Datacenter Assessment by mns13273

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									                          Datacenter Standards,
                             Best Practices,
                           and Success Stories
                          Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman
                                     President Emeritus of the
                                 Computer Association of Thailand
                          CEO of the College of Internet Distance Education               Assumption University of Thailand

    Invited Talk for “Datacenter Satellite Conference & Exhibition Series”
Auckland, Bangkok, Beijing, Hyderabad, Kuala Lumpur, Melbourne, and Osaka
  organized thru VDO Conference by Pacific and Strategy Holding Ptc. Ltd.
            For Bangkok at Westin Sukhumvit Hotel, July 16, 2009
        Datacenter Standards, Best Practices,
               and Success Stories.
1.   Introduction
2.   Datacenter Standards
3.   Datacenter Best Practices
4.   Green Datacenter
5.   Datacenter Success Stories
6.   Concluding Remarks

                   1. Introduction.
   As of the year 2009, most organizations
    depend on computer network and the Internet.
   Most organizations cannot continue operating
    without computer network.

                 Introduction (Cont.)
   Therefore, most organizations need backup
    for their computer network
    which may be in the form of datacenter.
   According to Wikipedia, “a data center or
    datacenter or datacentre or server farm
    is a facility to house computer systems
    and associated components, such as
    telecommunications and storage systems.”
                 Introduction (Cont.)
   A datacenter generally includes:
    * Redundant or backup power supplies
    * Redundant data communications connections
    * Environmental controls and security devices

                 Introduction (Cont.)
   During the 1980s, microcomputers
    were used in most organizations
    because of their low cost and ease of operation.
   The word “datacenter” appeared in the 1990s,
    when more powerful microcomputers
    called “servers” were used to replace mainframe,
    and intalled in old mainframe room.

                 Introduction (Cont.)
   During the 2000s, organizations needed nonstop
    operation and 24/7 presence on the Internet,
    and so datacenters became more popular.
   As a matter of fact, they were called
    “Internet DataCenters or IDC”
   In 2009, datacenter may also be operated
    by datacenter service providers.

              2. Datacenter Standards.
 A well-known datacenter standard is TIA-942
  (TIA = Telecommunication Industry Association)
 For more information see

 TIA-942 is the first standard to specifically
  address datacenter infrastructure.
 TIA-942 includes guidelines on a wide range
  of subjects.
 Provides a flexible and manageable structured
  cabling system using standard media.

                ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)
 Later, ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  also approved TIA-942.
 TIA-942 became “ANSI/TIA-942 Telecommunications
  Infrastructure for Data Center”.

ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)

                ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)
   The requirements of ANSI/TIA-942
    covers the following.
    2.1 Site Space and Layout
    2.2 Cabling Infrastructure
    2.3 Tiered Reliability
    2.4 Environmental Consideration

             2.1 Site Space and Layout
 The datacenter should be designed
  with plenty of flexible “White Space”,
  empty space that can accommodate
  future racks or cabinets.
 For future growth, surrounding empty space
  should also be available.

             Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
   According to ANSI/TIA-942,
    a datacenter should include the following key
    functional areas.
    * Entrance Room (ER) –
       outside the computer room for better security.

           Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
* Main Distribution Area (MDA)
  location of Main Cross-Connect (MC)
  such as routers and switches.
* Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA)
  location of Horizontal Cross-Connect (HC),
  such as racks for fiber and coaxial cable.

           Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
* Zone Distribution Area (ZDA)
  location of Zone Outlet (ZO)
  or Consolidation Point (CP)
* Equipment Distribution Area (EDA)
  location of equipment cabinets and racks.

               2.2 Cabling Infrastructure
   Horizontal Cabling
    * Should install the highest capacity media
      available to reduce the need for re-cabling
      in the future.
    * The maximum horizontal distance is 90 m.
      independent of media type.
    * The maximum channel distance
      including equipment cords is 100 m.
        Horizontal Cabling Distances (Cont.)
* The maximum backbone fiber optic cabling
  is 300 m.
* The horizontal copper cabling is 100 m.

