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Promotion and Marketing of Pharmaceuticals 4

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					Promotion and Marketing of
    Pharmaceuticals
            .
                     ‫‪Definitions‬‬


‫السوق عبارة عن مجموعة المشترٌن والبائعٌن الذٌن ‪• - Market‬‬
                    ‫ٌرغبون فً شراء وبٌع سلعة‬
‫‪• - Customer‬‬                            ‫الزبون هو الفرد الذي‬
  ‫ٌكون لدٌه الحاجة والرغبة والقدرة لشراء سلعة‬
‫‪• - Salesperson‬‬
‫مندوب المبٌعات هو الشخص المنتدب من الشركة لٌقوم ببٌع •‬
  ‫وتسوٌق سلع او خدمات الشركة لدى الزبائن‬
‫المنتج هو السلعة او الخدمة الذي توفره الشركة ‪• - Product‬‬
                                 ‫وٌلبً حاجة الزبون‬
                            ‫.‬
‫‪• - Manufacturer‬‬                       ‫المصنع هً الجهة التً‬
  ‫تجمع وتحول المواد الخام الى منتوجات لٌتم بٌعها‬
‫مندوب توزيع - •‬
‫الموزع هو الشخص الذي ٌقوم بإٌصال السلع والخدمات من •‬
                   ‫الشركة الى الزبون‬
‫تاجر الجملة هو الوسٌط بٌن الشركة ‪• - Wholesaler‬‬
                            ‫المصنعة او الوكٌل وتجار المفرق‬
‫تاجر المفرق هو الوسٌط بٌن تاجر الجملة او ‪• - Retailer‬‬
              ‫الوكٌل او الشركة المصنعة والزبون النهائً‬
                            ‫.‬
‫الوكٌل هو الشركة التً تملك حقوق حصرٌة فً بٌع ‪• - Agent‬‬
                                             ‫سلعة ما‬
‫المنافس هو الجهة الذي لدٌه القدرة على توفٌر ‪• - Competitor‬‬
                   ‫سلعة او خدمة تلبً نفس الحاجة‬
‫الدعاٌة هً الوسٌلة الفعالة للوصول للمستهلك ‪• -Promotion‬‬
               ‫النهائً عبر اعالنات ونشرات وغٌرها‬
‫‪• - Marketing‬‬
‫التسوٌق هو عملٌة فهم السوق وتوفٌر السلع والخدمات التً تلبً‬
  ‫االحتٌاجات عن طرٌق الدعاٌة واالعالن‬
                          ‫.‬
‫البٌع هو انتقال سلعة او خدمة من بائع الى ‪• - Selling‬‬
     ‫مشتري لتلبٌة منفعة مشتركة مع توفر االٌجاب والقبول‬
‫العٌنة هً منتوج ٌستخدم كجزء من الدعاٌة ‪• - Sample‬‬
                 ‫لتعرٌف الزبون بمٌزات وصفات الصنف‬
‫النشرة هً ملخص لتوضٌح مزاٌا وفوائد الصنف ‪• - Leaflet‬‬
                           ‫.‬
‫‪• - Billboard‬‬                    ‫هً لوحة اعالنٌة خارجٌة‬

‫‪• - Mobiler‬‬         ‫هو مجسم عن الصنف الغراض دعائٌة‬

‫‪• - Dangler‬‬                               ‫متدلٌات دعائٌة‬

‫سند قبض - •‬     ‫هً وثٌقة رسمٌة وقانونٌة الثبات دفعة قبضت‬
                                          ‫من الزبون‬
                           ‫.‬
‫• سند صرف- هً وثٌقة رسمٌة وقانونٌة الثبات مبلغ تم دفعه‬
‫لشخص ما‬
‫فاتورة: هً وثٌقة رسمٌة ٌسجل فٌها كمٌة وسعر السلع - •‬
   ‫التً خرجت من الشركة ووصلت الى الزبون‬
                                          ‫• دفتر مرتجعات:‬
‫هً وثٌقة رسمٌة تستخدم الستالم كمٌة ونوع البضاعة التً - •‬
   ‫رجعت من الزبون‬
                            ‫.‬

