An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors Used in Upin Ipin’ Film

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					Title: An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors Used in Upin Ipin’ Film

              Field: Applied Linguistics (grammatical errors)

                                A Thesis Proposal

  Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Linguistic Research Method Subject

                        Lecture by Drs. Surono, M.Hum.


                                 Denok Netasari

                                 07004110 / B

 A.   Background of The Study
    Language is the most important means of communication in human life. Keraf (1980:1) explains that

language is vocal symbol produced by human speech organ used as a communication medium between

the members of society. Language is the system of communication that employs the code. ( Wardaugh,

1986:1). Language has some functions. According to Jacobson in Alwasilah (1985: 82) the specific

functions of language are : ( 1) emotive function 9( language functions to express feeling, behavior and

emotion of the speaker) (2) cognitive function to the real world which is often called denotative or

informative ( 3) rhetorical ( language functions to influence and control thinking and behavior of the

addressee. (4) Poetic function (language function to keep the social relationship between speaker and

addressee and (metalingual function (language functions to talk about language). Language is very

universal. People speak use language. They use language as a means of communication one to another,

as a tool to express an ideas. Generally, the study of language is called linguistic, which divided into

phonology and grammar. Phonology is the study of phone or speech sound, while grammar is the study

of the meaningful units of sound and their arrangement into longer utterances (Ramlan: 1985:3).

    English is a language that is used most of the part in the world. The use of English had given many

influences of many fields, such as it gives influence in a film. There is a film that does not come from

England. Upin Ipin film is a film that was produced by Malaysian. But this film is still influenced by

English usage. Malaysia is a country that most of the society speaks Malay and English. It is one of

reasons why the film got influenced by English.

    Upin Ipin is a good film, especially in educating children about anything about religious in Muslim

activities. It educates the children directly, because many of children like watching this film. But, the film

uses two languages, namely Malay and English, in which Malay is the most dominant language, is used,

English is a secondary language is used, because English is a compulsory language in Malaysia. But, there

are many grammatical errors of using English, in this film and most of the part of Malaysian.
        B.   Identification of The Problem

    Based on the background of the study, English had an influence in Upin pin film. There are many

English vocabularies that are used in the film. But, the Malay vocabularies are like English vocabularies.

Those vocabularies are a like, but it is very different from each others, especially in pronunciation and

the grammar. Malay had been influenced by English, because Malaysia is one of the countries which

were given an independent by England. But, there are many errors in using English. Malaysian treats

English as their second language. It is impossible to learn a language without learning the grammar

because it tells them how to use the language. The Malaysian tends to use their mother tongue than use

English as their second language.

    People learn how to construct a good message based on the rules they have known and try to

convey the message to the others. These rules are termed as grammar. It is one reason why there are

many English grammatical errors in Upin Ipin film. The researcher finds any similarities of English and

Malay from this film, such us the pronunciation. The researcher also finds many differences of both of

the language used Upin Ipin film, especially in using grammar in the speaking of the characters in Upin

Ipin film. They speak both English and Malay, which contains many kinds of English grammatical errors in

that film.

    The kinds of the problems in grammatical errors in Upin Ipin film are:

        1.   The pronunciation of the characters are still influenced by the first language namely, Malay

        2.   The differences of language makes a mixing language that makes appear of code mixing

        3.   The characters do not consider of English grammatical errors in their conversation

        4.   The kinds of English grammatical errors are found in Upin Ipin film.
C.   Limitation of The Problem

There are many similarities and differences between English and Malay. We can understand

both of them by watching the Film. Due to the limitation of the time and ability to handle the

topic, the researcher focuses only on the description of the kinds of grammatical errors used in

Ipin Upin’s film

D. Formulation of The Problem

Based on the identification and limitation of the problem above, the researcher formulates the

problem as follow:

     1.    What are the similarites between English and Malay uttered by characters in Uppin

     Ipin’s film?

