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									             Sistem Informasi Manajemen



                                               Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7
                    Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi
                      Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi
                             Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)
              Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP



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             Topik Pembahasan

•   Konsep, Trend dan Issue
•   Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi
•   Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi
•   Strategi Sistem Informasi
•   Aplikasi Sistem Informasi
•   Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi




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             Konsep, Trend dan Issue




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         Mengapa Perlu Mempelajari SI?
• Getting the right information to the right people at the right time at the right
  cost;
• Key to effective business processes;
• Business process change;
• The way organisations compete;
• Creation of new services, markets;
• Learning, Knowledge. E-commerce, E-Health, E-Government…




       Why? How? Is it efficient? Effective?
       What are the risks?
       What are the skills?
                                                                                     4
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  Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

Perubahan dalam teknologi informasi :
• Tersedianya jaringan info global, untuk
  menyalurkan berbagai format info (multimedia)
• Tersedianya berbagai perangkat keras dan
  lunak untuk mengolah, menyimpan dan
  mengirim info.
• Tersedianya berbagai perangkat untuk
  melakukan transformasi media yang digunakan



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                                                 Orientasi Informasi

             IT Practices
             • IT for operational support
             • IT for business process support
             • IT for inovation support
             • IT for management support


             Information management practices
             • Sensing information
             • Collecting information
                                                           Information orientation
             • Organizing information
             • Processing information
             • Maintaining information


             Information behaviour and values
             • Information integrity
             • Information formality
             • Information control
             • Information sharing
             • Information transparency
             • Information proactiveness                                             6
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                          SI, CBIS, dan TI
   Information Systems (IS)
        • involve more than just computers
        • an successful application of an IS requiring an understanding of the business
          and its environment that is supported by the IS
        • in learning about IS, not sufficient just to learn about computers

   Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS)
      • an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all
        of its intended tasks
      • may include hardware, software, database, network, procedures, or people

   Information Technology (IT)
        • include the hardware, databases, software, networks, and other information
          devices (in narrow definition)
        • usually interchangeably with information systems
         • a collection of several information systems, users, and management
           for an entire organization (in broad sense)



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                   Isu di dalam SI

   Large variety of organisation and individual information
   processing needs
   Fast evolving information technologies - languages
   operating systems and the like
   Legacy investments
   Costs and resource management
   Complexity ? Where is the complexity coming from ?
   Maintenance, Support and Training - Leveraging systems
   Design and Analysis related issues

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  Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi




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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -1
                                                             Information
                                                             System
                                                             Management
                     IS Role in
                     the enterprise               Review IS/IT roles, don’t focus
                                                  on particular issues only


                    Relationship with            Users’ awareness of the role of
                                                 computers determine effectiveness
                    other department
                                                 of relationship
       Computer
       Management
                     Managing the IS             Department is managed as co-ordinated
                     department                  set of resources which are planned to
                                                 meet expected future requirements

                      Managing the                Operations, programming,
                      IS/IT activities            data collection, etc.



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    Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -
                          2
•    Delivery
      –   Internal focus
      –   Improving the ability to deliver and support systems and technology
      –   Not necessarily providing users with what they need
•    Re-orientation
      –   Establishing good relationship with the main business functions,
      –   Supporting business demands through provision of variety of services
      –   Provide valued service to all business functional management
•    Re-organisation
      –   Need for redesign integration of IS investment with business strategy and across business
          functions.
      –   Best way of satisfying each of differing business needs through coalition of responsibilities
          for managing information and systems


                                                       Hirschheim Model (1988)

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             Model-2 SI Dalam Organisasi
Model Anthony (1965)
                        Planning Systems                  Sales forecasting, operating plans, capacity
                                                      planing, profit/earnings forecast, business mix
                                                  analysis, manpower planning, financial modelling


        Control Systems                 Sales analysis, budgetary control, management accounting,
                                    inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market
                                research/analysis, WIP control, requirement planning, supplier analysis, etc.


 Operational             Order entry/processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading
 Systems
                      invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop floor
                 scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll,
              word processing, etc.


