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A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE AUXILIARY VERB

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					A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE
                          AUXILIARY VERB


                               A Thesis Proposal
  Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Linguistics Research Method Subject
                      Lecture by Drs. Surono, M.Hum.




                                   By
                             Nina Khoirunnisa
                               07004093 / B

             ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
     FACULTY OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION
                 UNIVERSITY OF AHMAD DAHLAN
                             YOGYAKARTA
                                    2010
A. Title: A Comparative Study between English and Japanese Auxiliary Verb



B. Background of Study

       Language is one of the most used tools in communication. Every language has a

distinctive character and features. Language brings the culture of the country. Human

existence can not be separated from the language. Language is a human medium for

expressing what they think and socialize with other human beings. When we study

human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence’, the

distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man (Chomsky: 1999).

This means that each language is unique and creates nature of human beings. As it is

known, there are many languages in the world; they are English, Spanish, French,

Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, etc. Each of them has typical characteristic.

       The study of language is usually called linguistic. Linguistic has many sub-fields

to be learned. On of them is grammar. In linguistic, grammar is a set of rules about the

structure of sentences, phrases, clauses etc. English is the first foreign language was first

taught in formal education. Starting from kindergarten to university, English is always

there. English is used in education, commerce, office, political, social and many others.

This is an era that people needs to master the English language in order to compete with

communities worldwide to improve the quality of self and nation in the eyes of the world.

        Unlike English, Japanese language began in the know in Indonesia because of

cultural influence (like the anime series, movies, and songs), technologies (various

electronic products), and education (scholarships JO, Monbukagakushou). Textbooks are

also widely available in Japanese. Japan language courses are being found easily. Some
schools began to enter the Japanese language as an extracurricular lesson. Therefore,

comparing the English language that has been long in the community to learn Indonesian

with Japanese increasingly popular in Indonesia, will enrich the students knowledge of

language itself to diversity, both similarities, differences or similarities between

languages to each other.

       One of the elements in language learning is grammar. (Trask: 1995) said that the

grammar of a language is simply the way it combines smaller elements (such as words)

into larger elements such as sentences). Every human language has quite a lot of

grammar without exception.



       Based on the description above, the writer tries to study English and Japanese

Auxiliary verb to find out the problem that may appear. It will be useful to help the

language learners in understanding English and Japanese auxiliary verb.



C. Identification of the Problem

       English and Japanese are two languages that have different language rules. It will

focus on the similarities and differences of auxiliary verb in both of language. Auxiliary

verbs which is also called helping verbs is used together with main verb for giving

information about grammar. Auxiliary verb can give additional meaning in sentence.

(Thomson and Martinet) explained that English auxiliary verb is divided into three kinds;

Firstly, Principal Auxiliaries {( To be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being), (To do: do,

does, did), To have (have, has, had)}, then, Modal Auxiliaries (can/could, will/would,
may/might, shall/should, must/have to/had to/ought to), Semi modals ( to need, to dare,

used ).

          Like as English, Japanese also has auxiliary verb, but Japanese auxiliary verb is

classified based on such condition. -masu (the polite verb) ,-tagaru (strong verbs) -ta-

i(adjectival verbs), -sou (adjectival nouns ), da (the copula/to be) , desu (the polite

copula), rashi-i (adjectival verbs) , you (adjectival nouns) ,and sou (adjectival nouns)



D. Limitation of the Problem

          Considering the identification of the problem above and the limitation of the

writer’s ability to handle the whole matter related to this topic, the writer will only focus

on the English and Japanese auxiliary verb to hold a comparative research. The writer

will restrict on the similarities and differences between English and Japanese auxiliary

verb. Auxiliary verbs is kind of verb used together with other verbs to express action and

to complete the grammatical function. Auxiliary verb is different with main verb because

it is dependent with other word, for example verb, adjective.



