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THE INTERFERENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE LEARNING

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									THE INTERFERENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN STUDENTS’
                    LANGUAGE LEARNING
                              A PAPER
   Submitted as a Partial Fulfilment in Seminar on language Teaching




                   Lecture: Dr. Hermayawati, M.Pd




                                 By:
                          Titis Wisnu Wijaya
                              07004114
                              B CLASS




         ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
               AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY
                         YOGYAKARTA
                                2010
                                 INTRODUCTION
       English which is an international language is used for communication in many
countries around the world especially in the globalization era when technology and
communication grow rapidly. The communication bacomes the the most important
thing to convey the message, the information, the knowledge, etc. In addition, there
are a lot of news and information, that are writen and brodcasted in english. This fact
demands everyone to master english.
       English mastery becomes the main need to face the globalization era.
According to lado (1977:9) proficiency in the target language includes the four skills:
listening, reading, writing and speaking. Learning english should involve four skill:
listening, reading, writing, and speaking. We should also learn the language
component which supports the mastery of four language skills. The language
component are pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. Brown (1987:154) states
teaching the english language generally means teaching the four skills namly
listening, reading, writing and speaking, and language component, namely
pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
       The goal oflearning a lnaguage including english is that we can communicate
writely and spoken using english. As the goverment instruct to the education
institution includingschool, universityand informal education institutions, in evey
english language teaching, it is expected for students to have abilities to communicate
using english actively to face the globalization era. In other words students are
expected not only to understandenglish but also use english for communication.
       However in fact the students have difficulties to speak english or they can
speak english but with incorrect pronunciation and there are many difficulties and
error for students, because speaking is a matter habit so if they wants to learn a
foreign language the students will abviously meet all kinds of learning problems. In
this paper the writer will explain some problems of mother tongue.
       The first problem is there is contrastive analysis between mother tongue and
second language including english language. The analysis is quite enough to show
that the mother tongue has big influence in learning english speakingfor students.
Preoccupation of linguists and applied linguist. The errors and difficulties that occur
in students learning and use of a foreign language are caused by interference of
mother tonguewherever the structure of foreign language differs from that of the
mother tongue we can expect in learning and error in performance.
       The second is fact of mother tongue interference, the students problems are
caused by the interferrence of mother tongue.there are some aspect of language that
interference by the mother tongue. First aspect is morphology that study of field of
words. This knowledge is clossely related to grammatika, second aspect is syntactic.
Syntactic is study about relation accompany of words and accompany group of words
(or accompany of phrase) name in the basic of syntactic is sentence, and the third
aspect is phonetic and phonology. The both system have affinity. katamba (1989) to
formulate that “phonology is the branch of linguistics, which investigates the ways in
which sounds are used systematically in different languages to form words and
utterence”this knowledge are study of sound system that called phones or speech
sounds. Students come from the different areas that have differents sounds system
with the second language including english. The students will meet difficulties in their
learning process may be easily understood because since childhood they have been
speaking their mother tongue, their speech organs have been set to produce the speech
sounds of their own language. In theis treatment we will focus our attention only on
the problems concerned with pronunciation.
       There are three reason for pronunciation problems such as: the different
elements in sound system between the native and the foreign language that not
consistent, another learning problems may be caused by sounds which have the same
phonetic features in both language but differ in their distribution, the last the similar
sounds in the two language which have different variant or allophones.
       Last problem is how the students learn a foreign language. We know very
little of psychology (emotional, memory, process, order) of learning. Teaching
methode have been largely the collected practice and teaching habits of paticular
teachers who reacted to the memory of their own experience in learning, the example
of their own teachers, and the fashion which seemed prevalent or attractive at a
particular moment in the history of languge teaching.
       From the above there are many problems from students and teachers to learn
and teach the second language that are caused by interferference of mother tongue
such as:(1) what is the contrastive analysis between mother tongue and language
teaching?(2)what is error analysis?(3) What the fact of mother tongue interference?(4)
And the last is how the students learn a foreign languge?
