Compare and Contrast the Rights of Employees and the Responsibilities of Employers in the U.S. And by syy20239

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									     SOCIAL SCIENCE
PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS




      GRADES 6-12
1
9
10

             Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand and explain basic principles of the United
14A       States government.

             Stage E                               Stage F                             Stage G
1. Give examples of civic and        1.   Define the concept of            1. Compare and contrast
   personal responsibilities of           “consent of the governed.”          responsibilities shared
   students and adults.              2.   Explain the importance of           between the state and
2. Explain the characteristics            having a written constitution       federal governments.
   of a democracy.                        for a government.                2. Identify the rights and
3. Justify why governments           3.   Summarize the main points           principles of limited
   need to make rules and                 in constitutional documents         government found within
   laws for people.                       (e.g., Declaration of               the Declaration of
4. Explain the importance of              Independence, Northwest             Independence.
   the Declaration of                     Ordinance, Preamble of the       3. Classify the type of courts
   Independence and the                   United States Constitution).        and judicial officials
   Illinois and United States        4.   Identify the basic                  established to operate
   Constitutions.                         similarities and differences        within the local, state, and
5. Define the concept of                  between the Illinois and            federal governments.
   “unalienable” as it relates to         United States Constitutions.     4. Describe the role of the
   rights expressed in the           5.   Name the courts and                 courts in judicial review.
   Declaration of                         judicial officials established
   Independence.                          to operate within the local,
6. Explain how the U.S.                   state, and federal
   Constitution can be                    governments.
   amended.                          6.   Distinguish between the
7. Defend the idea of having a            characteristics of a limited
   Bill of Rights to outline and          and unlimited government.
   protect the rights of citizens.
8. Summarize the evolution of
   one of the amendments to
   the constitution (e.g., its
   origins, implementation,
   influence).
9. Define rule of law.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                     11

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand and explain basic principles of the United
14A       States government.

              Stage H                           Stage I                            Stage J
1. Evaluate the rights and         1. Analyze how local, state,       1. Describe how changing
   responsibilities of the            and national governments           interpretations of the
   individual within the family,      serve the purposes for which       powers and limitations of
   social groups, community,          they were created.                 our Constitution have
   or nation.                      2. Summarize the historical           affected rights and
2. Categorize programs and            development of rights and          responsibilities of groups
   services provided by               responsibilities contained         and individuals.
   governments into local,            within the Bill of Rights and   2. Evaluate the relationship
   state, and federal levels.         later amendments to the            that can exist between
3. Compare the similarities           U.S. Constitution.                 local, state, and national
   and differences in the state    3. Analyze how public policy          governments concerning
   of Illinois and the national       issues are influenced by           majority rule and minority
   government’s attempts to           government actions (e.g.,          rights.
   protect individual rights and      transportation, the             3. Describe contemporary
   still promote the common           environment).                      controversies regarding the
   good.                           4. Recognize the                      principle of federalism and
4. Explain the influence of the       responsibilities of some of        states rights.
   Supreme Court and                  the departments and             4. Analyze the fundamental
   significant court decisions        regulatory agencies of the         principles of our political
   on the rights and                  federal government (e.g.,          system that often come into
   responsibilities of citizens       the Treasury, NASA, EPA,           conflict (e.g., rule of law,
   (e.g., defining, expanding,        FCC).                              liberty and equality,
   and limiting individual         5. Identify sources of revenue        individual rights and the
   rights).                           and funding used to support        common good, separation
5. Analyze the efforts of our         government services at the         of powers, majority rule and
   court system to take into          local, state, and national         minority rights).
   account the rights of both         levels.                         5. Evaluate how fundamental
   those accused of crimes         6. Categorize major sources of        political principles (e.g.,
   and their victims.                 revenue for local, state, and      separation of powers,
                                      federal governments.               checks and balances,
                                   7. Predict potential changes in       individual rights, and
                                      contemporary interpretations       federalism) led to the
                                      of the Bill of Rights.             development of democratic
                                                                         government in the United
                                                                         States and Illinois.
                                                                      6. Evaluate the equity of forms
                                                                         of taxation.
                                                                      7. Analyze significant U.S.
                                                                         Supreme Court decisions
                                                                         that address equal
                                                                         protection and due process
                                                                         issues.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
12

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the structures and functions of the
14B      political systems of Illinois, the United States, and other nations.

             Stage E                            Stage F                            Stage G
1. State the names of the two     1. Describe the characteristics    1. Describe the impact of the
   houses in the Illinois state      of a two-house legislature.        federal government’s system
   legislature.                   2. Explain the reasons for            of checks and balances
2. Describe the purpose              having the system of checks        (e.g., the results of a
   behind the principles of          and balances as part of the        presidential veto).
   division and sharing powers       organization of the federal     2. Analyze historical examples
   among the executive,              government.                        of the system of checks and
   legislative, and judicial      3. Define the roles and               balances according to the
   branches.                         responsibilities of top            respective branches of the
3. Describe the system of            officials in Illinois State        federal government.
   checks and balances               government (e.g., Governor,     3. Compare similarities and
   among the three branches          Sec. of State).                    differences in the powers of
   of the federal government.     4. Explain the distributed and        the Governor of the State of
4. Differentiate between the         shared powers of the local,        Illinois and the President of
   characteristics of criminal       state, and federal                 the United States to resolve
   and civil trials.                 government.                        conflicts and crises.
                                                                     4. Formulate a conclusion
                                                                        about the use of power by
                                                                        state or national
                                                                        governmental executives.
                                                                     5. Describe the organization of
                                                                        the Illinois General
                                                                        Assembly.
                                                                     6. Define “jurisdiction” as it
                                                                        applies to a court system.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                      13

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand the structures and functions of the
14B       political systems of Illinois, the United States, and other nations.

              Stage H                             Stage I                            Stage J
1.   Compare the powers and          1. Describe how various           1. Compare the government
     responsibilities of the            nations have pursued,             under the Articles of
     members of the House of            established, and                  Confederation and
     Representatives and                maintained democratic             contemporary confederated
     Senate within the United           forms of government over          governments and
     States Congress.                   time.                             organizations (e.g., the
2.   Explain the advantages          2. Compare executive and             United Nations, Organization
     and disadvantages of our           legislative branches of our       of American States,
     federal system’s separation        federal government with           Organization of African
     of powers.                         those of a parliamentary          States, and the European
3.   Differentiate among the            government (e.g., the             Union).
     powers, limitations, and           United Kingdom).               2. Compare and contrast the
     responsibilities of the state   3. Categorize the similarities       constitutional democracy of
     government of Illinois and         and differences among             the United States with those
     the federal government.            world political systems           of similar governments (e.g.,
4.   Distinguish between the            (e.g., democracy,                 United Kingdom, Japan,
     powers and responsibilities        socialism, communism).            Australia).
     of our state and federal        4. Analyze how cultural           3. Hypothesize about the
     courts as outlined in our          characteristics influence         changes that may occur
     state and national                 political practices (e.g.,        within representative
     constitutions.                     voting procedures, types of       democracies in an
5.   Illustrate the organization        political campaigning).           increasingly diverse ethnic
     of the three branches of the    5. Compare the political             population.
     state government of Illinois.      parties found in the United    4. Critique how different forms
6.   Justify why the Illinois           States with those found in        of political systems
     Constitution cannot violate        other democratic societies.       throughout the world have
     the United States                                                    tended to protect or violate
     Constitution.                                                        basic human rights of
                                                                          people.
                                                                       5. Evaluate how cultural beliefs
                                                                          affect citizenship.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
14

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand election processes and responsibilities of
14C       citizens.

              Stage E                           Stage F                            Stage G
1. Describe situations in their     1. Create a list of ideas that     1. Describe the requirements
   home, school, or community          would encourage more               for candidates for local,
   where the rights of minorities      civic responsibility among         state, and national offices.
   have been respected.                people.                         2. Compare the platforms of
2. Predict the consequences of      2. Explain the role of a citizen      two or more political parties
   ignoring the rights of other        in choosing leaders.               during an election to
   people in public places (e.g.,   3. Illustrate how people are          determine differences.
   smoking in a crowded                elected to all levels of our    3. Explain the position on a
   theater).                           government.                        particular issue of a
3. Explain how an individual or     4. Analyze historical events          candidate for political office.
   group has solved a problem          involving the extension or
   in their community.                 denial of political and
4. Identify voting requirements.       electoral rights of various
                                       citizens or groups of
                                       people.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                           15

             Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand election processes and responsibilities of
14C       citizens.

             Stage H                              Stage I                             Stage J
1. Describe responsibilities         1. Analyze voting patterns in      1.   Explain the voter
   that citizens share during an        local, state, or national            registration process.
   election.                            elections.                      2.   Describe how the right to
2. Compare/contrast the              2. Describe examples of                 vote has changed for
   historical positions of              individuals and groups               individuals and groups in
   political parties in elections.      whose volunteerism has               the State of Illinois.
3. Compare historical                   benefited their local           3.   Critique the advantages
   examples of issues in local,         community, state, or nation.         and disadvantages of
   state, or national elections      3. Compare historical and               maintaining the electoral
   affecting the civil rights of        contemporary principles and          college system for the
   various groups.                      values that motivated people         election of the President of
4. Describe how voting                  toward volunteerism in their         the United States.
   barriers have been removed           community, state, and/or        4.   Analyze the political
   to allow greater participation       nation.                              campaign commercials in
   in elections (e.g., common        4. Define the concept “civic            terms of the tactics
   people gaining the right the         virtue.”                             politicians, political parties,
   vote, minority voting status).                                            and political interest
5. Analyze an example of a                                                   groups use to appeal to
   government denying voting                                                 voters.
   rights to individuals or                                             5.   Evaluate the
   groups.                                                                   consequences of
6. Describe the election                                                     participation and non-
   process at local, state, and                                              participation in the
   national levels (e.g.,                                                    electoral process (e.g.,
   campaigns, primaries,                                                     women’s suffrage, voter
   conventions).                                                             registration, effects of
                                                                             media).
                                                                        6.   Evaluate the impact of
                                                                             propaganda on the role of
                                                                             decision-making within the
                                                                             political process.
                                                                        7.   Predict how technology will
                                                                             impact our present
                                                                             electoral process (e.g.,
                                                                             voting over the Internet to
                                                                             increase voter
                                                                             participation).
                                                                        8.   Evaluate the strengths and
                                                                             weaknesses of the election
                                                                             process within a specific
                                                                             level of government, and
                                                                             suggest changes that will
                                                                             improve that system.



      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
16

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the roles and influences of individuals and
14D      interest groups in the political systems of Illinois, the United States, and other nations.

             Stage E                             Stage F                            Stage G
1. Describe a situation where       1. Summarize an individual or      1. Explain the importance of an
   minority rights may                 group’s motivation for             individual’s responsibility to
   supersede the wishes of the         participating in the shaping       maintain a democratic, civil
   majority.                           of public policy.                  society.
2. Produce a plan to increase       2. Analyze actions taken by        2. Evaluate the benefits of
   student and/or parent               governments to improve the         highly involved citizens to a
   involvement in school               lives of people.                   society.
   activities.                      3. Analyze ways in which the       3. Identify the reasons for
3. Define the concept of               media is used by political         public opinion polls
   “lobbying” to influence             parties and interest groups        sponsored by political
   public opinion or legislative       to influence public opinion.       parties, public interest
   decision-making.                 4. Explain how political parties      groups, and the media.
4. Explain ways that                   and interest groups affect      4. Describe methods of
   individuals and groups              legislation.                       communication that
   influence the shaping of         5. Describe an historical event       individuals, groups, and the
   public policy.                      or period in which political       media use to present
5. Compare/contrast                    parties influenced public          information to the public.
   contemporary and                    policy.                         5. Interpret political cartoons in
   traditional forms of political                                         terms of captions and
   persuasion (e.g., speeches                                             images to persuade people
   and parades with Internet,                                             to accept political positions
   faxes, electronic mail).                                               on various issues.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                       17

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the roles and influences of individuals and
14D      interest groups in the political systems of Illinois, the United States, and other nations.