     2.    What are the differences between English and Malay uttered by characters in Upin

     Ipin’s film?

     3.    What are the kinds of grammatical errors uttered by characters in Upin Ipin’s film?

E.   Objectives of The Study

In reference to the formulation of the problem above, the objectives of the study are presented

as follow:

          1.      To identify what the similarites between English and Malay uttered by characters

          in Uppin Ipin’s film?

          2.      To identify what the differences between English and Malay uttered by characters

          in Upin Ipin’s film?

          3.      To find out the kinds of grammatical errors uttered by characters in Upin Ipin’s

F.    Significance of The Study

In accordance with the formulation of the problem and objectives the research, this study is

expected to give contributions to the following parties:

     1.   The film viewers

     The researcher expects that this study can be used as a reference on how to understand the

     similarities and differences between English and Malay used in the film. Moreover, the

     researcher expects that the viewer can identity and understand that there are many English

     grammatical errors used in Ipin Upin’s film.

     2.   The English teacher

     The researcher hopes this study gives an alternative idea to teach English by using film as

     the media.

     3.   For the students

     This study is expected to give some information how to learn English trough watching film

     Upin Ipin.

     The researcher hopes that this study can be used as a reference for the other researchers to

     study the similar topic.

G. Review of the related Study

          There was a researcher who did the similar research. The title of the

research is An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors in The similarity with that research is both of the

researchers conduct English grammatical errors, which the content of the

research is also, describe about it. One of the differences is the object of
the research. He observed grammatical errors analysis a website in

H. Theoretical Framework

   1.   Upin Ipin’s Film

    Upin Ipin film is a film that is very suitable children’s education. It was produced by three

intelligent people, namely Mohd Nizam Abdul Razak, Mohd Safwan Abdul Karim and Usamah

Zaid, the owners of Les' Copaque.They are graduated students of Multimedia University,

Malaysia. They decided to make Upin Ipin’s film with title of “Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula”.

This film was made with the setting of original village in Malaysia. The first film was broadcasted

in 2007, with purposed to welcome the Holy Ramadhan so that it could educate children about

what the meaning of the Holy Ramadhan. Nizam, one of producer film believes that the culture

of Malaysia with the original village would interest people in international market to watch this

film, like Doraemon film in Japan. Moreover the reputation of Les' Copaque as an famous

organization was formed by the popularity of Upin Ipin film not only in Malaysia, but also this

film especially was imported by Indonesia. Animation process of Upin Ipin film was made by

using software named Autodesk Maya. In 2009, Nizam, Safwan dan Anas left the Les' Copaque

to build a new animation studio, named Animonsta Studios, the animation film of Upin Ipin still

being continued with the leadership of Haji Burhanuddin as a director of the film.
           2.   Grammar

       Grammar of language is the set of rules by which its sentences are made. In linguistics, grammar

is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any given

natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology,

syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Linguists do not

normally use the term to refer to orthographical rules, although usage books and style guides that call

themselves grammars may also refer to spelling and punctuation.

       Grammar is a complex system, the part of which cannot be properly explained in abstraction

from the whole (Leech & Startik, 2004:10). According to Hornby (1995:182) in oxford Learner’s Pocket

Dictionary grammar is the rule for forming words and making sentences. Cameron (2001: 98) defines

grammar as an aspect of how language is conventionally used to the structure or system of a particular

language. According to Hammer (2001:12) the grammar of language is he way in which words can

change their forms can be combined into sentences n that language. He adds creatively, good grammar

rule is difficult. A grammar of language aims to present in a precise and explicit from just those facts

about the language that its speakers know intrusively. It attempts to account for the native speaker’s

ability to understand any sentences of his language and to produce sentences of his language occasion,

that are immediately comprehensible to others speakers although they may never been spoken or

written before. (Chomsky in Roberts, 1964:20) states that the first order to be considered is check

language use (grammar, vocabulary and linkers).