       The objective at the study in this research as follows: (1) to understand what is
the contrastive analysis?(2) to explain the error analysis (3) to undestand the fact of
mother tongue interference? ( 4)to be able to learn foreign language.
       Mother tongue is the basic language to there are many difficulties and error to
master the english language but it can be anticipated although it can not correct
pronunciation bacause speaking is a matter of habit. This paper can be useful for the
reader because in this paper there are some solution for teachers or students that have
learning foreign language to easily the learner to face the several of students area. For
the writer this paper is very important to finish their task, beside that with write about
mother tongue interference the writer have many knowledge and have solution to
master the foreign languge and not stubborn in face the error and difficulties that
caused by interference of mother tongue.
       The significant at the study in this research is as follows: (1) for the teachers,
the writer hopes that the result of the study can be reference for english teachers. It
can be a good guide forr the teachers to teach their students correctly especially in
teacing english language in general(or in four skill such as speaking, writing, reading
and listening).(2) for the students are to be able to know how to learn english
language fluently and pronounciation in correctly and avoid the error. (3) for the
writer, the result of this research will give some useful knowledge and experiences for
her in learning and improving english. (4) for the other writer it may offer some
information to other researchers who are interested to research the similar topics to
carry out further studies on the interference of mother tongue.


                                     DISCUSSION
   A. Contrastive analysis
       This evidence is quite enough to show how widespread influence of the
   mother tongue is. As evidence it is not new. Most the examples a have citied will
   long have been familiar to practicing teachers. What is new is the recognition of
   the extent of the phenomena and the effort that has been made to make
   systematike use of this information in language teaching. A significant proportion
   of language learning theory has been based upon evidence of the sort that i have
   presented. A whole field of interest, usually called contrastive analysis has gown
   up and become a major preocupation of linguist and applied linguist. For many
   people aplied linguistic is contrastive analysis. It has been set up for comparative
study of languages with the justification that the result will prove significant and
valuable for language teaching.
   The errors and difficulties that occur in learning and use of foreign language
are caused by the interference of the mother tongue. Wherever the structure of the
foreign language differs from that of the mother tongue we can expect both
difficulty in lerning and error in performance where the structure of the two
language are the same, no difficulty, it can be anticipate and teaching is not
necessary. Teaching will be influenceby the point of where there are structural
differences. The difficulties will emerge from the various group of people
learning, say. English as a foreign language will change according to their mother
tongue, and since teaching is to be directed at the differences between languages,
if a comparative study ~ a contrastive analysis ~ of the target language and the
mother tongue is carried out, the differences between the language can be
discovered and it becomes possible to predict the difficulties that the learners will
have. It is determined what the learner and teachers must balance to make easier
in study.
   As a teacher do not stubborn in face the error and difficulties that caused by
interference of mother tongue. There are many teachers that not understand about
the theory of linguistics so that they often stubborn in teaching a language. A
wealth of telling practical experience, often without theoretical pretence or an in –
depth understanding of the long history behind the topic. Alternatively we can
look at a case involving a language lecturer at York University, who is inspiring
everybody with her 50 participant strong Italian course: “she‟s breaking every rule
there is. She translates everything as she goes along, she mixes in a lot of
grammar, and she has students parroting phrases and answer”. (Times educational
supplement,(3october 1975)
B. Error analysis
error analysis was an alternative to contrastive analysis, an approach influenced by
behaviourism through which applied linguist sought to use the formal distinctions
between the learners first and second language to predict error. Error can be
classified according to basic type: omisive, substitutive or related to word order,
and so on. Error in learning second language are very complects depend on the
learner how they can solve their error in learning. Because the error can also
classified to according to the feel of language: phonological errors, vocabulary
errors or lexical errors. Syntactic error and so on. They may be assessed according
to the degree to which they interefere with communication: global error make an
utterance difficult to understand, while error do not. In the above example, “ I
angry” would be local error, since the meaning apparent.