             Stage H                            Stage I                             Stage J
1. Summarize the actions of        1. Analyze the role of             1. Evaluate a public policy
   an individual or group’s           individuals, groups, and the       issue in terms of the costs
   effort to influence current        media in shaping                   and benefits from the
   public policy in their             contemporary debate on             perspective of different
   community, state, or nation.       local, state, and national         political and public interest
2. Compare and contrast the           government.                        groups.
   roles and influence of          2. Evaluate editorial positions    2. Critique the impact of
   various individuals, groups,       in the print or electronic         changing technology (e.g.,
   and media in shaping               media in terms of their            the Internet) on civic activity
   current public policy issues       strength, accuracy, and            and the understanding of
   in their community, state, or      persuasive influence.              public policy issues.
   nation.                         3. Evaluate influences upon        3. Evaluate the impact of
3. Measure political interest or      elections (e.g., editorials,       individual and group
   activity in a civic or social      television and radio               lobbying upon legislative
   cause.                             commercials, public opinion        decision-making.
4. Predict how technology and         polls, web sites).              4. Explain the impact of a third
   social change will impact       4. Trace the evolution of             party candidate or issue that
   the conduct of political           movements to secure rights         had the effect of reforming
   parties.                           (e.g., people with                 an existing major political
                                      disabilities, ethnic groups,       party.
                                      women).                         5. Trace the historical evolution
                                   5. Defend a position on a             of an association or political
                                      political issue related to         party that was created to
                                      current events or national         affect a local, state, or
                                      policies.                          national issue (e.g., Populist
                                                                         Party, Sierra Club, a
                                                                         temperance society).
                                                                      6. Analyze the platform of a
                                                                         political candidate or party.
                                                                      7. Summarize how past and
                                                                         present American political
                                                                         parties have gained or lost
                                                                         influence on political
                                                                         decision-making and voting
                                                                         behavior.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
18

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand United States foreign policy as it relates to
14E      other nations and international issues.

             Stage E                           Stage F                                 Stage G
1. Summarize how nations          1. Identify a political tradition or   1. Review the principles the
   interact to avoid conflict        custom that had its origin in          United States has
   (e.g., diplomacy, trade,          another country (e.g.,                 traditionally held in joining
   treaties).                        representative government).            international organizations
2. Identify government            2. Describe the leadership role           (e.g., the interests and
   branches and offices at the       of the United States in                benefits of world peace,
   federal level that are            international organizations            open trade over closed
   responsible for conducting        (e.g., the United Nations,             markets).
   foreign affairs.                  NATO, IMF).                         2. Explain an historical event in
3. Identify a treaty the United   3. Explain the costs and                  which the United States
   States has signed with            benefits of an historical              played a leading role.
   another country.                  treaty the United States has        3. Analyze an event or issue
4. Describe how a specific           signed with another nation             that links the people of
   issue (e.g., trade,               or international organization.         Illinois to another nation
   resources, human rights)                                                 (e.g., issues or negotiations
   has affected a president’s                                               over trade, immigration of
   foreign policy.                                                          ethnic groups).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)     Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                       19

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand United States foreign policy as it relates to
14E      other nations and international issues.

            Stage H                              Stage I                             Stage J
1. Identify situations in which     1. Describe the development        1. Analyze the effectiveness of
   United States diplomacy             of the United States as            U.S. foreign policy within an
   favors one nation over              world leader in international      historical or contemporary
   another (e.g., trade, military      relations (e.g., finance,          context.
   protection).                        defense, trade).                2. Evaluate the actions of the
2. Compare the interests of the     2. Relate historical trends           United States government in
   United States and other             within the United States           the acquisition of territories
   nations in making foreign           and the world that have            and the growth of American
   policy decisions (e.g.,             influenced international           influence over other nations.
   defense, trade,                     relations (e.g., nationalism,   3. Evaluate the costs and
   environmental protection,           revolutionary ideals).             benefits of the United States
   communications).                 3. Compare the conduct of             government in maintaining
3. Compare/contrast the ideals         different presidents in            relationships with
   and interests of the United         handling of similar                international organizations
   States in participating in          diplomatic or foreign policy       (e.g., the United Nations,
   international organizations.        issues.                            NATO).
4. Analyze cases of changing        4. Summarize an historical         4. Explain the influence of
   diplomatic relations between        event in which the United          contemporary international
   the United States and other         States played a significant        organizations on world
   people or nations (e.g.,            role in the foreign policy of      affairs.
   changing relations with             another nation or region        5. Compare how different
   Native American tribes,             (e.g., the Cold War policy of      political systems in other
   changing relations with the         containment upon the               countries define and protect
   Soviet Union during and             Soviet Union and the region        human rights.
   after World War II).                of Southeast Asia in the        6. Analyze patterns of conflict
5. Predict the effects of              1950s to 1970s).                   and compromise related to
   technology on foreign policy                                           international affairs (e.g.,
   decision-making.                                                       examples of nations that
                                                                          have fought wars or settled
                                                                          disagreements through
                                                                          treaties over such matters as
                                                                          disputed borders and the
                                                                          resources and land along
                                                                          such lines of conflict).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
20

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the development of United States political
14F      ideas and traditions.

             Stage E                            Stage F                             Stage G
1. Describe examples of the         1. Give examples of events         1. Provide an argument
   development of basic                where people have had to           justifying the need for civil
   freedoms for the people of          fight to win their equality.       rights for citizens of any
   the United States.               2. Illustrate conflicts over the      nation.
2. Discuss consistencies and           rights and freedom of           2. Summarize the historical
   inconsistencies expressed           competing individuals or           development of the concept
   in United States political          groups (e.g., a novel about        of individual liberty (e.g.,
   traditions and actual               two families from the north        Colonial America to
   practices (e.g., freedom of         and south during the Civil         contemporary political
   speech, the right to bear           War).                              interest groups).
   arms, slavery, voting rights).   3. Compare the arguments of        3. Analyze the causes and
3. Compare the similarities            competing public interest          effects of when national
   found in national symbols,          groups on constitutional           interests have called for the
   legends, or stories that have       rights (e.g., rights of gun        limitation or restriction of
   emphasized the value of             owners versus those who            civil rights (e.g., internment
   such principles as freedom,         advocate greater                   of Japanese Americans
   liberty, preservation of the        restrictions on gun                during World War II).
   Union, etc.                         ownership).
4. Describe historical
   examples featuring the
   denial or extension of civil
   rights to various individuals
   or groups.
5. Identify significant changes
   in communication or
   technology that have had an
   affect on the spread of
   political information and
   influence (e.g., telegraph,
   television, Internet).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                           21

             Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the development of United States political
14F      ideas and traditions.

             Stage H                             Stage I                              Stage J
1.   Summarize the                1. Describe significant             1. Describe the ideological origins
     historical influences on        historical events and               of representative democracy
     the development of              processes that brought              within the cultural traditions of
     political ideas and             about changes in the                ancient Greece and Rome.
     practices as listed in the      political ideas and traditions   2. Analyze the historical evolution
     Declaration of                  of the United States (e.g.,         of a political tradition and how it
     Independence, the               Civil War, the New Deal).           was transformed by varying
     United States                2. Trace the ideology, events,         geographical, economic,
     Constitution, the Bill of       individuals, and groups that        technological, and social forces
     Rights, and the Illinois        influenced the adoption of          (e.g., political caucus, voting
     Constitution.                   amendments to the U.S.              patterns for political parties
2.   Give examples of how            Constitution.                       within different regions of the
     United States political      3. Evaluate the effect an              United States).
     ideas and traditions            historic speech had in           3. Assess the advantages and
     have either included or         changing people’s ideas             disadvantages of the
     denied additional               about political involvement         establishment of a free press.
     amendments respecting           or their rights (e.g., John      4. Describe the impact of the
     or extending the rights         Kennedy’s Inaugural                 Northwest Ordinance of 1787
     of its citizens.                Speech, “Ask not”).                 on the political development of
3.   Analyze an influential       4. Hypothesize about the               the United States, the Midwest,
     U.S. Supreme Court              impact of the extension of          and specifically Illinois.
     case decision and the           greater voting rights through    5. Evaluate the advantages and
     impact it had in                such steps as motor-voter           disadvantages of negative
     promoting or limiting           registration, registration and      rights (inherent rights that the
     civil rights.                   voting over the Internet, etc.      government cannot take away)
4.   Compare arguments for        5. Analyze the evolution of a          and positive rights (a right
     expanding or limiting           particular political tradition      provided by the government)
     freedoms and protection         that still influences modern        (e.g., Congress cannot make a
     for citizens outlined in        political discourse.                law that denies freedom of
     the Bill of Rights.          6. Distinguish between the             religion; the right to vote
                                     advantages and                      extended to women).
                                     disadvantages of federal,        6. Analyze examples of the
                                     confederate, and unitary            success or failure of individuals
                                     systems of government               or groups to influence change
                                     found across the course of          or maintain continuity within a
                                     United States History within        political party or government
                                     the United States.                  system.
                                  7. Analyze the changing role of     7. Evaluate how changing
                                     the judiciary in defining           geographical, economic,
                                     citizen’s rights and                technological, and social forces
                                     responsibilities.                   affect United States political
                                  8. Describe the evolution of           ideas and traditions (e.g.,
                                     criminals and victims’ rights       freedom, equality and justice,
                                     within our judicial system.         individual rights).

      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)    Grade 11-12 (I-J)
22

            Social Science Performance Standards
         Students who meet the standard understand how different economic systems operate in
15A      the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

             Stage E                         Stage F                              Stage G
1. Explain how a market           1. Define productivity.            1. Explain that consumer
   economy answers the three      2. Demonstrate how                    demand determines what
   basic economic questions:         productivity increases             producers will produce in a
    What to produce?                through the use of                 market economy.
    How to produce?                 technology.                     2. Identify the productive
    For whom to produce?         3. Demonstrate how                    resources households sell to
2. Identify the productive           education and training             businesses and the
   resources people sell to          improve skills and increase        payments received for those
   earn income.                      productivity.                      resources.
3. Identify human resources in    4. Explain that in a market        3. Identify the goods and
   their community and the           economy, producers make            services businesses sell to
   goods and services they           the goods and services             households and the
   produce.                          consumers want.                    payments received for those
4. Analyze the relationship                                             goods and services.
   between what they learn in                                        4. Identify times when students
   school and the skills they                                           or adults are consumers and
   need for a job.                                                      when students or adults are
                                                                        producers.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
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             Social Science Performance Standards
          Students who meet the standard understand how different economic systems operate in
15A       the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