‫:هً وثٌقة رسمٌة تبٌن الكمٌة والقٌمة المالٌة‬      ‫سند ارجاع‬
                               ‫للبضاعة التً رجعت من الزبون‬
  ‫• دفتر طلبيات:هً وثٌقة تستخدم لتسجٌل األصناف والكمٌة‬
                                       ‫المطلوبة لدى الزبون.‬
                         ‫.‬
‫‪• Customer request‬‬
                  ‫هً متطلبات ومالحظات ومشاكل الزبائن‬
‫‪• Marketing Plan‬‬
‫هً خطة تسوٌقٌة مبنٌة على أساس مفهوم السوق لتسوٌق‬
  ‫وتروٌج صنف أو مجموعة أصناف.‬
‫‪• Budget‬‬
‫هً المٌزانٌة، أي خطة زمنٌة توضح المصارٌف والعائدات.‬
                         ‫.‬
‫‪Target‬‬
‫هو الهدف وٌصنف بـ ‪ SMART‬هو األمر الذي تصبو إلٌه‬
‫الشركة‬
‫• ‪Distributor‬‬
‫• هو شخص لٌس لدٌه حقوق الوكالة ٌقوم ببٌع األصناف‬
‫• مندوب الدعاية‬
‫• هو الشخص الذي ٌقوم بتنفٌذ الخطط الدعائٌة‬
                          ‫.‬
                                    ‫• ‪:Merchandizer‬‬
‫• هو الشخص الذي باالهتمام وتسوٌق األصناف لدى مراكز‬
                                                  ‫البٌع‬
                               ‫• ‪:Product Life Cycle‬‬
‫• هو دورة حٌاة المنتوج، هً الفترة المعتمدة من لحظة إنتاج‬
                        ‫الصنف حتى خروجه من السوق.‬
                          ‫‪Quality Customer Service‬‬
                           ‫• هً تقدٌم خدمة نوعٌة للزبون‬
                           ‫.‬
                                           ‫0009 ‪:ISO‬‬      ‫•‬
‫هً مؤسسة المواصفات العالمٌة تقوم باختٌار وضع مقاٌٌس‬       ‫•‬
                 ‫للشركات لرفع جودة العمل أو الصناعة.‬
                                            ‫‪:Inflation‬‬    ‫•‬
       ‫هو ارتفاع مستوى األسعار وضعف القوى الشرائٌة‬        ‫•‬
                                  ‫‪:Purchase power‬‬         ‫•‬
   ‫القوى الشرائٌة تتوفر فٌها الحاجة والرغبة والقدرة على‬   ‫•‬
                                                ‫الشراء.‬
                     ‫.‬
                              ‫‪Market Share‬‬        ‫•‬
‫حصة السوق وهً حصة الشركة فً السوق من صنف‬          ‫•‬
                                          ‫معٌن.‬
                                    ‫‪Customs‬‬       ‫•‬
     ‫هً الجمارك وهً ضرائب تفرض على الوادات‬        ‫•‬
                                           ‫‪VAT‬‬    ‫•‬
‫ضرٌبة القٌمة المضافة تضاف على المنتجات وٌدفعها‬    ‫•‬
                                       ‫المستهلك‬
                           ‫.‬
                                ‫• ‪Supply and Demand‬‬
      ‫• العرض والطلب: العرض عبارة عن السلع التً ٌرغب‬
  ‫وٌستطٌع المنتجون عرضها للبٌع فً السوق بأسعار مختلفة‬
      ‫ضمن فترة زمنٌة محددة و الطلب عبارة عن السلع التً‬
 ‫ٌرغب وٌستطٌع المستهلكون شراءها مقابل سعر معٌن خالل‬
                                       ‫فترة زمنٌة محددة.‬
                                                 ‫• ‪Policy‬‬
‫• السٌاسة هً آلٌة تقوم الشركة بوضعها للوصول الى أمرها.‬
                           ‫.‬
                                               ‫‪Procedure‬‬
     ‫اإلجراء هً خطوات تقوم الشركة بتحدٌدها للقٌام بعمل ما.‬

                                             ‫‪Strategy‬‬      ‫•‬
                ‫االستراتٌجٌة هً التوجه المستقبلً للشركة.‬   ‫•‬
                                                  ‫‪Plan‬‬     ‫•‬
‫الخطة هً مجموعة من اإلجراءات توضع للوصول الى هدف‬           ‫•‬
                                                  ‫معٌن.‬
                                                ‫‪FORM‬‬       ‫•‬
 ‫النموذج هو شكل معٌن ثابت ٌستخدم لتعبئة معلومات دورٌة.‬     ‫•‬
                       .
• Smart:

specific, measurable, ambition, realistic, time
 measured
                      .
• Drug companies spend enormous sums of
  money to promote their products.



