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Chapter 6 Skeletal System

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					  Chapter 6
Skeletal System
          Applications of Therapeutic
                    Services
            Mrs. Burgstiner, BSN
             Ch. 6 Skeletal System
    206 Individual Bones That Comprise the
         Bony Framework of the Body
   Support                            Ligaments
       Provides shape to the               Fibrous bands
        body                                      Connect Bones to
                                                   Bones and Cartilage
   Protects                                Joints
       Soft, delicate internal                   Bound together by
        organs                                     ligaments
                                             Tendons
   Allows Movement and                  
                                                  Fibrous Cords
    Anchorage of Muscles                               Connect
       Skeletal Muscles attach                          muscles to
        to the skeleton                                  Bone
            Ligaments/Tendons
                  Work with Bone
Functions:
   Storage
       Minerals
            Calcium
            Phosphorus
                  In Malnutrition
                       Pulls from bones (Homeostasis)

   Hemopoiesis
       Blood Cell Formation
            Long Bones, Sternum, Ilia
                  Red Marrow
                   Structure of Bone
   Osteocytes
       Mature Bone Cells
       Greek word Osteon
            Means Bone
   35% Organic/ 65% Inorganic
       Organic
            Protein – bone Collagen – Fibrous
            Jellylike material between Collagen Fibers
                  Give it a degree of flexibility
       Inorganic
            Mineral Salts
                  Give bone its hardness and durability
                   Bone Formation
   Embryonic Skeleton
       Collagenous Protein fibers
            Secreted by the Osteoblasts
   Eighth Week
       Ossification Begins
            Mineral Matter
   Infant bones
       Soft and Pliable
            Incomplete Ossification
                  Soft Spot – Fontanel
       As bone ossifies
            Babies able to bare weight
Structure of Long Bones
   Diaphysis                           Medullary Canal
       Hollow Cylinder                     Center of shaft
            Hard Compact Bone                   Filled Yellow Marrow
                 Strong and Light                – Fat Cells Stored
   Epiphysis                                    Blood Vessels
                                                 Cells – Form WBC or
       Each end of the                           Leukocytes
        Diaphysis Fig. 6-1 A
        pg 95                           Endosteum
                                            Inner lining
                                                 Marrow Canal
        Structure of Long Bones
               Continued
   Spongy Bone                       Periosteum
       Where less strength               Outer Covering of bone
        needed                                 Tough Fibrous Tissue
       Hard bone dissolves                    Contains
                                                      Blood Vessels
   Red Marrow                                    
                                                     Lymph Vessels
       End of Long Bones                            Nerves
            Erythropoiesis                    Necessary For
                  RBC Formation                     Bone
                                                            Growth
                                                            Repair
                                                            Nutrition
                Growth of Bones

   Grow in length and ossify from
        The center of Diaphysis toward
       The Epiphyses
       Growth Zone/Plate
   Grow in Circumference
       By adding more bone to the outer surface of
        the
            Diaphysis – Osteoblasts deposit new bone
Epiphyseal Cartilage

   Helps determine further growth in
    Children
   Take an X-ray
   Epiphyseal Cartilage Remains
       Further Growth
   No Epiphyseal Cartilage
       Child has reached full stature/height
Bone Constantly Renewed

   Throughout Life                    Formation
       Two Steps                             New bone laid down
            Resorption                        by Osteoblasts
            Formation                        Avg. Females 18
                                              Avg. Males 21
       Resorption
            Old bone Broken           Formation occurs any
             Down and Removed           time of injury or
                   By Osteoclasts
               
                                        break
              Bone Types
         Classification of Bones
   4 Types Figure 6-2 pg 96
       Long Bones – Arms & Legs
       Flat Bones – Skull & Ribs
       Irregular Bones – Spinal Column
       Short Bones – Wrist & Ankle
   Degree of Movement
       Determined by
            Bone Shape & Joint Structure
                Parts of Skeleton

   Two Main
       Axial Skeleton
            Skull
            Spinal Column
            Ribs
            Sternum (Breastbone)
            Hyoid Bone – U-shaped bone in neck attached to
             the Tongue
                               Skull

   Cranium & Facial Bones
       Cranium
       During Infancy held together by
            Sutures – then ossifies and turns hard
            Houses & Protects
                  Brain
       Facial
            Guard & Support
                  Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Mouth
Skull – 22 Bones
   8 Cranium
       Figure 6-4 pg 98

   14 Facial
       Figure 6-4 pg 98
   Skull contains Spaces
       Sinuses
            Mucous Membranes
            Swollen Inflammed
Spinal Column/ Vertebra

   Strong/ Flexible
   Supports the Head
   Provides attachment for Ribs
   Encloses Spinal Cord
The Spine
   Small bones/Vertebrae         5 Sections Fig. 6-5 pg 99
   Separated by                       Cervical Vertebrae
    Intervertebral Disks               Thoracic
   Act as cushions/Shock              Lumbar
    Absorbers                          Sacrum
   Thinner as we age                  Coccyx
   Result in loss of height
    Ribs & Sternum Fig. 6-7 pg
               100
   Sternum (Breastbone)
       Helps protect thoracic area of body


   Ribs
       12 pairs of Ribs
            First 7 True Ribs
            3 Pair of False Ribs
            2 Pair of Floating Ribs
Appendicular Skeleton – 126
Bones pgs 100-103 with Figs.
   Upper Extremities      Lower Extremities
   Shoulder Girdle        Hip Girdle
   Arms                   Legs
   Wrists                 Ankle
   Hands                  Feet
Joints and Related Structures

