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					 Founding the American
   Colonies    Part 2

Mrs. Park
Fall 2010
 The English find Roanoke
Sir Walter Raleigh was sent to scout out the
Americas and found Roanoke Island, off the
coast of North Carolina.
He returned and spread word of an island
that was good for farming
In 1585, Raleigh sent about 100 men to settle
on Roanoke Island. After a difficult winter, the
colonists returned to England.
Roanoke: The Lost Colony
In 1587, Raleigh tried again sending 91 men,
17 women, and 9 children.
John White, a mapmaker led the group.
This group too had difficulties.
   White returned to England to get supplies.
   He planned on being gone three months, but due
    to war with Spain it lasted 3 years.
   When White returned the island was deserted. the
    colony was never heard from again.
    Jamestown: The first
permanent English settlement
In 1607, English merchants formed the
Virginia Company and received a charter to
organize a settlement.
The company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships to
America to look for gold and set up trade in
fish and furs.
The settlers entered the Chesapeake Bay
and then sailed up a river flowing into the
They named the river James and the colony
Jamestown, after after King James I.
The company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships to
America to look for gold and set up trade in
fish and furs.
40 died along the voyage
The settlers entered the Chesapeake Bay
and then sailed up a river flowing into the
bay. They named the river James and the
colony Jamestown, after the king.
Pro’s                      Con’s
   Built on a peninsula      Swampland
    to prevent Native         Mosquitoes carrying
    American attack.           malaria (deadly
                              Lacked good
                              Surrounded by
                               Native American
     Jamestown colonists
Many of the Jamestown colonists had never
experienced hard labor.
Settlers searched for gold and silver instead
of building adequate shelter and growing food
Disease and hunger devastated the colonists.
In January 1608, when additional men and
supplies arrived, only 38 men remained alive.
     Jamestown’s leader
Captain John Smith, a
soldier, arrived in 1608.
Smith quickly assessed the
situation, assumed
leadership, and forced the
people to work the fields.
Smith returned to England
in 1609 for treatment of
serious burn injuries
       The Starving Time
The winter of 1609-1610 was extremely
The people had to feed on their animals.
They had to eat dogs, cats, rats, and mice to
Trouble also broke out with the Native
Americans, and 300 hungry colonists were
barricaded within their walls.
When more settlers arrived in May, only 60
settlers were still alive.
Tobacco Saves Jamestown
Tobacco’s popularity was growing in Europe,
even though many found smoking disgusting
John Rolfe learned to grow a type of
tobacco that was less bitter.
Soon every farmer in Jamestown was
growing tobacco, and many people were now
coming to Jamestown.
Rolfe married Pocahontas, the daughter of
Chief Powhatan, and relations with Native
Americans improved.
Representative Government
People were getting sick taking orders from
the Virginia Company (Still in England)
Sir George Yeardley took over as Governor
Yeardley allowed the men to elect
representatives called Burgesses to an
assembly. This assembly made the laws for
the colony.
The House of Burgesses met for the first
time in a church in Jamestown in 1619.
    The King Takes Over
In 1624, the King of England cancelled
the Virginia Company’s charter and took
control of the colony.
   Protestants in England

People that wanted to reform the church
were called Puritans
People who wanted to break away from
it completely were called separatists.
Separatists become Pilgrims
The Separatists got a charter (permission)
with the Virginia Colony that they could go to
Virginia and practice their religion freely, in
return for profits they made.
These separatists called themselves Pilgrims,
because their journey had a religious
In September 1620, only 35 of 102
passengers who boarded the Mayflower were
pilgrims. The others were servants,
craftsman, and poor farmers.
 The Mayflower’s Journey
The pilgrims planned to settle in the
Virginia Colony.
They went off-course and ended up in
Cape Cod (the area of Massachusetts)
      Mayflower Compact
Since they outside of Virginia, they were
outside of the laws and territory of the Virginia
The Mayflower Compact pledged loyalty to
England and set up laws. It introduced the
idea of self-government
The signers promised to obey laws for the
general good of the colony.