   From the beginning error analysis was beset with methodological problem. In
particular, the above typologies are problematic: from linguistic data alone, it is
often impossible to reliably determine what kind of error a learner making. Also,
error analysis can be deal effectively only with learner production (speaking and
writing) and not with learner reception (listening and reading). Furthermore, it
canot account for learner use of communicative strategies such a evidence, which
learner simply do not use form with which they are uncomfortable. For these
reasons, although error analysis is still used to investigate specific question in
second language, the quest for an overacting theory of learner errors has largely
been abandoned.
   There are some significant of error in learning English language as follows:
 In general when the native language of the students has more phonemic
   distinctions in a phonetic area then the foreign language, he find little
   difficulty adjusting, to the simpler phonemic pattern. Even when transferred to
   the foreign language they do not produce phonemic problems but merely
   distortion that gives their speech a foreign flavour but not different linguistic
   meaning.
 In general when the student goes from a simpler phonemic system to a more
   complex one he has difficulty producing and hearing the distinction that
   constitutes greater complexity.
 in matters of significant items of word order, function word, and correlation of
   forms the students will transfer the form of his native language with its
   meaning to the foreign language. For example, if the native language of the
   students indicate a modifier by position after the head in a modification
   structure, and the foreign language indicates this type of modifier by position
   after the head in a modification structure, and the foreign language indicates
   this type of modifier by a position before the head, the students will have
   persistent difficulty placing the modifier before the head as he does habitually
   in his native language. In listening and reading he will take as head what is
   modifier and as modifier what is head. If he is Spanish speaker he may
        understand milk chocolate to be a kind of milk and chocolate milk to be a kind
        of chocolate, instead of the opposite, which is their sense in English.
      Corollary. Learning the problems, that is, the structural matters that differ
        between the two languages, is learning the foreign language. Actually they are
        transferred from the native language and since they function satisfactorily they
        do not have to be learned anew.




     C. Fact of mother tongue interference
        Language is a system, it means that language has certain rules that are learned
and used by human when they are speaking or writing. Some of the rules can be seen
in phonology. On phonology we know that only certain sound system can be used in a
language. If there were no system in a language, there would not be a language. We
can learn a language because it has the system. A foreign language students will meet
with difficulties in their learning process may be easily understood. Since childhood
he has been speaking his mother tongue, which has been explanted in him as part of
his habits.
        There are some aspects of language that are interference by mother tongue
those are:
1.      Morphology
      Morphology is closely related to grammatical, it is absolute case because every
words can be segmented to parts of words, its‟ name is phoneme, but that phonemes
does not must in the form of morpheme. For example in the word “Lombok” it has six
phonemes that are /L/, /O/, /M/, /B/, /O/, /K/ that constitute only one morpheme.
Beside that words can consist of two morphemes like “sleeps” in English language. In
“sleeps” word there are two morphemes those are “sleep and s” in Javanese language
“e” in “anake” “anakntya” is constitute morpheme and so it is with England language
“t” is constitute morpheme in “er loopt” (ia) berjalan or er lauft in germane language.
2.      Syntactic
      It is discuss all that are connection between the words and between the group of
words (or between the phrase) in the one syntactic basic is sentence, object and
adverb and so on. There are some problems need to explain like function of object
that often divided into direct object and indirect object. For example in English
sentence “I gave her the book” so “her” is an indirect object and “the book” as direct
object. The constituent of “her” can be used as (filler) of subject passive in the
sentence, so that sentence will be a sentence “she was given the book (by me).
     Then the direct object is also can be changed as subject of passive sentence like
“the book was given her (by me). All of that be rid of fact that function of “she or her”
are receiver. Indirect object is never there because the functional of English structure
in this case are extremely different from Indonesian language.
