought your
   ancestors to America and how do you
   think they got here?
2.2A Image

    Record notes in your
     spiral.
2.2a German immigrants embarking
to Hamburg steamer headed to NY
  1865-1915 flood of immigrants came to
   America
  1865 to 1900 13.5 million immigrants
   came to America
  Major reasons to leave Europe included
   wars, famine, religious persecution and
   overpopulation
Drama

  Act out scenario
  German family is sending their son to
   America on a ship. Family is saying
   goodbye.
  Ask questions
        Son: where are you going?, why are you
         leaving your homeland, What do you expect
         to find in America?, How do you feel about
         leaving Germany?
Continue Drama

    Ask relatives who stay behind
      Why aren’t you leaving for America?
      How do you feel about your young relative
       leaving for America? Will you ever see him
       again?
      What is the real reason he is leaving for
       America?
Image 2.2B
2.2B Immigrants crowded on the jam packed steerage
desk of the U.S.S. Permland


   Steerage class was the cheapest and
    least comfortable but is how most
    immigrants came to America
   Passage to the United States often cost
    a life’s savings. Entire families would
    save enough money to send just one or
    two family members hoping these
    members could later afford to bring the
    rest of the family.
2.2B continued

  The crowded steerage deck usually
   contained a diverse group of people.
   Many were poor farmers whose land had
   been subdivided through generations so
   it was no longer enough to support a
   single family.
  Others were schoolmasters unable to
   find work or looking for new
   opportunities.
2.2B continued

  Most were young men and women
   willing to risk traveling to a new land to
   find a brighter future.
  Steerage was stinky, dirty, sticky and
   conditions included a lack of fresh air,
   disease, and death.
Drama

  Student group stand in 2’x2’ square and
   describe the scene around you.
  Is the agony worth the trip?
  Did you expect this?
  How are the children holding up?
  Why aren’t you below deck?
2.2C Ellis Island in Upper NY Bay

    Where is this building located? For what
     might it be used? If you were arriving as
     an immigrant what impression would you
     have of the United States?
Notes: 2.2C

  Ellis Island is the main processing point
   for newly-arriving immigrants at the turn
   of the century.
  In 1890 Congress designated this as an
   immigration station. It opened in 1892,
   burned in 1897 and fireproof structures
   opened in 1900 and by the end of 1910
   they had greeted 6 million immigrants.
Image 2.2C
Notes 2.2C

  In 1924, immigration quotas were
   tightened and in 1954 Ellis Island closed
   its doors for good. Thieves pilfered
   scrap metal and vines grew through
   broken windows.
  President Johnson in 1965 proclaimed
   the island part of the Statue of Liberty
   national Monument and later congress
   approved funds for restoration.
2.2d Image
2.2D Immigrants being checked by
the immigration inspector
  Who are the men with their shirts off?
  Who is the person with the stethoscope?
  What is happening in this transparency?
  Why are the immigrants being
   inspected?
  How do you think they feel? Why?
  Is the treatment they are receiving fair or
   not? Why?
Notes: 2.2D

  In this transparency we see several men who
   have just arrived in the US being given
   medical examinations by immigration
   inspectors. The inspector had the authority to
   send an immigrant back home so this part of
   the trip caused a lot of anxiety.
  Most immigrants arrived at Ellis Island in NY
   and the processing was humiliating and
   dehumanizing.
Notes 2.2D continued

  Inspectors had just two minutes to complete
   each medical inspection and ask each
   immigrant 32 background questions.
  Newcomers found to have contagious
   diseases could be shipped back and many
   immigrants had their last names changed by
   inspectors who did not have the time or
   patience to struggle with foreign spellings.
Drama

  Act out the scenario
  Two newly-arriving immigrants are
   waiting in line to receive their medical
   inspections. Two students act as the
   immigrants and one as the inspector.
  Show treatment received
2.2E Image
2.2E Immigrants in the main waiting
hall on Ellis Island
  Who are these people?
  Why are they sitting in holding pens?
  What purpose do the tags on their coats
   serve?
  What might they be feeling as they are
   waiting?
Notes 2.2E

  Immigrants were tagged and made to
   wait long hours before being processed.
  Long lines were tagged according to the
   language they spoke and marked with
   chalk according to the medical ailments
   they were suspected of having, waited
   patiently for the dreaded moment in front
   of the immigration inspector who would
   decide their fates.
Drama

