Rise of Industrialism ch 15
An American Tale
When did they come?
Why did they come?
Where did they
How did they travel?
What happened to
them in America?
An American Tale:
immigrant is a person who traels from
another country to live in the U.S.
Fievel is the story of immigration from
Be prepared to discuss the distance
Fievel’s family traveled to reach New
York from Russia, about their journey
crossing Europe and the Atlantic ocean.
On the right side of your notebook draw
a simple diagram to illustrate the concept
Annotate the diagram using the terms
border, immigrants, natives.
Use arrows to represent patterns of
movements and voice bubbles to list
On the left side of notebook
List the three countries that have the
highest number of immigrants today
For each country list the number of
immigrants that have settled in that
country and the reasons people have
Use almanac and internet and label your
2.2 Rising tide of immigration
Write a one paragraph response on the
left side of your notebook to this prompt.
What do you think brought your
ancestors to America and how do you
think they got here?
Record notes in your
2.2a German immigrants embarking
to Hamburg steamer headed to NY
1865-1915 flood of immigrants came to
1865 to 1900 13.5 million immigrants
came to America
Major reasons to leave Europe included
wars, famine, religious persecution and
Act out scenario
German family is sending their son to
America on a ship. Family is saying
Son: where are you going?, why are you
leaving your homeland, What do you expect
to find in America?, How do you feel about
Ask relatives who stay behind
Why aren’t you leaving for America?
How do you feel about your young relative
leaving for America? Will you ever see him
What is the real reason he is leaving for
2.2B Immigrants crowded on the jam packed steerage
desk of the U.S.S. Permland
Steerage class was the cheapest and
least comfortable but is how most
immigrants came to America
Passage to the United States often cost
a life’s savings. Entire families would
save enough money to send just one or
two family members hoping these
members could later afford to bring the
rest of the family.
The crowded steerage deck usually
contained a diverse group of people.
Many were poor farmers whose land had
been subdivided through generations so
it was no longer enough to support a
Others were schoolmasters unable to
find work or looking for new
Most were young men and women
willing to risk traveling to a new land to
find a brighter future.
Steerage was stinky, dirty, sticky and
conditions included a lack of fresh air,
disease, and death.
Student group stand in 2’x2’ square and
describe the scene around you.
Is the agony worth the trip?
Did you expect this?
How are the children holding up?
Why aren’t you below deck?
2.2C Ellis Island in Upper NY Bay
Where is this building located? For what
might it be used? If you were arriving as
an immigrant what impression would you
have of the United States?
Ellis Island is the main processing point
for newly-arriving immigrants at the turn
of the century.
In 1890 Congress designated this as an
immigration station. It opened in 1892,
burned in 1897 and fireproof structures
opened in 1900 and by the end of 1910
they had greeted 6 million immigrants.
In 1924, immigration quotas were
tightened and in 1954 Ellis Island closed
its doors for good. Thieves pilfered
scrap metal and vines grew through
President Johnson in 1965 proclaimed
the island part of the Statue of Liberty
national Monument and later congress
approved funds for restoration.
2.2D Immigrants being checked by
the immigration inspector
Who are the men with their shirts off?
Who is the person with the stethoscope?
What is happening in this transparency?
Why are the immigrants being
How do you think they feel? Why?
Is the treatment they are receiving fair or
In this transparency we see several men who
have just arrived in the US being given
medical examinations by immigration
inspectors. The inspector had the authority to
send an immigrant back home so this part of
the trip caused a lot of anxiety.
Most immigrants arrived at Ellis Island in NY
and the processing was humiliating and
Notes 2.2D continued
Inspectors had just two minutes to complete
each medical inspection and ask each
immigrant 32 background questions.
Newcomers found to have contagious
diseases could be shipped back and many
immigrants had their last names changed by
inspectors who did not have the time or
patience to struggle with foreign spellings.