           3.   Error and Mistake

       Language learning is like any other human learning. The children learned their first language

make countless mistakes from the point of view adult grammatical language. Many of these mistakes
are logical in the limited language system within children operate but by carefully processing feedback

from others. Children slowly but surely learns to produce what acceptable speech in their native

language. Second language learning is a process that is clearly not unlike first language learning its trial

and error of native language. An error by dictionary definition is something wrong condition of being

wrong or in the corer (Thorn, 1994). According to George (1922) an error is unwanted form, especially a

form which a particular course designer or teacher does. Hornby (1986:290) states that error is caused

by something done wrong or condition of being wrong belief or conduct. Dulay (1982:139) says that

errors are the flawed side of the learner’s speech or writing and it is a part of a conversational or

composition that deviates from some selected norms of mature performance. Burt and Kiparsky

(1972:1) define errors as errors for which no plan is implied.”An error is a noticeable deviation from the

adult grammar of native speaker reflecting the inter language competence of the learner. Brown

(1980:172-183),states that there are several sources causing errors. They are discussed in the following


                              Interlingual transfer ( From first language )

                         The beginning stages of learners of second language are characterized by a good

                         deal in these early stages, before the system of the second language of familiar,

                         the native language is the only linguistic system in the previous experience

                         which the learner can draw.

                              Intralingual Transfer

                         The negative transfer of items within the target language (incorrect)

                         generalization of rules within the target language is a major in Second Language

                         Acquisition. Once the learning has begun to acquire parts of new system, more

                         and more intralingual term is manifested.
    Depending on Brown’s statement (1980:165) a mistake refers to a performance error that is either a

random guess or a slip, in that it is failure to utilize a known system correctly. All people make mistakes,

in both native and second language students. Brown (1980:165) adds that a mistake is a wrong action

attributable to bad judgment or ignorance of in attention. Performance error or mistake will

characteristically be unsystematic. Mistakes are errors which are caused by memory lapses, physical

status or trend and psychological condition or strong emotion or by slip of tongue. Thus, a mistake does

not reflect in the knowledge of language. Error analysis is an analysis about error that is usually used by

researcher or language teacher who does it by collecting errors samples, identify errors, etc.

        I.    Research Method

             1.    Research Design

                  Research design is a research plan and procedure by which a researcher will get answer

             to the problem formulation stated. Research design or research method is the structure and

             strategy of investigation conceited so as to obtain an answer to research questions and to

             control variance ( Karlinger in Bhattachaya,2004:38).Hadi (1989:9) states that research

             methodology is a science which discuss the ways of strategies to be employed in effort to

             collect, to find, to develop and to verify the correctness of knowledge by using research

             method. According to Sudaryanto (1992; 62) there are two methods in linguistics research.

             They are descriptive method and comparative method. Descriptive method is a research

             method based on phenomena that empirically exist in speakers. Comparative method is a

             research method that focuses on the object and research purpose. Based on the

             characteristics of the data and method, research is divided into two, namely quantitative

             and qualitative research. Moleong (2003:3) explains that qualitative research is a research

             procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written or spoken language and

             observable behavior.It does not use statistics procedures but descriptive one. On the
contrary, Ndraha (1981:118) states that quantitative research is a research that relies on

quantitative data such us number and amount of qualitative data.

Researcher will use descriptive qualitative method to answer the research questions and

she does not apply any quantitative analysis or statistical procedure and calculation.

2.    Sources of Data

     Subroto ( 1992: 34) says that data are all information or material in nature in whivh

must be looked for collected and chosen by the researcher. Linguistics data can be got from

sentences, documents, speech, literary,words, books, and so on.

The data source is the subject of research from where the data are obtained ( Arikunto,

2002: 107). The source of the data can be in form of photo, videotape, documents, events of

documents, texts of an interview, articles and so on.

