THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MASTERY OF PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND PRONUNCIATION PROCESIENCI by luckykey

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									THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MASTERY OF
PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND PRONUNCIATION
                PROCESIENCI




                       By
                Fiqhiyatul hakimah
                    07004120




      ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
  FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
          AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY
                YOGYAKARTA
                      2009
A. Title: the relationship between mastery phonetic transcription and pronunciation
process
B. The field of the research: Linguistic
A. Background of the Study (1,5)
      The most important thing to communicate is language. Language is one of the
communication means. Whardaugh (1997: 7) states that language allows people to say thing
to each other and to express communicative needs. The study of language cannot be
separated from context of situation. People use language to think, express the idea, convey
their massage and communicate each other. Everywhere, people always need language
because people are bound of language
      Language has various the part, for example Speaking in speaking the are many
material that can support the speaking skill that make it better such as pronunciation, fluency,
the intonation is good, the stress is exact, reading skill there is the other aspect that it can
support the reading skill to be better such us vocabulary, understanding the sentence well, the
fluently of reading, in another skill, listening it is also have various of the aspect that can
support such us mastery the idiom, mastery the vocabulary and act.
      speaking skill need clearly pronunciation and intonation, there are many student that
they can not speaking and pronunciation the word well, because of this, the partner of
speaking don’t understand what he/ she mean, beside that it can caused misunderstanding
with each other, speaking is tool for us to communicate with the other people, if we don’t
understand what they mean, it can be caused falling out in the society
      now, there are many student that they don’t understand the phonetic transcription
mean, so that they can not pronounce the English word correctly, English word is different
with the other language such us Indonesia, in Indonesia there is no differences between the
writing and reading, but in English There is differences between the writing word and
reading word, for example: book in Indonesia it can be read by book and in English it can be
read by /bu:k/.
      This proposal try to investigate the some certain factors of mastery of phonetic
transcription and pronunciation process, pronunciation process have some materials and
phonetic transcription also has some materials, including the pronunciation and phonetic
transcription has relation the it need to give the society understand and realize so that the can
learn maximally and spirit
      English is second language for Indonesian people, they just get English materials in the
school, They are many student that lazy to learn English written word because they feel that
the English word is difficult, there is differences between the written word and how to
reading English word, so that they give up to study hard, they don’t understand how to
learning speaking and pronunciation easily.
      English is Easy, we must understand the key for learning language, I speaking skill, we
must understand the aspect of the speaking skill such as, vocabulary, pronunciation,
confidently and grammar, all of them give influence in speaking skill, beside that reading
skill have many factors that give influence , such a the frequency of reading, knowledge and
vocabulary and act
      This research will investigate the relation between the mastery of phonetic
transcription with the pronunciation process, we can see the proof of the theory, in the
phonetic material have relation with the pronunciation such us how to tread the English
word, beside we can understand the meaning we can see the meaner of the pronounce the
English word


B. Identification of the Problems


There are many factors that can be support in pronunciation skill such us The method of
learning, motivation, understanding of the phonetic, understanding the regulation, how to
learn English well
There are some many problems that the research is want to analysis as follows:
   1. Research wants to know what the material in phonetic transcription is.
   2. Research wants to know what the material in pronunciation.
   3. What is the function of phonetic transcription in pronunciation process?
   4. The differences and the similarities between English and Indonesian word in
   pronunciation process.
   5. Research won’t to know why the phonetic transcription can help the pronunciation
   process
   Method for learning pronunciation is important, of we don’t like the material because of
   the method of teaching it can give the negative effect for the net process, the next process
   is learning speaking correctly, while the material is influence the mythological is also, if
   one part is balance all of thing will be well


C. Limitation of the Study


       Based on the identification above, it is impossible for the researcher to analyze all the
phonetic transcription in pronunciation. Considering the wide range of the problem and the
limitation of the writer’s capability to handle the whole matter related to phonetic analysis of
pronunciation in order to make the analysis more directed, oriented and useful.