3.     Phonetic and phonology
     phonetic and phonology, the both system have affinity. katamba (1989) to
formulate that “phonology is the branch of linguistics, which investigates the ways in
which sounds are used systematically in different languages to form words and
utterence”this knowledge are study of sound system that called phones or speech
sounds. Students come from the different areas that have differents sounds system
with the second language including english.
     A foreign language students will meet with difficulties in their learning process
may be easily understood. Since childhood he has been speaking his mother tongue,
which has been deeply explanted in him as part of his habits. The movements of his
speech organs have been set to produce the speech sound of his own language; it will,
of course, be difficult for him to change the habit of moving his speech organs in such
a way as produce the foreign sound.
       Speaking is a mater of habit, for child in his effort to learn to speak his
vernacular. Through constant imitation and repetition of the utterances produced by
the people around him he succeeds in speaking the mother tongue in the same way as
his elders. This takes place when the child is about six to eight years old, at which age
he is considered to be an adult linguistically. In later years he may want to learn a
second or foreign language, which means that he is going to learn new set of habit in
speaking. The students will difficult in pronunciation the pronunciation problem such
as        different       sound         system,differentallophones,andphoneticfeature
PROF.Dr.Ramelan,M.A.(1985:7-6)
       There are three reasons in pronunciation problems, it is very useful for
teachers to understand and as a key to teach the students that have difficulties in
learning foreign language. The difficulty encountered by the students in learning
foreign language is caused by the different elements found between their language
and target language. On the other hand, elements of the foreign language which are
similar to those found in one‟s native language will not offer any problems. The
pronunciation problems are:
    Different elements in sound system between the native and the foreign language
     may be of several kinds. One of them is the existence of a given sound in the
     latter, which is not found in the former. The foreign sound is thus completely
     new to the students, such as the first sound of the English word „thigh‟ an
     Indonesian students will find it difficult to pronounce that sound since his
     speech organs have never been trained or moved to produce it. The chances are
     that he will replace it with another sound of his own that closely resembles it
     like /t/ or /s/; so, instead of pronouncing /ai/ he would say /tal/ or /sal/. Other
     English sound which is not found in Indonesian is, for instance, those that are
     represented by the italicized latter in the following words: veal, then, choke,
     joke, she, pleasure, etc.
    Another learning problem may be caused by sound which have the same
     phonetic feature in both language but differ in their distribution-that is when and
     where they may occur in an utterance. This can be illustrated by the so-called
     voiced stop consonants /b, d, g/ which are found in both English and Indonesian.
     But differ in their distributions. In English those stops occur at utterance initial,
     medial and final position such as in the following words: book, ago, sad,. In
     Indonesian however they occur only at word initial and medial words: beras,
     kabar, in Indonesian orthography the latter b, d, g are sometimes found at word
     final position such as in sebab , abad, grobag, but they are pronounced as,
     voiceless stops. That is /p/ /t/ and /k/ respectively.
    There is still another source of difficulty that is caused by similar sound in the
     two languages, which have different variant or allophones. An allophone is a
     conditioned variant of significant group of sound which occurs in a fixed and
     predictable environment. Both English and Indonesian have the so-called
     voiceless stop consonants /p, t, k/. the Indonesian stops have one variant only, I,
     e,, the phonetic features remain unchanged whenever or wherever they occur,
     either in initial, medial, or final position, for instance, the voiceless stops
     consonants on other hand, have more than one variant: in stressed syllables they
     are aspirated or pronounced with a slight puff of breath as in /ph il/ thelk/, lhu:I/
     in any other environment, however, they are an aspirated as in the words upper,
     better, beckon. Consequently, an Indonesian student will have difficulty in
     pronouncing the English aspirated voiceless stops in stressed positions, since
     their own voiceless stops consonants have no such variant in similar situation.