• Promotion increases sales
         Marketing definition
• creating customer value and satisfaction.
• Or a process by which individuals and groups
  obtain what they need and want through
  creating and exchanging products and value
  with others.
• i.e: It is simply the delivery of customer
  satisfaction at a profit.
                         .
• Market Definition: It is all actual and potential
  buyers.
• What are consumer's needs, wants and
  demands?

• Needs: A state of felt deprivation for basic
  items such as food and clothing and complex
  needs such as the need for belonging e.g I am
  hungry.
                       .
• Wants: A form that a human need takes as
  shaped by culture and individual personality
  e.g I want a hamburger and a soft drink.

• Demands: Human wants backed by buying
  power .i.e. I have money to buy this meal.
                        .
• Promotion definition: to encourage the
  existence or progress of an object, including a
  product, service, an idea or an organization.
• Two major objectives of any promotion
  program:
• 1. Information.
• 2. Persuasion.
  How do consumers choose among
       products or services?
• 1. Customer value: value gained from owning
  a product and costs of obtaining the product.
  (benefits/costs) or (what you get / what you
  give).
• 2. Customer satisfaction: the products
  performance in delivery value relative to the
  buyer's expectations (value
  delivered/expectations).
                        .
• Buying function: looking for and evaluating
  goods or services.

• Selling function: it involves promoting the
  product, and it includes the use of personal
  selling, advertising or other direct and mass
  selling methods.
Marketing management philosophies


-consumers   favor products that are
  available and highly affordable.
-always improve production and
  distribution.
-consumers favor products that offer
  the most quality performance and
  innovative features.
                       .
-consumers will buy products only if the
  company promotes /sells the products.
-focuses on needs, wants of target markets and
  delivering satisfaction better than
  competitors.
-focuses on needs, wants of target markets and
  delivering superior value.
 Steps to be followed in a marketing
                 plan

• Determine the nature of product or service
  you want to sell.
• Its design, quality, features and packaging.
• determine its place, distribution, channels for
  best availability coverage, transport, direct or
  indirect.
                       .
• determine price profitable for the company or
  attractive to customers, discounts, payment
  period, credit.
• promotion: planning, where or how to
  advertise, advertising, sales ale, public
  relations.
     Connections with customers:

• Most marketers are targeting fewer,
  potentially more profitable customer while
  asking themselves:

what value does the customer bring to the
 organization?
                        .
are they worth pursuing?
  Focus has shifted in many companies towards:

-keeping current customers.
And
-building lasting relationships based on superior
  satisfaction and value.
 Companies segment the market into
              groups

• the choice of a viable segment is dependent
  on :
1-The marketing attractiveness of the target
  segment, its size, growth, price sensitivity and
  entry and existing costs.
2-The competitive dynamics in the proposed
  segment
                        .


• 3-the strength of the strategic advantage for
  the target segment.
                       .
• *market targeting: based on evaluating the
  segments with regard to its size, growth,
  effects of competitions, availability of
  substitute products, power of buyers or
  suppliers(competition),also company
  objectives or resources.
                       .
• undifferentiated marketing



• differetiated marketing



• concentrated marketing
          Product life cycle (PLC)
•   1-introduction.
•   2-growth.
•   3-maturity.
•   4-decline



*check handouts
           Stages of marketing

• 1. Entrepreneurial marketing

• 2. formulated marketing

• 3. Interpreneurial marketing
         Marketing channels
1. Communication channels:
A. dialogue channels

B. monologue channels
                        .
• 2. Distribution channels:
• 3. Selling channels:




CHOOSING THE BEST MIX OF THE THREE IS
 DIFFICULT BUT A MUST!
                Competition
• includes all of the actual or potential rival
  offerings and substitutes that a buyer might
  consider.
 Types of competition:
1-Brand competition:
A company sees its competitors as other
  companies that offer similar products or
  services to same customers at similar prices
                       .
2-Industry competition:
A company sees its competitors as all companies
  that make the same product or class of
  products.

3-Form competition:
A company sees its competitors as all companies
  that supply the same service
                       .
4-Generic competition:
A company sees its competitors as all companies
  that compete for the same consumer dollars
External forces affecting marketing of
              products


