Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Baltimore City Stephanie Strauss Regenold, MD, MPH Senior Advisor, Babies Born Healthy Initiative Bureau of Maternal & Child Health Baltimore City Health Department email@example.com Overview • BCHD‘s new Birth Outcomes Initiative • Definitions • Epidemiology, Etiology, and Risk Factors • Recommendations • Parent Education B’more for Healthy Babies: BCHD’s New Initiative • New initiative by the Baltimore City Health Department & The Family League of Baltimore • Multi-year grant from CareFirst Blue Cross/Blue Shield to improve birth outcomes in Baltimore City • Strategic approach to affect change on all levels- policy, service, community and individual levels B’more for Healthy Babies: BCHD’s New Initiative Our vision is to ensure that all of Baltimore’s babies are born healthy weight, full term, and ready to thrive in healthy families. B’more for Healthy Babies will include: • A citywide media campaign • Intensive, innovative efforts in high-risk neighborhoods…and more! B’more for Healthy Babies: BCHD’s New Initiative • 120 babies under the age of one died in Baltimore City last year • Baltimore has the 4th worst infant mortality rate in the U.S. • The national rate is 6.9 deaths per 1000 live births • Baltimore‘s rate is 12.1 deaths per 1000 live births African American: 14.3 per 1,000 White: 7.3 per 1,000 B’more for Healthy Babies: BCHD’s New Initiative The leading causes of infant mortality in Baltimore are: #1 Prematurity and low birth weight complications #2 SIDS and unsafe sleep conditions #3 Birth defects Our First Campaign Will Address Safe Sleep B’more for Healthy Babies: BCHD’s New Initiative • The campaign will take a tough stance against a tough problem • We will show real people telling real stories about their own tragic losses • We will not sugarcoat the issue… It’s a matter of life or death Definitions: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) • The sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of age, that remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including: – autopsy – death scene investigation – clinical history review • No cause of death is determined • Manner of death is ―Natural‖ Definitions: Sudden Unexplained Infant Death (SUID), or Sudden Unexplained Death in Infancy (SUDI) • No cause of death able to be determined • Infant found in an unsafe sleeping environment • on an adult mattress or sofa • sleeping with another adult or child • sleeping on the stomach • Inconclusive for asphyxia • Manner of death is ―Undetermined‖ • Coded as SIDS for Vital Statistics CDC.gov/SIDS/SUID, 2009 Case #1 A 22-year old single African American woman lived in an apartment with her three children (ages 3 months, 2 years, and 4 years). She fell asleep on the couch with her 3-month-old. When she awoke 2 hours later, the baby was unresponsive. The EMS team was unable to resuscitate the baby. SIDS Epidemiology • SIDS is the 3rd leading cause of infant mortality in the US, and the 2nd leading cause of death in Baltimore City • It is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality nationally and locally • Over 2,000 babies die in the US each year from SIDS • Peak incidence occurs when a baby is between 2 and 4 months SIDS Epidemiology: Established Risk Factors • Prematurity and/or low birth weight • African American • Native American • Male gender • Young maternal age • Late or no prenatal care • High parity SIDS Epidemiology: Established Risk Factors • Maternal drug use during pregnancy • Maternal smoking during pregnancy • Environmental tobacco smoke • Overheating • Bed sharing • Prone/side sleep position • Soft bedding Case #2 A 6-month-old girl was sleeping in an adult bed with her 10-year-old brother. When their mother checked in on them, the baby was not breathing and was cold and stiff to the touch. The boy‘s leg was resting on top of the baby‘s head. EMS was called and resuscitation efforts were started but were unsuccessful. SIDS Epidemiology: United States Back to Sleep Campaign AAP Task Force on SIDS. Policy Statement. October 2005 Since the introduction of the Back to Sleep Campaign, SIDS deaths have decreased by 50% SIDS Epidemiology: Baltimore City Deaths per 1,000 live births Baltimore City - BCHD analysis of data from the Maryland VSA, MD - Maryland Vital Statistics Reports, U.S. - NCHS Vital Statistics Reports SIDS Etiology: Triple Risk Model Infant at Critical Development Period SIDS Genetic Environmental Predisposition Factors Filiano JJ and Kinney HC, Biol Neonate, 65:194-197, 1994 SIDS Etiology: Critical Development Period • Immature respiratory and autonomic nervous system. • Delayed neuronal maturation. • Poor sleep arousal responsiveness. Moon RY, et.al. Lancet. 