             Stage H                            Stage I                             Stage J
1. Explain how the price of         1. Analyze the differences        1. Identify the factors
   productive resources in a           between a market and               contributing to real
   market economy would                command economy (i.e.,             economic growth in a nation
   influence producer                  private ownership, methods         (e.g., investments in
   decisions about how, how            of allocation).                    human/physical capital,
   much, and what to produce.       2. Demonstrate how GDP can            research and development,
2. Analyze the relationship            be used as a measurement           technological change).
   between productivity and            of a country’s economic        2. Identify the factors that limit
   wages.                              growth or decline over time.       a nation’s potential level of
3. Demonstrate the circular         3. Explain that a country’s           GDP.
   flow of interaction among           total output of goods and      3. Explain the costs and
   households, businesses,             services can and does              benefits to individuals and
   and government in the               fluctuate from year to year.       society of investments in
   economy.                         4. Identify the Consumer Price        physical and human capital.
4. Describe the role of financial      Index (CPI) as the most        4. Analyze the benefits and
   institutions in the economy.        commonly used measure of           costs of economic growth.
5. Identify the causes of              price-level changes in the     5. Define each type of
   unemployment.                       economy.                           unemployment (frictional,
6. Define GDP.                      5. Analyze the impact of              structural, seasonal, and
                                       inflation and deflation on         cyclical).
                                       lenders, savers, borrowers,    6. Explain why structural and
                                       people on fixed incomes,           cyclical unemployment are
                                       and on the economy as a            more serious for the
                                       whole.                             economy than seasonal or
                                    6. Analyze the factors that           frictional unemployment.
                                       lead to different              7. Formulate and defend
                                       unemployment rates for             public policy that might
                                       various groups (e.g.,              address structural or
                                       different ethnic groups,           cyclical unemployment.
                                       income levels, gender, age,    8. Analyze the impact of
                                       and regions of the country).       unemployment on a given
                                    7. Explain why the                    geographic region (e.g.,
                                       unemployment rate is an            state, county, city).
                                       imperfect measure of           9. Utilize the consumer price
                                       unemployment in the                index (CPI) to identify
                                       economy.                           periods of inflation and
                                    8. Identify the economic cost         deflation over various
                                       of unemployment.                   periods of U.S. history.
                                    9. Define full employment.        10. Evaluate economic policies
                                                                          by how successfully they
                                                                          curb unemployment, keep
                                                                          economic costs to a
                                                                          minimum, and keep prices
                                                                          stable.

      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
24

             Social Science Performance Standards
         Students who meet the standard understand that scarcity necessitates choices by
15B      consumers.

             Stage E                          Stage F                            Stage G
1. Apply the concept of           1. Explain that a market exists    1. Explain why people are
   opportunity cost to choices       whenever buyers and                both consumers and
   in the classroom.                 sellers exchange goods             producers.
2. Identify factors that affect      and services.                   2. Identify markets where
   consumer choices (e.g.,        2. Identify examples of people        buyers and sellers meet
   prices of goods and               acting as consumers and            face-to-face and markets in
   services; quality; income;        as producers.                      which buyers and sellers
   preferences/tastes).           3. Illustrate the law of              never meet directly.
3. Describe how a large              demand.                         3. Explain the benefits to
   increase or decrease in the    4. Explain that prices are            consumers of competition
   price of a good or service        determined through the             among sellers.
   would affect how much of          buying and selling              4. Analyze the impact on
   that item would be                decisions made by buyers           prices of competition among
   purchased.                        and sellers.                       buyers.
4. Explain why consumers will     5. Explain that competition
   buy more goods and                takes place when there are
   services at lower prices and      many buyers and sellers of
   fewer at higher prices.           similar products.
5. Define prices as what          6. Identify markets where
   consumers pay when                there is competition among
   buying goods or services          sellers.
   and what sellers receive       7. Identify examples of
   when selling goods or             competition among buyers.
   services.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                      25

             Social Science Performance Standards
          Students who meet the standard understand that scarcity necessitates choices by
15B       consumers.

             Stage H                           Stage I                            Stage J
1.   Explain why, as the market    1. Describe various ways a         1. Identify the non-price
     price of a good or service       consumer can pay for a             determinants of demand
     goes up, the quantity            good or service.                   and predict the change in
     demanded by consumers         2. Evaluate the costs and             demand and market price
     goes down.                       benefits of differing ways to      for a product when any of
2.   Determine the market             pay for a variety of               those determinants change.
     clearing price when given        consumer purchases.             2. Predict how a change in
     data about the supply and     3. Analyze the potential              interest rates will affect an
     demand for a product.            impact of current events on        individual’s decisions to
3.   Predict how the change in        the price of consumer              borrow and/or save.
     price of one good or             goods or services (e.g.,        3. Identify the current rates of
     service can lead to              new environmental                  interest on different kinds of
     changes in prices of other       regulations for automobiles;       savings instruments and
     goods and services.              hurricanes and floods in           explain why they vary.
4.   Explain how prices help          agricultural areas).            4. Identify complementary
     allocate scarce goods and                                           products and explain how a
     services in a market                                                change in the price of one
     economy.                                                            complement affects the
5.   Explain why shortages and                                           demand for the other.
     surpluses occur in a market                                      5. Identify substitute products
     economy and provide real-                                           and explain how a change
     world examples of each.                                             in the price of a substitute
                                                                         affects the demand for the
                                                                         other product.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
26

             Social Science Performance Standards
          Students who meet the standard understand that scarcity necessitates choices by
15C       producers.

             Stage E                            Stage F                           Stage G
1. Predict how a large increase     1. Explain how price is an        1. Analyze how changes in
   or decrease in the price of a       incentive to buyers and           price affect producer
   good or service will affect         sellers.                          behavior.
   how much producers will          2. Analyze the effect of price    2. Identify non-price incentives
   make and sell of that good          changes on buyers and             to which people respond in
   or service.                         sellers.                          the economy.
2. Analyze why producers will       3. Explain that there are         3. Explain why people’s
   produce more goods and              incentives other than price       response to an incentive
   services at higher prices           that affect people’s              may vary because of
   and fewer at lower prices.          behavior in the economy.          differing values.
3. Identify markets in which        4. Provide examples of            4. Predict the impact on
   there are very few sellers          positive incentives               supply of a good or service
   and markets in which there          (rewards) that affect             when non-price
   are many sellers.                   economic behavior.                determinants change (e.g.,
4. Identify the characteristics     5. Provide examples of               number of producers; cost
   of effective entrepreneurs          negative incentives               of production).
   (e.g., why they are willing to      (penalties) that affect
   take risks to start new             economic behavior.
   businesses).                     6. Define the law of supply.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                        27

             Social Science Performance Standards
         Students who meet the standard understand that scarcity necessitates choices by
15C      producers.

            Stage H                               Stage I                           Stage J
1. Provide examples of how         1.    Predict the impact of          1. Describe the characteristics
   changes in incentives                 changes in interest rates         that distinguish perfect
   encourage people to                   on business investment            competition, monopolistic
   change their economic                 spending.                         competition, oligopoly, and
   behavior in predictable         2.    Explain how policies that         monopoly.
   ways.                                 change interest rates can      2. Analyze the impact on
2. Provide examples of how               be used to affect the level       consumers of reduced
   the same incentive will bring         of spending.                      competition in an industry.
   about differing responses       3.    Analyze how producers          3. Predict the change in
   from differing people.                respond to incentives and         supply of a product and the
3. Explain why, as the market            allocate their scarce             market price for the product
   price of a good or service            resources to maximize             when non-price
   goes up, the quantity                 profits.                          determinants of supply
   supplied also goes up.          4.    Predict what goods and            change.
                                         services might be in           4. Cite examples of
                                         demand as a result of a           government intervention in
                                         specific political action or      the marketplace and
                                         natural disaster.                 analyze the impact of that
                                   5.    Explain how the pursuit of        intervention on consumers
                                         self-interest in competitive      and producers.
                                         markets affects national       5. Evaluate the importance of
                                         economic well being.              private ownership of
                                   6.    Demonstrate how                   productive resources in a
                                         increases in productivity         market economy.
                                         result from advances in        6. Identify examples of
                                         technology and other              negative and positive
                                         resources.                        externalities that result from
                                   7.    Analyze the impact on the         the production or
                                         producer’s level of               consumption of a product.
                                         competitiveness in the         7. Analyze the effects of
                                         marketplace given                 competition on the price,
                                         examples of new products          quality, and quantity
                                         that resulted from                produced of a good.
                                         technological changes.
                                   8.    Analyze how the
                                         marketing of a new or
                                         improved product can
                                         create job opportunities as
                                         well as eliminate job
                                         opportunities.
                                   9.    Analyze the impact
                                         entrepreneurs and their
                                         business or idea has on
                                         consumers and the
                                         economy.
     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
28

               Social Science Performance Standards
           Students who meet the standard understand trade as an exchange of goods or services.
15D
               Stage E                              Stage F                               Stage G
1.   Explain the benefits of          1.   Define imports.                  1.   Identify exports produced in
     exchanging with the use of       2.   Define exports.                       the local community or
     money.                           3.   Provide examples of                   state.
2.   Identify the primary                  economic specialization.         2.   Explain why countries
     functions and services of        4.   Identify technologies that            benefit when they exchange
     financial institutions.               exist today that did not exist        goods and services.
3.   Predict how people’s lives            in the past (e.g., 10 to 20      3.   Explain how specialization
     would be different if they did        years ago).                           usually increases
     not trade with others for                                                   productivity in an economy.
     goods and services they                                                4.   Provide examples of how
     use.                                                                        specialization increases
4.   Illustrate how division of                                                  interdependence among
     labor in a production                                                       consumers and producers.
     process can increase                                                   5.   Explain how technological
     productivity.                                                               changes have led to new
5.   Explain how division of labor                                               and improved products.
     creates interdependence.                                               6.   Explain how people’s
6.   Analyze the impact of                                                       incomes reflect choices
     interdependence on the                                                      they have made about
     production process.                                                         education, training, skill
                                                                                 development, and careers.




       Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)    Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                               29

               Social Science Performance Standards
           Students who meet the standard understand trade as an exchange of goods or services.
15D
              Stage H                                Stage I                             Stage J
1.   Provide an example of            1.    Define balance of trade.       1.   Define transaction costs
     comparative advantage in         2.    Analyze the impact of               and provide examples.
     the school or community.               periods of trade surpluses     2.   Explain why reducing
2.   Explain why comparative                and trade deficits in United        transaction costs
     advantage leads to                     States history.                     encourages exchange.
     specialization and trade.        3.    Define the exchange rate.      3.   Analyze the impact of
3.   Identify barriers to trade and   4.    Explain how the forces of           United States imposed
     their impact, and explain              supply and demand                   trade barriers on U.S.
     why nations create barriers            determine exchange rates.           citizens and on the citizens
     to trade.                        5.    Calculate the prices of             of trading partners.
4.   Analyze the impact of an               products for exchange of       4.   Explain the impact on
     increase or decrease in                goods between two nations           United States consumers
     imports on jobs and                    using current data.                 and producers when
     consumers in the U.S.            6.    Analyze the impact on               imports are restricted by
5.   Analyze the impact of an               consumers and producers             public policies such as
     increase or decrease in                in both countries when the          quotas and tariffs.
     exports on jobs and                    exchange rate for their        5.   Assess how economic
     consumers in the U.S.                  currencies changes.                 growth is a factor in
6.   Identify new technologies        7.    Explain why comparative             alleviating poverty and
     over time and explain their            advantage changes over              raising standards of living.
     impact on the economy.                 time.                          6.   Analyze how technological
                                      8.    Explain how measures of             advances allow societies to
                                            productivity are used in            produce more goods and
                                            producer decisions.                 services with the resources
                                      9.    Analyze the relationship            available.
                                            between standards of living    7.   Explain the relationship
                                            and the productivity of             among higher productivity
                                            labor.                              levels, new technologies,
                                      10.   Identify ways in which the          and the standard of living.
                                            productivity of labor can be
                                            increased.
                                      11.   Analyze how increased
                                            productivity of labor
                                            benefits both employers
                                            and employees.
                                      12.   Analyze the impact of
                                            increased wages (all other
                                            factors constant) on the
                                            supply and demand of
                                            labor.
                                      13.   Analyze the relationship
                                            between incentives that
                                            reward innovation and
                                            investments and the rate of
                                            increase of productivity.
       Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)      Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
30

            Social Science Performance Standards
        Students who meet the standard understand the impact of government policies and
15E     decisions on production and consumption in the economy.

