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Founding the American Colonies Part 2 Mrs. Park LCHS – SS4 Fall 2010 The English find Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh was sent to scout out the Americas and found Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. He returned and spread word of an island that was good for farming In 1585, Raleigh sent about 100 men to settle on Roanoke Island. After a difficult winter, the colonists returned to England. Roanoke: The Lost Colony In 1587, Raleigh tried again sending 91 men, 17 women, and 9 children. John White, a mapmaker led the group. This group too had difficulties. White returned to England to get supplies. He planned on being gone three months, but due to war with Spain it lasted 3 years. When White returned the island was deserted. the colony was never heard from again. Jamestown: The first permanent English settlement In 1607, English merchants formed the Virginia Company and received a charter to organize a settlement. The company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships to America to look for gold and set up trade in fish and furs. The settlers entered the Chesapeake Bay and then sailed up a river flowing into the bay. They named the river James and the colony Jamestown, after after King James I. Jamestown The company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships to America to look for gold and set up trade in fish and furs. 40 died along the voyage The settlers entered the Chesapeake Bay and then sailed up a river flowing into the bay. They named the river James and the colony Jamestown, after the king. Jamestown Pro’s Con’s Built on a peninsula Swampland to prevent Native Mosquitoes carrying American attack. malaria (deadly disease). Lacked good farmland Surrounded by Native American Settlements Jamestown colonists Many of the Jamestown colonists had never experienced hard labor. Settlers searched for gold and silver instead of building adequate shelter and growing food Disease and hunger devastated the colonists. In January 1608, when additional men and supplies arrived, only 38 men remained alive. Jamestown’s leader Captain John Smith, a soldier, arrived in 1608. Smith quickly assessed the situation, assumed leadership, and forced the people to work the fields. Smith returned to England in 1609 for treatment of serious burn injuries The Starving Time The winter of 1609-1610 was extremely harsh. The people had to feed on their animals. They had to eat dogs, cats, rats, and mice to survive. Trouble also broke out with the Native Americans, and 300 hungry colonists were barricaded within their walls. When more settlers arrived in May, only 60 settlers were still alive. Tobacco Saves Jamestown Tobacco’s popularity was growing in Europe, even though many found smoking disgusting John Rolfe learned to grow a type of tobacco that was less bitter. Soon every farmer in Jamestown was growing tobacco, and many people were now coming to Jamestown. Rolfe married Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan, and relations with Native Americans improved. Representative Government People were getting sick taking orders from the Virginia Company (Still in England) Sir George Yeardley took over as Governor Yeardley allowed the men to elect representatives called Burgesses to an assembly. This assembly made the laws for the colony. The House of Burgesses met for the first time in a church in Jamestown in 1619. The King Takes Over In 1624, the King of England cancelled the Virginia Company’s charter and took control of the colony. Protestants in England People that wanted to reform the church were called Puritans People who wanted to break away from it completely were called separatists. Separatists become Pilgrims The Separatists got a charter (permission) with the Virginia Colony that they could go to Virginia and practice their religion freely, in return for profits they made. These separatists called themselves Pilgrims, because their journey had a religious purpose. In September 1620, only 35 of 102 passengers who boarded the Mayflower were pilgrims. The others were servants, craftsman, and poor farmers. The Mayflower’s Journey The pilgrims planned to settle in the Virginia Colony. They went off-course and ended up in Cape Cod (the area of Massachusetts) Mayflower Compact Since they outside of Virginia, they were outside of the laws and territory of the Virginia Company The Mayflower Compact pledged loyalty to England and set up laws. It introduced the idea of self-government The signers promised to obey laws for the general good of the colony. The Compact was signed on the Mayflower Rough First Winter In the first winter in America, almost half of the pilgrims died of malnutrition, disease, and cold. In the Spring, Native Americans approached the settlement. Squanto and Samoset, two Native Americans befriended the colonists. Squanto was kidnapped by an English ship captain earlier and learned English. Native American Help Native Americans taught the Pilgrims how to grow crops (corn, beans, and pumpkins). They also taught the Pilgrims where to hunt and fish. Squanto and Samoset helped the Pilgrims make a peaceful treaty with the Wampanoag people who lived in the area. Feast In autumn of 1621, the Pilgrims invited the Native Americans to celebrate peace between the two sides. This feast was known as the first Thanksgiving Massachusetts Bay Colony Meanwhile back in England…… The English throne passed to Charles I. Charles objected to Puritans’ calls for reform in the Anglican Church, and he increased persecutions. In 1628 Puritans formed the New England Company and received a royal charter to establish the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts Bay Ctd… John Winthrop became the colonies governor, and led 1,000 men, women, and children in 11 ships to Massachusetts Bay. Most of them settled in Boston. The Great Migration The Great Migration - During the 1630’s religious persecution and economic hard times in England drove more than 15,000 puritans to journey to Massachusetts. People decided that every adult male that owned land could vote for their governor and other representatives to the General Court. Intolerance The Puritans left England to escape religious persecution The Puritans however, had little toleration (acceptance of different beliefs) or they criticized and persecuted people with different religious views. This lack of toleration led to the creation of more colonies. Connecticut The Connecticut river was better for farming than the land around Boston Thomas Hooker, a minister, became dissatisfied with Massachusetts and did not like the way John Winthrop ran the colony. He led a group through the wilderness and set up the town of Hartford. Three years later, two other towns, Windsor and Wethersfield agreed to form a colony. They created the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first constitution of America. Rhode Island Rhode Island was settled by colonists who were forced out of Massachusetts. Roger Williams, a minister, felt people should be free to follow any religion. He felt government and church should be separate. He also felt colonists should not take land away from