            Cabling Infrastructure (Cont.)
   Computer Room & Entrance Room Requirements
    such as
    * Minimum clear height of 2.6m/8.5 ft
    * Minimum door size 1m/3ft wide 2.13/7ft high

                  2.3 Tiered Reliability
   The ANSI/TIA-942 includes 4 levels,
    each specifying details:
    * Architectural
    * Security
    * Electrical
    * Mechanical
    * Telecommunication

                Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
   Tier descriptions include information on
    * Raised floor heights
    * Watts per square foot
    * Points of failure

                Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
   Tier 1 – Basic: 99.671% Availability
    * Single path for power and cooling distribution
    * Optioned raised floor, UPS, generator
    * Takes 3 months to implement
    * Annual downtime of 28.8 hours
    * Must be shut down completely
       for preventive maintenance

                Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
   Tier 2 – Redundant Components:
    99.741% Availability
    * Less susceptible to disruption
       from both planned and unplanned activity
    * Single path for power and cooling distribution
    * Includes raised floor, UPS, and generator

                Tiered 2 (Cont.)
* Takes 3 to 6 months to implement
* Annual downtime of 22.0 hours
* Maintenance of power path and other parts of
  the infrastructure require a processing shutdown

                Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
   Tier 3 – Concurrently Maintainable:
    99.982% Availability
    * Enables planned activity without disrupting
       computer hardware operation
       but unplanned events will still cause disruption
    * Multiple power and cooling distribution paths
       but with only one path active

                 Tiered 3 (Cont.)
* Takes 15 to 20 months to implement
* Annual downtime of 16.0 hours
* Includes raised floor and sufficient capacity
  and distribution to carry load on one path
  while performing maintenance on the other

                Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
   Tier 4 – Fault Tolerant: 99.995% Availability
    * Planned activity does not disrupt critical load
       and data center can sustain
       at least one worst-case unplanned event
       with no critical load impact

                 Tiered 4 (Cont.)
* Multiple active power and cooling distribution
  paths includes redundant components,
  i.e. 2 UPS each with N+1 redundancy
* Takes 15 to 20 months to implement
* Annual downtime of 0.4 hours

           2.4 Environmental Consideration
   Several environmental considerations exist within
    the ANSI/TIA-942 datacenter standard that are
    * Fire suppression
    * Humidity levels
    * Operating temperatures
    * Architectural
    * Electrical (power)
    * Mechanical system specifications
            3. Datacenter Best Practices.
3.1 Microsoft’s Environmentally Sustainable Datacenters
3.2 IRIDE Environmentally Friendly Datacenter
3.3 Merger & Acquisition-Driven Datacenter
3.4 Datacenter Assessment and Design

            3.1 Microsoft’s Environmentally
               Sustainable Datacenters.
   Microsoft prepared top ten best business practices
    for environmentally sustainable datacenters.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
1. Provide incentives that support primary goals.
 Microsoft provides specific incentives
   to reward managers for improving the efficiency
   of their operations, using metrics such as
   Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE).

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
   Incentives help achieve results in short time
    if apply properly.
    * Datacenter manager rewarded for efficiency
        and not uptime.
    * Incentives given for low energy usage.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
2. Focus on effective resource utilization.
 Using resources effectively.
 Utilizing existing datacenter infrastructure.

              Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
3. Use virtualization to improve server utilization
   and increase operational efficiency.
 Migrating application from physical
   to virtual machines.
 Encourage cloud operating system
   which use virtualization.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
   Key benefits of virtualization.
    * Reduction in capital expenditures.
    * Decrease in real estate, power,
      and cooling costs.
    * Faster time to market for new products
      and services.
    * Reduction in outage and maintenance windows.

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
4. Drive quality up through compliance.
 There are many regulatory and security standards.
 Compliance must be strictly enforced.