           Stage E                            Stage F                            Stage G
1. Identify public goods and      1. Describe the differences        1. Identify laws and
   services in the community,        between income tax, sales          government policies that
   state, and nation.                tax, and property tax.             protect property rights,
2. List the types of taxes paid   2. Identify what people would         enforce contracts, and
   by individuals and by             give up if governments had         maintain competition.
   businesses.                       no power to tax.                2. Explain why there is a role
                                  3. Identify what goods and            for government in the
                                     services various levels of         economy.
                                     government provide.             3. Explain how laws and
                                  4. Identify to which level of         government policies
                                     government certain taxes           affecting the economy have
                                     are paid.                          changed over time.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                      31

             Social Science Performance Standards
         Students who meet the standard understand the impact of government policies and
15E      decisions on production and consumption in the economy.

           Stage H                           Stage I                              Stage J
1. Identify examples of          1. Give examples of public         1. Identify government policies
   proportional, progressive,       goods and services that            that are designed to directly
   and regressive taxes in the      producers will not produce         redistribute income, and
   economy.                         because they cannot be             explain why such policies
2. Evaluate the fairness and        withheld from those who            exist.
   efficiency of each kind of       do not pay for it (e.g.,        2. Identify government policies
   tax.                             roads, national defense,           that affect price or output
3. Analyze the benefits and         and environmental                  levels for various goods and
   costs to individuals and         preservation).                     services, and explain how
   businesses of government      2. Evaluate what would                those policies might indirectly
   policies that affect the         happen if government did           redistribute income.
   economy.                         not intervene and produce       3. Evaluate which groups in the
4. Identify the main sources        public goods.                      economy benefit from, and
   of revenue for federal and    3. Explain when (under what           which groups bear the costs
   for state governments.           circumstances) and why             of, government policies that
5. Explain how laws and             markets do not allocate            redistribute income.
   government policies              resources effectively.          4. Analyze the impact of
   affecting the economy         4. Provide examples of                increasing or decreasing
   establish rules to help a        government responses               federal spending and/or
   market economy function          that have had a positive or        reducing or increasing taxes
   effectively.                     negative effect on society,        on: employment, output, price
                                    the environment, or                level, and interest rates in the
                                    markets.                           short run.
                                 5. Explain how technological       5. Identify historical examples of
                                    development affects                fiscal policies, and analyze
                                    current and future                 whether these policies were
                                    consumption, production,           adopted to influence levels of
                                    and overall                        output, employment, prices, or
                                    competitiveness in the             all three.
                                    marketplace.                    6. Explain the causes of inflation.
                                 6. Explain how investing in        7. Explain how the tools of
                                    new physical or human              monetary policy work to impact
                                    capital may increase               money supply and/or interest
                                    future production and              rates.
                                    consumption.                    8. Analyze how changes in the
                                 7. Identify monetary policy in        money supply can influence
                                    the U.S. and explain who           overall levels of spending,
                                    determines that policy.            employment, and prices in the
                                 8. Identify fiscal policy in the      economy.
                                    U.S. and explain who            9. Analyze the impact on the
                                    determines that policy.            availability and cost of
                                                                       consumer loans when
                                                                       monetary policy decisions
                                                                       either increase or decrease
                                                                       the money supply.
     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
32

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can apply the skills of historical analysis and
16A       interpretation.

            Stage E                               Stage F                           Stage G
1. Explain how life changed or      1. Distinguish between the         1.   Place events from a
   stayed the same in a region         important and insignificant          chronology on multiple tier
   or place using two historic         details contained in an              timelines that are
   maps that depict different          historical source.                   organized according to
   times in that region or place.   2. Organize a series of historic        political, economic,
2. Describe trends during a            maps of a region or place            environmental, and social
   time period using political,        into an historical atlas.            history.
   economic, environmental,         3. Place a series of events        2.   Organize a series of
   and social data from                from the past that are listed        related historical events for
   appropriate graphs or               on a chronology or timeline          depiction on a
   charts.                             and categorize them                  periodization chart.
3. Distinguish between primary         according to political,         3.   Describe life during a
   and secondary sources.              economic, environmental, or          specific period using
4. Formulate a research                social importance.                   multiple tier timelines,
   question about the past that     4. Identify the times when              periodization charts,
   includes its dimensions of          significant events                   graphs, and charts with
   people, space, and time.            intersected using a series of        data organized by
5. Identify sources in the             chronologies organized into          category.
   school or local library that        political, economic,            4.   Provide an example of two
   will help answer a research         environmental, and social            different interpretations of
   question.                           history.                             a significant event.
6. Locate on the World Wide         5. Compare two different           5.   Explain how a significant
   Web one source pertaining           interpretations of an                historical event can have
   to each of people, space,           historical figure.                   many causes.
   and time dimensions of a         6. Compare the account of an
   research question.                  historic person or event in a
                                       textbook with an account of
                                       the person or event in
                                       another secondary source.
                                    7. Locate on the World Wide
                                       Web multiple sources
                                       pertaining to a significant
                                       historic person or event.
                                    8. Compare the value of
                                       primary and secondary
                                       sources.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                          33

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can apply the skills of historical analysis and
16A      interpretation.

            Stage H                             Stage I                              Stage J
1. Define the concept of a         1. Compare the narrative in a        1. Identify any patterns or
   “watershed” event in history.      work of historical fiction with      differences that emerge in
2. Explain why a primary              the narrative of the same            political, economic,
   source may not necessarily         event in a work by an                environmental, and social
   provide an accurate                historian.                           history after comparing the
   description of an historical    2. Describe the value of                events and historical
   event.                             interviewing a person who            processes identified on the
3. Identify the point of view of      witnessed an event in the            periodization charts of two
   the author as found in a           past.                                civilizations.
   primary source document.        3. Assess the value of an oral       2. Identify any patterns or
4. Identify any inconsistencies       history account.                     differences that emerge in
   of an author as found in a      4. Explain why significant              political, economic,
   primary source document.           historical events have               environmental, and social
5. Assess the value of posed          multiple causes.                     history after comparing the
   and candid photographs as       5. Explain the reasons why              events and historical
   primary sources.                   historians working in                processes between one
                                      different periods can arrive         period and another in the
                                      at different conclusions of          same civilization.
                                      the same event.                   3. Assess the effects that
                                   6. Defend an interpretation of a        unexpected events had on
                                      significant person or event          the long-term trends of a
                                      using a variety of primary           given period.
                                      and secondary sources.            4. Identify the characteristics
                                                                           of the Whig, Positivist,
                                                                           Marxist, and Post-colonial
                                                                           interpretations of history.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
34

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand the development of significant political events.
16B
              Stage E                              Stage F                                 Stage G
1.   Identify turning points in      1.   Organize a series of              1.   Identify the major periods in
     United States political              political events covering the          United States political
     history.                             span of American history,              history from colonial to
2.   Summarize the causes and             c1500-present, into a                  contemporary times.
     effects of ideas and actions         periodization chart.              2.   Summarize ideas that
     of significant political        2.   Describe both the ideas                influenced the development
     figures during the Colonial          and actions of significant             of representative
     Period.                              political figures, events, or          democracy as reflected in
3.   Analyze political events,            processes that affected the            the Declaration of
     figures, and ideas in the            formation and development              Independence and the
     colonies that led to the             of modern political parties.           Constitution of the United
     American Revolution.            3.   Interpret the actions and              States.
4.   List the key figures, events,        consequences of a                 3.   Describe significant events
     and ideas in the                     significant figure in United           that fostered the
     development of the United            States political history (e.g.,        development of
     States government during             Thomas Jefferson,                      representative democracy
     the Early National Period.           Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow               after the adoption of the
                                          Wilson, Franklin D.                    United States Constitution
                                          Roosevelt).                            (e.g., amendments,
                                     4.   Interpret the causes that              supreme court rulings,
                                          led to the development of a            legislation).
                                          particular political              4.   Compare and contrast the
                                          organization or institution            contributions of individuals
                                          (e.g., modern political                or political groups who had
                                          parties, interest groups,              a significant impact on the
                                          Electoral College).                    course of local, state, and
                                                                                 national history.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)     Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)    Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                           35

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand the development of significant political events.
16B
              Stage H                            Stage I                               Stage J
1.   Evaluate the                   1. Compare/contrast the              1.   Assess the significance of
     consequences of                   causes and effects of                  a watershed event in
     constitutional change and         significant political events in        United States political
     continuity over time.             a period of United States              history.
2.   Summarize the significant         history.                          2.   Compare/contrast the
     events that occurred during    2. Summarize how principles of            initial philosophy of a
     the development of the            the United States                      political institution or group
     Supreme Court of the              Constitution were applied to           with its later and/or
     United States.                    resolve a political conflict           contemporary philosophy.
3.   Describe the contributions        (e.g., states rights, civil       3.   Describe examples of
     of individuals or groups          rights).                               continuity and change in
     who had a significant          3. Evaluate how the forces of             political institutions at the
     impact on the course of           cooperation and conflict               local, state, and national
     judicial history.                 have affected the                      levels.
4.   Describe the significant          development of                    4.   Analyze the changing roles
     events and contributions of       representative democracy.              of political offices and
     individuals or groups in the                                             institutions in United States
     development of United                                                    history.
     States diplomatic history.                                          5.   Assess how political
                                                                              ideology influences the
                                                                              political perspective of
                                                                              contemporary politicians or
                                                                              groups.
                                                                         6.   Analyze how changes in
                                                                              the economy, environment,
                                                                              and social structure have
                                                                              influenced the current
                                                                              political structure of the
                                                                              United States.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)    Grade 11-12 (I-J)
36

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand the development of significant political events.
16B
              Stage E                               Stage F                               Stage G
1.   Identify turning points in       1.   Organize a series of            1.   Identify causes and effects
     world political history.              political events in World            of turning points in world
2.   Identify significant political        History into periodization           political history (e.g., the
     leaders of the non-Western            charts for the ancient world,        division of the Roman
     world (e.g., Genghis Khan,            1000 BCE-1500, 1500-                 empire, the rise of the
     Gandhi, Mandela).                     present.                             Islamic empire, the
3.   Describe major                   2.   Describe major events in             establishment of the
     developments in the                   the evolution of non-                kingdom of Ghana, the rise
     evolution of Western                  Western political systems            and fall of the T’ang
     political systems (e.g.,              throughout world history.            dynasty).
     Greek democracy, Roman           3.   Describe the impact that        2.   Describe political beliefs of
     republic, Magna Carta and             significant individuals or           significant individuals and
     Common Law, the                       groups in the non-Western            groups during a turning
     Enlightenment).                       world had on political               point in world history.
4.   Analyze the consequences              events (e.g., Mao, Indira       3.   Compare/contrast the
     of political ideas and                Gandhi, freedom fighters).           development of the political
     actions taken by significant     4.   Compare/contrast the                 ideology of significant
     individuals in the past.              development of a political           individuals from a Western
                                           system and/or institution in         civilization with that of a
                                           ancient times with that of           non-Western civilization.
                                           another political system        4.   Describe political ideas
                                           and/or institution of ancient        developed within the non-
                                           times (e.g., Greek and               Western world (e.g.,
                                           Roman government, Greek              theocracy, passive
                                           and Egyptian).                       resistance).
                                                                           5.   Define the concept of
                                                                                Feudalism.
                                                                           6.   Describe the development
                                                                                of European nation states,
                                                                                1200-1500.