       The problems faced by the foreign language learner are especially caused by
differences found between the students language and the target language so as a
teachers if they want to teaching practice in to a classroom where the student were
learning an English language and if we listened to them speaking that language or
observed their attempt to write it, we should notice before long that the same mistakes
of pronunciation, spelling, grammar ate tended to recur in the language of different
individuals. In time too we should probably be able to identify the mother tongue of
the students even if not a word if it not has been spoken in the classroom. Our ability
to recognize the provenance of somebody who speaks our language with accent. We
will focus our attention on the pronunciation problems, because in this case
pronunciation is the most difficult problems.
   C. A few of possible significant
    In general when the native language of the students has more phonemic
       distinctions in a phonetic area then the foreign language, he find little
       difficulty adjusting, to the simpler phonemic pattern. Even when transferred to
       the foreign language they do not produce phonemic problems but merely
       distortion that gives their speech a foreign flavour but not different linguistic
       meaning.
    In general when the student goes from a simpler phonemic system to a more
       complex one he has difficulty producing and hearing the distinction that
       constitutes greater complexity.
    in matters of significant items of word order, function word, and correlation of
       forms the students will transfer the form of his native language with its
       meaning to the foreign language. For example, if the native language of the
       students indicate a modifier by position after the head in a modification
       structure, and the foreign language indicates this type of modifier by position
       after the head in a modification structure, and the foreign language indicates
       this type of modifier by a position before the head, the students will have
       persistent difficulty placing the modifier before the head as he does habitually
       in his native language. In listening and reading he will take as head what is
       modifier and as modifier what is head. If he is Spanish speaker he may
       understand milk chocolate to be a kind of milk and chocolate milk to be a kind
       of chocolate, instead of the opposite, which is their sense in English.
    Corollary. Learning the problems, that is, the structural matters that differ
       between the two languages, is learning the foreign language. Actually they are
       transferred from the native language and since they function satisfactorily they
       do not have to be learned anew.
   D. How the students learn a foreign language
       Although we have made considerable progress in the linguistic understanding
of problems in learning a foreign language, we know very little of the psychology
(emotional, memory, process, order) of learning. Teaching methods have been largely
the collected practice and teaching habits of particular teachers who reacted to the
memory of their own experience in learning, the example of their own teachers, and
the fashion which seemed prevalent or attractive at a particular moment in the history
of language teaching. It would be interesting and profitable to analyse the psychology
of language learning underlying each of the more widely known methods, regardless
of whether or not its author ever consciously worked out the psychology of language
learning underlying his views.
       We need to know the element to be learned, the order in which they are
learned, and other matters of importance. such as element, Among the general
elements to be learned there is the linguistic form to be produced and heard, to be
remembered, and to be established as a habit at the speed of speech for production and
recognition in whatever environments it fits and in which it is permitted. There is also
the meaning to be grasped, limited, remembered, and established as a habit at normal
speaking delivery and/ or effective reading speed.
       And the other is also important is order of learning. Sometimes the students
learn a form – a word or a construction – before learning its meaning. Later coming in
contact with the same form in situation which makes sense to him or completes the
partial sense which he could not accept previously, he discovers that finally he knows
what this form means. In general this is a case in which the students already knows
the meaning as part of his experience, and the final clarification is only a matter of
associating this form with the meaning he already knows. In other instances he
remembers a meaning but cannot recall the form that conveys it. There is strange in
which they can encode meanings by consciously putting together the various elements
and units that constitute the utterance. At this stage they speak haltingly, with long
phrases at places where normally there should be none. When reading, they slowly
put together each word phrase, clause, and sentence by parts. For many students of
foreign language this stag is the highest ever attained. Not coming in contact with
native speaker of the foreign language they and their teacher are apt to feel that
knowing the foreign language.
       The last important element in learning foreign language is “age”. Like walking
or cycling, speaking is a matter of habit. The acquisition of any habit is accomplished
through repeated and untiring practice on the part of the learner. This also happens to
a child in his effort to learn to speak his vernacular. Through constant imitation and
repetition of the utterances produced by the people around him to be succeed in
speaking the mother tongue in the same way as his elders. This takes place when the
child is about six to eight years old, at which age he is considered to be an adult
linguistically. In later years he may want to learn to learn second or foreign language,
which means that he is going to learn a new set of habit of speaking his first language,
his efforts to learn the new language will meet with strong opposition from his old
established habits, which is called habit interference.
