Study Session Powerpoint EXAM STUDY SESSION amnesia by mikesanye

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									The basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor,
or taste as parts of your body interact with the
physical world is__________?

a.Perception
b.Transduction
c.Sensation
d.Absolute threshold
C. Sensation – the simple awareness due to the
stimulation of a sense organ

Perception – the organization, identification, and
interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental
representation

Transduction – what takes place when many sensors
in the body convert physical signals from the
environment into neural signals sent to the central
nervous system

Absolute threshold – the minimal intensity needed to
just barely detect a stimulus
Parents distinguishing the smell of their own children
from other people’s children is due to detection of
__________?
a.Pheromones
b.Chemicals
c.Body odor
d.All of the above
A. Pheromones – biochemical odorants emitted by
other members of their species that can affect the
animal’s behavior or physiology
The dorsal stream allows us to perceive spatial
relations, while the ventral stream includes brain
areas that represent an object’s shape and identity.

A.True
B.False
A. True
What type of object recognition theory states that
objects you have seen before are stored in your
memory as a TEMPLATE?

A.parts-based
B.Gestalt parts-based
C.Monocular-based
D.Image-based
D. Image based – an object is stored in memory as a
template, a mental representation that can be
directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal
image

Parts-based – the brain deconstructs viewed objects
into a collection of parts
Haptic perception results from our _________
exploration of the environment by touching and
grasping objects with our ________.

a.Passive; hands
b.Active; hands
c.Passive; mind
d.Active; brain
B. active; hands
Some children are born with a disorder known as
congenital insensitivity to pain, which causes them to
not have pain sensations.

A.True
B.False
A. True – this disorder often mutilate themselves (biting
their tongues, gouging skin when scratching); children
with this are at an increased risk of dying during
childhood
In order, the three stages of memory are:

a.Encoding, storage, retrieval
b.Retrieval, storage, encoding
c.Encoding, retrieval, storage
d.Storage, encoding, retrieval
A. Encoding, storage, retrieval – encoding is the process
by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel
into an enduring memory; storage is the process of
maintaining information in memory over time; retrieval is
the process of brining to mind information that has been
previously encoded and stored
Long-term retention is greatly enhanced by __________.

a.   Visual imagery encoding
b.   Organization encoding
c.   Elaborative encoding
d.   None of the above
C. Elaborative encoding – actively relating new
information to knowledge that is already in memory
__________ is the process of keeping information in short
term memory by mentally repeating it, while _________
involved combining small pieces of information into
large clusters.

a.Practice; chunking
b.Repetition; chunking
c.Practice; rehearsal
d.Rehearsal; chunking
D. Rehearsal; chunking
The inability to transfer new information from the short-
term memory into the long-term memory store is known
as retrograde amnesia.

a.True
b.False
B. False – retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve
information that was acquired before a particular
date, usually the date of an injury or operation;
anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new
information from short-term store into the long-term
store
If you start talking about a party that you attended last
year with a group of your best friends you are exhibiting
explicit memory.

A.True
B.False
A. True – explicit memory occurs when people
consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences;
implicit memory occurs when past experiences
influence later behavior and performance, even
though people are not trying to recollect them and are
not aware that they are remembering them
If I am now 21 and I forget the color of the dress I wore
on my 6th birthday I am experiencing which of the
seven sins of memory?

A.Blocking
B.Transience
C.Memory misattribution
D.Absent-mindedness
B. Transience – forgetting what occurs with the
passage of time; blocking – a failure to retrieve
information that is available in memory even though
you are trying to produce it; memory misattribution –
assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong
source; absent-mindedness – a lapse in attention that
results in memory failure.
Which of the following is not considered one of
“The Seven Sins of Memory?”


A.) Transience
B.) Memory misattribution
C.) Perceptibility
D.) Blocking
Correct Answer: C. Perceptibility is not one of “The
  Seven Sins of Memory.”
The intrusive recollection of events that we
  wish we could forget is known as
  ________.
A.) Persistence
B.) Transience
C.) Memory misattribution
D.) Tip-of-the-tongue experience
Correct Answer: A.) Persistence is the intrusive
  recollection of events that we wish we could forget.