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    Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard understand the development of significant political events.
16B
            Stage H                               Stage I                             Stage J
1. Identify common political       1.   Describe the significant       1.   Assess the significance of a
   trends in the eastern and            political ideas that are            watershed event in World
   western hemispheres after            rooted in the Renaissance           political history.
   1500 CE (e.g., colonization,         and Enlightenment periods.     2.   Assess the contribution of a
   de-colonization,                2.   Compare/contrast the                significant individual to
   nationalism).                        development of democratic           worldwide political thought.
2. Analyze the political cause          systems with other kinds of    3.   Compare/contrast episodes
   and effect relationships             political systems.                  of cooperation and conflict
   created by European             3.   Analyze how the forces of           among proponents of
   exploration and expansion            cooperation and conflict            opposing political
   in the eastern and western           affected a political system.        ideologies.
   hemispheres.                    4.   Describe the effects of        4.   Explain the relationships
3. Identify the contributions of        interdependence among               among economic, social,
   significant individuals to           nations during periods of           and environmental factors
   worldwide political thought          world conflict (Napoleonic          and effects on a world
   (e.g., Locke, Burke, Marx)           Wars, World Wars, Cold              political event.
   after 1500.                          War).                          5.   Evaluate the impact of
                                                                            global interdependence in
                                                                            addressing a contemporary
                                                                            political issue (e.g.,
                                                                            terrorism, human rights).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
38

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand the development of economic systems.
16C
              Stage E                              Stage F                               Stage G
1.   Identify turning points in      1.   Explain how significant        1.   Identify the major periods in
     United States economic               economic events in the              United States economic
     history.                             past have altered individual        history from colonial to
2.   Describe the economic                choices and influenced              contemporary times.
     choices people made or               Untied States history.         2.   Describe the impact of trade
     were forced to make during      2.   Summarize the impact of             from 1500-1750 on the
     the development of the               significant economic events         political, social, and
     early economy of the                 of earlier periods of United        economic lives, and the
     United States.                       States history on                   environment of Native
3.   Describe how slavery and             contemporary economic               Americans and European
     indentured servitude were            structure.                          colonists.
     related to the wants of         3.   Evaluate how an                3.   Describe how changes in
     economic interest groups in          individual’s ideas,                 science and technology
     the United States.                   inventions, or                      affected the exchange of
4.   Explain how the economic             entrepreneurship (e.g.,             goods and services over
     choices people made in the           Thomas Edison, George               time among the people in
     past affected their political        Washington Carver, Henry            colonial America.
     and social lives and their           Ford) affected the economy     4.   Explain how changes in
     environment.                         then and now.                       economic activity during an
                                     4.   Predict how technological           earlier period influenced
                                          advances may affect the             subsequent historical events
                                          United States economic              (e.g., increase in the labor
                                          system.                             supply and unionization,
                                     5.   Analyze how a significant           depression and the New
                                          economic event (e.g.,               Deal).
                                          industrialization, the Great
                                          Depression, and the rise of
                                          computer technology) has
                                          influenced the development
                                          of the United States
                                          economic system.




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                                                                                                        39

       Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
           Students who meet the standard understand the development of economic systems.
16C
               Stage H                              Stage I                           Stage J
1.   Describe the impact of trade    1.    Discuss the values and       1.    Assess the significance of
     on political, social,                 beliefs that fostered              a watershed event in
     economic, and                         significant economic               United States economic
     environmental                         developments and                   history (e.g., gold
     developments in a place or            institutions in the United         standard, minimum wage
     region of the United States,          States over time.                  legislation, NAFTA).
     1865 – present.                 2.    Identify the causes and      2.    Describe the trends in the
2.   Explain how changes in                effects of significant             history of United States
     science and technology                economic legislation over          “bellwether industries”
     affected the exchange of              time.                              (e.g., agriculture, steel,
     goods and services,             3.    Analyze the economic               housing) using charts,
     economic institutions, and            impact of the westward             graphs, and other sources.
     the movement of people                expansion on families,       3.    Describe the development
     among different regions of            communities, and the               over time of the
     the United States, 1865-              nation.                            relationship between the
     present.                        4.    Describe how individuals           national economy and the
3.   Explain how entrepreneurs             and groups such as                 global economy since
     organized their businesses            industrialists and unions          World
     and influenced government             shaped American                    War II.
     to limit competition and              economic institutions        4.    Describe the influence of
     maximize profits.                     during the 20th Century.           economic interest groups
4.   Describe the economic           5.    Analyze the                        on the direction of the
     causes of conflict in United          environmental, social, and         national economy since
     States History since 1865             political consequences             World
     (e.g., Indian Wars, Civil             that occurred in a region          War II.
     War, urban unrest).                   that experienced a           5.    Analyze how trends in the
5.   Describe significant people,          significant change in the          economic history of the
     ideas, and events in the rise         work force and a severe            United States have
     of organized labor from               change in the availability         affected the country’s
     1865-1914.                            of resources.                      political, social, and
                                                                              environmental history.
                                                                        6.    Assess the role of the
                                                                              Federal Government in
                                                                              shaping the United States
                                                                              economic system.




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40

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
        Students who meet the standard understand the development of economic systems.
16C
           Stage E                              Stage F                               Stage G
1. Identify turning points in     1.   Organize a series of            1.   Identify the major periods in
   world economic history              economic events in World             World economic history.
   (e.g., manorial system,             History into periodization      2.   Describe the economic
   cultural exchanges,                 charts for the ancient world,        systems found in the
   capitalism, industrial              1000 BCE-1500, 1500-                 Americas before the voyage
   revolution, information             present.                             of Columbus.
   revolution).                   2.   Describe the basic              3.   Evaluate the impact of the
2. Describe the impact of              economic changes that led            economic aspects of the
   trade on the development            to or resulted from turning          voyage of Columbus on the
   of early civilizations.             points in world economic             social, political, and
3. Identify the differences            history after 500 CE (e.g.,          environmental conditions of
   between agricultural and            manorial system, industrial          the Americas.
   industrial economies.               revolution, capitalism,         4.   Describe the impact on
                                       information/communication            societies of long-term
                                       revolution).                         economic trends from 1000
                                  3.   Identify the economic                to 1500 CE (e.g., long
                                       aspects of significant               distance trade, banking,
                                       cultural exchanges that              specialization of labor,
                                       occurred between peoples             urbanization,
                                       in the past (e.g., Columbian         technological/scientific
                                       exchange, Crusades).                 progress).
                                  4.   Define capitalism,              5.   Compare/contrast the
                                       socialism, and communism             economic systems and
                                       as economic systems.                 institutions of an agricultural
                                                                            and an industrial society.




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                                                                                                       41

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand the development of economic systems.
16C
              Stage H                            Stage I                              Stage J
1.   Analyze the impact of long-   1.   Evaluate the economic          1.   Assess the significance of a
     term economic trends on            impact and consequences             watershed event in World
     the political, social,             of major cultural                   economic history.
     economic, and                      exchanges.                     2.   Describe the growth and
     environmental                 2.   Evaluate the consequences           development of industrial
     developments of societies          of capitalism, socialism,           capitalism as the dominant
     in different parts of the          and communism upon the              economic model of the
     world, 1500 CE to present.         countries that have adopted         world.
2.   Explain how changes in             them.                          3.   Trace the historical forces
     science and technology        3.   Analyze the economic                of continuity and change in
     affected the exchange of           impact of colonialism and           the development of the
     goods and services among           imperialism around the              contemporary global
     people of different                world after 1500 CE.                economic system.
     geographical regions of the   4.   Describe the impact of         4.   Predict the consequences
     past.                              major economists and their          of economic
3.   Describe the global impact         ideas (e.g., Adam Smith,            interdependence in the
     of long-term economic              Karl Marx, John Maynard             world’s economic system,
     trends from 1500-present           Keynes).                            using a contemporary
     (e.g., long distance trade,   5.   Describe the historical             example.
     banking, specialization of         development of capitalism      5.   Evaluate the benefits and
     labor, urbanization,               and other economic                  drawbacks of economic
     technological/scientific           systems that developed in           interdependence.
     progress).                         colonial empires after 1500.   6.   Analyze the impact of a
                                                                            contemporary world
                                                                            economic issue on the
                                                                            United States (e.g., its
                                                                            political, social, and
                                                                            environmental
                                                                            consequences).




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42

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world social
16D       history.

             Stage E                            Stage F                              Stage G
1. Compare and contrast             1. Predict the impact that a        1. Describe the changes and
   family and community life in        controversial figure’s ideas        continuity in various interest
   two or more American                on changing social                  groups’ (e.g., workers,
   colonies in terms of the            conditions had on                   business persons,
   colonists’ motives for              contemporary interest               politicians) perception of
   settling there.                     groups.                             social status over time.
2. Use a variety of sources to      2. Analyze the issues of social     2. Compare and contrast
   describe how people                 status and social role in the       family life in the early
   organized colonial society.         past and present.                   American period with
3. Compare and contrast             3. Describe the changes in             another time period.
   changes in family life as           family from one period to        3. Describe the significance of
   people moved from one               another.                            social factors such as
   geographic region to             4. Trace the development of a          status, role, customs,
   another during the period of        significant social institution      traditions, norms, and
   westward expansion.                 over time (e.g., Boy Scouts,        values during a turning
4. Assess the influence that           Girl Scouts, NAACP).                point in United States social
   significant people had on                                               history.
   the social lives of others in                                        4. Analyze the significance of
   Illinois or the United States.                                          cultural diversity in the
                                                                           social history of the United
                                                                           States.




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                                                                                                       43

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world social
16D       history.

            Stage H                             Stage I                              Stage J
1. Analyze the changing roles       1. Identify examples of            1. Assess the significance of a
   and status of men, women,           cultural diffusion throughout      watershed event in United
   and children from the               United States social history.      States social history.
   colonial period through the      2. Compare and contrast how        2. Identify the historical forces
   19th Century.                       different groups of people         of continuity and change that
2. Compare the importance of           reacted to diversity within        affected the development of
   people's customs and                their societies.                   social institutions over time.
   traditions during the            3. Compare and contrast the        3. Assess the impact of social
   historical development of a         actions of political, social,      movements on the social,
   geographic region during            and economic institutions          political, and economic
   the colonial/frontier periods       before and after the               institutions and cultures of
   and the 19th Century.               abolition of slavery.              the United States.
3. Describe family life of select   4. Appraise the long-term          4. Analyze the origins and
   groups of people during the         effects, including                 development of the social
   colonial/frontier periods and       unintended consequences,           issues that affect United
   the 19th Century.                   on American society that           States citizens as members
                                       occurred as a result of            of a global society.
                                       watershed events in             5. Evaluate recent government
                                       American social history.           policies and social attitudes
                                                                          of interest groups affecting
                                                                          the further development of a
                                                                          pluralistic society in the
                                                                          United States since the
                                                                          1960’s.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
44

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world social
16D       history.

             Stage E                           Stage F                             Stage G
1.   Identify turning points in    1. Organize a series of social     1. Identify the major periods in
     world social history.            events in World History into       World social history (e.g.,
2.   Discuss how the roles of         periodization charts for the       European Feudalism,
     men, women, and children         ancient world, 1000 BCE-           colonial periods in regions
     in past cultures have            1500, 1500-present.                of the world).
     changed over time.            2. Describe a turning point in     2. Describe the impact of
3.   Describe how a cultural          world social history (e.g.,        slavery upon various
     exchange occurred                religious movements,               societies.
     between two societies of         abolition movement,             3. Compare/contrast the
     the past.                        demographic disasters,             institution of slavery in
                                      migrations).                       different societies past and
                                   3. Compare/contrast the               present.
                                      social structure of Western     4. Describe the origins,
                                      and non-Western cultures           development, and
                                      today and in the past.             consequences of mass
                                   4. Describe the various roles         migrations of people at
                                      of men, women, and                 selected periods in history.
                                      children in the family, at      5. Explain the significance of
                                      work, and in the community         changes in the role of men,
                                      in various time periods and        women, and children from
                                      places (e.g., ancient Rome,        one period to subsequent
                                      Medieval Europe, ancient           periods in world social
                                      China, Sub-Saharan                 history.
                                      Africa).
                                   5. Describe social changes
                                      that resulted from cultural
                                      exchange between and
                                      among different societies.