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
5. Embrace change management.
 Standardized procedures for the request,
   approval, coordination and execution of changes
   can greatly reduce the number and severity of
   unplanned outages.
 If not well managed, poorly planned changes
   may cause disastrous results.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
   Other features that change management process
    should include:
    * Documented policies around communication
      and timeline requirements.
    * Standard templates for requesting,
      communicating, and reviewing changes.
    * Post-implementation review,
      including cases where things went well.
             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
6. Invest in understanding the application workload
   and behavior.
 Require hardware engineering.
 Credible and competent in-house expertise.
 Provide meaningful feedback to vendors.
   * To evaluate new hardware properly
   * Optimizing request for proposal (RFP)
      process for servers
   * Experiment new technology.                       40
             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
7. Right-size server platforms
   to meet application requirements.
 A major initiative in Microsoft datacenters
   involves right-sizing the platform.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
   There are two forms:
    (1) Work closely with server manufacturers
        to optimize their designs and remove items
        that are not used.
        Focus on high efficiency power supplies
        and advanced power management features.

              Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
(2) Being disciplined about developing
    the exact specifications for servers
    to meet the needs,
    and then not buying machines
    that exceed specifications.

             Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
8. Evaluate and test servers for performance, power,
   and total cost of ownership.
 Test on short list candidate servers to calculate
   total cost of ownership.
 Not rely on benchmark data,
   which may not be applicable
   to needs and environment.

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)
9. Converge on as small a number of stock-keeping
   units (SKUs) as possible.
 Narrowing the number of SKUs allows Microsoft
   to make larger volume buys,
   thereby cutting capital costs.

           Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)

10. Take advantage of competitive bids
     from multiple manufacturers
     to foster innovation and reduce costs.
 Microsoft encourages to analyze proposals
    from multiple companies that puts
    most of the weight on price, power,
    and performance.

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)

   Competition among multiple manufacturers
    to drive innovation
    and provide the most energy efficient & lowest cost.

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)

   Microsoft’s Global Foundation Services’ team
    was taking significant steps in four areas
    important to environmental sustainability:
    * Using recycled resources whenever practical
    * Using renewable resources whenever available
    * Reducing waste in operations
    * Taking part in industry environmental groups

            Microsoft’s Practices (Cont.)

   Microsoft announced in March 2009
    that it was taking a proactive corporate approach
    to reduce its carbon emissions per unit of revenue
    by at least 30 percent.

3.2 IRIDE Environmentally Friendly Datacenter.

   Producing electrical power & thermal energy
    from renewable sources (Hydroelectric).
   Two hundred virtual machines
    on only fifteen physical machines
    and cost savings up to 70 percent.
   Reduce the number of physical servers
    and improve flexibility.

                    IRIDE (Cont.)

   Using Intel Xeon processors with four cores
    to meet the need for balance and modularity.
   Intel Xenon also provide high performance
    and energy efficiency.
   Intel Multi-core technology has brought several
    important improvements for IRIDE.

    3.3 Merger & Acquisition-Driven Datacenter.

   Business Challenge
    * An Insurance holding company
      needed to move the IT assets it had acquired
      into its own data center.
      According to the terms of the acquisitions,
      it had to meet a tight deadline in doing so
      or must pay penalty.

         Insurance Holding Company (Cont.)

   Solution
    * Establish a parallel operating environment
      and migrate the applications and data
    * Assesses all elements of the infrastructure,
      networking, backups and restores, security
      and systems monitoring, etc.
    * Integrate the business unit smoothly step by step

         Insurance Holding Company (Cont.)

   Results
    * The powering down of the new environment,
      relocation of the equipment,
      re-establishment of the environment
      in the buyer’s datacenter,
      successful cutover done over the weekend

      3.4 Datacenter Assessment and Design.

   A major book, music and home entertainment.
    datacenter was
    * Approaching capacity
    * Lack a backup generator
    * Lack comprehensive power source
    * In a tornado zone

     Datacenter Assessment and Design (Cont.)