P.E.S.T: political, Economical, Social,
  Technological environments.
                      .
• Political:
-Politics
 -decisions made by government
- Occupation
- Legislations
- policies
                        .
• Economical: nationally and globally
• Social: society forces as family, friends, media
   affect our attitudes, interests, opinions, what
   we buy, how we behave.
If a change in structure of a population happens,
   this will affect the supply and demand of
   goods and services.
                      .
• Technological:
-Internet
-R&D departments are pressured to develop
   upto date technology products
       Marketing mix principles
• used by business as tools to assist in pursuing
  their objectives
• The 4 p's are:

 product, price, place, promotion

• These are controllable variables which must be
  managed carefully to meet the needs of the
  target group.
      4 P’s     vs.       4 C’s
•   Product          Customer solution
•   Price            Customer cost
•   Place            Customer convenience
•   Promotion        Customer communication
           Product Strategies
• who is the product aimed at ?
• what benefits will they expect ?
• how do they plan to position the product in
  market ?
• what differential advantages will the product
  offer compared to competitors ?
                       .
A product must be viewed in 3 levels:
Level 1: Core product
Level 2: Actual product: aim is to ensure that
  our potential buyers actually buy one from
  your company (i.e. add benefits to compete).
Level 3: Augmented product: what additional
  non-tangible benefits can you offer ?
  warranties, delivery, after sale services.
             Product decisions

• Design
• Quality
• Branding Vs. Copy cats
                    Pricing
• It costs to produce, design, distribute and

promote a product, thus the price must support

these elements. Pricing is difficult and must

reflect the supply & demand relationship.
                        .
Pricing must take into account:
• Fixed and variable costs.
• Competition.
• Company objectives.
• Proposed positioning strategies.
• Target group & willingness to pay.
             Pricing Strategies
Depends on company’s objectives
Types of pricing:
1-Penetration pricing

2-Skimming pricing

3-Competition pricing

4-Product line pricing
             Types of pricing
5-Bundle pricing

6- Psychological pricing

7-Premium pricing

8- Optional pricing
                     Place
• Distribute product to user at the right place
  and at the right time.
• Efficient
Distribution may be:
1-direct (manufacturer  consumer) OR
2- indirect (manufacturer  wholesaler 
  retailer  consumer
         Distribution Strategies
• Intensive distribution
• Exclusive distribution
• Selective distribution
         Promotion Strategies
• Promotion definition: to encourage existence
  or progress of an object, including a product,
  service, an idea or an organization.
• WHO definition:
  All informational and persuasive activities by
  manufacturers the effect of which is to induce
  the prescription, supply, purchase and/or use
  of medicinal products.
                       .
• 2 major objectives of any promotional
  program:
• 1- to inform
• 2- to persuade
*rational decision making
*Promotion is usually performed by well-trained
  “Medical representatives” or “Detail-men”.
• generation & dissemination of information is
  not free
• creating barriers
• Regulations
• FDA’s commissioner (Kessler)
                  Activities
• in order for a statement to be considered
  credible, the activity must be:
• Independent
• Objective
• Balanced
• With scientific rigor.
*The FDA issued a paper regarding this to guide
  people on separating promotion programs from
  educational programs.
                   .


Putting the patient first and doing
 promotion responsibility through
 truthful information is essential if we
 want promotional and education at
 same time.
• You gather information or something either by
  hearing or seeing it

• Promotional strategy of a company consists of:
1- Advertising:
 Any form of communication using any form of
  mass media or a controlled message in purchased
  time or space. It is non-personal and paid.
• The pharmaceutical industry argue that
  advertising helps to change the health habits
  of people  they consult their doctors more
  and that advertising in journals remains the
  primary source of doctor’s up-to-date
  information.
• Industry says that advertisements today help
  them to develop the drugs of tomorrow!
• They say that even breakthrough drugs
  without advertising may fail!
• Example: Orinase
• A new product is new only once! The first 6
  months of a product’s life are very
  determining to its success.
•   Forms of advertising include:
•   Journals
•   Direct mail & e-mail
•   Bill boards
•   Newspapers
•   TV
•   Radio
•   Salespeople (dealers and wholesalers)
•   Newsletters
•   Directories & reference books (PDR)
•   Electronics (video material, internet)
•   Word of mouth.
•   Driving forces for advertising are:-
•   Competition
•   short patent period
•   generic companies are strong
2-public relations:
Developing positive relationships with the
  public
3-Sales promotion:
 money -off coupons, special offers for a day
4-personal selling :
One to one selling – word of mouth
5-direct mail:
To correspond or send News letters by mail to a
  named person among the targeted segment
          Promotional strategies

         Push and pull strategies
a. Push strategies
b. Pull strategies
                      AIDA


