; Pencil Drawing Fundamentals - The Line
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# Pencil Drawing Fundamentals - The Line

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```									The line is one of the most basic entities used in drawing. The straight line has two
fundamental properties:

* Length - Naturally, the length of a straight line is the distance between its beginning
point and its end point.

* Direction - A straight line also has a direction. Its direction is determined by the
angle it makes with a horizontal or vertical line.

So, when you want to draw a straight line you need to think about two things: length
and direction.

Then, you also have to develop a technique to actually draw that line. A pencil artist
seldom uses a ruler to draw a straight line. Lines are drawn free-hand. And this takes
quite a bit of practice. In the end you should be able to draw straight lines and parallel
lines fairly quickly and in one stroke.

The idea here is to swing your arm from the elbow as opposed to from the wrist. You
can use your wrist for tiny lines or other small details. But generally you keep your
wrist and lower arm fixed as one unit and you rotate your elbow as you draw the line.
This movement happens quite fast. Also, hold your pencil any way you want, i.e., the
way you are used to it.

To measure the length of a line you can use the following procedure:

* First, you choose a Basic Length Unit. It is the length of a line segment that is not
too long and not too short relative to a scene.

We will choose two such basic units:

1. Life Unit - First, we choose a basic length unit for the real scene you want to draw.
For a large life scene you can do this by holding a pencil at arms length with locked
elbow. Then, with one eye closed, you can measure a basic unit (not too long and not
too short) with your pencil using your thumb as a marker. Draw this line segment on a
separate piece of paper.

2. Paper Unit - Now, you also need a basic length for your actual drawing. This is
because the size of the real scene will usually be different from the one you will
render on your paper. Again, use your pencil to choose a basic length unit suitable for
the size of your paper and call it the Paper Unit. Draw it next to the Life Unit.

Now we are ready to use these two basic units. We use the Life Unit to measure any
length on the real composition. We express these lengths in terms of the number of
Life Units. For example, you will speak of this table leg being about half a Life Unit
or this hat sits 1.5 Life Units to the left of that umbrella. Dont forget to make the
measurements always in the same manner, i.e., at arms length, with locked elbow, and
with one eye closed.

Next, you take your Paper Unit and multiply it by the ratio you just obtained with
your Life Unit. For example, on your paper the table leg will measure 0.5 times the
Paper Unit or the hat will sit 1.5 Paper Units to the left of the umbrella. Thats all there
is to it.

Then there remains the technique to measure angles:

* Angles are measured relative to the horizontal and the vertical. If you work on
rectangular paper you can use its vertical and horizontal edges as a reference. The
angle you observe in your life composition will be the same on your paper. No ratio
involved here.

Again, you can use your pencil but this time align it horizontally (or vertically) and
estimate the angle a particular line makes with your horizontal or vertical. This
technique requires some practice but after awhile youll get a feel for angles. After
youve drawn the line you can check of the length as well as the angle seem right to
you. It is remarkable how quickly the eye gets trained to detect incorrect proportions
and angles. But it does take some time and practice.

Note that curved lines can be considered as a linkage of small straight lines so that the
same techniques can also be applied in an approximate manner to these curved lines.

The above tips should start you off in the right direction with regards to dealing with
lines.

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