Collaborating for the 21st Century

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Collaborating for the 21st Century Powered By Docstoc
					                      Presented by
                  Belinda Biscoe, Ph.D.
Director of the Mid-Continent Comprehensive Center (MC3)

 The 4th Annual Leveraging Resources Conference
         Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
              Office of Special Education Programs
                         Washington, D.C.
                         March 25, 2009
 “The failure of hierarchies to
solve society’s problems forced
people to talk to one another---
and that was the beginning of

                     --John Naisbit

   What is Collaboration?
   What does the Research Tell Us about Collaboration?
      What Factors Support Collaboration?
 What is Important to Consider in Evaluating
  Collaborative Initiatives?
 What are the Benefits of Collaboration?
 What are the Implications of the Research for the
  National Technical Assistance and
  Research and Development Networks?

Gray (1991, p. 4) defined collaboration as
“a process through which parties who see
different aspects of a problem can
constructively explore their differences
and search for solutions that go beyond
their own limited vision of what is
Gray, B, & Wood, D.
Collaborative Alliances: Moving
from Practice to Theory, 1991
• Gray (1985, p. 912) defined collaboration as “the
  pooling of appreciations and/or tangible resources,
  e.g., information, money, labor, etc., by two or more
  stakeholders to solve a set of problems which can
  not be solved individually.”

   Mattessich (2005) defines
    collaboration as a mutually
    beneficial and well-defined
    relationship entered into by two or
    more organizations to achieve
    common goals.
Collaboration is the creation of something
new and different that did not exist before--
 • Policy, activity, program, etc.
It involves partners engaged in side-by-side
efforts to solve common problems, reconcile
conflicting interests, and advance shared
interests and goals (Biscoe, 1991).

Most definitions in the consultant literature
incorporate one fundamental characteristic. The
consultant and consultee work together in some
one or more phases:
•   Problem-solving
•   Problem identification
•   Plan development and plan implementation

Schulte, A., et al, When
Assumptive Worlds,
Collide, 2003
 There appears to be no consolidated general theory of
  collaboration according to the research reviewed.
 Gray (1991) identified six major theoretical
  perspectives that appear to have relevance in
  explaining collaboration and collaborative alliances:
       Resource dependence theory
       Corporate social performance theory/institutional
        economics theory
       Strategic management theory/social ecology theory
       Microeconomics theory
       Institutional theory/negotiated order theory
       Political theory
•   Researchers view collaboration as necessary
    for success (Center for Mental Health in
    Schools, 2003; Gajda, 2004; Grubbs, 2000;
    Riggins, 2004).

•   Collaboration is seen as a prerequisite for
    sustaining interagency initiatives, particularly
    those funded with time limited federal, state,
    or local funds (Hogue, 1993; Perkins, 2002;
    Peterson, 1991).
Bailey, D. & Koney, K. (2000), Gajda, R. (2004),
Peterson, N.L., (1991), and Hogue, T. (1993)
have all proposed conceptual models to
articulate the various levels of networking
within social-service-oriented alliances.

                COMMUNICATION/                    COORDINATION                                COADUNATION/
                                  COOPERATION/                               COLLABORATION
COEXISTENCE       NETWORKING/                      PARTNERING/   COALITION                      UNIFYING/
                                    STORMING                                    MERGING
                    FORMING                         NORMING                                   TRANSFORMING

                                       1               2                          3
                                                  PETERSON MODEL (1991)

                                       1               2            3             4                5
                                                    BAILEY AND KONEY MODEL (2000)

                      1                2               3            4             5
                      HOGUE LEVELS OF COMMUNITY LINKAGE MODEL (1993)
                                  STORM AND        NORM AND                  TRANSFORM AND ADJOURN
                 ASSEMBLE           ORDER          PERFORM
                 AND FORM
                                                           GAJDA MODEL (2004)
                                                                                               WHEN PLAN IS
                                                                                              COMPLETE, MAKE
                                                                               WORKING         A DECISION TO
                                                   DEVELOPING                TOGETHER TO       CONTINUE AS A
GROUPS EXIST                         SHARING        COMMON                    IMPLEMENT,      TEAM WITH NEW
AMONG THEM      AND THEIR TASKS    DIFFERENCES       ACTION                      PLAN              TEAM12
Levels                           Purpose              Structure              Process
Networking      Clearinghouse for                     Roles loosely          Low key leadership,
(Communication) information                           defined                minimal decision
                                                                             making, little conflict
Cooperation or                   Limit duplication of Roles somewhat         Facilitative leaders,
Alliance                         services             defined                complex decision
Coordination or                  Share resources to   Roles defined          Autonomous
Partnership                      address common       Central body of        leadership, but focus in
                                 issues               people are decision    on issue
Coalition                        Share ideas and be   All members            Shared leadership,
                                 willing to pull      involved in decision   decision making formal
                                 resources from       making                 with all members
                                 existing systems     Roles and time
Collaboration                    Accomplish shared    Consensus used in      Leadership high, trust
Bergstrom Arno, et al. (1995).   vision and impact    shared decision        level high, productivity
National Network for
Collaboration                    benchmarks           making                 high                 13
According to Wood and Gray (1991), a comprehensive
theory of collaboration must address
 “the meaning of collaboration itself,
 the auspices under which a collaboration is convened
  and the role of intervention in directing social
 the implications of collaboration for environmental
  complexity and organizational control over the
  environment, and
 the relationship between an organizations’ self-
  interests and the collective interests present in a
  collaborative alliance.”                        14
According to Paul Mattessich (2005), the
following factors support collaboration:

1.   Environment
2.   Membership
3.   Process and Structure
4.   Communications
5.   Purpose
6.   Resources
• Define the problem clearly.
• Identify core partners to develop the program.
• Develop a common vision.
• Ensure everyone has a voice and is treated with respect.
• Define program and collaboration goals.
• Define process and plan of work.
• Establish and nurture trusting relationships with collaborators.
• Provide benefits to members and align reward structure with
  collaborative goals.
• Evaluate program and collaboration to provide evidence of outcomes.
• Use evaluation results to modify, expand, and/or drop the collaboration
  to maximize success and/or sustainability--alter course as needed.
Strieter & Blalock 2006

                                  Five Levels of Collaboration and Their Characteristics
                       Networking          Cooperation Coordination                Coalition           Collaboration
                           1                   2            3                         4                      5
      Relationship       Aware of               Provide             Share         All members            Consensus is
    Characteristics     organization        information to     information and    have a vote in        reached on all
                                              each other          resources      decision making          decisions

Safe Schools, Healthy Students   No Interaction   Networking     Cooperation     Coordination   Coalition   Collaboration
                                      at all
Mental Health Agency                   0              1              2                3            4             5
Early Childhood Programs               0              1              2                3            4             5
Parent Education                       0              1              2                3            4             5
School Dist. Prev. Counselors          0              1              2                3            4             5
After School Programs                  0              1              2                3            4             5
Student Improvement Teams              0              1              2                3            4             5
Principals                             0              1              2                3            4             5
Teachers                               0              1              2                3            4             5
Police Department                      0              1              2                3            4             5
In general, an evaluation on the collaboration should
ask the following questions:

•    Process evaluation--What activities took place?

•    Outcome evaluation--What was accomplished?

•    Impact evaluation--What were the long term effects?

Wolff, T., 2002

    Assessment Tools for Evaluating Collaborations
   Annual Satisfaction Surveys for Coalitions (Fawcett, 1997)
   Diagnosing Your Coalition: Risk Factors for Participation (Kaye, 1993)
   Assessing Your Collaboration’s Commitment to Agency and Community-Based
    Approaches (Chavis and Florin, 1990)
   Climate Diagnostic Tool: The Six Rs of Participation (Kaye and Resnick, 1994)
   Responsibility Charting (Florin and Chavis, 1996)
   Inclusivity Checklist (Rosenthal, 1997)
   Task Force Evaluation and Resource Allocation (Hathaway, B.L., 2001 a,b,c)
   Sustainability Benchmack (Wolff, 1994)
   Annual Reports (in general)
Wolff, T., 2002
        Other Assessment Tools for Evaluating
   A Collaboration Checklist (Borden, 1999)

   Strategic Alliance Formative Assessment Rubric (Gajda, 2004)

   National High School Center RCC Collaborative Project Checklist

   IDEA Partnership Community of Practice on Transition--
    Community Building--Key Features of Success-IDEA
    Partnership: Success Rating Scale

      Effective strategy for the complexity and
       magnitude of issues
      Economic realities--improved efficiency, reduced
      Improvements in customer services
      More resources to respond to a crisis
      Improvements in a system
      Reduction in expenses for operational

Mattessich, 2005                                          21
Conditions for Success of these Emerging
         Collaborative Alliances
   Create a shared vision for a national TA and R&D
    collaborative alliance.

   Establish guiding principles to support our work.

   Use these research findings to articulate better the
    stages of our partnerships and to determine outcomes
    and impact.

   Process Establishment
     Decision making
     Conflict resolution
     Operationalizing the stages of collaboration
       Communication to collaboration
     Shared learning
     Celebration
     Ongoing planning , assessment, and evaluation

   Knowledge
     Understanding of Best Practices on educational issues and processes
     Research on educational issues

   Questions
     Can our collaborations survive after the initial objectives have been met?
     If so, how?

Source: Aha! Jokes   24
“We don't accomplish anything in this world alone ...
and whatever happens is the result of the whole
tapestry of one's life and all the weavings of individual
threads from one to another that creates something."

                 --Former Justice Sandra Day O'Connor,
                first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court