Siturus ( 2000: 88) puts forward that there are two sources of data. They are primary and

secondary data. Primary data are received from the original sources while sedondary data

generally come from reading materials and documentations sources, such as the data are

taken from experts, newspapers and some articles from electroni source like the internet.

The source of the data in this research is document and videotape. The document is taken

from the script of Upin Ipin film.By using videotape, it means that the data are taken from

the film, especially in its coversation.

3.    Research Object

Research Object is anything that becomes attention of the research (Arikunto, 2002:96).

Sudaryanto in Mahsun (2002:12) defines that data as collecting materials (served materials)

as the result of collecting various utterances (raw materials). Research materials consist of

research object and other element forming data which called context. In short,data are
            research object plus context. The research object in this research proposal is English

            grammatical errors used in Upin Ipin;s film.

            4.   Technique of collecting Data

            Technique of collecting Data is a technique to get and collect data. Sudaryanto (1986:33)

        mentions five techniques of collecting data. They are:

                    1. Recording technique

                    Recording technique is a strategy uses recording instrument.

                        2.   Noting technique

                    Noting technique is a strategy uses book, card, book note and others documents.

                        3.   Separating technique

                        Separating technique is a strategy to separate the differences and similarities of


                        4.   Transferring technique

                        Transferring technique is a strategy to transfer data or books.

                        5.   Changing technique

                        Transferring technique is a strategy to change data which are not necessary.

                        (Sudaryanto, 1986:33)

             The researcher uses the noting technique. Noting technique is the technique that uses a

card, book note and others documents to collect data.

The procedures of collecting data are the follows:
                      The researcher downloads film of Upin Ipin from browsing in the

                 internet café.

                      The researcher downloads the script of the film.

                      The researcher watches the film of Upin Ipin

                      The researcher observes the English grammatical errors in Upin

                 Ipin;s film

                      The researcher selects English grammatical Errors and writes them

                 down in a notebook.

    5.    Technique of analyzing Data

    There are some data analyzing technique ( Bugin,2005: 84-100). They are:

         1.   Content analysis

         Content analysis is a technique of using objectivitysystematic approach, and


         2.   Domain analysis

         Domain analysis is a technique of using analysis object and general (taxonomies analysis

         by using non contrast approach among the elements.

         3.   Componential analysis

         Componential analysis is a technique of using contrast approach among the elements

         4.   Discovery cultural

         Discovery cultural is a technique of using themes analysis ( comparing event in each

         category, matching the category and the caracteristics and limiting the theory and

         writing its theory. In this research, the researcher uses content analysis in doing the


In doing analysis, the researcher goes trough the procedures as follows:
                     The researcher watches the Film of Upin Ipin continuously, especially in its


                     The researcher downloads the script of the film.

                     The researcher identifies the English grammatical errors in Upin Ipin’s film.

                     The researcher classifies the English grammatical errors in Upin Ipin’s film.

                     The researcher finds out the English grammatical errors in Upin Ipin’s film.

                     The researcher draws conclusion.

         J.   Bibliography

Arikunto, Suharisni.2000.Manajemen Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

                                       .2002.Prosedure Suatu Penelitian Praktek.Yogyakarta:Rineka

Alwasilah, Chaedar.1986. Linguistik Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: Angkasa

Bugin, Burhan.2005. Analisis Data Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: PT Grafindo Persada

Hadi, Sitrisno.1989.Metodology Research I & II.Yogyakarta:Andi Offset

Ndraha, Taziduhu.1981.Research Methodologi PenelitianKualitatif.Bandung.PT.Remaja


Moelong, Lery.2000.Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT.Remaja


Subroto, Edi.1992.Pengantar Metode Penelitian Linguistik Stuctural: Surakarta: Sebelas

        Maret University Press.

Sudaryanto.1986.Metode Linguistik.Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.

