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					            Journal Day 51:
• Describe the event in your life which you
  can describe as the ―most emotional time of
  my life.‖

• Also, do you consider yourself more or less
  emotional than the average person?
  Explain.
              Journal Day 52:
• Come up with 3 truths and 2 lies about you/your
  life that no one else would know!!!
• DO have the person repeat their statements 3-5
  times
• DO discuss which were lies/truths
• DO NOT discuss the microexpressions with your
  partners…this will cause them to alter their
  microexpressions…
• We will reconvene and determine who is the best
  liars and detectors…and we’ll talk about several
  people’s microexpressions
    Journal Day 52 part 2 or part B or
           part II or part deux:
• If you could take the ―happy‖ pill, would you?
                 Journal Day 53:
• Make a graphic organizer of the following words
  (the goal is to develop a pictorial organization of
  the process of emotions; you may need to change
  the order of the words, put 2 words at the same
  time, etc.)
   –   Cognition (if you think it applies)
   –   Arousal
   –   Stimulus
   –   Emotion
• Do it based on your own intuition, not the book’s
  ideas necessarily.
        Emotion:
from the Latin “motus” = to move

        Andy Filipowicz
    Ocean Lakes High School
     3 Parts to an Emotion

• Physiological Response
• Expressive behavior(s)
• Consciousness of the experience
   Early Theory of Emotion
• Darwin’s The
  Expression of the
  Emotions in Man and
  Animals (1872)—
  function of animal is:
  – communicate to other animals
    (ready to fight?)          • Darwin showed faces of emotion to
                                 20 people...often unanimous
  – prepares animal for action   agreement, but not always...his
    (anger = tense muscles)      conclusion was some emotions are
                                     universal, some specific to one’s
                                     culture...Paul Ekman follow up later
  Plutchik’s Basic
     Emotions
• 8 Primary Emotions
• Basic emotions are
  innate and ―hard-
  wired‖
• Complex emotions
  are a blend of many
  aspects of emotions
   The Subjective Experience of
            Emotion
People vary in their subjective experience of
  emotion in the following ways:
• People vary greatly in the intensity of their
  emotions
• The sexes differ little in their experience
  of emotions
• The sexes differ in the expression of
  emotion: women are more emotionally
  expressive
        Part I:
Physiological Response
  The Nervous System & Emotion
Divisions of the Nervous System
 Hormones and Emotion
• Sensation / Perception of sensory stimulus
• ADRENAL gland sends 2 hormones:
  – epinephrine and norepinephrine.
• BOOM!! (sympathetic nervous system)
• = arousal or alertness = energy to act (the
  pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and
  breathing speeds up).
     Physical Arousal and Emotions
• Sympathetic nervous system = Fight-or-Flight
• Not all F or F responses are the same…
• Different emotions stimulate different responses
  – Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet)
  – Anger—increase in skin temperature (hot under the
    collar)
• Recent PET scans  sadness, joy, anger, and fear
  each produce a distinct pattern of brain activation
  and deactivation
• This indicates that each emotion involves distinct
  neural circuits in the brain
             Yerkes-Dodson Law
• Don’t forget about it!
• Some arousal is




                           Quality of performance
  necessary
• High arousal is
  helpful on easy tasks                             Easy task

• As level of arousal                                                           Moderately
                                                                                difficult task
  increases, quality of
  performance
  decreases with task                                           Very difficult task

  difficulty                                              Degree of arousal

• Too much arousal is
  harmful
       Parasympathetic
        Overreaction
• Causes vital signs to slow to a stop
• Experiment: Rats out for a Swim
• Another way to think about this…
   – Sustained sympathetic arousal causes
     fatigue of it, but…
   – Parasympathetic reactions continue
     to be active so much, the heart slows
     and the victim dies
• Might explain ―VooDoo Death‖ –
  Cannon originally thought it was too
  much adrenaline to the heart
  (sympathetic)
                        Lie Detection
• Historical Examples of Lie
  Detection! (see my notes)
   – Lick a hot iron test
   – Chew rice powder
   – Trial slice
• Article: ―Brain Injuries Allow
  Patients to Detect Lies‖
• Article: ―Liar, liar! Face on Fire!‖
   – Measures blood flow around eyes
• A variety of nonverbal cues,
  especially microexpressions, are
  associated with deception, but no
  single nonverbal cue indicates that
  someone is lying
      Lie Detection