               Hirarki perencanaan, pengendalian, dan sistem operasional,
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                       Perbedaan DP dan MIS

                       TPS/DP                       MIS
    Objectives         Efficient transaction        Effective problem resolution &
                                                    decision making support

    Information        Internal & external          Internal & external transaction +
    sources            transaction                  research data

    Information time   Recent history, current &    Historical data, current & future
    frame              near future
    Process            Algorithmic (very            Sometimes need human
                       predefined)                  intervention (esp. for decision
                                                    making)

    Users              Operators                    Professionals & middle managers


    Technology         Mainframe/mini computers     Local processing linked to
                                                    information resources
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                     Strategic Information Systems


                                                Wiseman Model (1985)
                Use
                (objective)   Automatic basic      Satisfy             Affect business
                              processes            information needs   strategy
     Function                 (efficiency)         (effectiveness)     (competitiveness)


    Transaction and
                              DATA
    exception
                              PROCESSING
    processing
                                                                       STRATEGIC
                                                                       INFORMATION
                                                                       SYSTEMS
    Information                                    MANAGEMENT
    enquiry and                                    INFORMATION
    analysis                                       SYSTEMS


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                                    Trend evolusi SI/TI
                                                           Galliers & Somogyl, (1987)
                                           DP                    MIS                           SIS
    Aspects

                                Computers’             Distributed process’     ‘networks’
                                fragmented             interconnected           integrated
    Nature of the technology    (hardware limitation   software limitation      people/vison limitation)


                                Remote from users      Regulated by             Available and
    Nature of operations        controlled by DP       management               supportive
                                                       services                 to users

                                Technical issues       Support business         Relate to
    Issues in systems           (programming/          users’needs              business
    development                 project managemen)     information management   strategy


                                Reducing costs         Supporting the           Enabling the business
    Reason for using            (especially            business (manager)       - business driven
    technology                  administrative) –      - user driven
                                technology driven

                                Regimented/            Accommodating/           Flexibility/
    Characteristic of systems   operational            control                  strategic
                                (internal)                                      (external)
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             Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem
                         Informasi




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                        Lingkungan Informasi

                        Paper records

                      Paper records

                                                              Private
                                    Management                records
                                      information                       External
                                   Operational                          information
                                   database


                                                Official
                              Personal          information
                              database          records

                                                    Unrecorded

                                                                          Lingkup memungkinkan
         Total lingkungan                Lingkungan yang                  untuk informasi yang dapat
         informasi internal              terotomatisasi                   dikelola            17
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                 Nilai Informasi Bagi Bisnis


             High
                                 STRATEGIC                     HIGH POTENTIAL
      Value
        of
   information                   Critical to business             Potential value to
        to                        and of greatest               business may be high,
      future                      potential value                 but not confirmed
     strategy
                                  Essential for core            Needed for supporting
                             process and value enhaced           Business, but little
                              by horizontal integration            strategic value

                    Low     KEY OPERATIONAL                         SUPPORT

                          High                                                          Low
                                    Value of information to current strategy                  18
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  Pertanyaan Kunci Dalam Membangun
           dan Mengelola SI
• People involved…
• Many technologies….
• How do we decide what to build..? – for one person..for a dept..for
  the entire organization…
• How much is it going to cost..?
• How long is it going to take….?
• How do we consider all the systems we have so far..?
• How do we maintain and upgrade…?




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    Hubungan Aplikasi SI dan Tingkatan
              Manajemen




                                                                                                      Pengolahan Informasi
                                                                                Keuangan & Akunting
   Perencanaan Strategis




                                                                                                                             Manajemen Puncak
                              Pemasaran




                                                                   Personalia
                                          Produksi
   Pengendalian Manajemen




                                                     Logistik
   Pengendalian Operasional

    Pengolahan Transaksi



                                            Sistem Manajemen Data base

                                                                Data base

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             Pemakai dan Penggunaan SI
           Pemakai                                    Pengunaan
     Petugas Administrasi    Mengerjakan transaksi, mengolah data, dan menjawab pertanyaan
                             Mendapatkan data operasi. Membantu perencanaan, penjadualan,
     Manajer Tingkat Bawah
                             mengetahui situasiyag tak terkendali, dan mengambil keputusan
                             Informasi untuk analisis. Membantu dalam analisis, perencanaan
     Staf Ahli
                             dan pelaporan.
                             Laporan tetap, Permintaan informasi khusus, Analisa khusus,
     Manajemen               Laporan khusus, membantu dalam mengenali persoalan dan
                             peluang. Membantu dalam analisis pengambilan keputusan.