E. Formulation of the Problem

          Based on the limitation above, the writer formulates the problem as follows:

   1. What are the kinds of English auxiliary verb?

   2. What are the kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb?

   3. What are the similarities between English and Japanese auxiliary verb?

   4. What are the differences between English and Japanese auxiliary verb?
F. Objective of the Study

       Any research certainly has objective that are going to be reached. The objectives

of this study are as follows:

   1. To describe the kinds of English auxiliary verb.

   2. To describe the kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb.

   3. To find out the similarities between English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

   4. To find out the differences between English and Japanese auxiliary verb.



G. Significance of the Study

       This research is expected to be beneficial study to he readers and those who are

interested in the study of linguistics mainly about auxiliary verb. The significances of this

study are as follows:

   1. The writer hopes that those who are interested in English and Japanese can use

       this thesis as reference.

   2. The reader will know more about English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

   3. The teacher will understand the differences and similarities between English and

       Japanese auxiliary verb.



H. Review of the related theories

       In this comparative research, there are another comparative research which related

with this research, namely English and Arabic Tense: A comparative study by

Muchamad Yasin (August 2007). A comparative study between English and

Palembangnese       Interrogative    Sentence    by   Rinda    Trisnawati    (June    2009),
Comparative Study between English and Arabic Degree of Comparison by Siti

Rondhasanah (June 2008).

       Although the topics are similarities with this research, but there are differences. If

those researches are comparing two languages, namely English and Arabic, English and

Palembangnese, this time the writer compare English and Japanese as the topic.



I. Theoretical Framework

   a. Comparative Linguistic

               Hornby (1995) defined linguistic as the scientific of the study of language

       or particular language. Linguistics is often called general linguistics, it means that

       linguistics not only analyse one language, but language in general (Verhaar: 1996:

       4). Al Wasilah (1987: 84) divided General linguistics into three parts: 1)

       descriptive linguistics, 2) historical linguistics, and 3) comparative linguistics.

       According to him, comparative linguistics is theoretical approach to language

       studies, which set phonological, grammatical, and lexical correspondents between

       different periods in this historical development of one language are listed and

       classified.

               According to Keraf (1990:2) comparative linguistics is a kind of

       linguistics, which tries to wet down basic understanding of the development and

       the relationship of the language in the world and tries to find out the influential

       mutual elements that ever made connection in the history.

           b. English Auxiliary verb
              Crowel (1997) defines that verb are words which refer to express

       action, existence or condition. According to Widarso and Mariani (1994:

       35) Auxiliary verb is used to help other verbs to express a particular

       grammatical function. Auxiliaries help to form a tense or an expression,

       hence the name. They combine with present or past participle or with

       infinitives to form the tenses of ordinary verbs, for. Auxiliary verbs also

       combine with infinitives to indicate permission, possibility, obligation,

       deduction (Thomson and Martinet: 1986: 110)

              Here a list of auxiliary verbs according to Thomson and Martinet

       (1986: 109)


           Principal             Modal              Semi-modals
           Auxilaries            Auxilaries
           To be                 Can                To need
           To have               may                To dare
           To do                 Must               Used
                                 Ought
                                 Shall
                                 will
                                 Could
                                 Might
                                 Had to
                                 Should
                                 would


c. Japanese Auxiliary Verb

       Japanese has several auxiliary verbs to append special meanings to

 ordinary verbs. They have only dependent usage and always follow independent

 words or independent phrases. All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectival
        stem form and conjugate as verbs, but they differ from normal verbs in having

        no independent meaning.



                                the list of the auxiliary verbs
  auxiliary     conjugation
                                   English                        comment
    verb            type
   -masu      the polite verb    to do     It appends polite nuances to verbs.
                                           It expresses desire to do something for the
  -tagaru strong verbs         to want to
                                           third person.
    -ta-i    adjectival verbs to want to It expresses desire to do something.
    -sou     adjectival nouns to look to It expresses that something appears to do.
     da      the copula        to be       a copula.
    desu     the polite copula to be       a copula that expresses polite nuanses
   rashi-i   adjectival verbs to seem to It expresses that something seems to do.
                               to appear
    you      adjectival nouns              It expresses that something looks to do.
                               to
                               It is said
    sou      adjectival nouns              It expresses that it is said something.
                               that
       Source from http://homepage3.nifty.com/jgrammar/grammar/jgr_vaux.htm