• The polygraph doesn’t really detect lies, it detects physiological signs of
  sympathetic arousal…assumed to be guilt (for lying) or fear (for being caught!)
    – Measures: blood pressure, perspiration, heart rate, respiration, and pulse (physiological
      responses!)
• Some of its many problems include:
   – False - results: ¼ of ppl who are actually guilty are found innocent
   – False + results: 1/3 of ppl who are actually innocent are found guilty
   – Highly subjective interpretations of the physical changes that occur; no
     difference btwn many emotions when measured this way
• A variety of nonverbal cues, especially microexpressions, are associated
  with deception, but no single nonverbal cue indicates that someone is lying
• See my notes for more…
            Are Lie Detectors Accurate?




Benjamin Kleinmuntz and Julian Szucko (1984) had polygraph experts study the
polygraph data of 50 theft suspects who later confessed to being guilty and 50 suspects
whose innocence was later established by someone's confession. Had the polygraph
experts been the judges, more than one-third of the innocent would have been declared
guilty, and almost one-fourth of the guilty would have been declared innocent.
               An Alternative:
          The Guilty Knowledge Test
• M/C questions about a crime
• Some questions contain
  details that only the
  perpetrator would know
   – What kind of hat was left behind at
     the scene of the crime?
• If suspect shows strong
  emotional (physiological)
  reaction to correct alternative,
  this suggests he is the criminal
• PROBLEMS???
           Another Alternative:
•
           Brain Fingerprinting
    EEG shows if something is familiar or
  unfamiliar
• Brain emits P300 wave when it sees
  something familiar
• If a suspect emits a P300 wave in response to
  details that only the criminal would know, the
  examiner would conclude that the suspect
  possessed "guilty knowledge" of the crime.
• Brain fingerprinting is still controversial and
  has recently been upheld by the Supreme
  Court as admissible evidence (2005).
      Part II:
Expressive Behaviors
Specific Emotions, Reading Emotions
           Hormones Give Rise
         to Expressed Behaviors

• Oxytocin: Greek for
  ―quick birth‖
• Trust Experiment (7)
• Cohesion of 2 People
  – A cure for Autism?
           Hemispheric Differences
• Wada Test – put to sleep either ½ of brain with anesthetics
• Left ½ Asleep = pessimism, worrying, crying
• Right ½ Asleep = laughter, joking, happy, unworried about the
  upcoming brain surgery!
• May explain depression, bipolar disorder...normal control mechanism
  to balance these hemispheres may go out of whack
       Frontal
                                   Parietal    left frontal lobe
                                               may be most
                                               involved in
                                   Occipital   processing
                                               positive emotions
                                               right frontal lobe
                                 Temporal
                                               involved with
                                               negative emotions
                                Crying
•   may relieve and reduce stress
•   stress-related chemicals found in tears (Brody, 1982)
•   other elimination processes remove toxins, apparently crying does too
•   why we feel good after a good cry
•   children who are unable to cry (genetic defect) show increased stress
•   Chicago journal study:
    – women cry 5x a month, 6% did not cry at all, some cried every day, more likely
      to report a ―lump in the throat‖, 85% felt better after
    – men cry 1x a month, 45% did not cry at all, some reported ―tears welled up‖ in
      eyes, but did not flow, 73% felt better after
    – for both, episodes lasted an average of 6 minutes
    – Causes: arguments, watching sad movies / televsion, 7-10pm, 1 in 5 episodes
      provoked by happiness
         Amygdala:
      Our Fear Structure
      The Case of S.M.
• Amygdala damage? Can remember you are supposed to be
  afraid, but won’t show any reactions to it!
   – S.M. – she had Urbach-Wiethe syndrome, lesioning the
     amygdala…identification of emotions not hurt, except
     for Fear (also can’t pick out the ―untrustworthy‖ one
     from a group of faces)
      • Otherwise, normal life with job, married, children
• Hippocampus damage? Don’t recognize the object? Still
  show emotional rxn, but don’t know why (subject H.M.)
           Amygdala:
        Our Fear Structure
• Anxious children show heightened activity in the amygdala when shown
  fearful faces (2001).
• Right amygdala larger in those children with GAD (2000).
• Its now thought it plays a role in detecting threats
• Perhaps its hyperactivation may play a role in the abnormal fear and
  anxiety levels of those with autism

• Did Fear Destroy the Mayans? A clip from Apocalypto, which opens with
  this quote:
   – "A great civilization is not conquered from without until it has
      destroyed itself from within"
• Serial killers often show Acathesia = lack of emotion regarding something
  important
              ANGER!