Ramelan, 1985. English Phonetic. Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press

An Analysis of the Main Social Aspect
in Hamlet Prince of Denmark
William Shakespeare

A Research Proposal Submitted for Partial Fulfillment in LLRM
Guided by Azwar Abas M.Hum
By: Denok Netasari

English Education Study Progam
Faculty of Teacher and Training Education
Ahmad Dahlan University

     TABLE OF CONTENT                         1
     INTRODUCTION                             2
        A.    Title of The Reseach                     2
        B.    Field of The Research                    2
        C.    Background of The Research                   2
        D.    Identification of The Problem                5
        E.    Limitation of The Problem           5
        F.    Formulation of The Problem                       6
        G.    Objective of The Study                   6
        H.    Significance of The Study                    7
        I.        Presentation of The Study                7
        J.    Research Method                          7S
             1.      Reseach Type
             2.      Data Analyzing Method
             3.      Data Collecting Method
        K. Review of Related Theories                  9
        L.    Schedule of The Research                     15
        M. Bibliography                               16
        N. Biography                                  17
        O. Copy Cover of The Book                     18
        P.    Synopsis of The Novel                    19

       A.   Title: Hamlet The Prince of Denmark

       B.   Field of The Study: Literature

       C.   Background of Choosing The Topic
       In this research the reseracher wants to analyze social aspects of Hamlet a novel which

was written by Wiliam Shakepeare. The reserache r interested in analyzing social aspects that

focus on making the prince of Hamlet to be mad, because the main problem in Hamlet is the

conflict among Prince Hamlet and people who hate and love his. The resreacher decides to

choose Hamlet novel because of some reasons. In this novel, firstly, Shakespeare tells about the

main characteristic of the characters. Secondly, the author tells about the conlicts that happen

in this novel. The conflict happen when the King Lear was murdered by someone. Besides

taliking about the conflict of it, the author explains about love story between Prince Hamlet and

Ophelia. The sudy is aimed to describe William Shakespeare in Hamlet which focuses on social

aspects that can be interestig to learn.

       In finishing research paper, the witer uses discriptive qualitative. By using this method,

the analize data used method which clearly and descriptive. The writer also use expressive
approach by Abrams, because it is one of literary approach. Eagleton, Terry ( 2008, 20) writes

“Literary Theory has the kind of racy readability that one associates more often with English

critics who have set their faces resolutely against theory. It’s not just a brilliant polemical essay;

it’s also a remarkable feat of condensation, explication, and synthesis.” Beside it, the researcher

uses psychological approach to analyze the research.


   The writer also uses theories related to the social aspect. By using this theories, the readers

will be brought to see how William Shakespeare explain teh social aspects which are reflected

in the Hamlet. The finding result consists of words, phrases, caluses and paragraph which are

taken from the drama Hamlet indicating Shakespeare social aspects.From the research, the

writer concludes that in the drama Shakespeare in Hamlet there are many important aspects

that can be learned, especially,its social aspect. We can learn from the social aspects that are

good from Hamlet’s novel.

       In the novel Hamlet, as a great writer Shakespeare brought a great of influnce

propagandist talent to back his scheme to revolutinonize British science, indusrty and

education. Literature about drama and novels were introduced by the author, William

Shakespeare. This novel cuonterparts in social, psycological,and art aspects. The writer decide

to choose social aspect because there are many interesting problems that should be analyzed.

The writer likes william shakespeare’s literature, especially his Hamlet novel.

       In this research proposal the writer finds there are many resembalanes between Prince

Hamlet, Claudius and Ophelia ( characters of the novel). The rising conlfict of the tragedy

Hamlet.In this novel, the writer tells about the tragic tragedy that happen in a kingdom that
includes internal factors affect the others characters.This writer just focuses on social aspect as

reflected in Hamlet. Hamlet novel is an interesting novel that there are many internal problem

that can influnce social life. From the explanation above, there are severa reasons why the

writer of this research method decides to analyze social aspects in Hamlet’s novel by William

Shakespeare. Firstly, Hamlet is one of his tragedy novel that is very interesting to be analyzed.