The Compact was signed on the
       Rough First Winter
In the first winter in America, almost half of
the pilgrims died of malnutrition, disease, and
In the Spring, Native Americans approached
the settlement.
Squanto and Samoset, two Native Americans
befriended the colonists. Squanto was
kidnapped by an English ship captain earlier
and learned English.
    Native American Help
Native Americans taught the Pilgrims how to
grow crops (corn, beans, and pumpkins).
They also taught the Pilgrims where to hunt
and fish.
Squanto and Samoset helped the Pilgrims
make a peaceful treaty with the Wampanoag
people who lived in the area.
In autumn of 1621, the Pilgrims invited
the Native Americans to celebrate
peace between the two sides.
This feast was known as the first
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Meanwhile back in England……
The English throne passed to Charles I.
Charles objected to Puritans’ calls for reform
in the Anglican Church, and he increased
In 1628 Puritans formed the New England
Company and received a royal charter to
establish the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
 Massachusetts Bay Ctd…

John Winthrop became the colonies
governor, and led 1,000 men, women,
and children in 11 ships to
Massachusetts Bay. Most of them
settled in Boston.
      The Great Migration
The Great Migration - During the 1630’s
religious persecution and economic hard
times in England drove more than 15,000
puritans to journey to Massachusetts.
People decided that every adult male that
owned land could vote for their governor and
other representatives to the General Court.
The Puritans left England to escape religious
The Puritans however, had little toleration
(acceptance of different beliefs) or they
criticized and persecuted people with different
religious views.
This lack of toleration led to the creation of
more colonies.
The Connecticut river was better for farming than the
land around Boston
Thomas Hooker, a minister, became dissatisfied
with Massachusetts and did not like the way John
Winthrop ran the colony.
He led a group through the wilderness and set up the
town of Hartford. Three years later, two other towns,
Windsor and Wethersfield agreed to form a colony.
They created the Fundamental Orders of
Connecticut, the first constitution of America.
           Rhode Island
Rhode Island was settled by colonists who
were forced out of Massachusetts.
Roger Williams, a minister, felt people should
be free to follow any religion.
He felt government and church should be
separate. He also felt colonists should not
take land away from Native Americans
He received a charter in 1644 for a colony
east of Connecticut called Rhode Island.
       New Hampshire

Others followed Williams’ example.
John Wheelwright in 1638 led a group
from Massachusetts north. There he
founded the town of Exeter in New
         Middle Colonies
In 1660 England had two areas of colonies in
They had the New England Colonies
(Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island,
and New Hampshire.
They had the Southern Colonies, (Maryland,
Between the two groups were land controlled
by the Dutch (Netherlands).
The area of New Netherlands
        (New York)
The Dutch West India Company established trading
settlements at the base of the Hudson River.
These posts grew into the colony of New
Netherlands. The main settlement was New
Amsterdam located on Manhattan Island.
In 1626 the company bought Manhattan Island from
the Manhates people for a small amount of beads
and other goods.
Manhattan is a natural port, so New Amsterdam
became a center of shipping goods to and from
Dutch West India Company sent over families
from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden,
and Finland that would be willing to work and
make it successful.
The landowners were called Patroons.
These patroons would rule the land as if they
were kings.
They could charge what they wanted to the
farmers and other laborers.
     England Takes Over
In 1664 England wanted the valuable colony,
and sent its fleet to attack New Amsterdam.
Peter Stuyvesant (Netherlands) ruled the
colony as governor. His strict rule and heavy
taxes turned people against him.
The governor was not prepared for battle,
when the ships entered he surrendered the
     New York, New York
King Charles II gave the colony to his brother,
the Duke of York who renamed it, New York.
It was a proprietary colony. A colony in
which the owner, or proprietor, owned all
the land and controlled the government.
It differed from the New England Colonies,
which were run by private corporations.
The Duke of York promised the colonists
freedom of religion and allowed them to keep
their property. As a result, many of the Dutch
colonists decided to stay in New York.
      Growth of New York
New York City, formerly New Amsterdam,
was one of the fastest growing colonies.
In 1664, New York had about 8000 people,
included about 300 African Slaves
By 1683, the company had 12,000 people.