• Catharsis = we reduce anger by releasing it through
  aggressive action or fantasy
   – Fried Green Tomatoes Catharsis
• When angry outbursts calm us, this is essentially what two
  word term describing removal of something unpleasant
  that will make us more likely to do it?
• Negative Reinforcement! = Learn to ―blow off steam‖ is
  not necessarily a good thing if you can’t control where you
  do it or towards whom you vent that anger
                ANGER!


•   Road Rage: Road Rage (24 – angry drivers)
•   Ann Landers (24-25)
•   Does catharsis work? Moving Images 18: Venting Anger
•   Mixed results
    – Study: make fun of someone, then allow them to
      retalitate…calming occurred when target is the tormenter,
      retaliation is ―justified‖ and target is non-intimidating
    – After watching football, wrestling, and hockey, ppl exhibit more
      hostility than before
    – A nation’s murder rate increases after a war
         How to Handle
            Anger
• Don’t suppress it.
• Don’t Express it aggressively.
• Confess it and do something
  about it.
• Serenity Now!
• Seek reconciliation rather
  than retaliation.
           Happiness!
• Feel Good do Good
  Phenomenon:
• Did you just get an A on
  your big exam? You feel
  good about it? Or did
  you fail?
• This affects your decision
  whether to aid the dying
  person in the street as you
  walk by
        Happiness!
          (Joy)
• Adaptation Level
• ―The more I HAVE the more I
  want‖                              • Relative Deprivation
• My own TV, HDTV, DVR,              • ―I want more than THEY
  HDDVD                                HAVE‖
• Our tendency to form               • Test Scores
  judgments (of sounds, of lights,   • The perception that one is worse
  of income) relative to a             off relative to those with whom
  ―neutral‖ level defined by our       one compares oneself (others’
  prior experience.                    attainment)
                                     • (28) questions
                  Happiness is
•   Having high self-esteem
•   Being optimistic and agreeable.
•   Having a satisfying social life.
•   Having work and leisure that engage one’s skills.
    – Jerry knows how to be happy in the most annoying
      situations!
• Having a meaningful religious faith.
• Sleeping well and exercise.
• Laughter (28)
             Happiness Is Not
               Related to
•   Age
•   Parenthood
•   Gender
•   Education levels
•   Physical attractiveness
    Theories of Emotion
  (see Graphic Organizer)
1- James-Lang Theory
2- Cannon-Bard Theory
3- Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory
              Common-Sense Theory
• Common sense might suggest that the perception
  of a stimulus elicits emotion which then causes
  bodily arousal
Stimulus           Perception        Emotion   Bodily
(Tiger)            (Interpretation   (Fear)    arousal
                   of stimulus—                (Pounding
                   danger)                     heart)


1. Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a
2. Conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a
3. Physiological response.

