The basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor, or taste as parts of your body interact with the physical world is__________? a.Perception b.Transduction c.Sensation d.Absolute threshold C. Sensation – the simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ Perception – the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Transduction – what takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system Absolute threshold – the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus Parents distinguishing the smell of their own children from other people’s children is due to detection of __________? a.Pheromones b.Chemicals c.Body odor d.All of the above A. Pheromones – biochemical odorants emitted by other members of their species that can affect the animal’s behavior or physiology The dorsal stream allows us to perceive spatial relations, while the ventral stream includes brain areas that represent an object’s shape and identity. A.True B.False A. True What type of object recognition theory states that objects you have seen before are stored in your memory as a TEMPLATE? A.parts-based B.Gestalt parts-based C.Monocular-based D.Image-based D. Image based – an object is stored in memory as a template, a mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image Parts-based – the brain deconstructs viewed objects into a collection of parts Haptic perception results from our _________ exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our ________. a.Passive; hands b.Active; hands c.Passive; mind d.Active; brain B. active; hands Some children are born with a disorder known as congenital insensitivity to pain, which causes them to not have pain sensations. A.True B.False A. True – this disorder often mutilate themselves (biting their tongues, gouging skin when scratching); children with this are at an increased risk of dying during childhood In order, the three stages of memory are: a.Encoding, storage, retrieval b.Retrieval, storage, encoding c.Encoding, retrieval, storage d.Storage, encoding, retrieval A. Encoding, storage, retrieval – encoding is the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory; storage is the process of maintaining information in memory over time; retrieval is the process of brining to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Long-term retention is greatly enhanced by __________. a. Visual imagery encoding b. Organization encoding c. Elaborative encoding d. None of the above C. Elaborative encoding – actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory __________ is the process of keeping information in short term memory by mentally repeating it, while _________ involved combining small pieces of information into large clusters. a.Practice; chunking b.Repetition; chunking c.Practice; rehearsal d.Rehearsal; chunking D. Rehearsal; chunking The inability to transfer new information from the short- term memory into the long-term memory store is known as retrograde amnesia. a.True b.False B. False – retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation; anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from short-term store into the long-term store If you start talking about a party that you attended last year with a group of your best friends you are exhibiting explicit memory. A.True B.False A. True – explicit memory occurs when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences; implicit memory occurs when past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them If I am now 21 and I forget the color of the dress I wore on my 6th birthday I am experiencing which of the seven sins of memory? A.Blocking B.Transience C.Memory misattribution D.Absent-mindedness B. Transience – forgetting what occurs with the passage of time; blocking – a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it; memory misattribution – assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source; absent-mindedness – a lapse in attention that results in memory failure. Which of the following is not considered one of “The Seven Sins of Memory?” A.) Transience B.) Memory misattribution C.) Perceptibility D.) Blocking Correct Answer: C. Perceptibility is not one of “The Seven Sins of Memory.” The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget is known as ________. A.) Persistence B.) Transience C.) Memory misattribution D.) Tip-of-the-tongue experience Correct Answer: A.) Persistence is the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget. Frequently occurs after disturbing or traumatic incidents because emotional experiences generally lead to more vivid and enduring recollections than non-emotional experiences do. Theresa, a rape victim, recounts her story for the police department and recalls that there was another man accompanying her rapist. After further investigation it was found that there was no accomplice in the case. What memory sin did Theresa commit? A.) Persistence B.) Transience C.) Memory misattribution D.) Tip-of-the-tongue experience Correct Answer: C.) Memory misattribution: assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source. ________ is based on experience, produces change in the organism, and these changes are relatively permanent. A.) Habituation B.) Learning C.) Growing D.) Sensory Awareness Correct answer: B.) Learning. Learning is some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. An _______ _______ is something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism: An _______ _______ is a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. A.) Conditioned Response; Conditioned Stimulus B.) Conditioned Stimulus; Unconditioned Stimulus C.) Unconditioned Response; Unconditioned Stimulus D.) Unconditioned Stimulus; Conditioned Stimulus Correct Answer: D.) Unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus. If you smell a lemon, it might get a sour taste in your mouth and you may salivate. This may occur from the time you are born and can occur without you ever having tasted a lemon before. The salivation and sour taste would be _________ _______. A.) Unconditioned Responses B.) Conditioned Responses C.) Unconditioned Stimuli D.) Conditioned Stimuli Correct Answer: A.) Unconditioned Responses; A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. _________ _________ is when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. A.) Classical Conditioning B.) Variable Interval Schedule C.) Fixed Interval Schedule D.) Operant Conditioning Correct Answer: A.) Classical Conditioning The gradual elimination of a learned response is known as: A.) Acquisition B.) Generalization C.) Extinction D.) Discrimination Correct answer: C.) Extinction. A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future is known as: A.) Classical Conditioning B.) Variable Interval Schedule C.) Fixed Interval Schedule D.) Operant Conditioning Correct Answer: D.) Operant Conditioning With this type of operant conditioning reinforcement schedule, an organism must wait for a specific amount of time and then make the operant response in order to receive reinforcement. A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule B.) Variable Interval Schedule C.) Variable Ratio Schedule D.) Fixed Interval Schedule Correct Answer: D.) Fixed Interval Schedule If you are conducting a study in which you place a rat on a fixed- interval 30 second schedule (FI-30s), and the operant response is pressing the lever, then the rat must wait for 30 seconds, then press the lever, and it will receive reinforcement. This type of schedule is called fixed because the amount time the organism must wait remains constant. In addition, the investigator can determine what NOT waiting will do. If the rat presses the lever before the interval has elapsed, it can either make the interval start all over again (so if the rat waits 15 seconds and then presses the lever, it starts the 30 seconds all over again), or do nothing so that the rat can press the lever constantly for 30 seconds, and then the next one will produce reinforcement. An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made is known as: A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule B.) Variable Interval Schedule C.) Variable Ratio Schedule D.) Fixed Interval Schedule Correct Answer: A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule When a friend asks you for directions to your house, you are able to create an image in your mind of the roads, places to turn, landmarks, etc., along the way to your house from your friend's starting point. This representation is a: A.) Cognitive Direction B.) Brain Directive C.) Cognitive Imagination D.) Cognitive Map Correct Answer: D.) Cognitive Map; A mental representation of the physical features of the environment. This is a type of learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition. A.) Artificial Learning B.) Implicit Learning C.) Explicit Learning D.) Beneath-the-surface Learning Correct Answer: B.) Implicit Learning.
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