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                                                                                                     45

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world social
16D       history.

              Stage H                          Stage I                            Stage J
1.   Analyze the consequences      1. Analyze the social history      1. Assess the significance of a
     of discrimination past and       aspects of significant             watershed event in World
     present.                         events in world history            social history.
2.   Analyze the impact of mass       since 1500 (e.g.,               2. Assess the affects of
     migrations of people upon        colonization, Protestant           changing technology since
     the political, economic,         Reformation,                       1945 (e.g., atomic power,
     social, and environmental        industrialization, rise of         mass communications,
     aspects of a world region.       technology, human rights           means of production) on the
3.   Assess the impact of             movement, Holocaust).              course of world social
     significant individuals or    2. Describe the impact of             history.
     groups on world social           cultural diffusion and          3. Evaluate the social
     history (e.g., religious         cultural encounters upon           consequences resulting
     leaders, philosophers).          the political, economic, and       from the expanding zone of
4.   Describe how the work of         environmental aspects of           human interaction over
     artists around the world         different cultures.                time.
     (e.g., musicians, artists,    3. Analyze the consequences        4. Identify examples of cultural
     filmmakers) reflects social      of a world social issue on         diffusion occurring within
     issues.                          the political, economic, and       the societies around the
                                      environmental aspects of           world using a contemporary
                                      society.                           example.




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46

     Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
        Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world
16E     environmental history.

           Stage E                             Stage F                              Stage G
1. Identify turning points in      1. Organize a series of             1. Identify turning points in
   United States                      environmental events                United States
   environmental history.             covering the span of                environmental history.
2. Explain how a community            American history, c1500-         2. Describe the development
   or state’s location helps to       present, into a periodization       of transportation and
   understand its growth and          chart.                              communication networks
   development over time.          2. Describe how the                    (e.g., river travel, pony
3. Organize a series of Illinois      environmental history of a          express, internet).
   or United States maps on           place or region of the           3. Explain how the
   one environmental theme            United States region has            environment affected
   into an historical atlas.          changed over time using a           economic and social
4. Describe how various               variety of geographic tools,        developments of people in a
   people around North                including an historical atlas.      specific region of the United
   America used human or           3. Describe how the people of          States (e.g., Jamestown,
   animal power to cultivate          a specific region of the            “Wild West,” natural
   crops before the onset of          United States gained                disasters).
   mechanized technology.             control over rivers or other     4. Explain how the
5. Provide an example of how          principal physical features         environment affected
   some people continue to            of their environment.               economic and social
   depend on human or              4. Describe how the                    developments of a specific
   animal power to survive in         competition between or              cultural group after 1500.
   North America.                     among different groups of        5. Explain how the
6. Describe the physical and          people for the same land            environment, economy, and
   cultural features of life in       affected the environment.           society can be affected by
   the pre-colonial Illinois       5. Assess the effects of a             the dependence of a region
   country using images               significant invention or            on a single crop or mode of
   documenting the                    technological innovation on         production.
   archaeological record.             the physical and cultural
7. Describe the effects of a          environment on a place or
   significant invention or           region (e.g., plow,
   technological innovation on        automobile, power plants).
   the physical and cultural
   environment of Illinois
   between 1700 and 1818.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                       47

      Social Science (U.S.) Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world
16E      environmental history.

             Stage H                             Stage I                            Stage J
1. Analyze the social, political,   1. Describe how the rise of       1.   Assess the significance of
   and economic effects on the         multinational economies             a watershed event in
   abandoned environment of            has affected the                    United States
   a significant migration of          environment of the United           environmental history.
   people from one region to           States since 1945.             2.   Evaluate the importance of
   another.                         2. Describe how military               an environmental issue on
2. Describe the demographic            conflict in North America           the conduct of political life
   distribution of people before       affected the environment,           in Illinois and in the United
   and after a significant             and assess the attendant            States.
   migration in United States          human costs.                   3.   Assess the progress made
   history.                         3. Identify the origins of             by national organizations
3. Describe the effects on the         significant environmental           in addressing
   environment of the                  issues confronting the              environmental issues in
   dispersion of European              United States and North             the United States since
   colonists in North America          America.                            1945.
   after 1500CE.                    4. Explain how an                 4.   Predict the political,
4. Describe how major                  environmental issue                 economic, and social
   migrations have affected the        confronting one region of           consequences on the
   cultural features of cities         the United States has               United States of a world
   and rural communities in the        affected the environment in         environmental issue if it is
   United States.                      other regions.                      not addressed.
5. Assess the effect of the                                           5.   Predict the potential of new
   industrial revolution on the                                            technologies to reverse
   physical environment in the                                             historic processes that
   United States.                                                          have negatively impacted
6. Assess the effects on the                                               the United States
   environment of the historic                                             environment.
   process of suburbanization
   and rural depopulation.
7. Assess the effects of a
   significant past natural
   environmental disaster on
   the physical and cultural
   features of the landscape of
   a place or region in the
   United States.




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48

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world
16E       environmental history.

              Stage E                            Stage F                              Stage G
1.   Identify turning points in      1. Organize a series of             1. Identify the major periods in
     world environmental                environmental events in             World environmental
     history.                           World History into                  history.
2.   Identify on a map the              periodization charts for the     2. Describe the development
     location of the major world        ancient world, 1000 BCE-            of transportation and
     political powers, over time,       1500, 1500-present.                 communication networks
     and explain how their           2. Describe how an aspect of           before 1500CE.
     location fostered their            the environmental history of     3. Describe the development
     growth and development.            a place or world region has         of transportation and
3.   Organize a series of maps          changed or stayed the               communication networks
     on one environmental               same using an historical            since 1500CE.
     theme into an historical           atlas.                           4. Identify watershed events in
     atlas.                          3. Describe how the                    the environmental history of
4.   Compare the cultural               environmental history of            each continent since
     features of the environment        one place or world region           1500CE.
     of settled societies with          has changed using a              5. Explain how the
     those of hunter-gatherer           variety of geographic tools.        environment affected
     cultures.                       4. Describe how the people of          economic and social
5.   Describe how various               a specific civilization gained      developments in a specific
     people around the globe            control over rivers or other        civilization (e.g., Greeks
     used animals to cultivate          principal physical features.        and the Aegean Sea,
     crops in early world history.   5. Describe how the                    Middle East and oil).
6.   Provide examples of how            competition between or           6. Explain how the
     some people continue to            among different groups of           environment, economy, and
     depend on animal power to          people for the same land            society can be affected by
     survive in their                   affected the environment.           the dependence of a region
     environment.                    6. Analyze the effects of a            on a single crop or mode of
7.   Describe the physical and          significant invention or            production.
     cultural features of life in       technological innovation on
     the ancient world using            the physical and cultural
     images documenting the             environment of one of the
     archaeological record.             world’s regions (e.g.,
                                        invention of the wheel,
                                        canals, railroads).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                        49

     Social Science (World) Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard understand Illinois, United States, and world
16E       environmental history.

             Stage H                                Stage I                          Stage J
1.   Describe the social,            1.   Describe how the rise of       1. Assess the significance of a
     demographic, political, and          colonial powers affected          watershed event in World
     economic effects on the              the environment in colonial       environmental history.
     abandoned environment of             empires.                       2. Evaluate the importance of
     a significant migration of      2.   Describe how the rise of          an environmental issue on
     people in World History.             multinational economies           the conduct of
2.   Describe the environmental           has affected the                  contemporary world affairs.
     effects of the “Colombian            environment in the post-       3. Explain how the control of
     Exchange.”                           colonial period.                  technology has fostered
3.   Describe how major              3.   Describe how military             independence,
     migrations have affected             conflict affected the             dependence, or
     the cultural features of             environment in Europe and         interdependence between
     cities and rural                     Asia during the two world         and among nations.
     communities.                         wars, and assess the           4. Explain how the control of a
4.   Assess the effect of the             attendant human costs.            natural resource has
     industrial revolution on the    4.   Describe how military             fostered independence,
     physical environment in an           conflict affected the             dependence, or
     industrialized country.              environment in Asia and           interdependence between
5.   Assess the impact on the             Africa during the post-           and among nations.
     environment of the                   colonial period, and assess    5. Assess the progress made
     industrial revolution on a           the attendant human costs.        by global organizations in
     traditional agrarian culture.   5.   Identify the origins and          addressing environmental
6.   Assess the effects on the            describe the development          issues since 1945.
     environment of the historic          of significant environmental   6. Predict the political,
     process of suburbanization           issues confronting Asia,          economic, and social
     and the depopulation of              Africa, South America,            consequences of a world
     rural regions.                       North America, Australia,         environmental issue if it is
                                          and the arctic regions.           not addressed.
                                     6.   Analyze the relationship       7. Predict the potential of new
                                          between the environmental         technologies to reverse
                                          and political causes of           historic processes that have
                                          famines.                          negatively impacted the
                                                                            global environment.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
50

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can locate, describe and explain places, regions and
17A       features on Earth.

              Stage E                               Stage F                          Stage G
1.   Mark major ocean currents,     1.   Demonstrate understanding      1. Compare sketch maps with
     wind patterns, landforms,           of the location of various        atlas maps to determine the
     and climate regions on a            physical and human                accuracy of physical and
     map.                                features in Illinois, the         cultural features (e.g.,
2.   Create thematic maps and            United States, and the            political/physical maps of
     graphs of the students'             world by sketching a map          Canada, the United States,
     local community, Illinois,          from memory of different          and Europe).
     United States, and the              features.                      2. Develop maps and
     world using data and a         2.   Interpret aerial photographs      flowcharts showing major
     variety of symbols and              or satellite-produced             patterns of movement of
     colors (e.g., to indicate           images to locate and              people and commodities
     patterns of population,             identify physical and human       (e.g., international trade in
     disease, economic                   features (e.g., mountain          petroleum, countries that
     features, rainfall,                 ranges, rivers, vegetation        produce and those that
     vegetation).                        regions, cities, dams,            consume resources,
3.   Describe the locations of           reservoirs).                      cartograms, population
     major physical and human       3.   Identify, using only a            pyramids).
     features in the community.          mental map, the countries      3. Explain the purposes and
4.   Explain how major urban             through which a person            distinguishing
     centers in Illinois are             would pass as they travel         characteristics of selected
     connected to other urban            along a straight line route       map projections, globes,
     centers in Illinois and the         between two major cities          aerial photos, and satellite
     United States (e.g.,                (e.g., Paris to Moscow,           images.
     transportation arteries,            Cairo to Nairobi).             4. Demonstrate understanding
     communication systems,         4.   Construct a choropleth map        of the spatial distribution of
     cultural and recreational           that shows the spatial            various phenomena by
     relationships).                     distribution of the data          using latitude and longitude
5.   Design symbols as                   (e.g., corn production in         to plot data on a base map
     references for map                  Illinois).                        of the United States or the
     interpretation and place       5.   Explain how major                 world (e.g., location of
     them in a legend/key to be          countries in the world are        professional sports teams in
     used on a map.                      connected and interrelate         the U.S. or the world).
6.   Determine the absolute              (e.g., trade, political
     location of places chosen           alliances, humanitarian
     by the teacher and                  concerns).
     students using a map grid      6.   Understand how parallels
     with latitude and longitude.        of latitude can be used to
                                         determine north-south
                                         direction and distance, and
                                         how meridians of longitude
                                         can be used to determine
                                         east-west direction and
                                         distance on a map or globe.



