Data Structure Interview Questions Answer by bla19342

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									Introduction to Qualitative Research
Aaron Louie, User Experience Architect



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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                What this presentation will do
                   Lay the basic groundwork for gaining skills in user research

                   Provide useful guidelines for writing interview questions

                   Point you to resources for deeper study in qualitative research methods
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                What it won’t do
                   Substitute for a college course on the subject

                   Make you an expert
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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                The purpose of qualitative research is…
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                …to make sense of reality…
                …in a valid and reliable fashion.
                                                                            Manage      Report &
                    Pre-Plan               Set-up      Execute
                                                                           Responses    Analyze




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                Describing reality
                   Reality is complex.

                   All real problems are “wicked” problems.

                   Two ways to approach it:
                      Quantify it. Then construct mathematical models describing it.
                      Experience it qualitatively. Then make sense of it.
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                Quantitative vs. Qualitative
                   Controlled environment        Natural/complex environments

                   Experimentation               Interaction

                   Deductive                     Inductive

                   Numbers                       Words

                   Researcher is objective       Researcher is a participant
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                 The Scientific Method




                                            Analyze     Refine
                Hypothesize    Experiment
                                             Data     Hypothesis
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                 Quantitative Research




                                                   Analyze          Refine
                Hypothesize      Experiment
                                                    Data          Hypothesis



                    Predict          Collect          Apply           Identify
                  outcome &      measurements       statistical   patterns, revise
                    design       in a controlled   calculations    assumptions
                 experiment to    environment
                 test outcome
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                 Qualitative Research




                                                    Analyze           Refine
                Hypothesize     Experiment
                                                     Data           Hypothesis



                    Identify    Collect data via       Count,          Identify
                assumptions &    observation,        classify, &    themes, revise
                  formulate       interviews,      structure data    assumptions
                   research      surveys, etc.
                  questions
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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                Research Design
                   Determine scope
                      What you’re researching
                      What you’re not

                   Identify assumptions
                       Models from literature
                       Researcher’s biases

                   Draft research questions
                   Choose your methods
                      Data collection methods
                      Analysis methods
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                Framing Research Questions
                   List what you expect to find out, based on the scope and your assumptions.

                   For each finding, write a question (or series of questions) that must be answered to support
                    or invalidate the finding.

                   Determine dependencies (which questions must be answered first).
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                Qualitative Data Collection Methods

                   Surveys
                      Pros: quantifiable, lower chance of affecting subject
                      Cons: no interaction with subject, nuances of emotion or environment lost

                   Naturalistic observation
                      Pros: gain understanding of environment without interfering with subject
                      Cons: very little interaction with subject, no insight into subject’s mental processes

                   Contextual inquiry (shadowing, on-site interviews, think-aloud, etc.)
                      Pros: balanced level of interaction with subject, insight into subject’s thoughts in context
                        of tasks and environment
                      Cons: researcher’s physical presence can affect subject’s behavior

                   Ethnography (embedded research)
                      Pros: maximum level of interaction with subject, researcher gains deep understanding
                        by becoming a subject, subjects treat researcher as peer
                      Cons: time- and cost-prohibitive
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                Analysis Methods
                   Statistical Analysis
                   Content Analysis
                   Narrative Analysis
                   Strategic Analysis
                   Workflow Analysis
                   Task Analysis
                   Business Analysis
                   Cognitive Work Analysis
                   Systems Analysis
                   Grounded Theory
                   etc.
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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                Good research design
                   Maximize validity
                      Conclusions are true

                   Maximize reliability
                      Findings are repeatable

                   Relatively easy to do in quantitative research

                   Impossible to do in qualitative research
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                Threats to validity
                   Changes in environment

                   Changes in society

                   Effects of time

                   Changes in person

                   Bias in subject

                   Interaction between subjects

                (In other words, stuff you can’t control.)
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                Threats to validity
                (stuff you CAN control)
                   Bias in researcher

                   Interaction between researcher and subject
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                Validity vs. Understanding


                                                             Business strategy

                                                                Organizational
                                                                structure

                                                                   Work domain

                                                                    Tasks & activities

                                                                   Mental
                                                                   constraints &
                                                                   abilities

                                                                   Ergonomics

                       Researcher             Subject       Personal
                                                            resources &
                                                            values
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                             Clinical        Ethnographic
                How does the subject view you?

                                                              Executive

                                                    Upper management



                                                 Supervisor
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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                Composing an Interview Script
                   List what must be known in order to answer each research question

                   For each item in that list, write a question

                   Organize the questions into categories

                   Sort general  specific within each category
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                Phrasing Questions
                   Ask open questions for general questions
                      “what”, “why”, “when”, “how”, “who”

                   Ask closed questions for specific questions
                      “how often”, “how many”

                   Reserve yes/no questions for branching points in interview script
                     (i.e., a line of questioning dependent on a previous answer)
                      “Have you ever done X? If so, how did you feel about…”
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                Refining Interview Questions
                   Remove biased or charged language
                      “What do you think about the problems with the intranet”

                   Avoid asking leading questions
                      “Wouldn’t it be better if you did it this way?”

                   Be aware of your own biases!
                      “How have consultants like Ascentium helped you get your job done better?”

                   Structure questions to facilitate data analysis
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                Conducting the Interview
                   Gain informed consent from the interviewee

                   Record audio/video whenever possible

                   Remain open-minded – don’t think too much

                   Listen, listen, listen

                   Avoid reacting too much (negatively or positively) to the interviewee’s responses

                   Take prodigious notes

                   Write up notes immediately after interview
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                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                Analyzing The Data
                   Go through notes & transcript
                      Identify frequent keywords
                      Categorize responses
                      Look for patterns

                   Match keywords, categories, and patterns to models and assumptions
ascentium.com
                   PURPOSE

                   WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

                   RESEARCH DESIGN

                   VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

                   WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                   ANALYZING DATA

                   RESOURCES
ascentium.com
                Resources
                   Books
                      The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Booth, Joseph M. Williams, Gregory G. Colomb [link]
                      Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences by Bruce L. Berg [link]
                      Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work by
                        Kim J. Vicente [link]

                   Web sites
                      Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work by
                       Kim J. Vicente [link]
                      Qualitative Research Consultants Association: FAQs about Qualitative Research [link]
                      Association for Information Systems: Qualitative Resarch in Information Systems [link]
                      UsabilityNet: Tools and methods [link]
                      UW Libraries: Lit Reviews, Research Methods… [link]
                      Virginia Tech: Annotated Bibliography on Qualitative Research Methodology [link]
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