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									MUSTHALAH al-Hadith *)

understanding Hadith

The muhadditsin (Hadith expert scholars) are different opinions on the defining al-hadith. This was due
to be affected by the limited extent of the object and their own review. From differences in properties
they review it, was born two kinds of understanding of the traditions, namely the limited understanding
on the one hand and a broad understanding on the other.

Ta'rif (Definitions) hadith that the Limited
In terms (definitions) are limited, the majority of expert opinion as the following Hadith. "Al-hadith is
something resting on the Holy Prophet., Namely in the form of words, actions, statements, and so on."

This definition contains four different elements: words, deeds, statements, and the properties or the
circumstances of the Prophet Muhammad. others, who were all just leaning to the Holy Prophet. only,
not including the things that propped up the friend, nor to tabi'in. Coverage of the four elements that
propped up to the Holy Prophet. marfoo called the news ', who propped up to the friends called mauquf
news, and a leaning to the tabi'in called maqthu'.

1. Word

The meaning of words of Prophet Muhammad PBUH. is saying that he had said in various fields: Shari'a,
creeds, morality, education, and so forth. Examples of his words that contain the following Sharia law.
Prophet Muhammad PBUH. says (which means), "Only the deeds with the intention of the act, and just
for everyone's getting what he intended ... (and so on)." The law contained in the words of the Prophet
is the obligation seala charitable intentions in actions to obtain legal recognition of Personality '.

2. Act

Deeds of Prophet Muhammad PBUH. is a practical explanation of the rules is not clear how the
implementation. For example, the way how bersalat and how to face the Qibla in the sunna prayers on
the vehicle is running has been practiced by the Prophet with his actions in the presence of the
companions. He acts on it we know based on the news from friends Jabir ra, he said, "It is said that the
Messenger of Allah. Bersalat on the vehicle (with facing the qibla) according to the vehicle is facing. If he
wanted to obligatory prayers, he was down for a while, continue facing the Qibla." (Bukhari).

However, not all actions of the Prophet PBUH. it is the Shari'a which should be implemented by all his
people. There are deeds of the Prophet PBUH. specific only for himself, not to be obeyed by his people.
That's because the existence of a theorem that shows that the act was indeed specific only to the
Prophet. The acts of the Prophet. the only special for themselves or do not include the Shari'a which
must be adhered to, among others, is as follows.
a. Messenger of Allah. allowed to marry more than four people, and married women without a dowry.
As a postulate the existence of a dispensation to marry a woman without a dowry is the word of God
(which means) as follows. "... And We halalkan mukminah woman gave herself to Prophet (to marry
without dowry) when the Prophet married her willed, as a respite for you (just), not to believers
generally." (Al-Ahzab: 50).

b. Some actions Prophet. is based on a policy solely, concerned with mundane matters: trade,
agriculture, and set the tactics of war. For example, one day the Prophet. once the arrival of a friend
who did not work in the pistil pollination dates, then ask him, the Prophet replied that "you are more
aware of the affairs keduiaan". And, at the time of the Battle of Badr the Prophet put the division of the
army in a place, which then have a friend who asked, whether the placement was at the direction of
God or merely his opinion and strategy. Prophet then explained that his actions were solely the opinion
and tricks him. Eventually, at the suggestion of a friend, the place moved to another place a more

c. Part of his deeds as a human person. Like, eat, drink, dress, and so forth. However, if the act was to
give a clue regarding the procedure of eating, drinking, dressing, etc., in the opinion of the better, as
told by Abu Ishaq and most of the scholars of hadith, sunna law. For example, "Prophet said. Wearing a
robe (robe) to above the ankle." (Reported by al-Hakim).

3. Taqrir

Meaning he is a state taqrir Prophet hush, do not make objections or approve what has been done or
spoken by the friends in front of him. Example, in a dinner, a friend of Khalid bin Walid monitor lizard
meat and serving food to the Prophet invited to enjoy them together with the invitation.
Messenger of Allah. replied, "No (sorry). Since this animal is not found in the village of my people, I'm
disgusted with him!"
Khalid said: "As soon as I cut it and eat it, is the Messenger of Allah. Look at me." (Bukhari and Muslim).

Another example is the silence of the Prophet against women who leave the house, walking in the street
go to the mosque, and listen to lectures that are invited for the benefit of a meeting.