2007;370:1578-1587.; Moon RY, Fu LY. Pediatrics in Review. 2007;28(6). SIDS Etiology: Genetic Factors • Serotonin receptor and transporter abnormalities that affect arousal response. • Polymorphisms in genes that effect ANS development. • Abnormalities in the Na+ and K+ channels that are associated with prolonged QT syndrome. • Complement gene deletions and IL-10 gene polymorphisms Moon RY, et.al. Lancet. 2007;370:1578-1587.; Moon RY, Fu LY. Pediatrics in Review. 2007;28(6). SIDS Etiology: Environmental Factors • Prone and side sleeping positions • Smoking during pregnancy • Exposure to smoking after birth • Bed sharing • Use of soft sleep surfaces (adult bed, sofas) • Presence of soft objects and loose bedding (toys, pillows, blankets and comforters) • Overheating AAP Task Force on SIDS. Policy Statement. October 2005. SIDS Etiology: Rebreathing Theory • Infants in certain sleep environments are more likely to trap exhaled CO2 around the face – Lie prone and near-face-down/face-down – Soft bedding – Tobacco smoke exposure • Infants rebreathe exhaled CO2 : CO2 ↑ & O2 ↓ • Infants die if they cannot arouse/respond appropriately Kinney HC, Thach BT. NEJM 2009;361:795-805. SIDS Etiology: Proposed Causal Pathway Pregnancy related risk factors Genetic risk factors (low birth weight, smoking) Vulnerable infant (impaired autonomic regulation) At risk age group Environmental risk factors (sleep position, bed sharing, thermal stress, head covering, etc.) SIDS Mitchell EA, Acta Paediatrica, 2009 Unexpected Infant Deaths that Occured During Sleep: Baltimore City Child Fatality Review, 2002-2009 30 25 1 Number of Deaths 20 1 4 0 2 0 15 3 21 2 10 19 20 19 19 17 13 12 5 4 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sleep environment not yet reviewed Unsafe sleep environment confirmed Unsafe sleep environment not confirmed* * Deaths for which the evidence did not indicate an unsafe sleep environment, however, data on unsafe sleep risk factors may have been missing or unknown. Baltimore City Health Department analysis of data from cases reviewed by the Baltimore City Child Fatality Review. SIDS in Baltimore City: Most Common Risks • Stomach sleeping • Bed sharing (>75%) • Soft bedding • Smoke exposure AAP Infant Sleep Recommendations The ABC’s of Safe Sleep Alone On my Back In a Crib Additional Safe Sleep Recommendations • No smoke exposure • No overheating • Consider a pacifier Alone • Not with Mom, Dad, or anyone else • No pillows, blankets, or stuffed toys • Baby‘s sleep area should be close to, but separate from, where parents sleep Infant Bed Sharing and SIDS Risk • Earlier studies showed increased risk associated primarily with bed sharing among smoking mothers • More recently, two European studies showed increased risk for younger infants even among non-smoking mothers – European Concerted Action on SIDS (Carpenter, 2004) – under 8 weeks – Scotland (Tappin, 2005) – under 11 weeks • Germany (Vennemann, 2005) – risk was independent of age, independent of smoking • England (Blair, 2009) – bed sharing on bed or couch had almost 3 times higher risk of SIDS; 10 times higher with recent drug or alcohol use Infant Bed Sharing and SIDS Risk • Other factors that increase risk: – Multiple bed sharers – Bed sharing with other children – Parent consumed alcohol or is overtired – Infant between both parents – Sleeping on sofas or couches • Returning the infant to his/her own crib is not associated with increased risk • No studies have ever shown a protective effect of bed sharing on SIDS Why do Parents Bed Share? • Safety – Can keep close watch on baby – Belief that ―crib death‖ occurs in crib • Convenience – Feeding – Checking on baby • Comfort – Baby sleeps better – Mother sleeps better – Bonding • Space/availability of crib Bed Sharing Has Become More Popular • Renewed popularity of breastfeeding • Bed sharing all night long has more than doubled in the past 10 years from 6% to 13% (Willinger M, 2003, National Infant Sleep Position Survey) • More recent study: 1/3 bed share in first 3 months, 27% at 12 months (Hauck F, 2009, Infant Feeding Practices Study II) • Higher numbers in low SES, certain ethnic groups (African Americans, Latinos) - more than 50% may be bed sharing all night long Shhh...MyShhh...My Child Is Sleeping (in My Bed, Um, With Me) Child Is Sleeping (in My Bed, Um, With Me) By TARA PARKER-POPE Published: October 23, 2007 “Ask parents if they sleep with their kids, and most will say no. But there is evidence that the prevalence of bed sharing is far greater than reported. Many parents are ''closet co-sleepers,'' fearful of disapproval if anyone finds out, notes James J. McKenna, professor of anthropology and director of the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame.” Why is Bed Sharing Risky? • Soft bedding, pillows, comforters • No safety standards for adult beds • Overheating • Risk of entrapment Not safe sleeping environments! …on my Back • Not on the stomach or side • On the back every time the baby is laid down to sleep SIDS Rate and Sleep Position, 1988-2005 (Deaths per 1,000 Live Births) 1.5 100 1.4 1.39 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.17 71.6 71.1 72.8 72.2 70.1 SIDS Rate 1.03 66.6 Percent Back Sleeping 64.4 1 0.87 55.7 0.77 0.74 0.72 50 53.1 0.67 38.6 0.62 0.56 0.57 35.3 0.53 0.55 0.54 0.5 26.9 17 13 0 0 Year Pre-AAP recommendation Post-AAP BTS Campaign (began in 1994) Sleep Position Source: NICHD Household Survey SIDS Rate Source: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC Prone Prevalence Rates Among Black Infants, US 90 2.5 80 2 70 60 Deaths/1000 LB 1.5 Percent Prone 50 40 1 30 20 0.5 10 0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Prone-B Prone-NB SIDS-B SIDS-NB National Center for Health Statistics, National Infant Sleep Position data Why do People Place Their Babies Prone? • Comfort – Baby sleeps longer, doesn‘t awake easily • Flattened Skull (plagiocephaly) • Safety – Concern about choking Why is Prone Sleeping Risky? • Babies sleep deeper, experience less movement, and are less arousable when prone. • Rebreathing theory: carbon dioxide gets trapped around the mouth and nose. • Risk is higher when infant is used to back sleeping. • Risk of side sleeping similar to prone. Prone Sleeping and Aspiration Risk Being on the back is actually less risky for aspiration: secretions pool in the back of the throat, near the esophagus. Prone Sleeping and the NICU • Premature babies are often placed prone to improve respiratory mechanics. • Parents are likely to continue this practice at home. • Teaching and modeling appropriate sleep position may not occur in the NICU. – 52% of NICU nurses promoted supine sleeping at discharge (Aris 2006) • Recommendation: – Place all premature babies supine when respiratory dynamics are stable, well before anticipated discharge. – Parents should be taught and shown to place babies supine during sleep before discharge. Aris C, et.al. Adv Neonatal Care. 2006;6(5):281-294. Prone Sleeping and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) • Supine positioning may worsen GERD symptoms in some. • North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition guidelines state: – ―In infants from birth to 12 months of age with GERD, the risk of SIDS generally outweighs the potential benefits of prone sleeping. Therefore, non-prone positioning during sleep is generally recommended.‖ – ―Prone positioning during sleep is only considered in unusual cases where the risk of death from complications of GER outweighs the potential increased risk of SIDS.‖ – ―When prone positioning is necessary, it is particularly important that parents be advised not to use soft bedding, which increases the risk of SIDS in infants placed prone.‖ ―Pediatric GE Reflux Clinical Guidelines.