Journal Day 51: • Describe the event in your life which you can describe as the ―most emotional time of my life.‖ • Also, do you consider yourself more or less emotional than the average person? Explain. Journal Day 52: • Come up with 3 truths and 2 lies about you/your life that no one else would know!!! • DO have the person repeat their statements 3-5 times • DO discuss which were lies/truths • DO NOT discuss the microexpressions with your partners…this will cause them to alter their microexpressions… • We will reconvene and determine who is the best liars and detectors…and we’ll talk about several people’s microexpressions Journal Day 52 part 2 or part B or part II or part deux: • If you could take the ―happy‖ pill, would you? Journal Day 53: • Make a graphic organizer of the following words (the goal is to develop a pictorial organization of the process of emotions; you may need to change the order of the words, put 2 words at the same time, etc.) – Cognition (if you think it applies) – Arousal – Stimulus – Emotion • Do it based on your own intuition, not the book’s ideas necessarily. Emotion: from the Latin “motus” = to move Andy Filipowicz Ocean Lakes High School 3 Parts to an Emotion • Physiological Response • Expressive behavior(s) • Consciousness of the experience Early Theory of Emotion • Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)— function of animal is: – communicate to other animals (ready to fight?) • Darwin showed faces of emotion to 20 people...often unanimous – prepares animal for action agreement, but not always...his (anger = tense muscles) conclusion was some emotions are universal, some specific to one’s culture...Paul Ekman follow up later Plutchik’s Basic Emotions • 8 Primary Emotions • Basic emotions are innate and ―hard- wired‖ • Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions The Subjective Experience of Emotion People vary in their subjective experience of emotion in the following ways: • People vary greatly in the intensity of their emotions • The sexes differ little in their experience of emotions • The sexes differ in the expression of emotion: women are more emotionally expressive Part I: Physiological Response The Nervous System & Emotion Divisions of the Nervous System Hormones and Emotion • Sensation / Perception of sensory stimulus • ADRENAL gland sends 2 hormones: – epinephrine and norepinephrine. • BOOM!! (sympathetic nervous system) • = arousal or alertness = energy to act (the pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and breathing speeds up). Physical Arousal and Emotions • Sympathetic nervous system = Fight-or-Flight • Not all F or F responses are the same… • Different emotions stimulate different responses – Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet) – Anger—increase in skin temperature (hot under the collar) • Recent PET scans sadness, joy, anger, and fear each produce a distinct pattern of brain activation and deactivation • This indicates that each emotion involves distinct neural circuits in the brain Yerkes-Dodson Law • Don’t forget about it! • Some arousal is Quality of performance necessary • High arousal is helpful on easy tasks Easy task • As level of arousal Moderately difficult task increases, quality of performance decreases with task Very difficult task difficulty Degree of arousal • Too much arousal is harmful Parasympathetic Overreaction • Causes vital signs to slow to a stop • Experiment: Rats out for a Swim • Another way to think about this… – Sustained sympathetic arousal causes fatigue of it, but… – Parasympathetic reactions continue to be active so much, the heart slows and the victim dies • Might explain ―VooDoo Death‖ – Cannon originally thought it was too much adrenaline to the heart (sympathetic) Lie Detection • Historical Examples of Lie Detection! (see my notes) – Lick a hot iron test – Chew rice powder – Trial slice • Article: ―Brain Injuries Allow Patients to Detect Lies‖ • Article: ―Liar, liar! Face on Fire!‖ – Measures blood flow around eyes • A variety of nonverbal cues, especially microexpressions, are associated with deception, but no single nonverbal cue indicates that someone is lying Lie Detection • The polygraph doesn’t really detect lies, it detects physiological signs of sympathetic arousal…assumed to be guilt (for lying) or fear (for being caught!) – Measures: blood pressure, perspiration, heart rate, respiration, and pulse (physiological responses!) • Some of its many problems include: – False - results: ¼ of ppl who are actually guilty are found innocent – False + results: 1/3 of ppl who are actually innocent are found guilty – Highly subjective interpretations of the physical changes that occur; no difference btwn many emotions when measured this way • A variety of nonverbal cues, especially microexpressions, are associated with deception, but no single nonverbal cue indicates that someone is lying • See my notes for more… Are Lie Detectors Accurate? Benjamin Kleinmuntz and Julian Szucko (1984) had polygraph experts study the polygraph data of 50 theft suspects who later confessed to being guilty and 50 suspects whose innocence was later established by someone's confession. Had the polygraph experts been the judges, more than one-third of the innocent would