  Act out the scenario
  Poles have been put together because of their
   nationality are discussing what has happened
   to them so far. Suddenly an immigration
   officer demands their passports. He tries to
   say each of their names but ends up giving
   them Anglicized versions.
  Pilsudski, Mikolajczyk,Walesa, Kazimierz,
   Gierek, Ochab, Jaroszewicz
2.2F Image
2.2F

  Who is the man coming down the
   gangplank?
  Who are the men on the dock? What
   are the men on the dock trying to tell the
   arriving immigrant? Why?
  Why might Americans have these
   feelings toward foreigners?
  What do the shadows represent? What
   is the irony of this cartoon?
2.2F Notes

  In this transparency we see the shadows
   of immigrant origins looming over five
   wealthy Americans who are “greeting” a
   newly-arriving immigrant.
  The anti-foreign attitudes these
   characters depict were commonly felt by
   many Americans during this period.
2.2F Notes
  Some native-born Americans feared and
   resented the new immigrants. Their
   languages, religions and customs seemed
   especially strange to Americans who traced
   their ethnic roots to northern and western
   Europe.
  The newcomers also competed for jobs and
   were willing to accept lower wages and worse
   working conditions than American born
   workers.
2.2F Notes continued

  Immigrants were often used by employers as
   strike breakers increasing American born
   workers feelings toward them.
  “The immigrants are an invasion of venomous
   reptiles . . . Long-haired, wild-eyed, bad-
   smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches
   who never did a days work in their lives” wrote
   a newspaper editorial.
Drama: Act it out

  Recreate the cartoon. One student plays
   the part of the immigrant and the other 5
   play the part of the wealthy Americans
  Be sure you include some reasons for
   the reactions of the Americans towards
   the immigrant and an explanation of the
   irony of the cartoon.
2.2G Crowded Italian neighborhood
in NY
Describe the immigrant
neighborhood
  What are some good aspects of living in
   a neighborhood like this?
  What are some negative?
  Do you think immigrants had much
   choice about where they lived when they
   first arrived? Why or why not?
Notes

  The majority of immigrants settled in big
   cities especially in industrial centers and
   ports where jobs were available.
  By 1900 2/3 of the foreign born people in
   the US lived in cities and four out of 5 in
   NY city were either immigrants or
   children of immigrants (first generation)
Notes

  A neighborhood of people with similar ethnic
   backgrounds offered its residents familiar
   language, food, clothing, and culture.
  It created a network of support for helping
   newer immigrants find jobs and housing.
  It also segregated immigrants from the rest of
   American society making it easier for
   Americans to retain their prejudices and
   stereotypes.
5 cents a spot lodging

  Who are the people in the picture?
  How many of them do you see?
  Why do so many of them have to sleep
   in the same room?
  Why was this type of lodging called
   “nickel a spot” ?
  How do you think the people in the
   picture feel about their living conditions?
   Add pic 5 cents a
    spot
2.2H
2.2H Notes

  Living conditions ranged from uncomfortable,
   crowded and dirty, at best to literally life-
   threatening at worst.
  One NY social worker counted 1,232 people
   living in just 120 rooms in one part of the city.
  Another could not located a single bathtub in
   over three city blocks of tenement buildings.
  In Chicago one year 60 % newborns never
   reached their first birthday
2.2H notes

  Decent lighting and fresh air were as
   hard to come by as food and clothing.
  Babies asphyxiated in the air of their
   own homes.
  Police and ambulances were kept busy
   at night with reports of sleepers rolling off
   window sills and roofs where they had
   tried to catch enough air to breathe.
Drama

  Create a re-inactment of the following
   scenario.
  In their 5’x5’ room a family and their
   boarders are settling down to try to
   sleep.
  Be sure to describe the reasons for so
   many immigrants in the tiny room and
   the conditions.
Questions to answer in drama

    Where did you all come from?
    How does it smell here? What will you eat?
    Are you working? Where?
    Where are your families?
    How much are you spending to stay here?
    Is this what you expected in America? Is it this
     bad back home?
    How long will you stay here?
In notebook student response