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        Segitiga Pengambilan Keputusan
         Sistem Informasi Manajemen

                             SIM
                         perencanaan                     SIM: sistem manusia/mesin yang terpadu,
                         Strategis &                     untuk menyajikan informsasi guna mendukung
                      pengambilan kptsan                 fungsi operasi, manajemen, dan pengambilan
                                                         keputusan dalam sebuah organisasi.
                    Informasi manajemen
                   Untuk perencanaan taktis
                                                         Menggunakan hardware & software komputer,
                  Dan pengambilan keputusan              prosedur, model manajemen dan keputusan,
                                                         data base.
               Informasi manajemen untuk
             Perencanaan operasional, pengambilan
             Keputusan dan pengendalian

      Pengolahan transaksi
      Pemberian informasi (tanggapan atas pertanyaan)



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      Tiga Tahapan Dalam Penggunaan
              Sistem Informasi

                                 • Productivity: a measure of the
                                   output achieved divided by
                                   the input requirement,
                                   something like (Output/Input)
                                   x 100%
                                 • Competitive Advantage: a
                                   significant and (ideally) long-
                                   term benefit that enables
                                   company to perform better
                                   than its competitors
                                 • Quality: the ability of a
                                   product (including services) to
                                   meet or exceed customer
                                   expectations                 23
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                        Aplikasi
             Sistem Informasi Manajemen




                                                  24
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                        Type Sistem Informasi
    KIND OF SYSTEM                                     GROUPS SERVED
    STRATEGIC LEVEL                                                    SENIOR
                                                                     MANAGERS




    MANAGEMENT LEVEL                                                   MIDDLE
                                                                     MANAGERS




 KNOWLEDGE LEVEL                                                   KNOWLEDGE &
                                                                   DATA WORKERS



OPERATIONAL                                                           OPERATIONAL
LEVEL                                                                   MANAGERS

              SALES &    MANUFACTURING   FINANCE   ACCOUNTING   HUMAN           25
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               Type Sistem Informasi

• Executive Support             • Batch vs Online
  Systems                         Processing
• Management Information        • Sistem Informasi
  Systems                         Fungsional
• Decision Support              • Distributed Systems vs
  Systems                         Client/Server Systems
• Knowledge Work                • Enterprise Resources
  Systems                         Planning System
• Office Automation             • Dukungan Pengambilan
  Systems                         Keputusan
• Transaction Processing        • Sistem Dukungan
  Systems                         Inteligen

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         Subsistem dari Sistem Informasi

• SI (dapat) terdiri atas
  Subsistem:
      – Penjualan dan pemasukan           • Subsistem dibagi atas
        pesanan                             subsistem, sebagai contoh
                                            Personalia dan Payroll:
      – Produksi
                                               – Penyiapan data masukan
      – Sediaan barang                           catatan personalia
      – Personalia dan payroll                 – Penyesuaian daftar gaji
      – Pembelian                              – Penyiapan data masukan
                                                 daftar gaji
      – Perencanaan                            – Daftar gaji harian
      – Kecerdasan lingkungan                  – Daftar gaji bulanan
                                               – Laporan dafatar gaji untuk
                                                 manajemen
                                               – Audit personalia dan dafatar
                                                 gaji
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                      Data base

• Kumpulan data terdiri dari       • Contoh
      –   File                          –   Data base Pegawai
      –   Record                        –   File: Pegawai
      –   Field                         –   Record: Sukamto
      –   Karakter                      –   Field: Nama, Alamat, NIP
                                        –   Character: a, b,c 1,2, dll.