D. Formulation of the Study


       Based on the background of the study, identification of the problems, and limitation
of the study above, the writer will formulate the problem as follows:
   1. What is the meant by phonetic transcription?
   2. What is the meant by pronunciation?
   3. What is the problem in learning pronunciation?
   4. What are the relation between phonetic transcription and pronunciation process?
E. Objective of the Study


         Based on the problem formulation mentioned previously, the objectives of this study
are presented as follows:
   1. To describe some phonetic transcription materials
   2. To describe the pronunciation mean
   3. To find, is there the positive and significant correlation between the mastery phonetic
   transcription and pronunciation process


F. Significance of the study


   1. To give a clear description for the readers and learners the important of phonetic
   transcription in pronunciation process
   2. To help the learners who want to pronoun the English word


G. review of the related research


   According my experience, since I do my proposal, I look for the reference for my
proposal data and the result that I don’t find the same as proposal as mine, there are many
proposals tell about the pronunciation, and the proposal for teaching research or teaching
thesis


H. Theoretical formwork
 1. The definition of pronunciation


         o Pronunciation as the one component of the language has an important role in

            learning English especially in speaking and listening mastering the English

            pronunciation is important that our partner will misunderstands what the speaker

            says if the pronunciation is incorrect. It has been identified previously that the

            pronunciation mastery becomes a basic knowledge in learning English, especially
   when the oral skill emphasized, pronunciation is the one of the language aspect

   that supports the oral language skill or speaking ability. Lade (1964:76) state

   pronunciation is use of a sound system in speaking and listening. According to

   Webster’s third’s new international pronunciation is the way in which a unit

   language is used or spoken


o The problem of the pronunciation


Fries (1945:3) states in learning a new language then the chief problem is not at the

first that of learning vocabulary items, it is first of the mastery of the sound system to

understand of the stream of the speech and to hear the distinctive sounds features and

the propriety their production, Jones (1972:2) states in learning production, we face

some difficulties they are:

       1. The student must learn to recognize readily and with the certainly the

           various of speech sound occurring in the language, when they hear them

           pronounced; he must moreover learn to remember the acoustic qualities of

           those sound


       2. they must learn to make the foreign sounds with his own organs of speech


       3. The must learn to use those sounds in their proper places in connected

           speech


       4. they must learn the proper usage in the matter of the sound attributes or ‘

           prosodies” as they are often called (especially length, stress, phonetic

           alphabet and voice-pitch)
             5. they must learn to catenae sounds , i.e. to join each sound o a sequence on

                 to the next and to pronounce the complete the sequence rapidly and

                 without stumbling


2. The definition of phonetic


          phonetic is the study of speech sounds as sound without regard to their function

          as signaling unit of language , phonetic divided in two kinds first articulator

          phonetics studies speech sound from the point of the view of their ways of

          production by the speech organ, second is acoustic phonetic on the other hands,

          studies speech sound from the point of the view of their physical attributes , and

          deals among others with measuring the loudness, pitches and other natural

          characteristic of the sound

          o transcription


          Transcription is tool for connected the English word and other language, and it is
          also the study about the way to pronounce the English word, ) All the
          transcriptions use by written in the phonemic system used in most dictionaries
          for English learners. It uses symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet
          (IPA). All the pronunciations are written with "universal" (British-American)
          symbols, but are spoken in American English. For example, there are transcribed
          as /      /, and the sound is heard in the recording.

           Phonetic transcriptions can help improve their understanding of the importance

          of connected speech when speaking English. Dictionaries give single word

          phonetic transcriptions which can greatly improve student’s pronunciation skills.

