Chilli Post Harvest Technology - PowerPoint

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					   A commodity system analysis to reduce post harvest
                  losses of vegetable




Realized by:

KODJOGBE Guy, Chantal Pali, Nana Fredua AGYEMAN, Marian ASAMOAH,
Christophe Kouame, Rosine Batchep, Benoit Gnonlonfin, Kerstin HELL,
Ousmane COULIBALY
Outline
   Background

   Commodity system analysis

   Case study Benin, Ghana, Cameroon

   Summary and Recommendations
                                      Background
  Producing vegetables provides substantial
   employment opportunities along the supply chain
     In Benin, vegetables production provides
      employment for nearly 60,000 people (PADAPA, 2003)

  Gender involvement
 Share of women (%) along the supply chain of Indigenous vegetable across 6 selected countries


Category             Benin      Cote         Senegal        Kenya         Tanzania Uganda
                                d’Ivoire
Farmers              40         16           14             59            34         17
Intermediaries       78         100          26             95            75         69
Retailers            100        100          58             86            58         68
                                       Source: IndigenousVeg survey data, 2006
Background                                                900                                                  Aledaya (Ipomea)

                                                          800                                                  Dah (Hibiscus)
                                                          700

    Producing vegetable
                                                                                                               Kprala (Corchorus)





                                        Daily earning
                                                          600
                                                                                                               Epinard (Basella)
                                                          500

    is profitable                                         400
                                                          300
                                                                                                               Brombrou (Amaranthus)

                                                                                                               Winwin (Cleome)

    ◦ Retailers earn > 1 $/d                              200                                                  Aloaya (Bean)
                                                          100
                                                                                                               Cocoya (Colocasia)
                   Mahyao et al. 2006                             0
                                                                                  1                            Soko (Celosia)

                                                                          Leafy Vegetable                      Agbaya (Manihot)




   Consuming vegetable
                                                                                          Chou   Morelle




                                                        Fer




    is good for Health                  Calcium




    ◦ High nutrient content                      Vit C




    ◦ Reduce non                                 Vit A




      transmissible diseases            Proteine




                                                              0       1       2       3                    4      5         6       7
                                                                                      Teneur en nutriment



                                                                  Nutrient content of nightshade and cabbage
                        Background
   Vegetables are highly
    perishable
       High losses before they can
        reach the market


   Improvement and
    promotion of Post
    harvest Technology is
    critical to boost rural
    economies
Commodity System Analysis Methodology


                     26 components
                     Each component is
                      potentially important
                     But not always relevant for
                      all commodities
                     Permits analysis of a whole
                      commodity systems
                     Requires multidisciplinary
                      team

La Gra et al.1990
Commodity System Analysis Methodology


                                          Causes of
                                           losses at
                                           different
                                           points of
                                           the system




                  La Gra et al. 1990
                    Case study
   Assessment of Post harvest losses of selected
    vegetable crops

    ◦ Benin, Ghana, Cameroon
    ◦ Tomato, Pepper, Okra, leafy vegetables
    ◦ Determine the extent, types and core causes of
      post-harvest losses
    ◦ Identify ways to cost effectively reduce losses
                       Case study
   Focus group discussion: producers, traders, policy makers

   Survey: Losses (physical and economic), causes and
    destinations according producers (60) and traders (180)
    perceptions

   Lab analysis: Dilution method (speck, 1976): 30
    samples/product/zone

   Tracking samples: Recording temperature under shade
    and temperature inside the baskets + daily weighting and
    counting the samples
Assessment of post harvest losses
   Causes of post-harvest losses of fresh
    vegetables:
       - use of auto-propagated seeds
       - excessive use of fertilizer,
       - poor irrigation system
       - poor harvesting practices,
       - supply exceeding demand
       - Limited access to loan
       - Handling: poor transport and storage
       - Diseases and pests
                Assessment leafy vegetable

   Producers are aware
    that quality of produce
    is affected by:
    ◦   Delay weeding
    ◦   Water management
    ◦   Fertilizer & pesticide use
    ◦   Disease and pests
        Assessment leafy vegetable
According to policy makers, cultural practices affect Quality



     Seed quality     64%      purity, germination
             Seed
       availability   36%       supply not regular
        Pests and
         diseases     64%       important concern
             Safe                  pesticides uses,
       production     57%               fertilization
                               Kouame et Gnononfin, 2009
       Assessment leafy vegetable
   Traders
   1- Transport & storage
    ◦ Delay
    ◦ Poor infrastrures (roads,
      storage)
   2- Poor access to
    markets
    ◦ Mevente
    ◦ Supply>demand
   3- Diseases and Pests
            Assessment Post harvest losses
            Types and major causes of Post harvest losses