J. Research Method

     1. Research design

              Sudaryanto (1992:62) states that there are some certain method concepts

        used in linguistics researches. They are descriptive, comparative and structural

        method. This study uses the descriptive and comparative methods to describe,

        analyze and compare the English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

              Based on the characteristic of the data and method, research is divided into

        two, they are quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research

        methods are any investigate procedures used to describe in numerical terms, a

        setting and the things going on in numerical terms (Brown and Rodgers, 2002:
   118). Bogdan and Taylor in Moleong (2000:3) state that qualitative research is a

   research procedure descriptive data in the form of written or spoken language

   and observable behavior. The researcher uses comparative qualitative method

   because the researcher does not use any statistical procedure and calculation.

2. Data research object and data source

           The research object in this study is the auxiliary verb in English and

Japanese. Data of research are classified into two, namely main data and supporting

data. Arikunto (2002: 107) explains that the data sources can be the form of thing,

person, action, etc In this research, the writer takes some research materials such as

English Grammar book, Japanese grammar book and any other books related to the

subject.

3. Technique for collecting data

           Data collecting technique is the technique to get and collect data. Data can

be collected from books, magazines, article, and internet. There are five strategies

of data collecting in linguistics research:

    Recording technique (teknik rekam); this technique uses recording

       instrument.

    Nothing technique (teknik catat); this technique uses cards, note books, and

       other instruments to collect the data.

    Separating technique (teknik pisah); this technique is the strategy to

       separate the data to another in order to find the similarities and differences

       of the distributions between them.
    Transferring technique (teknik balik); this techniqueused to transfer the data

       to the other or to a book.

    Changing technique (teknik ganti); this technique used to change the data

       which are not necessary in order to understand (Sudayanto, 1992: 33-35)

    In this research the writer uses noting technique, separating technique, and

transferring technique. The procedures of collecting data in this study are as

follows:

     a. Firstly, the writer looks for some sources about English auxiliary verb,

           Japanese auxiliary verb in libraries, book shop, and internet.

     b. Secondly, the writes the discussed materials on the provided books or

           notes.

     c. Thirdly, the writer classifies the materials about English and Japanese

           auxiliary verb.

4. Technique for analyzing data

           According to Moleong (20002: 103) data analyzing technique is a process

that organizes and puts the data into units. In this research, the researcher applies

the comparative qualitative method which focuses on word, phrase, and sentence

rather than number. In doing the analysis, the researcher goes through the procedure

as follows:
a. The writer describes the form of auxiliary verb in English and the

   kinds of English auxiliary verb, the way of using of English and

   auxiliary verb and how the English auxiliary verb formed.

b. The writer describes the form of auxiliary verb in Japanese and the

   kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb, the way of using of Japanese

   auxiliary verb and how the Japanese auxiliary verb formed.

c. The writer compares the similarities of auxiliary verb in English and

   Japanese.

d. The writer compares the differences of auxiliary verb in English and

   Japanese.

e. The writer draws conclusion.
J. Bibliography



Alwasilah, A. Chaedar. 1984. Kaji Ulang Kata Kerja Bahasa Inggris. Bandung: Angkasa

Azar, Betty Scrampher. 1993. Fudamentals of Engish Grammar 2nd Ed. Jakarta: Bina
          Rupa Aksara.
Comrie, Bernard. 1990. The Major Languages of East and Aouth-East Asia. London:
         Routledge

Keraf, Gorys.1990. Linguistik Bandingan Tipologis. Jakarta: Gramedia

Moelong, Lexy J. 2002. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Rosda Karya.

Soeparno. 2002. Dasar-dasar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: PT. Tiara Wacana Yogya.

Sudaryanto. 1992. Metode Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.

Sudjianto. 2007. Grammatika Bahasa Jepang Modern- Seri B. Bekasi Timur: Kesaint
          Blank


Thomson, A.J, A.V Martinet.1986. A practical English Grammar. New York: Oxford
          University Press.
Widarso, Wisnubroto, Lulut Mariani. 1994. Complete English Grammar. Yogyakarta:

          Kanisius.

				
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