          However, when speaking to native speakers, students are often surprised at how
               the phonetic transcriptions seem to not always match pronunciation used in

               connected speech. This is in great part due to the fact that English is a time

               stressed language, as opposed to a syllabic language

               o phonetic alphabet


               the following is a list of phonetic symbol of English speech sounds together with

               the key-word to shoe their values the use of symbol is a matter of general

               practice and some times of arbitrariness: the following symbol are mainly

               adopted from the international alphabet


Here is a table with all the symbols of the ASCII Phonetic Alphabet. A special printable version
is also available.
             vowel                                   consonants
                                              IPA ASCII examples      listen
IPA ASCII examples listen                         b    bad, lab       Amer
    ^      cup, luck Amer                         d    did, lady      Amer
                        Amer /                    f    find, if       Amer
    a:     arm, father
                        Brit
                                                  g    give, flag     Amer
    @      cat, black Amer
                                                  h    how, hello     Amer
    e      met, bed     Amer
                                                  j    yes, yellow    Amer
           away,
    ..                  Amer                      k    cat, back      Amer
           cinema
                                                  l    leg, little    Amer
                        Amer /
    e:(r) turn, learn                             m    man, lemon     Amer
                        Brit
    i      hit, sitting Amer                      n    no, ten        Amer
    i:     see, heat    Amer                      N    sing, finger   Amer
                        Amer /                    p    pet, map       Amer
    o      hot, rock
                        Brit                      r    red, try       Amer
                        Amer /                    s    sun, miss      Amer
    o:     call, four
                        Brit                      S    she, crash     Amer
    u      put, could Amer                        t    tea, getting   Amer
    u:     blue, food Amer                             check,
                                                  tS                  Amer
    ai     five, eye    Amer                           church
    au     now, out     Amer                      th   think, both    Amer
    ei     say, eight Amer                             this,
                                                  TH                  Amer
    Ou     go, home Amer                               mother
    oi     boy, join    Amer                      v    voice, five    Amer
                        Amer /                         wet,
    e..(r) where, air                             w                   Amer
                        Brit                           window
                        Amer /                    z    zoo, lazy      Amer
    i..(r) near, here
                        Brit                           pleasure,
                                                  Z                   Amer
           pure,        Amer /                         vision
    u..(r)
           tourist      Brit                      dZ   just, large    Amer
                                 special symbols
   IPA ASCII                               what it means
             ' is placed before the stressed syllable in a word. For
       '     example, ['kon tr@kt] is pronounced like this, and [k..n
             'tr@kt] like that.
             [ka:(r)] means [ka:r] in American English, and [ka:] in
       (r)
             British English.
             i(:) means something between i: and i. Examples: very ['ve
       i(:)
             ri(:)], ability [.. 'bi li ti(:)], previous ['pri: vi(:) ..s].
        .l shows that the consonant l is pronounced as a syllable (it
.l      sounds like a vowel). Examples: little ['li t.l], uncle ['^N
        k.l].
        .n shows that the consonant n is pronounced as a syllable.
.n
        Examples: written ['ri t.n], listen ['li s.n].




3. The relationship between phonetic transcription and pronunciation process

     1. According to A.C.Gimson ,(1989:5)The aspect of phonetic are :

            a. Phonology- The concrete phonetic characteristic ( articulator, auditory,

                acoustic ) of the used in the language: the functional, phonetic behavior of

                the sounds for distinctive purposes; the combinatory possibilities (syllabic

                structure) of the phonemes; the nature and use of such prosodic features

                as pitch, stress, and length. A study of phonic substance of the language.