As for which include taqrir qauliyah ie when someone friend said "I do so or friend do do that" before
the Apostles, and he did not prevent it. But there are conditions, yaituperkataan or acts committed by a
friend itutidak get a rebuttal and propped up while the Prophet was alive and people who do that
people who adhere to Islam. Therefore, the Prophet's silence on what is done or spoken by unbelievers
or hypocrites does not mean agree. It is often the prophet squelch anything that transactions are carried
out by a hypocrite because he knows that many clues are not beneficial to him.

4. Attributes, state-state, and Himmah (Desire) Messenger
He attributes that include elements of al-hadith is as follows.
a. The properties he described by the friends and experts era (history), such as properties and his
physical shape that was described by friends of Anas as follows. 'Messenger of Allah it is the best man
on the face face and body shape. She was not high and not too short people. (Bukhari and Muslim).

b. Genealogies, the names and year of birth that has been established by the friends and historians.
Examples of his birth year as what was said by Qais bin Mahramah ra 'I and the Messenger of Allah.
Elephant born in the year. (Reported by Tirmizi).

c. Himmah (desire) he who has not been realized. For example, his desire to fast on the 9th of Ashura, as
narrated by Ibn Abbas ra "When the Messenger of Allah. Fasted on Ashura and ordered to dipuasai, the
companions of the Prophet's face, they said, 'O Messenger of Allah, that today is a glorified by the Jews
and Christians." Prophet replied, 'Years will come, God willing, I will fast the ninth'. " (Muslim and Abu

But the Prophet did not run fast on next year because of death. According to Imam Syafii and his
colleagues, run it disunahkan himmah, because he was one of the Sunna, the sunnah hammiyah.

In summary, according ta'rif (definition) is limited by the majority of experts expressed in the above
hadith, hadith is only limited understanding of everything that is propped up to the Holy Prophet. only,
is being propped up everything to the friend, tabi'in, or tabi'it tabi'in, not including al-hadith.

Many diagnostic understanding in science hadith such as:.
Muttafaq • 'Alaih:
Agreed upon means of hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim from the same sources of
companions, known as Hadith Bukhari and Muslim
• As sab'ah means seven narrators are:
1. Imam Ahmad
2. Imam Bukhari
3. Imam Muslim
4. Imam Abu Daud
5. Imam Turmudzi
6. Imam Nasa'i
7. Imam ibn Majah
• As Sitta mean six narrators namely those mentioned above except Ahmad bin Hambal
• Al Khamsah mean five narrators are those mentioned above in addition to Imam Bukhari and Imam
• Al Arba'ah mean of four transmitters to those who are mentioned above in addition to Ahmad, Imam
Bukhari and Imam Muslim
• Ats tsalatsah means three narrators are those mentioned above in addition to Ahmad, Imam Bukhari,
Imam Muslim and Ibn Majah.
• Rawi, narrators of the hadeeth narrated
• Sanad means the rest of Matan path of the Prophet Muhammad to the people who spend (mukhrij)
hadith or mudawwin (people who collect or record) Hadith. Sanad called with isnad means
penyandaran. Basically people or scholars who become sanad hadith that are transmitters as well.
• Matan is the content good Hadith of Prophet Muhammad SAW, and the form of deeds of Prophet
Muhammad SAW as told by a friend or a taqrirnya.

Science hadith which can be divided broadly into two categories, namely history of Hadeeth (riwayah)
and the Science of Hadeeth diroyat (diroyah).
Studies that assess the hadeeth narrated merupakanilmu a careful and accurate citations everything
that was propped to the Prophet SAW., Whether in word, deed, taqrir, physical properties and non-
Dirayah hadith science is the science that it can know the essence of history, terms, laws, state of
narrators, their conditions, the groups history and other things related.
Importance of Hadith sciences sebaga function determinant of the use of Scripture as a guide charity,
not a few of the scholars who responded to the legal provisions studied hadith.
Imam Sufyan Sauri said (meaning), "I do not know science is more mainstream for people who desire to
subjugate his face before God other than the hadith science. Ornag people in great need of this
knowledge, up to even the smallest problems, like eating and drinking , need instructions from al-hadith.
Learn the science of hadith more mainstream than running the sunna of fasting and prayer, because it is
obligatory to learn science kifayah, while fasting and praying sunna sunna sunna law. "
Distribution of Hadeeth
The scholars of hadeeth hadith review divides the two sides, ie the number of narrator and the terms of
the value chain.