Frequently occurs after disturbing or traumatic incidents
  because emotional experiences generally lead to more
  vivid and enduring recollections than non-emotional
  experiences do.
Theresa, a rape victim, recounts her story for the police
  department and recalls that there was another man
  accompanying her rapist. After further investigation it was
  found that there was no accomplice in the case. What
  memory sin did Theresa commit?

A.) Persistence
B.) Transience
C.) Memory misattribution
D.) Tip-of-the-tongue experience
Correct Answer: C.) Memory misattribution: assigning
  a recollection or an idea to the wrong source.
________ is based on experience, produces change in
  the organism, and these changes are relatively
  permanent.
A.) Habituation
B.) Learning
C.) Growing
D.) Sensory Awareness
Correct answer: B.) Learning.

Learning is some experience that results in a relatively permanent change
   in the state of the learner.
An _______ _______ is something that reliably produces a
   naturally occurring reaction in an organism: An _______
   _______ is a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces
   no reliable response in an organism.
A.) Conditioned Response; Conditioned Stimulus
B.) Conditioned Stimulus; Unconditioned Stimulus
C.) Unconditioned Response; Unconditioned Stimulus
D.) Unconditioned Stimulus; Conditioned Stimulus
Correct Answer: D.) Unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus.
If you smell a lemon, it might get a sour taste in your mouth and you
    may salivate. This may occur from the time you are born and can
    occur without you ever having tasted a lemon before. The
    salivation and sour taste would be _________ _______.
A.) Unconditioned Responses
B.) Conditioned Responses
C.) Unconditioned Stimuli
D.) Conditioned Stimuli
Correct Answer: A.) Unconditioned Responses; A reflexive reaction that is
   reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
_________ _________ is when a neutral stimulus evokes
  a response after being paired with a stimulus that
  naturally evokes a response.
A.) Classical Conditioning
B.) Variable Interval Schedule
C.) Fixed Interval Schedule
D.) Operant Conditioning
Correct Answer: A.) Classical Conditioning
The gradual elimination of a learned response is known as:
A.) Acquisition
B.) Generalization
C.) Extinction
D.) Discrimination
Correct answer: C.) Extinction.
A type of learning in which the consequences of an
  organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated
  in the future is known as:
A.) Classical Conditioning
B.) Variable Interval Schedule
C.) Fixed Interval Schedule
D.) Operant Conditioning
Correct Answer: D.) Operant Conditioning
With this type of operant conditioning reinforcement schedule, an
     organism must wait for a specific amount of time and then make
     the operant response in order to receive reinforcement.
A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule
B.) Variable Interval Schedule
C.) Variable Ratio Schedule
D.) Fixed Interval Schedule
Correct Answer: D.) Fixed Interval Schedule


     If you are conducting a study in which you place a rat on a fixed-
     interval 30 second schedule (FI-30s), and the operant response is
     pressing the lever, then the rat must wait for 30 seconds, then press
     the lever, and it will receive reinforcement. This type of schedule is
     called fixed because the amount time the organism must wait
     remains constant. In addition, the investigator can determine what
     NOT waiting will do. If the rat presses the lever before the interval
     has elapsed, it can either make the interval start all over again (so if
     the rat waits 15 seconds and then presses the lever, it starts the 30
     seconds all over again), or do nothing so that the rat can press the
     lever constantly for 30 seconds, and then the next one will produce
     reinforcement.
An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered
   after a specific number of responses have been made is known as:
A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule
B.) Variable Interval Schedule
C.) Variable Ratio Schedule
D.) Fixed Interval Schedule
Correct Answer: A.) Fixed Ratio Schedule
When a friend asks you for directions to your house, you are able to
   create an image in your mind of the roads, places to turn,
   landmarks, etc., along the way to your house from your friend's
   starting point. This representation is a:
A.) Cognitive Direction
B.) Brain Directive
C.) Cognitive Imagination
D.) Cognitive Map
Correct Answer:
D.) Cognitive Map; A mental representation of the
  physical features of the environment.
This is a type of learning that takes place largely
  independent of awareness of both the process and the
  products of information acquisition.
A.) Artificial Learning
B.) Implicit Learning
C.) Explicit Learning
D.) Beneath-the-surface Learning
Correct Answer: B.) Implicit Learning.

								
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