Act out the scenario
Two newly-arriving immigrants are
waiting in line to receive their medical
inspections. Two students act as the
immigrants and one as the inspector.
Show treatment received
2.2E Immigrants in the main waiting
hall on Ellis Island
Who are these people?
Why are they sitting in holding pens?
What purpose do the tags on their coats
What might they be feeling as they are
Immigrants were tagged and made to
wait long hours before being processed.
Long lines were tagged according to the
language they spoke and marked with
chalk according to the medical ailments
they were suspected of having, waited
patiently for the dreaded moment in front
of the immigration inspector who would
decide their fates.
Act out the scenario
Poles have been put together because of their
nationality are discussing what has happened
to them so far. Suddenly an immigration
officer demands their passports. He tries to
say each of their names but ends up giving
them Anglicized versions.
Pilsudski, Mikolajczyk,Walesa, Kazimierz,
Gierek, Ochab, Jaroszewicz
Who is the man coming down the
Who are the men on the dock? What
are the men on the dock trying to tell the
arriving immigrant? Why?
Why might Americans have these
feelings toward foreigners?
What do the shadows represent? What
is the irony of this cartoon?
In this transparency we see the shadows
of immigrant origins looming over five
wealthy Americans who are “greeting” a
The anti-foreign attitudes these
characters depict were commonly felt by
many Americans during this period.
Some native-born Americans feared and
resented the new immigrants. Their
languages, religions and customs seemed
especially strange to Americans who traced
their ethnic roots to northern and western
The newcomers also competed for jobs and
were willing to accept lower wages and worse
working conditions than American born
2.2F Notes continued
Immigrants were often used by employers as
strike breakers increasing American born
workers feelings toward them.
“The immigrants are an invasion of venomous
reptiles . . . Long-haired, wild-eyed, bad-
smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches
who never did a days work in their lives” wrote
a newspaper editorial.
Drama: Act it out
Recreate the cartoon. One student plays
the part of the immigrant and the other 5
play the part of the wealthy Americans
Be sure you include some reasons for
the reactions of the Americans towards
the immigrant and an explanation of the
irony of the cartoon.
2.2G Crowded Italian neighborhood
Describe the immigrant
What are some good aspects of living in
a neighborhood like this?
What are some negative?
Do you think immigrants had much
choice about where they lived when they
first arrived? Why or why not?
The majority of immigrants settled in big
cities especially in industrial centers and
ports where jobs were available.
By 1900 2/3 of the foreign born people in
the US lived in cities and four out of 5 in
NY city were either immigrants or
children of immigrants (first generation)
A neighborhood of people with similar ethnic
backgrounds offered its residents familiar
language, food, clothing, and culture.
It created a network of support for helping
newer immigrants find jobs and housing.
It also segregated immigrants from the rest of
American society making it easier for
Americans to retain their prejudices and
5 cents a spot lodging
Who are the people in the picture?
How many of them do you see?
Why do so many of them have to sleep
in the same room?
Why was this type of lodging called
“nickel a spot” ?
How do you think the people in the
picture feel about their living conditions?
Add pic 5 cents a
Living conditions ranged from uncomfortable,
crowded and dirty, at best to literally life-
threatening at worst.
One NY social worker counted 1,232 people
living in just 120 rooms in one part of the city.
Another could not located a single bathtub in
over three city blocks of tenement buildings.
In Chicago one year 60 % newborns never
reached their first birthday
Decent lighting and fresh air were as
hard to come by as food and clothing.
Babies asphyxiated in the air of their
Police and ambulances were kept busy
at night with reports of sleepers rolling off
window sills and roofs where they had
tried to catch enough air to breathe.
Create a re-inactment of the following
In their 5’x5’ room a family and their
boarders are settling down to try to
Be sure to describe the reasons for so
many immigrants in the tiny room and
Questions to answer in drama
Where did you all come from?
How does it smell here? What will you eat?
Are you working? Where?
Where are your families?
How much are you spending to stay here?
