Docstoc

Dryers

Document Sample
Dryers Powered By Docstoc
					       HAND DRYERS
     OR PAPER TOWELS?
By Jacob Billings, Rachel O’Flaherty, Dave Wissman, and Liz Wolcott
   PSU PAPER TOWEL USE
 There are a total of 245 bathrooms on campus with 328
  paper towel dispensers.

 3 types of paper towels are used; all of which are made
  from 100% recycled fiber and are ecologo certified.

 Currently PSU orders 2,600 cases of rolled paper
  towels, 185 cases of single-fold, and 265 cases of
  multifold a year from Tork (subsidiary of SCA).
      ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
    PRODUCTION/TRANSPORT
   We assumed that all tissue products require the same amounts of electricity and fuel per pound of product, and that they are all
 manufactured in the same place made from 100% post-consumer recycled paper. We also assumed the plant consumed electricity
 produced from the national average mix of sources given by Carbon Counter: 0.42 CO2 per kwh of electricity. Finally we assumed
that the towels are shipped in a 4,000 cubic foot truck filled to capacity, that gets 8 miles per gallon, and that the trip is direct from the
                                                                   factory.
   FACTS REGARDING SCA
 The nearest SCA factory is in Flagstaff, AZ
 In 2009 it produced 44,000 metric tons of tissue
  product.

 The plant emitted 20,000 metric tons of CO2 from
  combustion of fuel on site.

 57 gigawatt hours of electricity was consumed.
 This resulted in the plant emitting 43.94 thousand
  metric tons of CO2 in that year.
         WHAT THAT MEANS…
Is that paper towel production requires an emission of CO2 nearly equal in mass
        to the towels produced not including emissions from transportation.
            TRANSPORTATION
 Diesel combustion emits about 10.1 kg of CO2 per
  gallon.

 The total CO2 emission caused by paper towel
  transportation from Flagstaff to PSU is 2,154.76 kg.
                        PSU
 77,218 pounds of paper towel products were
  purchased in 2009.

 35,017 kg of CO2 was emitted just from production of
  the paper towels purchased.

 Including transportation, the total CO2 emission from
  PSU’s paper towel use was 37,171 kg in 2009.
                      HAND DRYERS



Xcelerator dryers draw 1500 watts during use. PSU would need to install approximately
350 hand dryers to replace all paper towel dispensers on campus. We assumed that the
hand dryers have a ten year life-span and that they are transported in the same way as
paper towels. We also assumed that 1 watt of electricity is used for standby power, 750
for 1.5 seconds after use for power down, PSU’s electricity source emits 0.00082495 kg
of CO2 per kwh. For the comparison it is assumed that an individual drying with a hand
dryer takes 12 seconds and 1 to 3 feet of paper towels are used.
      MANUFACTURING AND
       TRANSPORTATION
According to third party life-cycle analysis firm Quantis, the manufacture of a
 single Xcelerator hand dryer requires the emission of about 212 kg of CO2.
The dryers are manufactured in East Longmeadow, MA making the long-term
average annual CO2 emission from transporting hand dryers to PSU 381.401
                                       kg.
                           PSU
The long-term average annual CO2 emission from manufacturing hand dryers
  for PSU campus would be 7,420 kg. The long-term average annual CO2
             emission from transportation would be 381.401 kg.
         ELECTRICITY & CO2
 Consumption from hand             Emissions from hand
       dryers                             dryers
 Replacing all paper towel      Hand dryer use would emit
  dispensers with hand dryers     between 19,195 and 35,970
                                  kg of CO2 per year.
  would consume between
  37,935 and 71,087 kwh per      Annual CO2 emissions from
  year in use and in power        standby power consumption
  down electricity per year.      would be between 1,526 and
                                  1,538 kg.
 Standby time would be
                                 Total CO2 emissions from
  between 8,617 and 8,684         electricity consumed would be
  hours per dryer per year.       between 20,733 and 37,496
                                  kg.
                     RESULTS
     PAPER TOWELS                 HAND DRYERS
 The total CO2 emissions    The total long term average
  from PSU’s paper towel      annual CO2 emissions from
  purchases is 37,171 kg.     hand dryers would be
                              between 28,258 and 45,021
                              kg.
THE BREAKING POINT
                             PRICE
           COSTS                               SAVINGS
 In 2009 PSU spent                  By installing hand dryers
  $74,119.10 on paper towels.          PSU would save $68,311.29
                                       if the hand dryers are used at
 The lowest perceivable cost          our highest estimated
  of installation for hand dryers      projections, $71,019.83 if
  would be $117,950.                   they are used at our lowest
                                       estimates.
 The lowest estimated cost of
                                     The initial cost of installation
  electricity used by hand
                                       would be recovered in 1.66
  dryers is $3,099.27, the             to 1.73 years.
  highest $5,807.81
          RESULTS & PROPOSAL

Our research shows that if the hand dryers are used at our highest estimates PSU will
increase its CO2 emissions by 7,849.90 kg a year. However if the hand dryers are
used at our lowest estimates then PSU will reduce its CO2 emissions by 8,913.2 kg.
The prior graph shows that if individuals use 1.5 ft of paper towels or more hand
dryers will be the better choice for reduction of carbon emissions. Considering the
size of a 1.5 ft piece of paper towel it is safe to assume that most individuals use at
least that amount when drying their hands. As a result we conclude that changing
from paper towels to electric hand dryers will be a good choice in reducing carbon
emissions on campus.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:10
posted:1/18/2011
language:English
pages:15