   Solution
    * Detailed assessment of datacenter strengths
      and weaknesses
    * Gather information about history
      > What the datacenter was designed for
      > How demands had grown
      > Actual IT utilization
      > IT asset inventory
     Datacenter Assessment and Design (Cont.)

   Results
    * A Tier II datacenter operational on time,
      on budget and without business interruption.

                4. Green Datacenter
   There are many examples of green datacenters
    4.1 Amazon Green Datacenter
    4.2 Google Green Datacenter
    4.3 Sun Green Mobile Datacenter
    4.4 Fujitsu Green Datacenter
    4.5 Datacenter in Second Life

           4.1 Amazon Green Datacenter
   From “”
    dated 1 November 2008,
    Datacenter Knowledge reported
    on’s new green datacenter
    in Oregon, USA.

         Amazon Green Datacenter (Cont.)
 The Amazon Datacenter
  is located on the bank of the Columbia River
  in Oregon.
 The cost of the datacenter was at US$ 100 million.

          Amazon Green Datacenter (Cont.)
 It includes three buildings.
 The first building will be 116,000 square feet.
 The hydro electricity on Columbia River basin
  uses cheap and clean power.

             4.2 Google Green Datacenter
   From “”
    dated 3 October 2008,
    Google, the world largest search company
    announced how its squeeze
    considerable energy saving out of its datacenter.

           Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
   The purpose of Google
    was to reduce datacenter power costs
    by targeting the center, not the computer.

          Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
   There are five elements of Google’s strategy
    for building management:
    * Clean Energy
    * Server Retirement
    * Efficient Equipment
    * Water Management
    * Efficient datacenter

           Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
    It could save about $30 per server per year.
   Google removes unused components
    such as sound and discrete graphics.

           Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
    Evaporative cooling has been used
     instead of refrigerators.
   Cold water
    * Run thru the datacenter to absorb the heat
       from the computer
    * Run down from the roof to the ground
       outside the datacenter, similar to at restaurant,
       to help let the heat dissipate
             4.3 Sun Mobile Datacenter
   From “”
    dated 18 September 2008,
    Sun Microsystems
    * stored the datacenter
      in a mine deep underground in Japan
      where the climate is cool

           Sun Mobile Datacenter (Cont.)
* The datacenter consists of Sun systems densely
  packed in a standard shipping container,
  20x40 feet
* The datacenter hold 240 rack units
  which could be large servers
  such as SPARC Enterprise M4000 and M5000
  or third-party equipments

           Sun Mobile Datacenter (Cont.)
* The datacenters contain not only the system
  but also the power and cooling
  necessary to operate the system
* One of the most famous examples
  is 100 meters down an abandoned mine,
  relying on the natural cool climate

             4.4 Fujitsu Green Datacenter
   From “” in June 2008,
    Fujitsu has launched Green Infrastructure Solution
    Service to provide specialists with expertise
    in both IT and construction to assist customers
    with planning, design, employment,
    and operation, as well as building
    “highly energy-efficient datacenters”
    or “Green Datacenters”.
           Fujitsu Green Datacenter (Cont.)
   The efficient IT service
    aims to reduce power consumption
    and CO2 emission by as much as 50%
    of the previous level, excluding power savings
    from IT product themselves.

          Fujitsu Green Datacenter (Cont.)
   Fujitsu said the green datacenter
    is nearly twice as energy-efficient
    as previous datacenters it has opened.
   The datacenter uses advanced cooling, heating,
    and IT systems to tailor power consumption
    to processing and operational needs.

            4.5 Datacenter in Second Life
   From “”
    dated 14 August 2008,
    IBM launched “Eco Datacenter” in Second Life.
   Visitors who want to check out
    IBM’s latest eco-datacenter
    have to do as an avatar
    in Linden Lab’s Second Life,
    where the facility “exist”.
          Datacenter in Second Life (Cont.)
   The datacenter is used
    as a demonstration area
    for IBM’s eco-friendly technologies and services.