   Joints
       Articulations
            Points of Contact between two bones
       3 Types
       Diarthroses (movable) Most in the Body
       Amphiarthroses (partially movable)
       Synarthroses (immovable)
Diarthroses - Movable
   3 Parts
       Articular Cartilage
            Smooth, Slippery cap
            Absorbs shock
            Prevents friction
       Bursa (joint capsule)
            Bursa sacs
            If inflamed Bursitis
       Synovial Cavity
            Secretes synovial fluid
4 Types of Diarthoses Joints
   Ball & Socket – Greatest Movement
       Ex. Shoulders & Hips
   Hinge – one direction or plane
       Ex. Knees, elbows, outer fingers
   Pivot – An extension rotating in a second, arch-
    shaped bone
       Ex. Radius and Ulna, Head – Atlas/Axis
   Gliding – glide across each other
       Ex. Vertebrae of spine
         Amphiarthroses Joints

   Partially Movable
   Ex.
        Ribs to Spine
       Symphysis pubis
              Synarthroses Joints

   Immovable Joints
       Adult Cranium
            Bones fused
            Sutures
              Types of Motion
   Flexion – Decrease angle between two bones
   Extension – Increase angle between two bones
   Abduction – Away from the midline
   Adduction – Toward the midline
   Circumduction – Includes all the above
   Rotation – Moves around a central axis
   Pronation – forearm turns hand downward/backward
   Supination – Palm forward or upward
Disorders of Bones & Joints

   Fracture (Fx) – Break
   4 Main Types
       Greenstick – Simplest – Bone bent but not
        separated - Children
       Closed/Simple – Does not break through skin
       Open/Compound – Most serious – Bone ends
        pierce and protrude through skin
       Comminuted - bone is splintered
              Restoring Bone
             Fractures/Injuries
   3 Main Methods
       Closed Reduction – Brought into alignment
        by manipulation – cast/splint applied
       Open Reduction – Surgical intervention –
        wires, metal plates, screws to hold in
        alignment and a cast/splint
       Traction – pulling force hold bones in place
        (used for long bone fx)
        Bone & Joint Injuries

   Dislocation – Displaced from proper
    position – reduce – rest – allow to heal
   Sprain – injury to a joint caused by
    sudden motion – turning/twisting – torn
    ligaments – rapid swelling/acute pain –
    Tx – RICE
Bone & Joint Injuries

   Concussion – Severe Blow to Head –
    S/S – Dizziness, Vision disturbance, N/V –
    Tx – Bed rest, fluids, pain reliever
   Hammer Toe – Curled/Flexed – Proper
    foot wear – device from Podiatrist to
    position toes
          Diseases of the Bones
   Arthritis – Inflammatory Condition of the Joints
    – 20 Different Types
   Two Most Common
       Rheumatoid – Chronic, Autoimmune
            Young Adult
            Affects more Women than men
       Osteoarthritis
            Degenerative Joint Disease
            Occurs with Aging
            80% of all Americans Affected
Arthritis

   No Cure
   Many Treatments
       Anti-inflammatory Drugs
       Other Drugs
       Glucosamine/Chrondrotin Supplements
       Acupuncture
       Nutrition Supplements
       Arthroplasty – Hip & Knee Replacement
             Gout – Rickets

   Gout – Joint Inflammation – Uric Acid
    Crystals in Joint – Tx – Anti-inflammatory
    Drugs
   Rickets – Most prevalent in Children –
    Lack of Vit. D – Tx – Vit. D Supplements
    and exposure to the Sunshine
     Slipped (Herniated) Disk -
              Whiplash
   Slipped (Herniated) Disk –
    Cartilage/Disk ruptures or protrudes out
    of place – places pressure on nerve – Tx
    – Chiropractor, Bed rest, traction, or
    surgery
   Whiplash – Trauma to cervical vertebra
    – usually Auto Acc. – Tx – Chiropractor,
    rest, ice, if severe surgical intervention
    Abnormal Curvatures of the
      Spine Fig. 6-17 pg 112
   Kyphosis – Hunchback – Thoracic area of spine

   Lordosis – Swayback – Exaggerated inward
    curvature of the lumbar region

   Scoliosis – Side-to-Side or lateral curvature of
    the spine
        Other Medically Related
              Disorders
   Osteoporosis – Porous Bone Disease Fig. 6-18
    pg 113 and Fig. 6-19 pg 114
       Low Bone Mass
       Structural Deterioration of Bone Tissue
   Major Public Health Issue
       Affects 55% of people 52 or older
       Women 80%
       Dx: Bone Density Test
       Tx: Ca
Other Medically Related
Disorders
   Osteomyelitis – Infection of Bone
        Results from injury or systemic infection
       Common in Children ages 5 -14

   Osteosarcoma – Bone CA
       Can occur in younger people
       Common site
            Just above the knee
         Doctor of Osteopathic
             Medicine, DO
   Osteopathic Physicians
       Partnership with pt
       Holistic Medicine
       Manipulative
            Hands-on techniques
       Must take Medical Boards and be licensed in
        the state they practice
     Career Profile: Radiologic
          Technologists
   Radiographers: produce x-ray films to
    be used in dx of disease
   Radiation Therapy Technologists:
    Prepare CA pt for tx
   Sonographers: Use sound waves to
    project image (OB/GYN)
   Job Outlook: Growing Fast

				
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