•         Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear
          and physical responses such as trembling.
  Debates in Emotion Research
• Which comes first, physiological
  arousal or the subjective experience
  of an emotion?
• Can we react emotionally before
  appraising a situation, or does
  thinking always precede emotion?
James-Lange Theory
    James-Lange Theory (1890)
•   1880/90s, William James at Harvard
•   Carl Lange, Danish physiologist
•   Independently wrote up the same idea
•   emotion is due to perceiving changes in the
    body.
•   Think about what happens when you narrowly miss hitting someone
    who has darted out in front of your moving car. Chances are your first
    act is to slam on the brakes and screech to a halt. After the car is safely
    stopped you notice that your heart is beating rapidly and your face is
    flushed with sweat; and then you begin to feel fear. As the James-
    Lange theory predicts, only after the car is stopped and the accident
    averted does the emotion occur. (Schwartz, 1986, p.90)
          Support for James-Lange
• Facial Feedback Hypothesis:
   – Depicting a specific emotion, especially facially, causes us to
     subjectively feel that emotion.
   – Research comparing ratings of cartoons by persons holding pen in
     teeth versus those holding it in lips; mantra: ―me, me‖ vs. ―you,
     you‖
   – Experiences of depressed people who ―put on a happy face‖
• Drugs that enhance autonomic arousal typically result in
  reports of more intense emotions.
• Antonio Damasio’s findings—that each basic emotion produced
  a distinct pattern or neural response and that the physiological
  changes occurred before they were interpreted as an
  emotion—support the theory
       Cannon-Bard Theory
• An emotion-arousing stimulus
  simultaneously triggers both a
  – physiological response (sympathetic
    nervous system) and
  – the experience of an emotion (brain’s
    cerebral cortex).
Cannon Bard Theory
            Walter Cannon (1927)
• Cut the spinal cords of dogs so no
  sensations could reach the brain...
• If emo follows from the sensations,
  w/out the sensations, dogs should
  show no emos.
• However, dogs still showed anger,
  fear, and pleasure
• Modern psychologists agree that
  emos do arise in the brain, not the
  body.
      Walter Cannon (1927) – flawed
• Paralyzed patients still retain a large
  portion of autonomic sensitivity via
  cranial nerves, such as the vagus
  nerve
• These patients report a lack of
  emotional intensity, so they feel ―as
  if‖ they were angry instead of true
  anger
• So, it seems he was wrong, James
  may have been right that the body’s
  responses do matter
    2 Factor Theory of Emotion
Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer (1962)
• Emotion depends on 2 factors:
• 1- Physiological arousal
• 2- The cognitive interpretation of that
  arousal
• Unless you can interpret, explain, and label
  the bodily changes, you will not feel a true
  emotion.
                       Schachter-Singer
• Injected either adrenaline or placebo (saline) & presence of
  emotion provoking situation…
• 1 group Filled out questionnaire with mildly emotional items
• 2nd group also did this, but a confederate vividly expressed outrage
  at the nature of the questions, tore up the response sheet, and
  stomped out of the room
• Questionnaire alone did not = anger in those w/placebo OR
  adrenaline, without confederate
• Placebo group with confederate did not = anger
• Adrenaline group with confederate = anger about questionnaire
• CONCLUSION: Emo requires autonomic arousal and a relevant
  cognition about the environment
   – Parps attributed anger to questionnaire, not the other participant
Two-Factor Theory
 The Dutton & Aron Experiment
* Study: Males are more attracted to a female
  confederate they meet immediately after crossing a
  high, swaying suspension bridge than they are when
  meeting a female confederate after passing over a
  stable, low rise bridge.
* Another study with increased laughing to a comedy
* Finally, same early version, but either told or not told
  about the effects of the drug…when told, no emotion
  as parps attributed reactions to the drug, not the
  situation
 Richard Lazarus (1922- )
Cognitive-Mediational Theory
• Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a
  situation’s effect on personal well-being
• All other components of emotion, including
  physiological arousal, follow the initial
  cognitive appraisal
• Critics of this theory argue that emotional
  reactions to a stimulus or event are virtually
  instantaneous—too rapid to allow for the
  process of cognitive appraisal. They suggest
  that we feel first and think later.
  Robert Zajonc (1923-          )
• Suggested that not all emotions
  involve deliberate thinking
• Therefore, cognition is not necessary
  for all emotions
• Some emotions skip the thinking part
  of the brain
Fear Pathway in the Brain
             When you’re faced with a potentially threatening
             stimulus—like a snake dangling from a stick—
             information arrives in the thalamus (blue) and is
             relayed simultaneously along two pathways.
             Crude, archetypal information rapidly travels the
             direct route to the amygdala (red), triggering an
             almost instantaneous fear response. More
             detailed information is sent along the pathway to
             the visual cortex (blue), where the stimulus is
             interpreted. If the cortex determines that a
             threat exists, the information is relayed to the
             amygdala along the longer, slower pathway. The
             amygdala triggers other brain structures, such
             as the hypothalamus, which activate the
             sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine
             system’s release of stress hormones.
    Amygdala then sends information
         along two pathways
•   Joseph LeDoux believes that the direct thalamus–
    amygdala connection represents an adaptive
    response that has been hard-wired by evolution in
    the human brain.
•   The indirect route allows more complex stimuli to
    be evaluated in the cortex.
Paths to Emotional Responses
Paths to Emotional Responses
Paths to Emotional Responses
The Expression of
    Emotion:
   Nonverbal
 Communication
     Nonverbal Communication
•   Humans reveal their emotions
    both verbally and nonverbally.
•   Does she like me?
•   Communicating feelings
    without words:
     – Non-Verbals (Seinfeld)
        • Tone of voice
        • Non word sounds
     – Facial expressions
     – Hand gestures & More! &
       Video
•   AKA ―body language‖
•   Greetings
            Display Rules