      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                              51

             Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can locate, describe and explain places, regions and
17A       features on Earth.

            Stage H                            Stage I                              Stage J
1.   Translate a mental map      1.   Determine approximate        1. Illustrate the spatial dynamics of
     into sketch form to              locations of places, both       contemporary and historical
     illustrate relative              local and global, featured      events (e.g., drawing a sketch
     location of, size of, and        in a newspaper or               map of the spread of radiation
     distances between                television story.               from the Chernobyl nuclear
     geographic features         2.   Evaluate the merits of          accident or of the bubonic plague
     (e.g., cities, mountains,        using specific map              in fourteenth-century Europe, how
     rivers).                         projections for specific        physical features have deterred
2.   Demonstrate                      purposes (e.g., use of the      migrations and invasions).
     understanding of how             Mercator projection for      2. Explain the advantages for
     to display spatial               navigation and the              retailers to locate in malls rather
     information by                   Robinson projection for         than in dispersed locations (e.g.,
     constructing maps,               depicting aerial                malls bring many large and small
     graphs, diagrams, and            distributions).                 stores together in close proximity
     charts to display spatial   3.   Identify the most               and take advantage of sharing
     information (e.g.,               appropriate maps and            costs for parking lots, lighting, and
     choropleth maps,                 graphics in an atlas to         other utilities while providing
     climographs,                     answer specific questions       convenience and time efficiency
     population pyramids).            about geographic issues         for customers).
3.   Analyze patterns of              (e.g., topography and        3. Determine potential spatial
     movement in space                transportation routes).         problems that may result in
     and time (e.g.,             4.   Compare sketch maps or          conflict (e.g., zoning changes,
     hurricane tracks over            photos to determine why         school district boundaries).
     several seasons, the             people perceive different    4. Develop maps, tables, graphs,
     spread of influenza              places in Illinois, the         charts, and diagrams to depict the
     throughout the world).           United States, and the          geographic implications of current
4.   Describe the location of         world in different ways.        world events (e.g., maps showing
     places using the global                                          changing political boundaries,
     system of time zones.                                            tables showing the distribution of
5.   Demonstrate                                                      refugees from areas affected by
     understanding of world                                           natural disaster).
     time zones by                                                 5. Evaluate specific technologies to
     determining the date                                             determine their usefulness in
     and time in selected                                             analyzing selected geographic
     cities around the world                                          problems (e.g., aerial
     in reference to                                                  photographs, satellite-produced
     Springfield, Illinois.                                           imagery, geographic information
                                                                      systems, and geographic
                                                                      positioning systems to determine
                                                                      the extent of water pollution in a
                                                                      harbor complex in South Africa or
                                                                      the range of deforestation in
                                                                      Madagascar).



      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
52

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can analyze and explain characteristics and interactions
17B      of Earth’s physical systems.

            Stage E                                Stage F                            Stage G
1. Demonstrate                        1. Identify the causes and          1. Explain how Earth-Sun
   understanding of Earth/Sun            nature of changes in                relationships affect Earth's
   relationship by preparing a           environmental stress zones          energy balance (e.g.,
   model or by designing a               (fragile environments) (e.g.,       heating of soil and water at
   demonstration to show the             the rain forests of Brazil,         different seasons of the
   tilt of Earth in relation to the      taiga, north slope of Alaska).      year, differential heating at
   Sun in order to explain            2. Describe the physical               different latitudes).
   day/night and length of day           environment of the students'     2. Identify and describe
   at different locations on             own region and the physical         different climates in terms of
   Earth.                                processes that act on it            precipitation and
2. Explain how and why                   (e.g., weather, tectonic            temperature and the types
   people alter the physical             forces, wave action, freezing       of plants and animals
   environment (e.g., by                 and thawing, gravity, soil          associated with each using
   creating irrigation projects,         building processes).                pictures, maps, and graphs.
   clearing land to make room         3. Describe ecosystems from         3. Analyze maps to determine
   for houses and shopping               local to global scales and          the relationship among
   centers, planting crops,              the difference between them         climate, natural vegetation,
   building roads).                      using photographs and other         and natural resources.
3. Explain the process of                media as illustrations.          4. Predict the effects of an
   erosion and its effects of         4. Explain how and why                 extreme weather
   rainfall on unprotected soil          ecosystems differ from place        phenomenon on the
   surfaces (e.g., newly tilled          to place as a consequence           physical environment (e.g.,
   farm fields, deforested               of differences in soils,            a hurricane's impact on a
   hillsides).                           climates, and human and             coastal ecosystem).
4. Explain the relationship              natural disturbances.
   between plants and
   animals in a local
   ecosystem.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)     Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                     53

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can analyze and explain characteristics and interactions
17B      of Earth’s physical systems.

             Stage H                            Stage I                            Stage J
1.   Analyze climographs for        1. Explain the patterns of        1. Analyze the global
     selected places and               features associated with          distribution of natural
     suggest reasons for               the margins of tectonic           resources to determine the
     similarities and differences      plates such as earthquake         relationship of resource
     in climates.                      zones and volcanic activity       availability to international
2.   Hypothesize about the             (e.g., the Ring of Fire           problems and issues.
     future effects of the use of      around the Pacific Ocean,      2. Explain how changes in the
     technology on Earth's             the San Andreas fault in          physical environment relate
     physical systems (e.g.,           coastal California).              to both natural and human
     climate, soil, air, water).    2. Explain how erosional             activity (e.g., earthquakes,
3.   Analyze the causes and            agents such as water and          forest fires, water and soil
     effects of changes over           ice produce distinctive           pollution).
     time in physical                  landforms (e.g., water and     3. Evaluate global
     landscapes (e.g., forest          badlands, ice and glacial         environmental changes to
     cover, water distribution,        valleys, waves and sea            determine whether the
     temperature fluctuations)         cliffs).                          changes are a result of
     as shown on maps,              3. Compare the relationships         human actions, natural
     graphs, and satellite             among Earth’s physical            causes, or a combination of
     produced images.                  processes (e.g., the              both factors (e.g., increases
4.   Predict the potential             relationships between             in world temperatures
     outcomes of the continued         ocean currents, prevailing        attributable to major global
     movement of Earth's               winds, and atmospheric            environmental changes,
     tectonic plates (e.g.,            pressure cells).                  results of the greenhouse
     continental drift,             4. Describe the ocean                effect attributable to human
     earthquakes, volcanic             circulation system and the        action, the link between
     activity).                        way it affects world climate      changes in solar emissions
                                       patterns.                         and amounts of volcanic
                                                                         dust in the atmosphere
                                                                         attributable to natural
                                                                         causes).
                                                                      4. Evaluate the carrying
                                                                         capacity of selected world
                                                                         regions to predict the likely
                                                                         consequences of exceeding
                                                                         their environmental limits
                                                                         (e.g., the impact of the
                                                                         economic exploitation of
                                                                         Siberia's resources on a
                                                                         fragile sub-Arctic
                                                                         environment).




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
54

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand relationships between geographic factors
17C       and society.

              Stage E                              Stage F                             Stage G
1.   Create a map showing the       1.    Compare the natural             1. Explain the different
     occurrence of natural                hazards that occur in              patterns in population
     hazards in Illinois and the          Illinois with those occurring      density using geographic
     United States.                       in other states to                 tools (e.g., pyramids,
2.   Map the location of                  determine their intensity          maps).
     students in your school by           and effect on people.           2. Identify human induced
     coloring the different areas   2.    Explain the concentrations         changes in landforms,
     (cafeteria, classrooms,              of urban settlement                climate, natural vegetation,
     gym, etc.) to show different         centers with high                  and resources of their local
     population densities at a            population density using           community, state of Illinois,
     given time of day.                   maps of Illinois and the           nation, and the world.
3.   Analyze map and aerial               United States.                  3. Analyze physical and
     photos of the local            3.    Evaluate effects of                human environments in
     community and Illinois to            technological change on            Illinois and the United
     determine how humans                 transportation,                    States to determine ways
     use, abuse, and protect              communications, and                that people adapt to and
     resources.                           resource use in Illinois, the      modify their environment.
4.   Identify factors that                United States, and the          4. Formulate several
     influence the location of            world.                             hypotheses about
     cities (e.g., transportation   4.    Identify ways that human           relationships among
     arteries, physical features,         behavior could be                  resources, manufacturing
     migration, business,                 changed to solve specific          and service industries,
     industry).                           environmental problems             transportation, and
                                          (e.g., outline a plan to           population densities in
                                          reduce litter and stream           different regions of the
                                          pollution).                        United States and the
                                                                             world.
                                                                          5. Predict the effects of an
                                                                             extreme weather
                                                                             phenomenon on human
                                                                             populations in different
                                                                             regions of the United States
                                                                             and the world (e.g.,
                                                                             hurricanes, flooding,
                                                                             tornadoes).
                                                                          6. Identify social, political, and
                                                                             economic factors that
                                                                             attract people to, and repel
                                                                             people from, urban centers.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)    Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                      55

           Social Science Performance Descriptors
        Students who meet the standard can understand relationships between geographic factors
17C     and society.

             Stage H                           Stage I                             Stage J
1. Explain the patterns of        1. Analyze major urban             1. Identify the characteristics of
   natural resource                  centers in the United States       cities in developing countries
   distribution (e.g.,               and the world to determine         and compare them to those
   petroleum, timber) in             how migration of different         of cities in developed
   various regions of the            ethnic groups has altered          countries in terms of physical
   United States and the             their population and               features, site, situation,
   world.                            functions.                         function, internal structure,
2. Identify reasons related to    2. Explain the different land         and level of technology use.
   the natural environment           use areas within cities in      2. Evaluate the effects of
   that influence the location       Illinois and the United            human activity on similar
   of certain human activities       States (e.g., residential,         environments under different
   (e.g., corn production in         commercial, recreational).         resource management
   Illinois, rice in Southeast    3. Formulate a plan to prolong        strategies (e.g., farming on
   Asia).                            the use of nonrenewable            the Great Plains as
3. Analyze rapidly growing           resources such as                  compared to the Ukraine).
   urban centers to determine        petroleum and precious          3. Explain how the uneven
   the impact of urban sprawl        minerals.                          distribution of resources can
   on the physical and human      4. Analyze urban disaster             result in global cooperation
   environment.                      preparedness plans to              and conflict among nations
4. Explain how human                 determine similarities and         in an increasingly
   induced alterations of the        differences in the ways            interdependent world.
   environment have resulted         cities prepare for different    4. Analyze the impact of major
   in human migration (e.g.,         types of natural disasters         natural disasters and their
   “Okies” from the Dust Bowl        (e.g., earthquakes in              connections to other areas of
   to California, the expanding      Tokyo, Japan; hurricanes in        the world (e.g., drought,
   Sahara).                          Charleston, SC).                   floods, hurricanes).
5. Rank natural hazards           5. Analyze a map showing the       5. Explain how people adapt to
   based on the degree of            origin of products                 and modify their environment
   impact on people and the          purchased by United States         in ways that reveal their
   physical environment (e.g.,       citizens (e.g., automobile,        cultural values,
   loss of life, destruction of      clothing, electronics).            economic/political systems,
   property, economic impact,                                           and technological levels.
   alteration of ecosystems).                                        6. Analyze newspaper articles,
                                                                        magazines, and media
                                                                        reports to determine regional
                                                                        differences in environmental
                                                                        problems throughout the
                                                                        United States and the world.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
56