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             Type Sistem Informasi




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                Batch vs Realtime Processing


• Batch
      – Pengolahan data secara tidak seketika
      – Entry data dikumpulkan dalam satu file secara serial
      – Ada perbedaan waktu yangcukup signifikan antara
        entry dan eksekusi data
• Real Time Processing
      – Entry dan eksekusi data dilakukan seketika




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         Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)


  •    Dimulai pada zaman “Data Processing”
  •    OPERATIONAL LEVEL
  •    INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS
  •    PROCESSING: UPDATING
  •    OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS
  •    USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL

             EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE
11/18/2008
                         TPS
                         TPS
                    PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
                                                 31
         Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)




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         Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems



   • Distributed System
      – Entry dan pengolahan data secara tersebar,
      – Masing – masing komputer memiliki fasilitas jaringan dengan
         fasilitas yang sama
   • Client/Server
      – Sedikitnya satu komputer berfungsi sebagai server,
         sementara komputer lain yang terhubung menjadi client,
      – Server menyediakan NOS,
      – Aplikasi dapat ditempatkan di Server atau masing – masing
         nodes
      – Nodes memilii kemampuan pengolahan lokal



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             Management Information Systems -1



  •    MANAGEMENT LEVEL
  •    INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA
  •    PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS
  •    OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS
  •    USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS

             EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING
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             Management Information Systems -2



  • STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED
    DECISIONS
  • REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED
  • PAST & PRESENT DATA
  • INTERNAL ORIENTATION
  • LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS*

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                TPS Data For MIS Applications


             TPS                                              MIS
             Order Processing                       SALES
                                                    DATA
                   System

  ORDER FILE                                        UNIT
                                                    PRODUCT
             Materials Resource                     COST        MIS     REPORTS
               Planning System
                                                    PRODUCT
                                                    CHANGE
  PRODUCTION MASTER FILE
                                                    DATA
               General Ledger
                                                    EXPENSE           MANAGERS
                   System                           DATA

  ACCOUNTING FILES                           MIS FILES



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       Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Dalam
                Fungsi Pemasaran


           Sistem                Deskripsi           Level Organisasi
   Order Processing   Entry, proses, dan track order Operasional
                      Identifikasi pelanggan dan
                      pasar menggunakan data
   Analisa Pasar                                    Knowledge
                      demografi, pasar, perilaku
                      konsumen, dan trend
                      Menentukan harga produk dan
   Analisa Harga                                  Manajemen
                      layanan
   Ramalan dan Tren   Penyiapan ramalan penjualan
                                                    Stratejik
   Penjualan          5 tahun


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             Pendekatan Tradisional




                                               38
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             Enterprise System




                                             39
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        Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem
                    Informasi




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              Isu Di Dalam Pengelolaan TI

   • Acquisition: pengadaan/penyediaan TI
         –   need (kebutuhan),
         –   resources (sumber-daya),
         –   time-frame (jangka waktu), dan
         –   design of IS (rancangan sistem informasi).
   • Organization: prosedur pengelolaan,
   • Motivation: sumberdaya manusia, serta
   • Relationship: hubungan antara bagian Sistem
     Informasi dengan bagian-bagian lain di dalam
     organisasi

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             Acquisition (pengadaan TI)

    Need (kebutuhan) dari:
    • Size of the organization: besar kecilnya
      organisasi/perusahaan yang memerlukan TI.
    • Structure of the organization: struktur dari
      perusahaan.
    • Nature of operational: sifat dari operasional
      perusahaan, misalnya organisasi pemerintah, bisnis,
      dll.
    • Type of informationn needed (jenis informasi yang
      diperlukan),misalnya informasi mengenai keuangan,
      kepegawaian, dll.

                                                            42
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             Strategi Sistem Informasi




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                 The Role of Information Technology

                                                                    Add Value
                                                               customers and markets
    Wisdom




   Knowledge


                                                                   Business
                   Minimize Risks                                   Value of                                      Reduce Costs
                 market, financial, legal,
   Information
                                                                  Information                               transactions and processes
                   operational risks
                                                                  Technology

      Data




     Facts                                                      Create New Realities
                                                  intelligence (social, political, technological, etc.)