• The cultural rules governing how
  and when a person may express
  emotion
• What’s ok in school?
• Rules greatly vary from culture
  to culture and for different
  groups within a given culture
       Emotion and Facial Expressions
• Paul Ekman identified 80 different facial
  muscles that in varying combinations code for
  expressions...he mapped them!
• Ekman found that people from all over the
  world, even remote cultures, accurately
  recognized basic emotions in the photographs

• Many ways to smile:
   • 1 (tense upper lip) masks anger
   • insincere lasts too long (10 sec), genuine = 2 sec
   • 1 cushions criticism (lips closed, corners drawn upward)
   • reluctant, compliant smile – giving in to pressure from
     another (eyes downward, corners of mouth drawn
     sideways/slight up)
Ekman’s Facial Feedback Theory
• Each basic emotion is associated with a
  unique facial expression
• Sensory feedback from the expression contributes
  to the emotional feeling
• Example: Smile if you want to feel happy. 
         Ekman’s Facial Feedback Theory
                          1.80                                              1.80
Average happiness score




                          1.60                                              1.60




                                                      Average anger score
                          1.40                                              1.40
                          1.20                                              1.20
                          1.00                                              1.00
                          0.80                                              0.80
                          0.60                                              0.60
                          0.40                                              0.40
                          0.20                                              0.20
                          0.00                                              0.00
                                 Frown       Smile                                 Frown       Smile
                                 Facial expression                                 Facial expression

                             Facial expressions have an effect on self-reported
                             anger and happiness
         Cohn & Tronick (1983)
• 10 Universal Baby emotions: interest,
  distress, disgust, joy, anger, surprise,
  shame, fear, contempt, and guilt

• Babies can interpret emotions, too.
• Mothers told to imagine how they feel on a
  day when they’re tired...instructed to look
  away from babies, speak monotone, turn
  corners of mouth down....
• In response, Babies cried, grimaced, and
  otherwise showed distress.
  Which Baby is Which?
Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest,
   Joy, Surprise, Sadness
Joy        Anger        Surprise



Disgust    Interest    Sadness      Fear




        Which Baby is Which?
      Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest,
         Joy, Surprise, Sadness
              Facial Expressions
• Each basic emotion is associated with
  a unique facial expression
• Facial expressions are innate and ―hard-wired‖
• Innate facial expressions the same across many cultures
• Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulate
  emotional expression, especially facial expressions.

• Ekman has found that these expressions of emotion are
  universal and recognizable across widely divergent
  cultures.

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
  PFqzYoKkCc
  Reading Nonverbal Communication

Facial muscles, in particular, are hard to control and can reveal
emotions that a person is trying to conceal
Trained lie-catchers can detect minute changes in facial
expressions (called microexpressions) that reveal lying.

See if you can pick up on the microexpressions in this video of
people telling lies/truths.


Cato & Ekman

Truth vs. Lie
(already did)
        Emotion-Detecting Radar
Arne Ohman and his Stockholm colleagues (2001)
found that people more speedily detect an angry face
than a happy one.
Animals & Emotion
 Do animals experience emotion?
Do animals experience emotion?
• Anthropomorphism is the attribution of
  human traits, motives, emotions, or
  behaviors to nonhuman animals or
  inanimate objects.
• Some animal species clearly demonstrate
  portions of emotions such as: physiological
  arousal, maybe expressive behavior?
• But, to understand how they subjectively
  experience such feelings raises questions
  that cannot be fully answered at this time.
          Reading Nonverbal
       Communication: Questions

1.   Discuss some social and work situations in which
     the ability to interpret nonverbal cues is of
     particular importance.

2. E-mail and Internet chat-room conversations are
   completely lacking in nonverbal communication.
   What might some of the consequences be?

3. Many studies find that women are better than men
   at reading nonverbal cues. Why might this be so?

				
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