B2301 Organizational Behaviour Values and Attitudes Monday January 29th 2007 Faculty of Business Administration 1 Objectives • Values – by loj17525

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									B2301 Organizational Behaviour

         Values and Attitudes

       Monday January 29th, 2007




  Faculty of Business Administration   1
                     Objectives

• Values
  – Types of values
  – Why are these important?
• Attitudes
  – Job satisfaction and organizational justice
  – Understand link between these attitudes and
    behaviours in the workplace

      Faculty of Business Administration          2
                        Values
• Basic convictions about what is important
  to the individual
• They contain a judgmental element of
  what is right, good, or desirable.
  – Content: what is important
  – Intensity: how important
  – Value System: hierarchy based on ranking
    of an individual’s values in terms of intensity

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     Rokeach Value Survey

– Types of values
  • Terminal: Goals that individuals would like to achieve
    during their lifetime.
  • Instrumental: Preferable ways of behaving.
– Importance of values
  • Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour.




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Terminal and Instrumental Values in
      Rokeach Value Survey




Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 56.




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                Ethical Values

• Ethics
  – The study of moral values or principles that
    guide our behaviour, and inform us whether
    actions are right or wrong.
• Ethical values are related to moral
  judgments about right and wrong.



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 Assessing Cultural Values
• GLOBE Dimensions
  –   Assertiveness
  –   Future orientation
  –   Gender differentiation
  –   Uncertainty avoidance
  –   Power distance
  –   Individualism versus collectivism
  –   In-group collectivism
  –   Performance orientation
  –   Humane orientation

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      GLOBE Highlights




                                     Source: M. Javidan and R. J. House,
                                     “Cultural Acumen for the Global
                                     Manager: Lessons from Project
                                     GLOBE,” Organizational Dynamics,
                                     Spring 2001, pp. 289-305. Reprinted
                                     with permission from Elsevier.



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 Canadian and American Values
• Canadian Values                    • American Values
   – Protectionist business               – Greater faith in the
     environment                            family, the state,
   – Personality: more shy                  religion, and the market
     and deferential, less                – More comfortable with
     violent, more courteous                big business
   – More rule-oriented                   – Intense competition in
   – Peace, order, equality                 business
   – Uncomfortable                        – Individuality and
     celebrating success,                   freedom
     play it down                         – More comfortable with
                                            the unknown and taking
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  Assessing Generational Values
• The Elders                          • Generation X
   – Those over 50                        – Born mid-1960s to early 1980s
   – Core Values: Belief in order,        – Thrill-seeking materialists,
     authority, discipline, and the         aimless dependents, social
     Golden Rule                            hedonists, new Aquarians,
                                            autonomous post-materialists
• The Boomers
                                      • The Ne(x)t Generation
   – Born mid-1940s to mid-
     1960s                                – Born between 1977 and 1997
   – Autonomous rebels, anxious           – “Creators, not recipients”
     communitarians, connected            – Curious, contrarian, flexible,
     enthusiasts, disengaged                collaborative, high in self-esteem
     Darwinists

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      SA: What do you Value? Page 105
1.    An enjoyable, satisfying job (professional)
2.    A high-paying job (financial)
3.    A good marriage (family)
4.    Meeting new people; social events (social)
5.    Involvement in community activities (community)
6.    My religion (spiritual)
7.    Exercising, playing sports (physical)
8.    Intellectual development (intellectual)
9.    A career with challenging opportunities (professional)
10.   Nice cars, clothes, home, and so on (financial)
11.   Spending time with family (family)
12.   Having several close friends (social)
13.   Volunteer work for not-for-profit organizations, such as the Canadian Cancer Society (community)
14.   Meditation; quiet time to think, pray, and so on (spiritual)
15.   A healthy, balanced diet (physical)
16.   Educational reading, television, self-improvement programs, and so on (intellectual)



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                       Attitudes

• Positive or negative feelings concerning
  objects, people, or events
• Attitudes are not as stable or enduring as
  values
• Important attitudes related to OB:
  – Organizational justice
  – Job satisfaction
  – Commitment

      Faculty of Business Administration       12
              Sample Attitude Survey
Please answer each of the following statements using the following rating scale:
5 = Strongly agree   4 = Agree     3 = Undecided    2 = Disagree   1 = Strongly disagree

Statement                                                                             Rating

1. This company is a pretty good place to work.
2. I can get ahead in this company if I make the effort.
3. This company’s wage rates are competitive with those other companies.
4. Employee promotion decisions are handled fairly.
5. I understand the various fringe benefits the company offers.
6. My job makes the best use of my abilities.
7. My workload is challenging but not burdensome.
8. I have trust and confidence in my boss.
9. I feel free to tell my boss what I think.
10. I know what my boss expects of me.