                         Gather              Organize               Select               Synthesize       Distribute
                                                                                                                                         44
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         The Balanced of Resources has Changed


                                Materials




             Machines                                      Money

                         Four Ms Plus


                        Men              Information

                                                                   45
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                Strategic Systems

• Connection to supplier & customer
• Effective use of information in the value adding
  process
• Enable to deliver new product/service
• Provide executive with strategic information




                                                     46
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                Business, IS & IT Relationship
                              Business Strategy
   External &
   External &
    Internal
     Internal
                          •   Business decisions                 Where is the business
     Factors              •   Objectives and direction           going & why?
      Factors
                          •   Change

   Economy                                       Direction for
                          Supports
   Society                business               business
   Politics
   Law                             IS Strategy
   Ecology                                                       What is required?
   Technology             •   Business based
   Culture                •   Demand orientation
                          •   Application focused
   Stakeholders
                                                 Needs &
                    Infrastructure &
                             service             priorities


                                   IT Strategy
                          •   Activity Based
                                                                  How can it be
                          •   Supply oriented                     realized?
                                                                                     47
                          •   Technology focused
11/18/2008                    PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
        IT Roles in Business Process Reengineering


                 SIMPLIFY




                                  INTEGRATE
ELIMINATE




                                                  AUTOMATE




                                                             48
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                       MIT Theory of IT Evolution & Revolution

         HIGH                                            Business Scope Redefinition
                                                          Business Scope Redefinition
  Degree of Business




                                                  Business Network Redesign
                                                   Business Network Redesign
   Transformation




                                           Business Process Redesign
                                            Business Process Redesign     Revolutionary

                                          Integration
                                                                           Evolutionary
                                           Integration


                             Localized Exploitation
                              Localized Exploitation
           LOW

                       LOW                                                      HIGH
                                        Range of Potential Benefits


                                                                                          49
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       Internal Evolution of Information Technology


  FUNCTIONAL USE                                                      MANAGEMENT FOCUS
                                                        5
  REMAIN IN BUSINESS
                                                            Reaching the   ORGANIZATIONAL
  5 People Systems, Home                                    Consumer       EFFECTIVENESS
    Computers
                                                4                          5 Restructuring of the
                                                                             Industry
                                                    Enhancing Executive    4 Restructuring of the
  MAKE MONEY
                                                    Decision Making          Organization
                                                                           3 Growth and Increase in
  4 Mega Decisions
                                           3                                 Market Share
  3 Marketing, Distribution,
    Customer Service                           Enhancing Products
                                               and Services
  Above the Line
                                                                                   Below the Line
                                     2
                                         Leveraging Investment
  SAVE MONEY
                                                                           OPERATIONAL CONTROL
                                1
  2 Financial, Manufacturing,
                                                                           2 Asset Management
    Services
                                    Reducing Costs                         1 Process Management
  1 Administrative

                                                                                                      50
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               Nature of IT Center




               Cost                  Profit
              Center                 Center

                            I/T


             Investment              Service
               Center                Center

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                          IT Benefits Measurement




                          Better Information       Staff Reduction
        TANGIBLE




                   HIGH   Improved Security         Lower Assets
                              Lower Risk             More Sales




                           Market Reaction     Faster Information
                   LOW    Access to New Staff Positive Staff Reaction



                                 LOW                     HIGH

                                     MEASURABLE
                                                                        52
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                      IT and Business Alignment


             Vision               Mission                   Value


                                Objectives


                          Critical Success Factors


                        Key Performance Indicators



                 Business Strategy           I/T Strategy



                  Business Process and Tactical Procedures


                  DAY-TO-DAY OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES
                                                                    53
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                          Boeing Strategic Architecture