            5. Datacenter Success Stories
   There are many examples of successful datacenters
    5.1 UC Berkeley,
    5.2 IBM’s Boulder Facility
    5.3 BAA Inc.

                   5.1 UC Berkeley
   UC Berkeley’s Datacenter
    consisting of nearly 40 years of accumulated
    technology legacy
    while minimizing the impact
    on the more than 40,000 members
    of the UC Berkeley community
    dependent on those systems.

                 UC Berkeley (Cont.)
   The space design process for a datacenter
    is very complex and is, in fact,
    the first critical step to ensure success.

                 UC Berkeley (Cont.)
   A detailed analysis of all of the systems
    and the technology trends that would impact
    future designs was necessary to design a space
    flexible enough to handle legacy systems
    as well as whatever new computers
    would be installed in future years.

                  UC Berkeley (Cont.)
   The information gained from that process
    was provides to the architects
    and systems planners to crate a leading-edge
    datacenter design that could be connected
    to the old datacenter via fiber
    and high-speed connections to allow for electronic
    “moving” where possible.

               5.2 IBM’s Boulder Facility
   IBM completed the installation
    of a 72,000 square foot raised floor datacenter
    at the Boulder facility
    and received Silver LEED certification
   “LEED” stands for “Leadership in Energy
    and Environmental Design”

            IBM’s Boulder Facility (Cont.)
   IBM engaged the services of Texas A&M University,
    Energy Systems Laboratory, for two phases
    of commissioning work at the IBM facility.
   Commission is the process in which mechanical
    equipment is analyzed and operating specifications
    are modified to optimize energy efficiency.

             IBM’s Boulder Facility (Cont.)
   The first survey was performed on the Central Utility
    Plant equipment.
   Recommendations from this survey were:
    * Operate the backup satellite chiller plant
      as the datacenter primary cooling system
      instead of the Central Utility Plant

            IBM’s Boulder Facility (Cont.)
* Automate the chiller and the free-cooling
  control systems
* Eliminate three way valves in chilled water systems
* Improve boiler efficiency with operational changes

             IBM’s Boulder Facility (Cont.)
   In a second commission effort
    70 air handlers were surveys and their operation
    specifications were modified to include:
    * Broadening of economizer controls
       which utilize outside air for free cooling
    * Implementing static pressure resets
       for cooling airflow which is dependent
       on outside air temperature
            IBM’s Boulder Facility (Cont.)
* Implementing static pressure night setback
  to reduce airflow for overnight operations
* Chilled water pump operation for start/stop control
  based on required demand
* Control program changes which eliminate
  the opportunities for simultaneous heating
  and cooling

                     5.3 BAA Inc.
   Airport titan BAA needed to consolidate its
    databases and servers, as well as improve the IT
    environment’s use of space and energy.
   Furthermore, the company needed the ability
    to add more processing power in the future
    without disrupting business critical services.

                    BAA Inc. (Cont.)
   BAA hosts 141 million passengers through its
    airport in the United Kingdom.
    With growing numbers of travels
    and airlines using its facilities.
    The world’s largest airport operator
    strives for improve efficiency and customer service

                   BAA Inc. (Cont.)
   BAA IT staff must make the best use of space
    and save energy,
    which are challenges due to the heat generated,
    power required, and real estate consumed
    by numerous datacenter servers.

                   BAA Inc. (Cont.)
   BAA IT needed to consolidate about 80 servers
    running 135 separate Microsoft SQL Server
    database that contain departmental,
    parking, environmental, regulatory,
    financial, and security information.

               6. Concluding Remarks.
   Datacenters are required to keep organization
    running 24/7.
   Standards must be adopted.
   Best practices should be followed.
   Green datacenter should be implemented.
   Success stories should be examined
    for the benefits of all concerned.


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