Secondly, Hamlet is one of the greatest novel of shakespheare that was performed by acting as

drama.Then, William Shakespeare wrote this novel from his neighboor’s life story. Finally, the

writer wants to tell to the society about social aspects and moral values in Hamlet novel that

can be applied in our real life.

D Identification Of The Problem

   Trough reading the novel intensively, the writer finds that novel entitled Hamlet Prince of

Denmark has some interesting topics to be analyzed. The topic such us the mad of Hamlet of

the main character, the struggle of Hamlet to find the truth, the social background influnces the

life of main charater, heorism,madness, love, and hate. The way of Hamlet runs his life in

finding the truth and the social conditon interest writer to analyze the novel.Prince hamlet was

very mad when he knew that his father, King Hamlet showed himself as a ghost. The ghost said

that he was killed by Claudious.

E.Limitation of The Problem
       Limitation of the problem is needed to make the part of research focused on. In the

study researches limits the discussion on main characters,an analysis of social aspects and

moral values that can be taken from this novel,Hamlet Prince Of Denmark by William


F. Formulation of The Problem

There are three problems that can be formulated in this research proposal. The researcher

formulates the problems as follow:

           1.    How is the characterization of the main characters in the novel?

           2.    What is the main conflicts in novel Hamlet The Prince of Denmark by William


           3.    What moral values can be taken from the novel Hamlet The Prince of

           Denmark by William Shakespeare?

G. Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is answer the question stated in to formulation of the problems

above. The objectives of the study are:

           1.   To describe the charactization of the main character in novel Hamlet The Prince

           of Denmark by William Shakespeare.

           2.   To describe the values can be taken from the novel Hamlet The Prince of

           Denmark by William Shakespeare.
           3.   To describe the main conflicts in novel Hamlet The Prince of Denmark by

           William Shakespeare.

H.Significance of the Study

       Significance of the study will be one of the references for the readears. The readers will

get advantages from the research. The researchers divides three significance of the study to

three destinatios,namely:

           1.   For the researchear

           The researcher gives at leat experince on the way of an novel. It is expected to give

           contribution to a literature.

           2.    For the reader

           The research is analyzed to give contribution to the reader for easy undestanding

           this novel Hamlet The Prince of Denmark and give the further information to the

           readers about characters of Hamlet, the main conflicts of the novel and give moral

           values from the novel Hamlet The Prince of Denmark.

           3.   For the others

           The research may give contribution to the development of literary work, especially

           in Ahmad Dahlan Uiversity.

I.Presentation of the Study

   This result of the rsearch will be divided into three chapters. The outline of each chapter will

be describe as follow, the first chapter consists of background of the study, identification of the
study, limitation, formulation of the probem, objective of the study, and significance of the


   The second chapter consits of the theoris related to the title of the reearch. The last chapter

consists of the method of the researcher.

J. Reasearh Method

This chapter deals with the type of the study, data collecting method, and data analyzing


         1. Research Design/ Research Type

         In this research, the writer uses psychological approach to analyze the novel, because

the writer wants to analyze the social aspects that are taken from novel Hamlet The Prince of

Denmark. This research employs a library research. A research is conucted by library which has

a great advantage in providing the sources.

         The data source used in the research are divided into primary source and secondary

source. Primary source were the novel it self named as the suvject of the research. While

secondary source were including on American literature biography of the author as additional

sources realted to the study. The secondary source were useful to strenghen this research


         2. Data Analyzing Method

This research uses qualitative method. In qualitative reserach the collected data sre word,

picture and not number. (Moleong 2002 : 6)
It means that data canot be in the forms of numbers. Therefore, in exploring the novel, the

researcher conducts in deep analysis to find the character of the novel. The research also finds

the social aspects and present it in the form of words and sentences and then apllies it into

psychological approach to answer the formulated problem.

       3.Data Collecting Method

As it was mentioned in the previous section, libraries are the main supllier of the sources. The

researrcher uses library to find sources for the research proposal. The researcher finds out the

internal elements of the novel such us the theme characters. The researcer also finds put the

data are needed to answer the formulated problems.

