Title: The effect of the agents on the prevalence of cancer and exploiting some of the regions having more Cancer prevalence Name: Mirza Ahmed Hammad Supervisory Committee: Supervisor: Ambreen Ijaz Abstract: The leading cause of deaths in the world is the Cancer. It is important to know the causative agents and possible cure for the Cancer. There are different kinds of factors involved and cause different type of Cancer including metals, radiations and genetic abnormalities. In the on going study it is shown, what are the most common Cancer causing agents and how to avoid them, and also the regions of Earth where more people are affected by Cancer. Introduction: Cancer develops over several years and has many causes. Several factors both inside and outside the body contribute to the development of cancer. Exposure to a wide variety of natural and man-made substances in the environment accounts for at least two-thirds of all the cases of cancer in the United States . Certain factors inside the body make some people more likely to develop cancer than others. In a report issued by U.S department of Health sciences (2003), some people either inherit or acquire the following conditions: altered genes in the body’s cells, abnormal hormone levels in the bloodstream, or a weakened immune system. Each of these factors may make an individual more susceptible to cancer. It is considered that about 60% of total Cancer deaths are due to Hepatitis C . Aims and Objectives: Gene alterations may also contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to environmental carcinogens (or cancer-causing substances). Exposure to cancer-causing substances is only a part of what determines who will get cancer. Some people who smoke do not get lung cancer, and not all women who are infected with human papilloma virus develop cervical cancer. At the other hand many scientists believe that there may be some protective genes, or other factors such as fruits and vegetables in the diet, that help prevent disease. The aim of this study is to provide you some of the knowledge about Cancer and how to avoid it naturally. Review of literature: Anonymous (2003), reported a good news that a large number of cancers can be prevented. It was estimated that as many as two-thirds of all cancer cases were linked to environmental causes. This number might even be higher. Many of these were linked to lifestyle factors that could be modified. Now it is known that one-third of all the cancer deaths in U.S could be prevented by eliminating the use of tobacco products. In addition, about 25 to 30 percent of the cases of several major cancers were associated with obesity and physical inactivity. Martin et.al (2006), estimated the costs and health effects of treating stage I, II, III, and IV breast cancer individually, of treating all stages, and of introducing an extensive cancer control program (treating all stages plus early stage diagnosis) in three epidemiologically different world regions—Africa, North America, and Asia. They developed a mathematical simulation model of breast cancer using the stage distribution and case fatality rates in the presence and absence of treatment as predictors of survival. Outcome measures were life-years adjusted for disability (DALYs), costs (in 2000 U.S. dollars) of treatment and follow-up, and cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs; in dollars per DALY averted). James R. Downing (2010), reported that Cancer was believed to result from the acquisition of mutations and epigenetic changes that work collaboratively to induce the malignant growth of a cell. The field of cancer genomics had focused on defining the total complement of mutations in a cancer cell, with the belief that this information would drive personalized medicine through the development of improved diagnostic testing, prognostic and predictive markers, and ultimately new therapies directed against cancer-specific mutant proteins. Although 350 cancer genes had been identified to date (www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/ CGP/Census), now it was the time to sit at the beginning of a revolution in cancer genomics resulting from the systematic application of highly parallel, single-molecule DNA- sequencing techniques to a large number of human cancers. The prediction would be that many new cancer genes would also be identified through these efforts, with calculations suggesting the existence of more than 2000 cancer genes. References: 1. Anonymous (2003), Cancer and Environment: what do you need to know what you can do, (2003), U.S department of human health services: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/er/hazsubs/sources/htm 2. James. R, Downing, M.D.,(2009). Cancer Genomes — Continuing Progress, N.Engl.J.Med:361;11 www.nejm.org 3. Martijn, T. Groot, MSc, Rob, B. PhD, Carin A. Uyl-de Groot, PhD, Benjamin O. Anderson, MD, and Gabriel N. Hortobágyi, MD,(2006). Costs and Health Effects of Breast Cancer Interventions in Epidemiologically Different Regions of Africa, North America, and Asia, The Breast Journal, 12(1):S81-S90.