•   Attention: grab attention
•   Interest: hold through promotional features
•   Desire: make desirable
•   Action: purchase action
              SWOT Analysis
• A tool used by organizations to help the firm
  establish its strengths, weaknesses,
  opportunities and threats.
• Used as a framework to help firms develop
  their overall corporate, marketing or product
  strategies.
• A method for integrating and cross-analyzing
data collected in the market audit, situation
  audit and product positioning to identify
  SWOT.
• SW: Strengths and Weaknesses of a company
  or product (internal factors _controllable by
  the company).
• OT: Opportunities & threats ( in the
  market/environment) are external factors
  which are uncontrollable by the organization.
• The SWOT method is designed to help
  produce :
• The optimum segment to attack
• The positioning 'message" to communicate
• the strategy that will bring success .
• Tactical objectives and their priority .
• A tactical plan
• final check
         Opportunities and threats

•   They come out of the following areas :
•   Market segment
•   Environment
•   Competition
• Example list of opportunities: In the market
  segment
• Large segment size.
• High growth rate.
• High level of customer interest.
• High degree of acceptance.
• Many new customers.
• Low level of price sensitivity
•   List of opportunities: In the environment
•   Few government regulations
•   Little negative public opinion.
•   Growth economy.
•   Competition:
•         - few competitors
•            - Weak selling power
•            -no new products
•             -little promotion activity
          Strengths and weaknesses

• Examples of strengths –The product.

•   - Highly - efficient product
•   -Very reliable.
•   -Convenient packaging
•   -Acceptable pricing.
•   -Excellent technical back-up
•   -High versatility
•   -High market segment share
•   -Good trade mark.
•   -Excellent delivery
•   Examples of strengths –The Company:
•   - Large size
•   -Excellent reputation
•   -Adequate promotion budgets --Productive R & D.
•   -well-motivated sales force
•   -Effective sales force
•   -well-trained sales force
•   -Excellent distribution
•   -Excellent back-up information
       Consumer buying behavior

• The Process of buying:
  – problem / need recognition
  – information search: start asking what is the
    solution? which brand ? ask friends…..etc.
  – evaluation of different options
  – purchase decision
   After evaluation, buying takes place .
        Post purchase behavior

• Doubts after purchasing
*Customer behavior decision making in health
  care:
 The decision here differs as he is not choosing.
  He is buying and payment is different too. In
  non- prescription drugs and herbal medicines,
  it is similar.
      Consumer buying behavior –
            frameworks

• The Economic man

• Socially- influenced people
• Personal influences: introverts vs. Extroverts
           Buying motivations
• There are six buying motivations:
1- Making a gain :
Buying to increase yield or money return
Example:
 A cattle farmer is treating his herds regularly to
  assure their health to increase meat and milk
  production to make more money .
2-fear of loss :
• buying to protect an investment from
  damage or loss
Example:
 household insurances
3-pleasure :
Buying because of enjoyment
 Example:
• A distributor takes a buying decision for a
  given product because he knows that after
  reaching a certain volume he gets a free
  weekend to spend in a holiday resort
4- Avoidance of pain
Buying because it will remove physical or mental
  pain
Example:
Drugs bought for motion sickness to avoid
  vomiting during a trip
5- Pride:
Buying because of inner feelings of wanting the
  best
Example:
A dealer paints all 4 sides of his warehouse even
  though nobody ever sees the backside of the
  building.
6- Social approval

Buying because of the influences or reactions of
  others
Example:
Somebody buys a fancy car because he wants to
  impress his friends,neighbour, etc.
Sources of information for doctors and
              pharmacists
These include :
• medical representatives
• continuing medical education courses
• conferences and conventions: some are sponsored by
  pharmaceutical companies .
• colleagues
• videos and electronics
• discussion groups
• newsletters and e-mails . ……….toll-free numbers to get a
  gift…
• Medical journals designed to create awareness of a
  product.
Targets of pharmaceuticals promotion

•   pharmacists
•   doctors
•   nurses
•   dentists
•    insurance companies
•   hospital managers
•   company managers
              .

• Some manufacturers see
  doctors as "learned
  intermediaries" and
  pharmacists as "Gate-
  keepers".
Direct to consumer advertising (DTCA)

• Used mainly for a group of drugs called: Life
  style drugs
• “Care for the patient is best served by care for
  the patient”
• “Educate and sell at the same time”

• "A new product is new only once".
                       .
Issues raised by DTC ads: •
• Public health.
• Corporate responsibility.
• Advertising ethics.
• Consumer capacity to understand complex
   medical info.