K. Review of Related Theories

       1.   Backgruond of the Author

Shakespeare, William (1564—1616) as known as an English poet, player and playwright, was

baptized in the parish church of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire on the 26th of April. Birth

1564. The exact date of his birth is not known. 18th-century antiquaries, William Oldys and

Joseph Greene, gave it as April 23, but without quoting authority for their statements, and the

fact that April 23 was the day of Shakespeare’s death in 1616 suggests a possible source of

error. In any case his birthday cannot have been later than April 23, since the inscription upon

his monument is evidence that on April 23, 1616, he had already begun his fifty-third

year.Shakespeare has wrote about many poems, poetry and novels. Kinds of novels he wrote

were tragedy,comedy,and history. Hamlet is one of his tragedy’s novels. The Tragedy of Hamlet,
Prince of Denmark, or more simply Hamlet, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to

have been written between 1599 and 1601. The play of his Hamlet’s drama set in Denmark

       2.    Theory of Character and Characterization

   Little in his book entitled Apprroach to literature, Abrams ( 1981:93) states that there is a

deep character portrayal which enables the readers to see a complex of many traits or qualities

as well as many motivates and desires of the characters, and less deep characterization which

will only emphasize merely on the important qualities of the character

Abrams also categorizes two types of characters based on the development or the changes

occur.First, a character remains essentially stable or unchanged in his outlook and disposition,

from the beginning to the end of work. Secondly, a character undergoes a radical change either

a gradual development or as a result of extreme crisis. Perrine ( 1971: 20) states that there are

static character and dynamic character.

       Perrine ( 1971,71) explained static character is the character that throughout the story

remains the same ( does not change), while dynamic or developing characterb is a character

that experiences some changes throughout the story. The change maybe a large or a small one,

maybe better or worse.

       Rohberger and Woods ( 1971: 20) states that characterization is the process by which an

author creates and devices character, by which he or she makes the readers, belive that a

character is the particular type of person he or she is. Characterization , thus will enable the

reader to gain better understanding about the description of the character psysically and

psychologically as well. According to Abrams (1981: 20) characters are the people in dramatic
or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and

dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say, the dialogue, and by what they do,

the action. Character and characterization relates very close to the plot and the dialogue

characterization becomes the activator. Character carries out an important element with

expressing the main idea of the author.

       Subhan ( 2003: 8) states that the first important element of the novel that must be

understood is characterization. Pickering and Hoopere ( via Efi Anjarwati 2000: 15) states that

the discussion of the character in term of literary analyusis concerns essentially with three

closely related activities. First of all, It concerned with being able to establish the nature and

personalities of the characters themselves. And with ability to understand the majof identifying

intelectuyal, emotional, and moral qualities. Second, it is concerned with the methods and

technique an author uses to create, develop, and present the characters to the readers. Third, it

is concerned whether the characters presented and credible and convincing. While for purpose

analysis, characters in fiction are usually by their relationship to plot.

       According to Subhan( 2003: 8) in his book ‘A Guide to Literary Criticism character in the

novel ( prose) can be divided into two groups:

       1 Major or main character

       2.Minor characters

       The readers usually pay attention more to the major character because they play an

important role in the novel or story. The major can be further analyzed into three groups:

           1.    The protagonist is the very central character or leading actor ( or actress )
            2.      The antagonist in the novel or play usually refers to the enemy of the

            challenger of the protagonist and

            3.      The companions or the supporter of the novels

Furhermore, Subhan also said that to be flat when he or she have characterization, character in

novel can be divided into two kinds:

       a.        Flat character in this novel is said to flat when he / she have unchanging

       characteristic from the beginning to the end of story

       b.    Round character

       In the contrary with the description of flat character is one who undergoes change in

       the character in the story.