            b. Lairs- the total number of word forms which exist

            c. Grammar- the system of rules governing the structure of phrases, clauses

                and sentence consisting of words contained in the lexicon

            d. Semantics- the relation of meaning to the signs and symbols of language

     2. 2. The problem of the pronunciation


        Fries (1945:3) states in learning a new language then the chief problem is not at

     the first that of learning vocabulary items, it is first of the mastery of the sound

     system to understand of the stream of the speech and to hear the distinctive sounds
features and the propriety their production, jones (1972:2) states in learning

production, we face some difficulties they are:

       a. The student must learn to recognize readily and with the certainly the

           various of speech sound occurring in the language, when they hear them

           pronounced; he must moreover learn to remember the acoustic qualities

           of those sound


       b. they must learn to make the foreign sounds with his own organs of speech


       c. The must learn to use those sounds in their proper places in connected

           speech


       d. they must learn the proper usage in the matter of the sound attributes or ‘

           prosodies” as they are often called (especially length, stress, phonetic

           alphabet and voice-pitch)


       e. they must learn to catenae sounds , i.e. to join each sound o a sequence on

           to the next and to pronounce the complete the sequence rapidly and

           without stumbling
I Research Method

  1. Research Design


     Sudaryanto in this book method linguistic mention that there are three methods in

     linguistic research one of them is descriptive. And descriptive is divided in to two

     methods, namely qualitative and quantitative .Quantitative method generally in science,

     while qualitative method generally used in culture or humanity. Cording to mahsun

     (2006:223) says that qualitative analysis focuses on meaning direction, description,

     purification and placing the data in each context and often the describing in the form of

     the words than numbers. Further more, subroto (1992:5) mentions that qualitative

     methods is research methods to problem that is not designed or planed by using statistic

     procedures, meanwhile, quantity methods is research method to problem that is designed

     and planed by using statistic procedures. In the same sense, Moloeng (2000;3) add that

     qualitative research is a research procedure that procedures descriptive data in the form of

     written or spoken language and observable behavior


            Based on the statement above, the writer uses descriptive qualitative in the

     research activity. The reason of choosing descriptive qualitative is the writer does not use

     statistical procedure but describe the data and produces in the form of words rather than

     numbers


  2. Sources of Data
   Lofland (1984) classifies the data sources into: words and action, the written sources,

Internet, and statistic data (Moloeng, 2002: 112). Words and actions are the main data

sources. They are written through the written note or video recording, radio tapes,or films.

The written sources are scientific books, magazines, files, private documents, and official

document.

   The data of this study are the written data namely the words taken from the oxford

dictionaries and IPA

3. Research Object


   Arikunto (2006:96) states that research object is anything that becomes the attention of a

   research. The object of this research is phonetic transcription on pronunciation process.

   The form of the research objects are, stress, length, intonation the material related to

   developing pronunciation.


4. Techniques of Collecting Data


   Sudaryanto (1992: 33) states that there are five techniques of collecting data, namely: (1)

recording technique, through recording instruments, (2) Nothing technique, using card, book,

note, and other documents to analyze the research, (3) Separating technique, separating the

similarities and the differences of the distributions, (4) Transferring technique, transferring

data to other or other data to a book. (5) Changing technique, changing the data which are not

necessary to understand.

   Based on the material above this research use the data or document. it is on the library or

in the book.

5. Techniques of Analyzing Data
        In analyzing the data, the researcher uses an inductive analysis as the

characteristic of descriptive research. The collected data are identified, categorized, and

analyzed based on sociolinguistic perspective from the researcher.


        This research uses descriptive analytic, these steps of data analysis, it is inductive

analytic, the step of data analysis are:


1. Observation, in which the researcher will take from the data in several sources,

    namely book, article and website


2. Identification, in which the researcher will identify to collect data such as: forms,

    meaning, functions


3. categorization, in which the researcher will classify the data based on of the

    formulation of the problem; what are the form, meanings and functions of phonetic

    transcription to pronunciation process
       J. Bibiography



Gimson.1989. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold

Pater, and Carthy. English Pronunciation. London: Cambridge

Ramelan.1985. English phonetic. Semarang: IKIP Semarang press

Clearly Elizabeth and Robert. dixson. pronunciation Exercise in English. New York: Regent
Publishing

Muhamad.2007. Belajar fonetik dan Fonologi Bahasa Inggris Dengan
Gampang.Yogyakarta:liebe book

http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc-ascii.htm

								
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