        Adult and older people have the problems of transfer of the habits of the
native language more severely than younger people. Adult and older people have
maximum difficulty in remembering the sounds they finally learn to hear and to
produce, and they have the same difficulty establishing the new sounds as habits of
speech. To such learners the use of written symbols for clarification and as an aid to
their memory seems to be a definite help.
       Younger people, as young as three and four years old, have great facility
imitating foreign sounds and remembering them. The three and four year olds have no
use for written symbols as an aid to pronunciation. Elementary School children
learning a foreign language could learn its pronunciation without recourse to writing.
Teaching them the writing system of the foreign language is an end in itself and not
and aid to speaking. High school children are at a transition stage in which limited use
of special symbols can be assistance. All students of psychology, for they think and
react, and they probably think about our behaviour occasionally.
       Child learners differ from adult learners in many ways. Their attention is of
shorter duration, they are quite differently motivated and their interest are less
specialised. In terms of physical ability it is probably in the area of visual and aural
comprehension that there are the greatest differences between child and adult learner.
It is in every teachers and parents experience that children go through stage of listing
items in one picture, classifying the event in each pictures and then to preface or
extend the total content of the sequence of pictures. Reading and writing speeds, in
the native language and at a level of content well within the students ability, are
physical abilities with a large intellectual component. Fluency and accuracy of speech
(in terms of his normal performance in his own native speech) have a negative rather
than positive contribution to language learning; they can inhibit control of a language
and may prevent the achievement of full proficiency.
                                 CONCLUSSION


1. Language is unique. If we compare one language with another language we will
   see that there are similarities and differences. Each language has some
   characteristics which make it different from other languages. These characteristic
   are concerned with the sound system, the system of words formation, the system
   of sentence formation and other systems.
2. Language is a system it has certain rules that are learned and used by human when
   they are speaking or writing. Some of the rules can be seen in phonology. On
   phonology we know that only certain sound system can be used in a language. If
   there were no system on a language, there would not be a language. We can learn
   a language because it has a system.
3. Influence of mother tongue in learning foreign language including English is, as
   evidence it is not new.
4. In learning foreign language including English the students will find many
   problems that caused by interference of mother tongue. And they have difficulties
   to speak English or they can speak English but with incorrect pronunciation.
5. There are many difficulties and error for students, because speaking is a matter of
   habit so if they wants to learn a foreign language the students will obviously meet
   with all kinds learning problems such as how to pronounce, because there are
   many difficulties to pronounce foreign language because since childhood the
   students have speaking their mother tongue, which has been deeply explanted in
   him as part of his habits.
6. There are some aspects that interference of mother tongue such as morphology,
   syntactic, phonetic and phonology because they are aspect of language that have
   related each other.
7. To fluent in English language the students can practice the second language with
   the native and use the second language for communicate each other, so the key is
   practice and practice.
                                BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ilen W.S., 1951. Living English Speech. Longmans.
Ramlan. 1985. English Phonetics. IKIP Semarang Press.
Widdoson, G, H. 1997. Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics. In honour.
         Oxford University Press.
Wilkins, D.1994. Linguistics in Language Teaching. In R.E. Asher (ed.): the the
         encyclopaedia language and linguistics (vol.1).oxford:p pergamon press.
Muhammad. 2004. Belajar Mikro Linguistik. LIEBE book press. Banguntapan Bantul
         Yogyakarta
Alwi et.al. 2000. Tata Buku Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta.Balai Pustaka.
Keraaf, goryss. 1991. Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia
         Widia Sarana.


Electronic sources
http://www.wikipedia.com/resources/units/unit1/unit-7.shtml.

								
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