• DTC ads are allowed in US and New Zealand
  only.
                          .
• DTC ads concentrate on powerful emotional
  factors such as:
• Value of one’s health or loved ones.
• Fear of death.
• Fear of disability.
• Responsibility of taking care of one’s health and
  that of loved ones.
• Self consciousness and vanity.
• Shame.
• Vulnerability of people who are aging, ailing.
                       .
• No mention of non-pharmacological
  alternatives to treatment in these ads.
• DTC ads are claimed to increase patient
  compliance.
• DTC ads are claimed not to interfere with
  doctor / patient relationship and to enhance
  there communication with them – e.g ask
  better questions.
                        .
• But it may pressure some weak doctors



• Statistics: 1\4 people who visited doctors after
  a DTC received a new diagnosis of a condition.
“Responsible promotion is valuable to
              society”
• Disease awareness campaigns educate
  patients about a disease will increase visits to
  doctors and eventually increase sales, other
  wise, many patients will continue using wrong
  medications, high expenses, risk of trauma of
  surgeries – days missed of work – increase
  health care on country.
• Information in advertising must be true.

• Knowledgeable patients are usually treated
  better by doctors and pharmacists which
  results in a better care outcome.
• In newspapers or TV  costly
• FDA : if a company wants to do a DTCA it must be
  for an ethical drug and include all information
  that is on the package insert for the drug i.e C.I,
  dose, S.E …. A whole page in a newspaper, 5
  minutes on TV !
• Due to these ads, doctors are more willing to
  prescribe drugs that patients request and on the
  other hand, patients are more aware of their
  problems and treatments, and thus more
  encouraged to see their doctors.
• But, millions of TV advertisements can’t do
  what a pharmacist or a doctor can do in one
  day 



 They can just simply wipe out a product with
  one statement to the patient or the opposite!
                        .
• Two types of ads:
• General health message (no mention of
  drug's name).



• Product - specific ads.
                         .
• Elements of a pharmaceutical product
  contributing to its advertising profile:
• The name
• The image
• The price
• The presentation
• The acceptance
• The support
             Types of DTC ads:

• Help seeking: these ads aim to alert
  consumers about a disease or condition and
  its symptoms and let them know that
  treatment is available. A drug's brand name
  cannot be used, but the company sponsoring
  the ad is identified. People are exhorted to see
  their doctor.
                       .
• Reminder Ads: these ads give the name of a
  drug but do not mention any disease or
  condition to be treated. They are designed to
  build brand recognition and prompt people to
  ask their doctors about the drug.
                        .
• Product claim: these ads mention both a
  drug's brand name and its intended use. They
  aim explicitly to prompt people with a specific
  disease or condition to go to the doctor to
  inquire about the drug. Such ads must meet
  more exacting requirements. Most DTC drug
  ads today are product claim ads.
              The requirements

• All types of DTC drug ads:
• Must comply with FDA and other federal rules
  regarding advertising fairness and accuracy and
  "false advertising".
• No drug ad can:
• (a) falsely report scientific data,
• (b) declare clinical superiority for a drug without
  scientific data to back it up, or
• (c) represent a drug as a treatment for a disease
  for which it has not been FDA approved.
    Help seeking and reminder ads:

• Do not have to contain detailed information –
  or give a source where consumers can get
  such information – on a drug's effectiveness or
  potential side effects.
            Product claims ads

• Must present a "fair balance" of benefit and
  risk information. This means, for example, that
  a print ad is not supposed to have huge type
  touting a drug's benefits and small type listing
  major side effect. Likewise, a 60 second TV ad
  can't spend 50 second on benefits and 10
  second on potential problems.
           Product claims ads
• if they are in print (newspapers, magazines,
  internet), contain a "brief summary" of a
  drug's side effect, indications and
  effectiveness as well as any precautions and
  warnings about its use
• The FDA in consultation with manufacturers
  dictates such labeling
           Product claims ads
• Must, if they are broadcast (TV and radio):
• include prominent mention of a drug's
  "major" side effects or limitations and any
  important contraindications.
• a toll free telephone number, a web site or
  internet address, and reference to print ads or
  available written material on a drug that can
  be obtained in a public place
     Regulations on Marketing and
              Promotion:
• FDA_DDMAC (Division of drug marketing
  advertisement and communication)
  commented on statements made by doctors
  or pharmacists during activities sponsored by
  drug companies.
•
• In order for these statements to be credible,
  the activity must be:
• Independent
• Objective
• Balanced
• With scientific rigor
• FDA focuses on 6 terms in assessing pharmaceutical
  communications:
• Content: truthful, balanced, does it match the approved
  labeling?
• Context: what is the setting? How was faculty selected?
• Audience: appropriate or not.
• Medium of communication: appropriate for the audience?
• Rationale of communication: does it have genuine
  educational merit?
• Intent: does pattern of conduct demonstrate commitment
  to objective communication?
• Case I: It is OK to discuss an unapproved
  indication of an approved drug in a small
  group of experts or publish data in a journal
  but not a press conference!
• Case II: A company published results of an
  open uncontrolled study of a product saying it
  is superior to another product even though
  they have done a well-controlled study on the
  older one showing opposite results!
•   Critics:
•   Promotion is sales
•   Scientific symposia are marketing conventions.
•   Free samples are educational materials.
•   TV commercials are public service
    announcements.
  Federal trade commission (FTC)
• tries to evaluate misleading or deceptive
  advertising.
• FTC Requirements:
• Advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive
• Back up claims with competent and reliable
  scientific evidence, including tests, studies or
  other objective data
• 1973: National Association of Broadcasters and
  the Consumer Healthcare Products guidelines for
  TV advertising- updated periodically
• Advertisement should:
• Comply with all relevant applicable laws and
  regulation
• Urge the consumer to read and follow label
  directions
• Contain no claims of product effectiveness
  unsupported by clinical or other scientific
  evidence, responsible medical opinion or
  experience through use
   TV advertising guidelines for OTC
               products