have been declared guilty, and almost one-fourth of the guilty would have been declared innocent. An Alternative: The Guilty Knowledge Test • M/C questions about a crime • Some questions contain details that only the perpetrator would know – What kind of hat was left behind at the scene of the crime? • If suspect shows strong emotional (physiological) reaction to correct alternative, this suggests he is the criminal • PROBLEMS??? Another Alternative: • Brain Fingerprinting EEG shows if something is familiar or unfamiliar • Brain emits P300 wave when it sees something familiar • If a suspect emits a P300 wave in response to details that only the criminal would know, the examiner would conclude that the suspect possessed "guilty knowledge" of the crime. • Brain fingerprinting is still controversial and has recently been upheld by the Supreme Court as admissible evidence (2005). Part II: Expressive Behaviors Specific Emotions, Reading Emotions Hormones Give Rise to Expressed Behaviors • Oxytocin: Greek for ―quick birth‖ • Trust Experiment (7) • Cohesion of 2 People – A cure for Autism? Hemispheric Differences • Wada Test – put to sleep either ½ of brain with anesthetics • Left ½ Asleep = pessimism, worrying, crying • Right ½ Asleep = laughter, joking, happy, unworried about the upcoming brain surgery! • May explain depression, bipolar disorder...normal control mechanism to balance these hemispheres may go out of whack Frontal Parietal left frontal lobe may be most involved in Occipital processing positive emotions right frontal lobe Temporal involved with negative emotions Crying • may relieve and reduce stress • stress-related chemicals found in tears (Brody, 1982) • other elimination processes remove toxins, apparently crying does too • why we feel good after a good cry • children who are unable to cry (genetic defect) show increased stress • Chicago journal study: – women cry 5x a month, 6% did not cry at all, some cried every day, more likely to report a ―lump in the throat‖, 85% felt better after – men cry 1x a month, 45% did not cry at all, some reported ―tears welled up‖ in eyes, but did not flow, 73% felt better after – for both, episodes lasted an average of 6 minutes – Causes: arguments, watching sad movies / televsion, 7-10pm, 1 in 5 episodes provoked by happiness Amygdala: Our Fear Structure The Case of S.M. • Amygdala damage? Can remember you are supposed to be afraid, but won’t show any reactions to it! – S.M. – she had Urbach-Wiethe syndrome, lesioning the amygdala…identification of emotions not hurt, except for Fear (also can’t pick out the ―untrustworthy‖ one from a group of faces) • Otherwise, normal life with job, married, children • Hippocampus damage? Don’t recognize the object? Still show emotional rxn, but don’t know why (subject H.M.) Amygdala: Our Fear Structure • Anxious children show heightened activity in the amygdala when shown fearful faces (2001). • Right amygdala larger in those children with GAD (2000). • Its now thought it plays a role in detecting threats • Perhaps its hyperactivation may play a role in the abnormal fear and anxiety levels of those with autism • Did Fear Destroy the Mayans? A clip from Apocalypto, which opens with this quote: – "A great civilization is not conquered from without until it has destroyed itself from within" • Serial killers often show Acathesia = lack of emotion regarding something important ANGER! • Catharsis = we reduce anger by releasing it through aggressive action or fantasy – Fried Green Tomatoes Catharsis • When angry outbursts calm us, this is essentially what two word term describing removal of something unpleasant that will make us more likely to do it? • Negative Reinforcement! = Learn to ―blow off steam‖ is not necessarily a good thing if you can’t control where you do it or towards whom you vent that anger ANGER! • Road Rage: Road Rage (24 – angry drivers) • Ann Landers (24-25) • Does catharsis work? Moving Images 18: Venting Anger • Mixed results – Study: make fun of someone, then allow them to retalitate…calming occurred when target is the tormenter, retaliation is ―justified‖ and target is non-intimidating – After watching football, wrestling, and hockey, ppl exhibit more hostility than before – A nation’s murder rate increases after a war How to Handle Anger • Don’t suppress it. • Don’t Express it aggressively. • Confess it and do something about it. • Serenity Now! • Seek reconciliation rather than retaliation. Happiness! • Feel Good do Good Phenomenon: • Did you just get an A on your big exam? You feel good about it? Or did you fail? • This affects your decision whether to aid the dying person in the street as you walk by Happiness! (Joy) • Adaptation Level • ―The more I HAVE the more I want‖ • Relative Deprivation • My own TV, HDTV, DVR, • ―I want more than THEY HDDVD HAVE‖ • Our tendency to form • Test Scores judgments (of sounds, of lights, • The perception that one is worse of income) relative to a off relative to those with whom ―neutral‖ level defined by our one compares oneself (others’ prior experience. attainment) • (28) questions Happiness is • Having high self-esteem • Being optimistic and agreeable. • Having a satisfying social life. • Having work and leisure that engage one’s skills. – Jerry knows how to be happy in the most annoying situations! • Having a meaningful religious faith. • Sleeping well and exercise. • Laughter (28) Happiness Is Not Related to • Age • Parenthood • Gender • Education levels • Physical attractiveness Theories of Emotion (see Graphic Organizer) 1- James-Lang Theory 2- Cannon-Bard Theory 3- Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory Common-Sense Theory • Common sense might suggest that the perception of a stimulus elicits emotion which then causes bodily arousal Stimulus Perception Emotion Bodily (Tiger) (Interpretation (Fear) arousal of stimulus— (Pounding danger) heart) 1. Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a 2. Conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a 3. Physiological response. • Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling. Debates in Emotion Research • Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion? • Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion? James-Lange Theory James-Lange Theory (1890) • 1880/90s, William James at Harvard • Carl Lange, Danish physiologist • Independently wrote up the same idea • emotion is due to perceiving changes in the body. • Think about what happens when you narrowly miss hitting someone who has darted out in front of your moving car. Chances are your first act is to slam on the brakes and screech to a halt. After the car is safely stopped you notice that your heart is beating rapidly and your face is flushed with sweat; and then you begin to feel fear. As the James- Lange theory predicts, only after the car is stopped and the accident averted does the emotion occur. (Schwartz, 1986, p.90) Support for James-Lange • Facial Feedback Hypothesis: – Depicting a specific emotion, especially facially, causes us to subjectively feel that emotion. – Research comparing ratings of cartoons by persons holding pen in teeth versus those holding it in lips; mantra: ―me, me‖ vs. ―you, you‖ – Experiences of depressed people who ―put on a happy face‖ • Drugs that enhance autonomic arousal typically result in reports of more intense emotions. • Antonio Damasio’s findings—that each basic emotion produced a distinct pattern or neural response and that the physiological changes occurred before they were interpreted as an emotion—support the theory Cannon-Bard Theory • An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a – physiological response (sympathetic nervous system) and – the experience of an emotion (brain’s cerebral cortex). Cannon Bard Theory Walter Cannon (1927) • Cut the spinal cords of dogs so no sensations could reach the brain... • If emo follows from the sensations, w/out the sensations, dogs should show no emos. • However, dogs still showed anger, fear, and pleasure • Modern psychologists agree that emos do arise in the brain, not the body. Walter Cannon (1927) – flawed • Paralyzed patients still retain a large portion of autonomic sensitivity via cranial nerves, such as the vagus nerve • These patients report a lack of emotional intensity, so they feel ―as if‖ they were angry instead of true anger • So, it seems he was wrong, James may have been right that the body’s responses do matter 2 Factor Theory of Emotion Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer (1962) • Emotion depends on 2 factors: • 1- Physiological arousal • 2- The cognitive interpretation of that arousal • Unless you can interpret, explain, and label the bodily changes, you will not feel a true emotion. Schachter-Singer • Injected either adrenaline or placebo (saline) & presence of emotion provoking situation… • 1 group Filled out questionnaire with mildly emotional items • 2nd group also did this, but a confederate vividly expressed outrage at the nature of the questions, tore up the response sheet, and stomped out of the room • Questionnaire alone did not = anger in those w/placebo OR adrenaline, without confederate • Placebo group with confederate did not = anger • Adrenaline group with confederate = anger about questionnaire • CONCLUSION: Emo requires autonomic arousal and a relevant cognition about the environment – Parps attributed anger to questionnaire, not the other participant Two-Factor Theory The Dutton & Aron Experiment * Study: Males are more attracted to a female confederate they meet immediately after crossing a high, swaying suspension bridge than they are when meeting a female confederate after passing over a stable, low rise bridge. * Another study with increased laughing to a comedy * Finally, same early version, but either told or not told about the effects of the drug…when told, no emotion as parps attributed reactions to the drug, not the situation Richard Lazarus (1922- ) Cognitive-Mediational Theory • Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being • All other components of emotion, including physiological arousal, follow the initial cognitive appraisal • Critics of this theory argue that emotional reactions to a stimulus or event are virtually instantaneous—too rapid to allow for the process of cognitive appraisal. They suggest that we feel first and think later. Robert Zajonc (1923- ) • Suggested that not all emotions involve deliberate thinking • Therefore, cognition is not necessary for all emotions • Some emotions