The division in terms of number perawinya
In terms of the number of perawinya, hadith divides into three:
1. Mutawatir hadith is the hadith which was narrated by a number of people at every level isnaad, which
according to tradition it is impossible they agreed to lie and therefore believed to be accurate.
Hadith mutawatir divided into "mutawatit lafdziy" and mutawatir ma'nawaty, referred mutawatir lafdziy

Hadith with lafadznya narrated by a number of transmitters from a number of narrators, which is not
possible they agreed to lie - from the beginning to the end of the chain.
For example the hadith:

Who would deny me intentionally then let mempersiapan tempatanya hell.
Hadith is mutawatir ma'nawaty

Hadith narrated by narrators to adjust the exact meaning without lafadznya "
For example the hadiths about syafa'ah, ru'yah, mengucurnya water from the fingers of the Prophet
SAW., And others.
2. Mansour Hadith
According to the scholars' usul Hadith, mansyhur are:

Hadith narrated by several narrators of the class of friends who did not reach the limit mutawatir,
kemudiaan after a friend and thereafter more number of transmitters mencapau mutawatir.
Mansyur Hadeeth hadith under mutawatir degrees, but still produces "thuma'ninah science ', according
Hanafiah Dhan-ie (alleged) are close to certain. So should diamalkan, but not considered infidels who
would deny it.
3. Khabar Ahad

Khabar narrated by one or more transmitters, which do not meet the requirements mansyur or
mutawatir, and no longer considered perawinya amount after that.
This type is under the degrees mutawatir and mansyur, but khabar - khabar ahad famous in the category
which, according besides Hanafiyah, therefore, some scholars to mutawatir and dividing khabar ahad
Hadith of the Value Aspects division Sanad,
Hadith there are 3 kinds, ie Hadeeth saheeh, Hasan Hadith, and Hadith da'eef.
Hadeeth is saheeh hadeeth who meet the following requirements:
1. Isnaad continued;
2. Narrated by a narrator who just, istiqomah properties, both have a certain character, not wicked,
awake muruah (honor) him, and daabit; and
3. Matannya not syaazz (does not contain kejanggalan2/bertentangan) and no air-'illat (there are hidden
or not obvious sebab2 who damage the hadith).

Hadith who have to top-3 requirements in so-called hadith sahiih zaatih li. But if there is one
requirement which is less, but can be covered dg anything else, so he called sahiih li gairih.
Hasan hadith is the hadith which continued isnaad, narrated by a narrator who fair but not perfect
daabit her, and not matannya syaazz and air-'itillat. Hasan hadeeth are like these so-called li zaatih
hasan hadeeth. But if the narrator who isnaad is not known / unknown, or he is not the person who
made too many mistakes, so this hadeeth is hasan li called gairih.
Is a weak hadith hadith Hadith who do not meet the requirements and hadeeth saheeh hasan hadeeth.
Distribution is not as simple as two hadith above. Even a hadith scholar, Ibn Hibbaan, says there are 49
(forty nine) kinds of weak hadith hadith (note: this figure is not absolute ... could differ each hadith
scholars). While the causes of kedhaifan it can be restored to one of two principal reasons, namely: (1)
ketidakmutashilan, and the (2.) Besides ketidakmuttashilan sanad.


Imam Ash-Syafii said, "By my age, about the science of hadith include the most solid pillars of religion
and belief of the most steadfast. Not favored to broadcast other than by people who honestly more
devout, and not hated to broadcast other than by people hypocrite anymore harm. "

Al-Hakim insisted, "If not many people who memorize sanad Hadith, Islamic tower would collapse and
the experts would take part heresy making false and perverted sanad hadith."

Reference List

*) By Firdaus Furywardhana, Task Hadith science subjects, MSI UII
Al-Khathib, M. 'Ajaj, Usul Al-Hadeeth, Cet.2., Translation Qodirun Nour and Ahmad Musyafiq, (Jakarta,
Style Media Pratama, 1998).

Rahman, Fatchur, Mushthalahul Hadith,

Azami, M. Mustafa, Dirasat fi al-Hadith al-Nabawi wa chronicle Tadwinih, interpreter Ali Mustafa Yaqub,
(Jakarta, Firdaus PT.Pustaka, 1994)

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