UNDERSTANDING OF ISLAMIC ACCOUNTING
                               By.Firdaus Furywardhana

"O ye believers, if ye bermuamalah not in cash for the set, let a writer of you wrote it correctly. And do
not be reluctant writer to write as Allah has taught him, then let him write, and let those who owed it
mengimlakkan what is written it, and let him fear Allah his Lord Allah, and let it reduce a bit rather than
debt. If the person who owes a weak mind or weak condition or he himself is unable mengimlakkan,
then let his deputy mengimlakkan persaksikanlah honestly and with two witnesses from among you
men ... ... "(Qur'an Surah Al-Baqarah: 282)

01.Pendapatan About the Existence of Islamic Accounting

 Some international accounting expert opinion about the existence of Islamic accountancy
including the following:

Robert Arnold Russel (1986) suggested that prior entry by Pacioli known doeble existing doeble
entry system more sophisticated Arabic which is the basis of the progress of business in Europe
during the Middle Ages.

T.E. Gambling and R.A.A. Karim (1986) The Colonial theory model if there is an Islamic
society, then the automatic economic Islam and Muslims must also accounting, .... In Islam
known as zakat as an attempt to resolve social problems. Islamic Accounting great emphasis on
social aspects rather than just the interests of investors or owners of capital alone.
Muhammad Akram Khan (1992) Islamic Accounting aim is to calculate the exact profit and loss,
encouraging and following Islamic law, assess the efficiency of management, melaporan good,
and attachment to justice and truth

D.R. Scott (1975) actually does not explicitly promoted to Accounting Islam but he is a pioneer
formulation aspects of accounting based on justice, truth, ethics. Therefore in line with the
concept of Islamic Accounting.

Toshikabu Hayashi (1995) Discussing the Capitalist Accounting, Accounting Concepts of Islam,
Zakat calculation, and case studies Feisal Islamic Bank in Cairo and doing business in Saudi
Arabia. In comparing Islamic Accounting and Accounting Capitalist, Hayashi suggested a
fundamental difference between the two. Accounting Islam has a "nut rule" that is Sharia law in
describing the Holy Qur'an and Hadith, whereas it has no Accounting Capitalist. He just relies on
the user desires so that local and situational nature

Mohamed Khir (1992) Islamic Accounting more appropriate and applicable fully for Islamic
accounting in a changing community currently has a very important role in the aspects of
righteousness and justice. Both aspects are a function of accountability to God, then the
accountability is framed with Islamic values.
02.Perkembangan Accounting Thought In Islam

Accounting history written by western historians, suggests that accounting in general or what is
known as bookkeeping system specifically pair have grown and developed in Europe, precisely
in Italian. Some references which can be seen, whether in Arabic or English, not found any
mention about what is happening in Islamic countries.
Vangermeersch the view that the growth of paired recording system is still in debate. It means he
does not accept that the growth of these systems is in the Italian. The recording system known
pairs is now widely practiced in Italy XIV century, Pacioli spreading his book contains a chapter
on accounting, on November 10, 1494 AD
In fact accounting training centers in the XIV century was not in Italy, but after less than two
centuries from the emergence of the book Picioli.maka establishment of training center of the
first accountants in Italy founded in the city of Venice in 1581 AD, known by the name of the
College of Accountants .
Pacioli mentions in her book that pairs recording system has existed since long, but Pacioli does
not mention since when and where this system has existed since long.
Manuscript year 765 AH / 1363 AD by Muslim writers that Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Al
Mazindarani Kayah, titled "The Book As Siyaqat Falakiyah Minutes." The text is stored in the
library of Sultan Sulaiman Al-Qanuni in Istanbul Turkey. In the manuscript with the number
2756 includes the accounting and accounting systems in Islamic countries.
Al Mazindarani in manuscript explains:
- The accounting system is popular at the time, and implementation of special accounting for
every accounting system.
- Various kinds of accounting books must be used to record financial transactions.
- How to deal with the shortcomings and advantages, namely equalization

03. Values and Principles of Islamic Accounting

The concept of the Islamic system can be used as a basic value in the development of the
conceptual framework of Islamic accounting system, designs are as follows:
1. Indicates the need for alternative accounting system for people to critically examine Islam
with conventional accounting system developed based on Western values,
2. Provides an understanding of basic concepts of Islamic accounting which is based on Islamic
3. Proposed a conceptual framework of Islamic accounting and its implications for the role of
Muslim accountants,

Some of the values mentioned above will become full with the general principles of Islamic
accounting is the basis of this dibahwa universal in Islamic accounting operations, namely:

1. Accountability Principle

It is a familiar concept among the Muslim community. Accountability is always associated with
the concept of trusteeship. Because for the Muslims, the question of trusteeship is the result of
human transactions with the Kholiq ranging from the womb of nature till he returned again to
Him. For God Almighty. created man as caliph earth and the core of kekholifahan that is run or
perform the mandate. So the implications of accounting is that businesses and individuals
involved in business practices must always account for what has been mandated and is done to
those pihatk related to him, his form can be shaped accounting reports.

2. Justice Principles

The principle of justice not only be extremely important value in social life and business ethics,
but also a value that is inherent in every human. Justice in the context of applications in
accounting contains two terms, namely: First: In relation to moral practice, that is honesty, which
is a very dominant factor. Without honesty, the accounting information presented to misleading
and very detrimental to society. Second: The word fair is more fundamental (and remains
grounded in the values of ethics / Islamic and moral)

3. Principle of Truth

Accounting principles of justice in this if done well it will be able to create justice in the
acknowledge, measure, and report economic transactions.
Accounting is a form of recording is shown to give particulars as information on the financial
situation then this is what islam is recommended to record each transaction so as not to arouse
suspicion between the two sides. The purpose of recording such as: Accountability or evidence
of a transaction, income determination, information used in decision making process, and as a
testimony that will be used later in life, etc..
After seen the existence of capitalist accounting system, it can be found several problems.
Uatamanya issue relating to ownership, basic concepts, standards, and accounting methods. In
accounting theory sharia to abandon conventional accounting framework, but in the system
already can be distinguished, As for the framework are: The theory of ownership, theory of
wealth, and fund theory.

According to Sofyan Syafri Harahap (1991) that Islamic accounting is definitely there, because
He is using the method comparison between the concept of Islamic Shari'a relevant accounting
concepts and features of contemporary (in shades comprehensive) itself. So He concluded that
Islamic values in accounting and accounting da exist in the legal structure and Muamalat Islam.
 The by Muhammad Akram Khan (Harahap, 1992) to formulate accounting nature of Islam, that
is as follows:
1. Determination of appropriate loss of income,
2. Promoting and Assessing Leadership Efficiency,
3. Adherence to Sharia law,
4. The binding to justice,
5. Properly reported,
6. Changes in accounting practices.

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