• Present no information in a manner that suggests
  the product prevents or cures a-serious condition
  that must be treated by a licensed practitioner
• Emphasize the uses, results and advantages of
  the particular product
• Reference to no doctors, hospitals, or nurses
  unless such representations can be supported by
  independent evidence
• Reference to no doctors, hospitals, or nurses
  unless such representations can be supported
  by independent evidence
• Present no negative or unfair reflections about
  competing nonprescription drug products,
  unless those reflections can be supported
  scientifically, and presented in a manner so
  consumers can perceive differences in the
  uses.
          Dietary Supplements

• Are not regulated as "drugs" under the FD& C
  Act cause they are not intended to diagnose,
  cure or treat a medical disease or condition.
• Dietary supplements are regulated under the
  federal Dietary Supplement Health and
  Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
           guidelines on gifts
• American medical association (AMA),
  Pharmaceutical manufacturing association set
  up guidelines:
• Acceptable gifts:
   – Of modest value
   – Related to doctor's work (pens, note pads…)
• Social events, modest meals as part of an
  overall program.
• Unacceptable gifts:
  –Cash payments
  –Extravagant gifts
  –Reimbursement for travels, hotels,
   personal expenses, time
             FDA regulations
• FDA regulations are usually concerned with:
• False or misleading statements made by
  manufacturers
• Unapproved new drug claims
• Improper promotion especially if
  investigational drugs and nature of promotion.
• The Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising,
  and Communications (DDMAC) within the
  Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
  regulates prescription drug promotion at the
  FDA
• ensure that prescription drug information is
  truthful, balanced, and accurately
  communicated
• education program
• labeling and promotional information
• (companies) submit voluntarily their drafts
  materials for comments before use to the
  DDMAC
• send letters of warning or suggest alterations
• Also DDMAC tries to increase compliance of
  industry through educational programs as
  advisory comments, guide lines, websites,
  postings.
41 % of Pakistani doctors prescribed a drug •
with well known dangers to treat diarrhea in
children

• 14% of doctors prescribed anabolic steroids as
  appetite stimulants.
• 95% said that medical reps. and sales people
  were their main source of information.
• Data base being launched by WHO/ NGO on
  drug promotion www.drugpromotion.info

The purpose is:

1-To document volume of inappropriate drug
 promotion in developing and developed
 countries.
2-Document the impact of inappropriate
  promotion on health.

3-Formulate recommendations.

4-Provide tools to monitor drug promotion, and
  provide tools on how to teach

5-health-care professionals about drug
  promotion.
                 Selling Skills


Types of selling:
• Emotionally motivated selling.
• Catalog selling
• Mail order
• Selling of services (as lawyers, doctors..etc.)
• Statistics:
-1 salesman keeps 19 employees
-It takes 20 times the effort to satisfy an
   unsatisfied customer as compared to the
   effort needed to gain a new customer.
-To make anew customer costs 5 times more
   than keeping an existing customer.
-Every year drug companies lose about 10% of
   their customers.
How to be professional in selling: •
• Education ‘updating your information’
• You must be convinced that there is no
  alternative to your current job
• “working is working”
• Learn to respect yourself and others.
            Before any visit
Medical representative should know about:
• Drug information.
• Updated info.
• Competing products.
• Personality of the customers.
• The key to convince the doctor with our
  product.
• Selling skills.
• To make sure that you know your company
  well and also that the company is well known
  to the doctor.
• Must have detailed information about how
  your drug can be helpful and how it differs
  from other drugs.”
• Should know details about the disease
• It is helpful to take advantage of certain
  events such as knowing the doctor birthday
  and to time your visit at that day bringing a
  small gift with you.”
      Must have a data base of:

-Customer profile
-Product profile: all studies done, all information
  collected.
-Doctor’s card: personal information, writing
  habits, class.-
  Any new medical representative
• The appearance of a medical representative.
  “the bag, clothing, nails, hair style…etc…”
• Ability to convince/persistent/credibility.
• The frequency of visits,” to set a program for
  visits”.
• planning:
        Yearly, every 16 months, every 2 weeks,
  daily
• “A plan is set by medical rep., then approved
  by regional managers, then by the promotion
  department.
    What doctors expect to get from
      medical representatives?
•   -An effective drug.
•   -Information concerning the drug.
•   -An idea concerning drug price.
•   -Available dosage forms.
•   -Free samples.
•   -Brochures
•   -Conferences
•   -Services
•   -Frequent visits.
        What does a medical
    representative expect from a
              doctor?
• -To prescribe his products
• -To greet him upon his visit.
• -To understand the properties of his product
  over competitors' ones.
• -Feedback
• It is important to know that doctors can
  remember only few numbers of products for
  example some doctors may only know 15
  products.
    Why doctors may not prescribe
       your specific product??

•   -No frequent visits.
•   -If he is not convinced with your product.
•   -Previous trial failure of the drug.
•   -Simply because he does not like you.
• Negative opinion or bad relations with your
  company
• -There is no product in your company that
  matches his needs.
• -His loyalty to other company
• -Not enough information concerning the drug.
• -He is used to other specific drugs.
                   ..................................................................................
.........................................
Key Elements For Successful Communication


      question        allow and encourage questions to
                      make clear what your message is
                      understood well


      feedback        ask for confirmation but also
                      check and reconfirm

     visual aids      visualize instead of only using
                      words visualization can be
                      manifold,also use gestures
                      ,analogies ,symbols

  clear assumptions   verify what your way of
                      communicating is understood
                      well(also see next two points)
don’t assume what others    don’t assume what your
          know              knowledge is familiar to
                            the"receiver". This refers to
                            technical terms ,background
                            principles language _your
                            "encoding" in general.

 set frame then details     give an overview ,familiarize
                            with the topic in general,the
                            proceed to detail
                            communication

     keep it simple         don’t try to impress by
                            complication; reduce to the
                            maximum


 give/get sufficient info   find the right balance (check
                            out by feedback) don’t overdo
                            nor "underdo".
       FEATURES AND BENEFITS

• It is always important for a medical and sales
  representative to try to translate any features
  of his product into benefits that will appeal or
  be attractive to his customer whether he is a
  pharmacist or a patient.
• Example:
• mouthwash  concentrated
• you tell the patient  it lasts for a long time
  and is economical
• A toothpaste is prescribed by doctors- more
  sales for the pharmacist.
       SALES PRESENTATION WORKSHEET
Features                     Benefits
              Internet Fraud
Agencies Team Up in War against Internet
  Health Fraud

Operation Cure :a partnership of the Federal
 Trade Commission, the Food and Drug
 Administration, Health Canada
• ... Cures Alzheimer's and HIV/AIDS
• ... Proven effective in treating over 650
  infectious diseases
• ... Recognized in scientific journals to be a
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               Be Suspicious
• Claims that the product is "natural" or "non-
  toxic
• Testimonials from people who claim amazing
  results
• Claims that a product is a "scientific
  breakthrough," "miraculous cure," "secret
  Ingredient" or "ancient remedy."
• Claims that the product is an effective cure fdr
  a wide range of
• ailments.
                          .
• Claims that use Impressive-sounding medical
  terms.
• Claims that the pro¢uct is available from only
  one source, and
• payment is required in advance.
• Claims of a "money-back" guarantee.
• Web sites that fail to list the company's name,
  physical address,
• phone number or other contact information.
 How to Report Suspicious Claims

• The FTC and FDA encourage people to report
  suspicious health claims
To file a complaint regarding a possible
  fraudulent, deceptive, or unfair business
  practice:
• call toll-free, 1-877 -FTC-HELP
• complaint form at www.ftc.qov.
• If you find a Web site you think is illegally
  selling human drugs, animal drugs……etc:
• www.fda.qov/oc/buyonline/buyonlineform.ht
  m.

				
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