skip the thinking part of the brain Fear Pathway in the Brain When you’re faced with a potentially threatening stimulus—like a snake dangling from a stick— information arrives in the thalamus (blue) and is relayed simultaneously along two pathways. Crude, archetypal information rapidly travels the direct route to the amygdala (red), triggering an almost instantaneous fear response. More detailed information is sent along the pathway to the visual cortex (blue), where the stimulus is interpreted. If the cortex determines that a threat exists, the information is relayed to the amygdala along the longer, slower pathway. The amygdala triggers other brain structures, such as the hypothalamus, which activate the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system’s release of stress hormones. Amygdala then sends information along two pathways • Joseph LeDoux believes that the direct thalamus– amygdala connection represents an adaptive response that has been hard-wired by evolution in the human brain. • The indirect route allows more complex stimuli to be evaluated in the cortex. Paths to Emotional Responses Paths to Emotional Responses Paths to Emotional Responses The Expression of Emotion: Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication • Humans reveal their emotions both verbally and nonverbally. • Does she like me? • Communicating feelings without words: – Non-Verbals (Seinfeld) • Tone of voice • Non word sounds – Facial expressions – Hand gestures & More! & Video • AKA ―body language‖ • Greetings Display Rules • The cultural rules governing how and when a person may express emotion • What’s ok in school? • Rules greatly vary from culture to culture and for different groups within a given culture Emotion and Facial Expressions • Paul Ekman identified 80 different facial muscles that in varying combinations code for expressions...he mapped them! • Ekman found that people from all over the world, even remote cultures, accurately recognized basic emotions in the photographs • Many ways to smile: • 1 (tense upper lip) masks anger • insincere lasts too long (10 sec), genuine = 2 sec • 1 cushions criticism (lips closed, corners drawn upward) • reluctant, compliant smile – giving in to pressure from another (eyes downward, corners of mouth drawn sideways/slight up) Ekman’s Facial Feedback Theory • Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression • Sensory feedback from the expression contributes to the emotional feeling • Example: Smile if you want to feel happy. Ekman’s Facial Feedback Theory 1.80 1.80 Average happiness score 1.60 1.60 Average anger score 1.40 1.40 1.20 1.20 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00 Frown Smile Frown Smile Facial expression Facial expression Facial expressions have an effect on self-reported anger and happiness Cohn & Tronick (1983) • 10 Universal Baby emotions: interest, distress, disgust, joy, anger, surprise, shame, fear, contempt, and guilt • Babies can interpret emotions, too. • Mothers told to imagine how they feel on a day when they’re tired...instructed to look away from babies, speak monotone, turn corners of mouth down.... • In response, Babies cried, grimaced, and otherwise showed distress. Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness Joy Anger Surprise Disgust Interest Sadness Fear Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness Facial Expressions • Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression • Facial expressions are innate and ―hard-wired‖ • Innate facial expressions the same across many cultures • Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulate emotional expression, especially facial expressions. • Ekman has found that these expressions of emotion are universal and recognizable across widely divergent cultures. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- PFqzYoKkCc Reading Nonverbal Communication Facial muscles, in particular, are hard to control and can reveal emotions that a person is trying to conceal Trained lie-catchers can detect minute changes in facial expressions (called microexpressions) that reveal lying. See if you can pick up on the microexpressions in this video of people telling lies/truths. Cato & Ekman Truth vs. Lie (already did) Emotion-Detecting Radar Arne Ohman and his Stockholm colleagues (2001) found that people more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one. Animals & Emotion Do animals experience emotion? Do animals experience emotion? • Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, motives, emotions, or behaviors to nonhuman animals or inanimate objects. • Some animal species clearly demonstrate portions of emotions such as: physiological arousal, maybe expressive behavior? • But, to understand how they subjectively experience such feelings raises questions that cannot be fully answered at this time. Reading Nonverbal Communication: Questions 1. Discuss some social and work situations in which the ability to interpret nonverbal cues is of particular importance. 2. E-mail and Internet chat-room conversations are completely lacking in nonverbal communication. What might some of the consequences be? 3. Many studies find that women are better than men at reading nonverbal cues. Why might this be so?