                                    Physiological damages:
   Heating, yellowing,
                                     Softening,..
    weight loss
                                     ◦ Premature harvest
    ◦ Direct exposition to
      sun                            ◦ Direct exposition to
                                       soil
    ◦ Inadequate
      ventilation during             ◦ Direct exposition to
      packing, storage,                rain
      transportation                 ◦ Plastic packing
                                       material
           Assessment Post harvest losses
            Types and major causes of Post harvest losses



   Physical damages
    ◦ Packaging (large
      bags)
    ◦ Overloading
      (transportation)
    ◦ Inappropriate
      packing materials
    ◦ Poor road conditions
Assessment of post harvest losses
 Table 3 : Quantitative losses assessment in value chain (%)


Countries    Products      Collectors   Wholesalers   Retailers

              Tomato          12            8            12
                               -            13           4
 Benin      fresh pepper

              Lettuce          -            22           9
              Tomato           2           45,62       39,75
            Fresh pepper
                             1.07                       1.51
 Ghana      Dried pepper
                                                       37.22
                             32.07
              Lettuce        31.75         31.63       31.94
               Okra          5.28          17.86       22.3
Assessment of post harvest losses
              Table 7: Mycoflora occurrence on vegetables (CFU/g) in Benin
        Fungi               Products        Grand-Popo&Come     Porto-Novo&Cotonou

                           Chilli pepper      98.33 ± 254.22      123.33 ± 1054.58
   Aspergillus niger         Lettuce                  -            26.67 ± 57.18
                             Tomato              2.22± 16.61
                           Chilli pepper       91.95 ± 197.49       1.67 ± 15.81
  Aspergillus flavus         Lettuce                  -            56.06 ± 169.90
                             Tomato                   0
                           Chilli pepper        2.27 ± 10.47             0
  Rhizopus. stolonifer       Lettuce                  -            21.11 ± 70.30
                             Tomato                   0
                           Chilli pepper      222.22 ± 463.80    1501.11 ± 1875.55
Fusarium. verticilloides     Lettuce                  -           377.22 ± 739.84
                             Tomato                   0
                           Chilli pepper              0            68.33 ± 310.71
Fusarium. prolifératum       Lettuce                  -            34.44 ± 105.90
                             Tomato                   0             96.11± 191.86
                           Chilli pepper              0              2.25 ± 21.20
 Fusarium. oxysporum         Lettuce                  -
                             Tomato                   0
                           Chilli pepper       48.31 ± 164.36     125.00 ± 616.68
 Penicillium. citrinum       Lettuce                  -            45.00 ± 99.45
                             Tomato                   0
                           Chilli pepper        2.22 ± 14.82             0
Penicillium. commune         Lettuce                  -                  -
                             Tomato                   0                  0
                    Assessment of post harvest losses

               Table 8: Mycoflora occurrence on vegetables (CFU/g) in Accra (Ghana)


            Aspergillus    Aspergillus   Aspergillus    Aspergillus      Fusarium        Fusarium      Penicillium   Penicillium
Products
              flavus         niger       ochraceus     penicilloides   verticilloides   proliferatum    citrinum        spp
 Fresh
pepper     108.56±30.023 91.44±16.048        0              0          17.47±7.119           0          11.3±5.766   0.34±0.342

Dried
pepper     30.56±13.255 27.78±8.320 23.61±14.704            0          80.56±24.257          0          1.39±1.389   1.39±1.389

Tomato
            8.33±7.448     3.7±2.594         0              0          27.78±15.787     8.33±8.333      2.78±2.055       0
Lettuce
            2.00±2.000    87.33±22.079   0.67+0.667         0          86.67±20.910 13.51±8.458        21.33±6.790   1.33±0.936
 Okra
             0.41±0.407   84.15±14.956       0         42.28±15.185 72.36±15.437             0         54.88±14.203 0.81±0.573
Assessment of post harvest losses
                 Tracking samples : tomato case




Tomato baskets weight and percent of spoiled tomatoes depend on display
temperature
Summary
   Many ways in which          Problem do not stop
    quality of fresh             at farm level
    product are affected         ◦   Poor packaging
    ◦ Choice of variety          ◦   Exposure to sun
    ◦ Use of untreated           ◦   Poor handling
      manure                     ◦   Poor storage practices
    ◦ Harvesting practices       ◦   Marketing
    ◦ Diseases & pests               infrastructure
                       Summary
   Post harvest losses are highest for tomato and
    lettuce, up to 20% after 5 days

   For Leafy vegetable, losses amount to 20% for
    nightshade and Amaranth

   Chilli pepper and okra are most infected by fungi:
    risk of mycotoxicosis
              Recommendations
   Training of producers: appropriate use of
    fertilizers and pesticides, marketing and
    production planning methods

   Invest in Infrastructure: transport, Storage

   Promote simple Post-harvest technologies:
    improve packing, provide shade, control pests
              Recommendations
   Improve access to high quality seeds and other
    inputs

   Improve access to credit for actors

   Training traders on effective and efficient
    transport or storage practices

   Monitoring of mycotoxins and pesticides residues
Thank you

				
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