Eventually, after fighting with the Duke, the
Duke let the people of New York have an
elective legislature
               New Jersey
The Duke of York gave the southern part of his
colony to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George
They named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey
on the English Channel
They offered large amounts of land to settlers and
made them pay rent on generous terms.
They also offered freedom of religion, trial by jury,
and a representative assembly
Berkeley and Carteret sold the land to the back to
the King, who made it a royal colony.
William Penn, a wealthy English gentleman,
had his father lend money to the King Charles
of England.
Penn, instead of ask for money, asked the
King to repay him with land.
The king was pleased to repay his debt with
land, and granted Penn land roughly the size
of the entire country of England.
Penn belonged to a Protestant group of
dissenters called the Society of Friends, or
Quakers believed People had an inner light,
which meant church services and officials
were unnecessary
Quakers were tolerant toward other religions
In addition they were pacifists, or people who
refuse to use force or to fight in wars. Many
thought Quakers were disrespectful cause
they were different.
  The Birth of Philadelphia
In 1682 Penn left to America to supervise the
building of Philadelphia, the “City of Brotherly
Penn believed the Native Americans owned
the land and even paid tribute to them for it.
Some Native Americans settled in
Pennsylvania because they respected Penn
for his treatment toward them.
Penn advertised through many countries and
different languages to get people to come to
By 1683 he had more than 3,000 Welsh, English,
Irish, Dutch, and German settlers.
The southernmost part of Pennsylvania was called
the Three Lower Colonies
The area was taken over the Dutch, then the English,
and eventually became part of Pennsylvania. The
“Charter of Privileges” eventually led to Delaware
functioning as a separate colony.
Founded by Catholics, (as opposed to
protestants )
Indentured Servants came and worked
the land, usually for free, in return for a
free passage to America
Lord Baltimore (relative of Calvert) gave
large estates of land to rich, powerful
     Catholics in Maryland
Sir George Calvert, a catholic wanted to
establish a safe place for his fellow Catholics,
and wanted to get rich.
They planted tobacco just like in Virginia.
However, to prevent everyone from growing
just one crop, they made a law saying for
every one crop tobacco there must be two
crops of corn.
Baltimore was founded in 1729.
When the demand for labor grew, he turned
to indentured servants and slaves.
          I love Bacon!!!
Nathaniel Bacon a planter in Western
Virginia did not like the government in
Eastern Virginia.
Him and his group started settling in lands
outside the treaty, and then blamed the
government for not protecting him from angry
Native Americans.
In 1676 Bacon led the angry Westerners in
attacks on Native American Villages.
Governor Berkeley called him the “Greatest
rebel that ever was in Virginia.”
Maybe I Don’t Love Bacon as
  Much as I thought I Did.
Bacon went a step further and led an army to
He set fire to the town, and drove Berkeley into exile.
Only Bacon’s sudden illness and death stopped him
from taking over.
English troops helped Berkeley regain power and end
Bacon’s Rebellion.
However, the rebellion showed that settlers did not
want to be restricted to land on the coast, and the
government signed another treaty to give them more
    Settling the Carolina’s
King Charles II gave a colony to eight
prominent members of his court. The colony
was called Carolina, which means Charles’s
land in Latin.
Settlers began arriving in 1670, by 1680 the
had founded Charleston.
Indentured Servants came and worked the
land, usually for free, in return for a free
passage to America
 North and South Carolina
The northern part was settled mostly by
farmers from Virginia. They grew
products such as timber and tar.
South Carolina was more fertile, and
had a major port (Charleston). Rice
grew well in the wet coastal lowlands
In 1740 indigo (a blue flower used for
dye) was also grown
Slave labor in the Carolinas
Most settlers from South Carolina came from
the Barbados in the West Indies.
Many early Africans came from rice growing
areas of Africa, so they knew a great deal
about it.
Rice growing required a lot of labor
By 1700 more than half of the population that
arrived in Charleston were slaves.
    Georgia Was Founded
      for Two Reasons
Debtors were         James Oglethorpe
usually thrown in    wanted a colony
prison in England.   where people could
                     make a fresh start
                     and be hardworking,
                     independent, and