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        Organizational Justice
• Multidimensional Construct
  – Distributive Justice
      • Perceived fairness of outcomes relative to our contributions and the
        outcomes and contributions of others
   – Procedural Justice
      • Perceived fairness of the policies and procedures used to decide
        the distribution of resources
   – Interpersonal Justice
      • Perception of how the decision maker treats employees during the
        process (e.g., rudely, with courtesy)




      Faculty of Business Administration                                   14
Equity Theory and Distributive
           Justice
   inputs                     other’s inputs
   outcomes
                      =       other’s outcomes

  Unbalanced ratios lead to:

  •Change in work effort or quality
  •Attempts to change own or others outcomes
  •Cognitive distortion
  •Withdrawal from situation
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    Origins of Procedural Justice
•    Procedural justice is MOST important when outcomes are
     unfavorable
•    What procedures result in fair legal judgments?
    – Examined different structures of case presentation
    – Procedure DOES matter in fairness perceptions of legal
       outcomes
•    Procedural Justice Rules
    1. Consistency
    2. Accuracy
    3. Bias suppression
    4. Correctibility
    5. Voice
    6. Ethicality
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          Interactional Justice

Originally two components:

1. Interpersonal - treating people with
   dignity and respect.

2. Informational – providing adequate
    explanations for decisions


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         Perceptions of Justice

• Direct link to employees’ behaviours in the
  workplace
   – Organizational citizenship behaviours
   – Counterproductive workplace behaviours
• Also affects other attitudes
   – Commitment




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                 Job Satisfaction

• A person’s attitude regarding his or her job
  and work content
  – Based on experiences
     •   Type of work (e.g., is it challenging?)
     •   Rewards (e.g., are they equitable?)
     •   Working conditions
     •   Colleagues (e.g., are they supportive?)



         Faculty of Business Administration        19
        Canadian Job Satisfaction
• 40 % of Canadians are very satisfied with their jobs.
   – 47 percent of Americans are happy.
   – 54 percent of Danish workers are happy.
• 40 % of Canadians say
   – They would not recommend their place of work.
   – They never see any of the benefits of their company’s
     profitability.
   – Red tape and bureaucracy are the biggest barriers to job
     satisfaction.
• 55 % of Canadians say they have too much to do.
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     Measuring Job Satisfaction

• Single global rating
   – Asks individuals to respond to one question, such as
     “All things considered, how satisfied are you with
     your job?”
• Summation score made up of a number of job
  facets.
   – Identifies key elements in a job and asks for the
     employee’s feelings about each and then adds them
     up to get an overall satisfaction score.
      • Typical factors: the nature of the work, supervision, present
        pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with co-workers.

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                Job Satisfaction

• Satisfaction’s impact on key workplace
  behaviours
   – Individual Productivity
   – Absenteeism
   – Turnover
   – Organizational Citizenship Behaviour



      Faculty of Business Administration    22
                      Commitment

• Organizational commitment
   – Affective
       • Employees’ emotional attachment to an organization
   – Normative
       • Reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment
       • Stable over time, less subject or organizational intervention
   – Continuance
       • Reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment
       • Stable over time, less subject or organizational intervention


• Professional/Occupational commitment, Employment
  commitment, Union commitment, co-worker commitment….!!

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          Outcomes of Commitment

• Affective                           • Normative
   – Increased job                       – Fewer absences
     satisfaction                        – Lower turnover
   – Increased
     organizational                  • Continuance
     citizenship behaviours
                                        – Lower turnover but…..
   – More constructive
                                        – Lower performance
     problem solving
                                        – Fewer organizational
   – Fewer absences
                                          citizenship behaviours
   – Lower turnover
                                        – More grievances (if
                                          unionized)
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        Attitudes & Consistency:
         Cognitive Dissonance
• Any incompatibility that an individual might
  perceive between two or more of his or her
  attitudes, or between his or her behaviour
  and attitudes.
  – Inconsistency is uncomfortable
  – Individuals will attempt to reduce the
    dissonance and, hence, the discomfort


      Faculty of Business Administration         25
                    Next Class

• Diversity in the Workforce
  – L&R Chapter 3 (pp. 95 to end)
  – Exhibit 3-7: Measuring your Cultural
    Intelligence (p. 99)




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