Is this what you expected in America? Is it this
bad back home?
How long will you stay here?
In notebook student response
On the left side of your notebook draw a
caricature of a European immigrant at
the turn of the century. Label the
immigrants clothes, possessions and
body parts to show what a typical
immigrant might have felt or been
prepared for upon arrival to America.
2.2H Immigrant child working in a
What is this girl doing?
What are her working conditions probably like?
Why do you think the employer hired her and
not an adult?
How do you think she feels about her job and
How do you think her parents feel and why?
We see a young girl working in a textile
factory. This was a common form of
work since children had nimble fingers
and it was easy for them to thread the
Immigrants took jobs that most native-
born Americans refused to do such as
working in textile factories, stockyards,
coalmines, and steel mills.
Unskilled workers were paid 10 cents an
hour or $5.50 a 3week.
Children barely half of that.
In 1910 the average work week for a
factory employee was about 55 hours
though 12, 14, 16 hr wkdays were not
uncommon even for children.
Many of the occupations were highly
dangerous. Between 1880-1900 over 35,000
were killed on the job…an average of one
every two days.
Occupational diseases such as black lung in
coal miners and white lung in mill workers
were not seen as the responsibility of the
When workers became ill, compensation was
In 1905, 10-11yr. Old boys worked in the coal
mines of eastern Pennsylvania. Most of these
boys were breakers which mean that they sat
on boards over a chute from which tons of coal
poured; their job was to pick out the stone and
slate from the coal.
10 hrs. a day exhausted most of the boys—
they became round shouldered and their
growth was stunted. But what they feared
most was losing their balance and falling into
the chute where they would easily be crushed
by new loads of coal crashing down on them.
2.2J Chinese immigrants in
Chinatown, San Francisco
Who are the people in this image?
To what area of the US did they
immigrate? Why? Does it appear from
this picture that the Chinese immigrants
tried to “melt into” American culture?
How do you think many Americans felt
toward the Chinese?
In this picture we see Chinese
immigrants, mostly men in a segregated
section of San Francisco called China
At the same time that Europeans were
arriving on the East coast, thousands of
Asians were arriving on the West coast
of the United States. The majority of
these Asian immigrants were Chinese.
Between 1865 and 1882, 320,000
Chinese immigrated to the US. Other
countries Japan and the Phillipines also
Chinese immigrants who settled on the West
Coast, particularly in San Francisco made up a
significant portion of the immigration of this
time. Most came to escape problems similar
to the European immigrants---famine,
overpopulation, civil warfare. They were also
lured by fantastic tales of the “Mountain of
Gold” that had been discovered in California.
Chinese immigration jumped from about
3,000 immigrants per year in the 1850’s
to a peak of 23,000 in 1872. This
corresponded with the building of the
transcontinental railroad which employed
thousands of Chinese immigrants. By
1877, 17% of California’s population was
Because of their race and very different
culture, chinese immigrants tended to stick to
themselves, maintaining their own forms of
dress, food and language. They live in
segregated neighborhoods known as
chinatowns and were encouraged by their own
community leaders “ if possible avoid any
contact with Americans” because American
culture was considered backward in
comparison to Chinese culture.
Like the European immigrants, the Chinese
were often willing to take menial jobs that
Caucasians snubbed or to work the same jobs
for lower wages. This, along with their
unwillingness to “melt into” the American
culture led to American feelings of hostility
towards the Chinese particularly during times
of economic hardship. These feelings
culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act of
1882 which forbade Chinese to immigrate to
On the left side of your notebook, create a
classified page that would appeal to 19th
century immigrants looking for job
opportunities. The page should include a title
written in bold letters and at least three job
listings. For each job listing include a catchy
heading, a two sentence description of the job
and an appropriate visual.
Remember the classified page represents the
interests of business owners who sometimes
sought to use immigrant labor to complete
undesirable and dangerous tasks.
2.23 Voice of Chinese Immigrants:
Poems from Angel Island