       3.    Theory of Moral Value of psychology

   The word moral has a meaninng which concerned with the principles of right or wrong

behaviour.A second area of metaethics involves the psychological basis of our moral judgments

and conduct, particularly understanding what motivates us to be moral. We might explore this

subject by asking the simple question, “Why be moral?” Even if I am aware of basic moral

standards, such as don’t kill and don’t steal, this does not necessarily mean that I will be

psychologically compelled to act on them. Some answers to the question “Why be moral?” are

to avoid punishment, to gain praise, to attain happiness, to be dignified, or to fit in with society.

i. Egoism and Altruism
One important area of moral psychology concerns the inherent selfishness of humans.. Even if an

action seems selfless, such as donating to charity, there are still selfish causes for this, such as

experiencing power over other people. This view is called psychological egoism and maintains

that self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human actions. Closely related to

psychological egoism is a view called psychological hedonism which is the view that pleasure is

the specific driving force behind all of our actions.

ii. Emotion and Reason

        A second area of moral psychology involves a dispute concerning the role of reason in

motivating moral actions. If, for example, I make the statement “abortion is morally wrong,” am

I making a rational assessment or only expressing my feelings?. We can amass all the reasons we

want, but that alone will not constitute a moral assessment. We need a distinctly emotional

reaction in order to make a moral pronouncement.. For example, although the statement “it is

good to donate to charity” may on the surface look as though it is a factual description about

charity, it is not. Instead, a moral utterance like this involves two things. First, I (the speaker) I

am expressing my personal feelings of approval about charitable donations and I am in essence

saying “Hooray for charity!” This is called the emotive element insofar as I am expressing my

emotions about some specific behavior. Second, I (the speaker) am trying to get you to donate to

charity and am essentially giving the command, “Donate to charity!” This is called the

prescriptive element in the sense that I am prescribing some specific behavior.

iii. Male and Female Morality
       A third area of moral psychology focuses on whether there is a distinctly female approach

to ethics that is grounded in the psychological differences between men and women. Discussions

of this issue focus on two claims: (1) traditional morality is male-centered, and (2) there is a

unique female perspective of the world which can be shaped into a value theory. According to

many feminist philosophers, traditional morality is male-centered since it is modeled after

practices that have been traditionally male-dominated, such as acquiring property, engaging in

business contracts, and governing societies.

L. Scedule of The Research

       Scedule of the research desribes what the research do when he or she conduct the
       research proposal.Scedule of the research consists of the date, day, and place where the
       researcher get many data for the research.
           1.    Wedenesday April 1, 2010
           Look for a novel in the Library of Sanata Dharma University
           2.    Friday, April 16, 2010
           Searching data in Internet
           3.    Monday, April 19, 2010
           I went to the library of Ahmad Dahlan University.
           I Started to make this research Proposal until this research before this research will
           4.    Saturday, April 24, 2010
           This research is submittedch.
M. Bibliography

Abrams, M.H.A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Reinheart and


Eagleton, Terry .Introduction Literary Theory. United States:University of

Minesofa Press, 2008.

Fieser,James. Ethic. University of Tennessee at Martin. April 20, 2010.


Fred, Sidmund. Literary psycoanalysis. April 16, 2010.


Perrine, Laurence.Literature, Structure, Sound and Sense.New York: Brave

       Jovanovich Inc,1974.

Rohrberger, Mary, Samuel H.Woods. Reading and Writing about Literature. New

       York: Random House,1971.

Subhan, Bustami. 2003.A Guide to Literary Criticism.Yogyakarta.LPP DMF.


Denok Netasari

                                                          She was born in Sleman Yogyakarta

                                                          on March 3 1989. She graduated from

                                                          Elementary School on Godean 2001.
Then, she graduated from Junior High school in Godean 2004.

After that, she graduated from Senior High school in Godean

2007. She has been being studying in English Education Program,

Faculty Of Teacher and Training Education, Ahmad   Dahlan

University Yogyakarta.

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