    On the left side of your notebook draw a
     caricature of a European immigrant at
     the turn of the century. Label the
     immigrants clothes, possessions and
     body parts to show what a typical
     immigrant might have felt or been
     prepared for upon arrival to America.
2.2H Immigrant child working in a
textile factory
    What is this girl doing?
    What are her working conditions probably like?
    Why do you think the employer hired her and
     not an adult?
    How do you think she feels about her job and
     why?
    How do you think her parents feel and why?
2.2I Notes

  We see a young girl working in a textile
   factory. This was a common form of
   work since children had nimble fingers
   and it was easy for them to thread the
   spinning machines.
  Immigrants took jobs that most native-
   born Americans refused to do such as
   working in textile factories, stockyards,
   coalmines, and steel mills.
2,2I Notes

  Unskilled workers were paid 10 cents an
   hour or $5.50 a 3week.
  Children barely half of that.
  In 1910 the average work week for a
   factory employee was about 55 hours
   though 12, 14, 16 hr wkdays were not
   uncommon even for children.
2.2I Notes
  Many of the occupations were highly
   dangerous. Between 1880-1900 over 35,000
   were killed on the job…an average of one
   every two days.
  Occupational diseases such as black lung in
   coal miners and white lung in mill workers
   were not seen as the responsibility of the
   employer.
  When workers became ill, compensation was
   rarely provided.
2.2I Notes
  In 1905, 10-11yr. Old boys worked in the coal
   mines of eastern Pennsylvania. Most of these
   boys were breakers which mean that they sat
   on boards over a chute from which tons of coal
   poured; their job was to pick out the stone and
   slate from the coal.
  10 hrs. a day exhausted most of the boys—
   they became round shouldered and their
   growth was stunted. But what they feared
   most was losing their balance and falling into
   the chute where they would easily be crushed
   by new loads of coal crashing down on them.
2.2J Chinese immigrants in
Chinatown, San Francisco
  Who are the people in this image?
  To what area of the US did they
   immigrate? Why? Does it appear from
   this picture that the Chinese immigrants
   tried to “melt into” American culture?
   How do you think many Americans felt
   toward the Chinese?
2.2J Notes

    In this picture we see Chinese
     immigrants, mostly men in a segregated
     section of San Francisco called China
     town.
2.2J Notes

    At the same time that Europeans were
     arriving on the East coast, thousands of
     Asians were arriving on the West coast
     of the United States. The majority of
     these Asian immigrants were Chinese.
     Between 1865 and 1882, 320,000
     Chinese immigrated to the US. Other
     countries Japan and the Phillipines also
     sent immigrants.
2.2J Notes

    Chinese immigrants who settled on the West
     Coast, particularly in San Francisco made up a
     significant portion of the immigration of this
     time. Most came to escape problems similar
     to the European immigrants---famine,
     overpopulation, civil warfare. They were also
     lured by fantastic tales of the “Mountain of
     Gold” that had been discovered in California.
2.2J Notes

    Chinese immigration jumped from about
     3,000 immigrants per year in the 1850’s
     to a peak of 23,000 in 1872. This
     corresponded with the building of the
     transcontinental railroad which employed
     thousands of Chinese immigrants. By
     1877, 17% of California’s population was
     Chinese.
2.2J Notes

    Because of their race and very different
     culture, chinese immigrants tended to stick to
     themselves, maintaining their own forms of
     dress, food and language. They live in
     segregated neighborhoods known as
     chinatowns and were encouraged by their own
     community leaders “ if possible avoid any
     contact with Americans” because American
     culture was considered backward in
     comparison to Chinese culture.
2.2J Notes
    Like the European immigrants, the Chinese
     were often willing to take menial jobs that
     Caucasians snubbed or to work the same jobs
     for lower wages. This, along with their
     unwillingness to “melt into” the American
     culture led to American feelings of hostility
     towards the Chinese particularly during times
     of economic hardship. These feelings
     culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act of
     1882 which forbade Chinese to immigrate to
     the US.
Student Response
  On the left side of your notebook, create a
   classified page that would appeal to 19th
   century immigrants looking for job
   opportunities. The page should include a title
   written in bold letters and at least three job
   listings. For each job listing include a catchy
   heading, a two sentence description of the job
   and an appropriate visual.
  Remember the classified page represents the
   interests of business owners who sometimes
   sought to use immigrant labor to complete
   undesirable and dangerous tasks.
2.23 Voice of Chinese Immigrants:
Poems from Angel Island
    See video

				
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