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand the historical significance of geography.
17D
             Stage E                               Stage F                             Stage G
1.   Compare maps of the            1.   Explain how technological       1.   Describe instances of how
     United States showing               developments have                    places can be changed or
     landforms, climate, and             influenced the migration of          destroyed as a result of
     natural vegetation regions          people to and within the             natural processes.
     to maps that show                   United States over time.        2.   Describe how humans have
     population distribution to     2.   Analyze selected historical          adapted to environmental
     identify the relationship           events to determine how              changes caused by natural
     between settlement and              they influenced the migration        processes.
     physical features.                  of people throughout the        3.   Explain how human
2.   Analyze how customs and             world.                               characteristics of a place
     traditions of people from      3.   Hypothesize about                    are influenced by
     different parts of the world        relationships between                acculturation (e.g., Spanish
     change over time.                   physical features and the            culture in Middle and South
3.   Describe how physical               occurrence of human                  America and the United
     characteristics of a region         activities of a particular           States Southwest, Hindu
     or a nation influence               place and how these                  and Muslim culture in
     people’s points of view and         activities changed over the          Southeast Asia).
     the decisions they make             years.                          4.   Explain how an
     over time (e.g., scarcity of   4.   Analyze how physical                 environmental change in
     water influences water              features have both posed             one part of the world can
     usage, mining resources in          barriers and provided                affect places in other parts
     mountainous regions,                avenues to settlement in             of the world over periods of
     logging forested land in            Illinois and the United              time.
     forested areas).                    States.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)      Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                               57

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand the historical significance of geography.
17D
             Stage H                              Stage I                             Stage J
1.   Describe how legacies of      1.   Explain how human use of          1. Explain the reasons why
     the past have affected past        resources has changed                people would choose to
     and present human                  over time and how these              change from a dispersed
     characteristics of places          changes have affected                rural to a concentrated
     (e.g., wealth and poverty,         settlement patterns (e.g.,           urban form of settlement
     exploitation, colonialism          discovery of gold in                 (e.g., the need for a
     and independence).                 California and Alaska).              marketplace, religious
2.   Explain, in terms of “push-   2.   Formulate generalizations            needs, military protection).
     pull” factors, the major           about how technological           2. Examine ways in which
     population movements that          developments have                    ecosystems have changed
     have occurred in the past          affected the quality of life in      (e.g., as a result of different
     and may occur among                regions and nations                  stages of human
     places and regions.                throughout the world.                occupancy, shifting
3.   Analyze maps of human         3.   Analyze how the physical             population densities, new
     settlement and routes              characteristics of places            levels of technology).
     traveled in the past to            and regions have                  3. Analyze major human
     determine the relationship         influenced the migration of          conflicts to determine the
     between where people               people (e.g., Ice Age,               role of physical and cultural
     lived and their movements.         Potato Famine, Dust Bowl).           geographic features in the
                                   4.   Compare past and present             causes, conflict, and
                                        types of settlements in the          outcomes.
                                        United States and other
                                        countries to determine
                                        similarities and differences
                                        (e.g., the colonial South of
                                        the United States vs. the
                                        colonial North settlement of
                                        Australia).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)     Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)    Grade 11-12 (I-J)
58

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can compare characteristics of culture as reflected in
18A      language, literature, the arts, traditions, and institutions.

            Stage E                              Stage F                             Stage G
1. Describe how culture is         1.   Compare and contrast two        1. Describe what is studied
   shared through music, art,           or more cultures in terms of       within the field of
   and literature throughout the        expressions of those               anthropology.
   world over time.                     cultures.                       2. Describe how a culture is
2. Describe how an artistic        2.   Compare a culture with             reflected in its art, music,
   tradition has been changed           one's own through the use          and/or architecture and
   by technology (e.g.,                 of written, auditory, or           institutions.
   photography, music).                 visual materials.               3. Explain how technology and
3. Describe how social             3.   Compare cultural                   the media have impacted
   celebrations (parades, fairs)        differences/similarities from      expressive culture.
   reinforce cultural values.           other parts of the world in     4. Analyze examples of
4. Compare the celebration of           terms of their language,           patterns within literature,
   holidays by cultures                 literature, and arts.              art, music, and/or
   throughout the world.           4.   Explain how social                 architecture being
5. Compare cultural                     scientists analyze                 transmitted from place to
   differences/similarities with        expressive culture and             place.
   students from a different            social discourse.
   part of the United States.      5.   Identify what cultural
                                        relativism means.
                                   6.   Give an example of
                                        ethnocentrism.
                                   7.   Describe culture shock.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                        59

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can compare characteristics of culture as reflected in
18A       language, literature, the arts, traditions, and institutions.

            Stage H                              Stage I                              Stage J
1. Predict how                      1. Describe how different           1. Distinguish between
   technology/media will               cultures are depicted in            acculturation and
   impact culture during the           literature and the arts of the      assimilation.
   student's lifetime.                 United States.                   2. Explain how cultural
2. Analyze immigration              2. Identify cultural traditions        characteristics are
   patterns to see how                 from other lands that have          manifested in political and
   American cultures have              been integrated into                economic systems.
   been shaped.                        American life.                   3. Analyze advantages and
3. Identify various cultures that   3. Analyze how various cultural        disadvantages of living in a
   have combined to create a           groups have impacted the            pluralistic society.
   larger, multicultural               student's culture.               4. Evaluate how changes in
   American society.                4. Analyze the ways that               social institutions reflect
4. Define the concept of the           conflicts can be resolved in        political, environmental,
   global community.                   a pluralistic society.              economic, and technological
5. Draw conclusions about           5. Assess the impact of outside        changes in a culture.
   how the media creates               influences on a given culture    5. Evaluate how technology
   and/or reinforces societal          (e.g., western music on             instills cultural values.
   norms.                              Asian society).                  6. Describe a folk or
6. Evaluate the role of the         6. Give an example of a                mythological interpretation of
   humanities (e.g., literature,       technological change                a social or physical
   art, music, architecture) in a      creating cultural dissonance.       phenomenon.
   culture.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)    Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
60

             Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand the roles and interactions of individuals
18B       and groups in society.

              Stage E                               Stage F                            Stage G
1.   Analyze how social              1.   Compare and contrast the        1. Describe what is studied
     institutions or groups meet          concepts of conformity and         within the field of sociology.
     the needs of people.                 deviance.                       2. Describe what is studied
2.   Explain how interactions of     2.   Examine how the media              within the field of
     individuals and groups               portrays conformity and            psychology.
     impact the local                     deviance.                       3. Identify examples of how
     community.                      3.   Identify examples of how           social, political, and
3.   Describe how national                an individual internalizes         economic institutions work
     institutions affect                  group norms.                       together.
     individuals in the local        4.   Compare formal and              4. Analyze the reasons why
     community.                           informal means of social           social institutions change
4.   Give an example of how               control.                           over time.
     different social institutions   5.   Analyze the effectiveness       5. Identify how an individual
     or groups (e.g., religious,          of a national or local social      may influence institutional
     nonprofit and community              institution in addressing a        or group behavior.
     groups) address the same             social problem (e.g., DARE,     6. Analyze the roles that
     social problem.                      MADD).                             various public and private
                                                                             institutions play as agents
                                                                             of socialization (e.g.,
                                                                             schools).




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)     Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                            61

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand the roles and interactions of individuals
18B      and groups in society.

             Stage H                                Stage I                           Stage J
1.   Describe how interaction        1.   Analyze the effectiveness       1. Analyze a local social issue
     among people brings                  of different types of              by collecting and
     about social change (e.g.,           institutions (e.g.,                interpreting data.
     natives and colonizers,              educational, governmental,      2. Distinguish between
     Peace Corps volunteers).             charitable) in meeting             achieved status and
2.   Explain how changing                 similar social needs.              ascribed status.
     topics of self and groups       2.   Compare the role and            3. Assess the effect of
     (e.g., minorities, women,            effectiveness of social            technology on the status
     children, adolescents)               institutions in other              and role of individuals.
     have affected the roles of           countries with those in the     4. Describe how an individual
     social institutions.                 United States (e.g.,               can work with others to
3.   Explain how the changing             schools, relief agencies).         make a change in official
     concept of social               3.   Distinguish between norms          social policy.
     institutions affects groups          and mores.                      5. Compare how a
     in society (e.g., minorities,   4.   Explain likely                     government agency and a
     women, children,                     consequences for                   private agency approach
     adolescents).                        nonconformity in a social          the resolution of a social
4.   Describe how such groups             group.                             problem.
     as social clubs, schools,       5.   Explain how the concept of      6. ASO Explain a theory of a
     and churches influence               gender is a social                 prominent sociologist or
     the preservation and                 construct.                         psychologist.
     transmission of culture.        6.   Explain how race is a social
                                          construct.
                                     7.   Explain how policymakers
                                          influence social and
                                          economic statuses (e.g.,
                                          tax policy, child labor laws,
                                          suffrage).




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)      Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
62

           Social Science Performance Descriptors
         Students who meet the standard can understand how social systems form and develop
18C      over time.

             Stage E                         Stage F                            Stage G
1. Define belief system.          1. Define subsistence             1. Define the concept of
2. Describe ways school              strategy.                         diversity.
    administrators, teachers,     2. Differentiate among pre-       2. Assess the impact that
    students, and parents can        industrial, industrial, and       commonly held beliefs have
    cooperate to address             postindustrial societies.         had on social groups in the
    school issues.                3. Describe how the change           United States over time.
3. Identify historically             from hunter-gatherer to        3. Describe the contributions
    significant people who           settled society affected          of significant individuals and
    affected social life or          social roles.                     groups to the common
    institutions.                 4. Explain how changes in the        belief system of the United
                                     mode of production in a           States.
                                     society affect educational,    4. Describe how citizens and
                                     governmental, religious,          government can cooperate
                                     and economic institutions.        or have cooperated to solve
                                                                       an important social
                                                                       problem.
                                                                    5. Predict what social
                                                                       problems will become more
                                                                       pressing in the future.




     Grade 6 (E-F-G)   Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
                                                                                                      63

            Social Science Performance Descriptors
          Students who meet the standard can understand how social systems form and develop
18C       over time.

             Stage H                             Stage I                            Stage J
1. Explain how diverse groups        1. Identify historical examples   1. SO Analyze the positive and
   have enriched United States          of how different ideas about      negative impact of
   culture.                             emotions, motivation, and         modernization on cultural
2. Analyze how the ideals of            personality have led to           and physical environments.
   the Founders have                    significant social change.     2. SO Analyze the impact of
   influenced the development        2. Analyze the social effects        emerging sociological or
   of multicultural society in the      of major cultural                 psychological thought on
   United States.                       exchanges.                        various social institutions.
3. Explain the impact of             3. Give examples of global        3. ASO Evaluate the
   prejudice on the operation           communication and                 effectiveness of
   of United States social,             economic activity.                sociological/psychological
   political, and economic           4. Analyze the changing              theory in explaining
   institutions over time.              global perceptions of             individual and group
4. Define cultural exchange             various social groups in the      behavior (e.g., peer
   and provide examples of              United States.                    pressure, consumer
   cultural exchange between         5. Analyze how global                behavior, “mob psychology”).
   two groups.                          communications have
                                        affected cultural exchanges
                                        in the contemporary world.




      Grade 6 (E-F-G)    Grade 7 (F-G-H)   Grade 8 (G-H-I)   Grade 9-10 (H-I-J)   Grade 11-12 (I-J)
64
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