Native Americans He received a charter in 1644 for a colony east of Connecticut called Rhode Island. New Hampshire Others followed Williams’ example. John Wheelwright in 1638 led a group from Massachusetts north. There he founded the town of Exeter in New Hampshire. Middle Colonies In 1660 England had two areas of colonies in America. They had the New England Colonies (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. They had the Southern Colonies, (Maryland, Virginia). Between the two groups were land controlled by the Dutch (Netherlands). The area of New Netherlands (New York) The Dutch West India Company established trading settlements at the base of the Hudson River. These posts grew into the colony of New Netherlands. The main settlement was New Amsterdam located on Manhattan Island. In 1626 the company bought Manhattan Island from the Manhates people for a small amount of beads and other goods. Manhattan is a natural port, so New Amsterdam became a center of shipping goods to and from America Patroons Dutch West India Company sent over families from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Finland that would be willing to work and make it successful. The landowners were called Patroons. These patroons would rule the land as if they were kings. They could charge what they wanted to the farmers and other laborers. England Takes Over In 1664 England wanted the valuable colony, and sent its fleet to attack New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant (Netherlands) ruled the colony as governor. His strict rule and heavy taxes turned people against him. The governor was not prepared for battle, when the ships entered he surrendered the colony. New York, New York King Charles II gave the colony to his brother, the Duke of York who renamed it, New York. It was a proprietary colony. A colony in which the owner, or proprietor, owned all the land and controlled the government. It differed from the New England Colonies, which were run by private corporations. The Duke of York promised the colonists freedom of religion and allowed them to keep their property. As a result, many of the Dutch colonists decided to stay in New York. Growth of New York New York City, formerly New Amsterdam, was one of the fastest growing colonies. In 1664, New York had about 8000 people, included about 300 African Slaves By 1683, the company had 12,000 people. Eventually, after fighting with the Duke, the Duke let the people of New York have an elective legislature New Jersey The Duke of York gave the southern part of his colony to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. They named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey on the English Channel They offered large amounts of land to settlers and made them pay rent on generous terms. They also offered freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a representative assembly Berkeley and Carteret sold the land to the back to the King, who made it a royal colony. Pennsylvania William Penn, a wealthy English gentleman, had his father lend money to the King Charles of England. Penn, instead of ask for money, asked the King to repay him with land. The king was pleased to repay his debt with land, and granted Penn land roughly the size of the entire country of England. Quakers Penn belonged to a Protestant group of dissenters called the Society of Friends, or Quakers Quakers believed People had an inner light, which meant church services and officials were unnecessary Quakers were tolerant toward other religions In addition they were pacifists, or people who refuse to use force or to fight in wars. Many thought Quakers were disrespectful cause they were different. The Birth of Philadelphia In 1682 Penn left to America to supervise the building of Philadelphia, the “City of Brotherly Love”. Penn believed the Native Americans owned the land and even paid tribute to them for it. Some Native Americans settled in Pennsylvania because they respected Penn for his treatment toward them. Delaware Penn advertised through many countries and different languages to get people to come to Pennsylvania By 1683 he had more than 3,000 Welsh, English, Irish, Dutch, and German settlers. The southernmost part of Pennsylvania was called the Three Lower Colonies The area was taken over the Dutch, then the English, and eventually became part of Pennsylvania. The “Charter of Privileges” eventually led to Delaware functioning as a separate colony. Maryland Founded by Catholics, (as opposed to protestants ) Indentured Servants came and worked the land, usually for free, in return for a free passage to America Lord Baltimore (relative of Calvert) gave large estates of land to rich, powerful aristocrats. Catholics in Maryland Sir George Calvert, a catholic wanted to establish a safe place for his fellow Catholics, and wanted to get rich. They planted tobacco just like in Virginia. However, to prevent everyone from growing just one crop, they made a law saying for every one crop tobacco there must be two crops of corn. Baltimore was founded in 1729. When the demand for labor grew, he turned to indentured servants and slaves. I love Bacon!!! Nathaniel Bacon a planter in Western Virginia did not like the government in Eastern Virginia. Him and his group started settling in lands outside the treaty, and then blamed the government for not protecting him from angry Native Americans. In 1676 Bacon led the angry Westerners in attacks on Native American Villages. Governor Berkeley called him the “Greatest rebel that ever was in Virginia.” Maybe I Don’t Love Bacon as Much as I thought I Did. Bacon went a step further and led an army to Jamestown. He set fire to the town, and drove Berkeley into exile. Only Bacon’s sudden illness and death stopped him from taking over. English troops helped Berkeley regain power and end Bacon’s Rebellion. However, the rebellion showed that settlers did not want to be restricted to land on the coast, and the government signed another treaty to give them more land Settling the Carolina’s King Charles II gave a colony to eight prominent members of his court. The colony was called Carolina, which means Charles’s land in Latin. Settlers began arriving in 1670, by 1680 the had founded Charleston. Indentured Servants came and worked the land, usually for free, in return for a free passage to America North and South Carolina The northern part was settled mostly by farmers from Virginia. They grew products such as timber and tar. South Carolina was more fertile, and had a major port (Charleston). Rice grew well in the wet coastal lowlands In 1740 indigo (a blue flower used for dye) was also grown Slave labor in the Carolinas Most settlers from South Carolina came from the Barbados in the West Indies. Many early Africans came from rice growing areas of Africa, so they knew a great deal about it. Rice growing required a lot of labor By 1700 more than half of the population that arrived in Charleston were slaves. Georgia Was Founded for Two Reasons Debtors were James Oglethorpe usually thrown in wanted a colony prison in England. where people could make a fresh start and be hardworking, independent, and protestant.
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