                                   Business Process                     What business
                                     Architecture                       processes
                                                                        should be used?
                                              drives
                                                                        What
                                      Information           Standards   information is
                                      Architecture                      needed to
   Product Groups                                                       accomplish
                                              prescribes                those processes?
   Information Services
                                                                        How are the
                                  Information System                    processes and
                                      Architecture                      information
                                                                        related?
                                              identifies
                                                                        How is the
                                   Data Architecture                    data
                                                                        managed?
      Feedback                                support by
                                                                        Which hardware,
                              Delivery System Architecture              software, and
                          Hardware, Software, Communications            network are required?   54
11/18/2008                            PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
 Information System Strategic Planning

                                                             ANALYSIS PROCESS
              INPUT                                                                                                                          BLUE PRINT
                                                                                       &           P
                                                                           K                           A
                INTERNAL                                             R                                       R                                 THREE DOMAINS
                                                             O                                                    T
             Corporate History                                                                                                                Information System
                                                     W                                                                    N
                                                                                                                                                   Requirements
              Business Plan                      T                                                                            E
                                                                                             TECHNOLOGY
                                                                     ORGANIZATION          INFRASTRUCTURE                                   Information Technology
          Existing Information                                                                                                    R
                                             E                        STRUCTURE                                                                       Supply
                 Technology
                                                                                                    COMPANY                           S    Information Management
      Constraints and Opportunities                                                                  ASSETS
                                         N             COMPANY                                                                                       Strategy
        Strength and Weakness                        GEOGRAPHICAL                                           FINANCIAL
                                                       TOPOLOGY                      VISION
                                                                                                            RESOURCES
                                                                                     MISSION
       Approach and Methodology                                                       CSFs                                                   STRATEGIC PLANNING
                                                                                       KPIs
                                                     BUSINESS                       STRATEGY                                                    List of Scenarios
                EXTERNAL                             PROCESS
                                                                                                           CULTURE                             Risk Management
                                                                 PROCEDURES
              Industry Trend                                                                       PEOPLE
                                                         POLICIES                                                                            Cost/Benefit Analysis
        Information Technology                                           STANDARD
                                                                                                                                                Technical Design
              Development
                                                                                               VALUE
                                                                            LEGAL                                                             Project Management
                                                     S
          Competitor Analysis                                               ASPECT
                                                         H                                                            S                   Priorities Level and Schedule
              Benchmarking                                       A
                                                                                                              R
                                                                      R                                                                       Implementation Plan
               Best Practice                                                                           E
                                                                            E                      D
                                                                                H              L
                                                                                       O                                                  Human Resource Skills and
                                                                                                                                                Competencies
                                                                                                                                                Requirements
                                      Macro Environment                                                                                      Change Management
                                      Ideology, Political Agenda, Economic Environment, Social
                                          and Culture, International Relationship, National
                                                    Defense, Religion, Behaviors,
                                                                                                                                                                          55
11/18/2008                                                   PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
                           New Type of Corporation


                                                    KNOWLEDGE COMPANY


        Demand-Chain           •Market Strategy              •Customer Management
        Components             •Product Design               •Value Network Management
                               •Marketing




                            •E-Catalogues      •E-Forms            •E-Bulleting Boards
             Application    •ERP               •WWW                •Chat Rooms
             Enablers       •Email             •EDI                •Financial EDI
                            •E-Collaboration   •Electronic Funds



                               •Value-Added Networks         •Wide Area Networks
             Technology        •Internet                     •E-Marketplaces
             Vehicles          •Extranet                     •Intranet
                               •Web TV                       •Private Network



                               •Procure                      •Transportation
                               •Inbound Logistics            •Distribute
         Supply-Chain
                               •Manufacturing                •Delivery
         Components
                                                             •Customer


                                                                                         56
11/18/2008                            PHYSICAL COMPANY
                                      PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
             Success Indicators


               1.     New Business (products/services)
               2.     New Market (customers)
               3.     New Revenue (business model)
               4.     New Company (business transformation)
               5.     New Image (business community)
               6.     New Wealth (paradigm shift)
               Etc.

               Key Points:
               •     From “nothing” to “existing”
               •     From “existing” to “creating”
               •     From “creating” to “improving”
               •     From “improving” to “growing”
               •     From “growing” to “performing”




                                                              57
11/18/2008    PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

								
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