‖ J Ped Gastro Nutr. 2001;32:Suppl 2. …in a Crib • Not on an adult bed, sofa, cushion, or other soft surface • A crib, bassinet, or portable crib which meets safety standards Why a Firm Sleep Surface? • Soft or loose bedding carries 5 times the risk of SIDS as firm bedding. • Sleeping on the stomach on soft or loose bedding carries 20 times the risk of SIDS than those infants who slept on their backs on firm bedding. • Infants should not be placed to sleep on couches, cushioned chairs, beanbag chairs, sofas, waterbeds, air mattresses, memory foam mattresses, or lamb skins I Sleep Safest: Alone On my Back In a Crib Additional Recommendations: Avoid Tobacco Smoke • In utero tobacco exposure increases the risk of SIDS • Possibly related to effect on birth weight • Prenatal tobacco exposure associated with arousal defect • Post partum exposure to tobacco smoke also increases the risk of SIDS Additional Recommendations: Avoid Overheating • Dress infant according to room temperature. • Keep temperature comfortable for a lightly clothed adult. • Use sleeper or sleep sack. • If a thin blanket is used—tuck it in on 3 sides to keep at chest level or below. • Don‘t over-bundle. Additional Recommendations: Consider Pacifier Use While Sleeping • Recommendation added in 2005 after multiple studies showed an independent protective effect • Possible mechanisms: • Lower arousal threshold • Airway patency • Sleep position • Specific Recommendations: • Introduce around 1 month of age or after breastfeeding is established • Use as infant is being put down to sleep • Do not force • Don‘t have to reintroduce if it falls out Other Considerations: “Tummy Time” • Persistent flat spots on an infant‘s head, positional plagiocephaly, can be caused by repeated time in one position. • Flat spots usually disappear in the months after learning to sit up • To help reduce flat spots: – Daily ‗Tummy Time‘ while awake and supervised. – Alternate end of crib where baby‘s head is placed to sleep, or rotate position of crib. – Limit amount of time baby spends in car seats, carriers, etc. Other Considerations: Breastfeeding • May be associated with reduced risk of SIDS. – Breastfed infants are more arousable at 2-3 months. – Some studies show protective effect, others none. • Mothers can breastfeed successfully without bed sharing. Moon FY, et.al. Lancet. 2007;370:1578-1587 Other Considerations: Positioners & Monitors • Wedges, blanket rolls can be a potential suffocation risk. • Use of home monitors does not prevent SIDS – In certain situations a home monitor may be ordered by the physician for apnea, but these monitors do not prevent SIDS. Safe Sleep Education for Parents and Caregivers MUST: • Be addressed early and often • Help parents prepare to counter contrary advice they receive • Help parents prepare to insist on consistent provision of a safe sleep environment when others care for the infant (grandparents, babysitters, child care providers, family members) • Be modeled by respected and credible role models Gallup Poll 2006, Top List of Most Honest and Ethical Professionals Car salesmen HMO Managers Congressman Stockholders Business Ex. Journalists Bankers Policemen College teachers Dentists Vets Nurses 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Nurses as Role Models • Nurses can model SIDS risk-reduction techniques to ensure that families know how to reduce SIDS risk. – Nurses who placed infants to sleep on their backs during the postpartum hospital stay changed parents‘ behaviors significantly (Colson, 2002) • The most critical period during which nurses can influence parents‘ behavior is during the 24 to 48 hours following delivery. Knowledge vs. Practice • 1999 American Academy of Pediatrics study (Peeke et el) – 97% of nurses reported awareness of back sleeping recommendation – 67% followed the recommendation – The majority cited ―experience‖ or ―the potential adverse consequences of the back position‖ as their reason for disregarding the recommendation • 2004 survey (Bullock et al) – 96% of nurses reported awareness of back sleeping recommendation – 75% reported using either side position or a mixture of side and back positioning – Most nurses thought side sleeping was still acceptable • Nursery staff do not uniformly recommend the back sleeping position. The ABCs of Safe Sleep Alone On my Back In a Crib Every Baby Counts on You! Thank you!