LTE-A is short for LTE-Advanced is a follow-up to the evolution of LTE technology. LTE commonly known as 3.9G, indicating LTE and 4G technology indicators have been very close. Compared with the 4G LTE, in addition to the maximum bandwidth, uplink peak rates of the two indices slightly lower than 4G requirements, other technical indicators have reached the 4G standards. And will formally bring LTE 4G technology LTE-A's overall design is much more than the minimum needs of 4G. In June 2008, 3GPP LTE-A complete report of the technical requirements, proposed minimum requirements LTE-A: downlink peak rate of 1Gbps, uplink peak rates of 500Mbps, up and down the peak spectral efficiency, respectively 15Mbps/Hz and 30Mbps / Hz. These parameters have been much higher than the minimum technical requirements ITU indicators, has obvious advantages.
May 2010 UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance Table of Contents • LTE Context • A brief introduction to the SIM/UICC • The role of the UICC (Universal Integrated Chip Card) and associated applicative solutions in LTE • SIMalliance’s Position • Conclusion LTE Context Mobile network operators are facing huge growth in data traffic due to an every-increasing level of mobile internet usage. This is largely driven by a growing consumer love affair with smart phones, though USB modems and other mobile internet devices contribute as well. These devices offer end-users a wide selection of internet-based rich services including messaging, localization, interaction with social communities, publication and consumption of content, and more. As a result, major operators worldwide are planning to migrate to high bandwidth all-IP wireless networks capable of supporting this data traffic and, in the medium term, allowing IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) -based voice and SMS. This so-called Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a reality today. LTE is developed and maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards body. The network represents an advance on existing Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS or 3rd Generation, 3G) networks, and is also the commonly accepted evolution path for all currently deployed GSM, W-CDMA and CDMA networks. These LTE networks represent a new era of connectivity for consumers and offer new opportunities for mobile operators and the mobile ecosystem. LTE takes advantage of an enhanced radio interface and the scalability of internet architectures and combines these with the security of the UICC card and associated networks-based solutions and services. Win-win scenario for both LTE operators and users LTE solutions are based on the most relevant mobile technologies, and provide high capacity, reliability, security and cost-effective services and benefits for both operators and end-users. Operator benefits With smooth migration and installation, more and more operators worldwide are choosing LTE technology as it offers an important investment protection by reusing existing assets and by facilitating the roll-out for future releases. With its simplified system architecture and open interface, LTE offers flexible usage of new and existing frequency bands, to help improve coverage and capacity for end-users. This deployment of services will also generate an increase in operator revenue, deliver low latency and rich IP-based services at a lower cost, and allow total interoperation with 3GPP and non-3GPP networks which will translate into a remarkable reduction of the cost-per-bit. End-user benefits LTE end-users will enjoy wider mobile broadband, the highest network speed, near universal coverage and low latency. LTE will also lead to an entire new catalog of emerging applications and services. UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 2/8 The result for users will be an interconnected mobile ecosystem that meets their needs and expectations and improves their lifestyle. LTE Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) UICC is a mandatory secure element of the LTE environment, ensuring safe and protected access to mobile LTE and IMS networks. LTE’s permanent connectivity transforms the UICC into an IP-connected multi-application platform, capable of exposing services and applications directly accessible from IP networks. The UICC, as a networked cryptographic computer, offers reliable and easy-to-use solutions for securing cloud-based services or applications executed in the LTE device. The benefits and possibilities for operators, subscribers and device manufacturers using LTE are wide. UICC, for example, can shelter operator-branded applications, downloaded, managed and upgraded over the air (OTA). A brief introduction to the SIM/UICC The SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module) is the state-of-the-art security token used by mobile network operators to identify subscribers into their 2G/GSM and 3G/UMTS networks. Since its appearance in the 1990s, billions of cards have been delivered to the market world-wide, which proves its reliability and capacity to adapt to the evolution of the networks and MNO needs. Initially meant for GSM networks, and with the precedent of the C-Net mobile communication system in Germany, it offered a revolutionary concept with the separation of the subscription from the mobile handset in a dedicated, standardized device. The SIM was later adapted accordingly for UMTS and CDMA, and it is also the chosen device to identify the subscriber in Long Term Evolution networks. That means that SIM cards will continue to be present in both existing and future networks. In that sense, several organizations and standards bodies work together to ensure interoperability between SIM cards from different vendors, both by defining standards and regularly performing test sessions. It is worth mentioning here the SIMalliance, OMA (Open Mobile Alliance), Global Platform, OMTP (Open Mobile Terminal Platform), ETSI and 3GPP among others. It is widely agreed by all major players in the mobile telecommunications market that the SIM card is the best container for any kind of sensible information, the Mobile Subscription (IMSI) being the basic one. But the SIM card is actually implemented in the so-called UICC platform, which is a secure multi- application platform able to store many other applications besides the SIM, all of them benefiting from the security strengths of the UICC. The SIM card is the only network element in the hands of the subscriber, so it brings several benefits such as common and tested behavior between cards from different vendors (in contrast to the fragmentation of handsets), controlled deployment of new functionalities and features by the MNO, management of the card content even after it has been delivered to the final customer (via OTA systems) and a clear visibility of the configuration and features of each card active in the network. The above mentioned points make the SIM card the most appropriate device for deploying new value- added services. Which is why the MNO started to include specific operator service portals back in the 2000 based on CAT (Card Application Toolkit). The advantages of these types of services were clear, UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 3/8 so in 2008 half of the all cards carried one of these portals, based on text menus and adapted to the screens and interfaces of legacy handsets. Now with mobile web and smart phone use increasing rapidly, subscribers are getting used to enjoying rich multimedia interfaces on their mobile devices, experiences similar to the ones they get at home. At the same time, the all-IP intrinsic characteristic of LTE networks demand devices prepared to take full advantage of the benefits that the WEB-based services and internet brings to both the MNO and the final user. In that sense, the SIM card offers new features as the Smart Card WEB Server (SCWS), USB IC (including EEM class), IP support, or higher memory sizes, all of them interacting to fulfil the expectations of the different parties. The role of the UICC (Universal Integrated Chip Card) and associated applicative solutions in LTE With the introduction of UMTS the SIM card has changed. The SIM was a single application smart card which was designed to work in GSM systems. The new generation is called UICC (Universal Integrated Chip Card) a generic multi-application capable platform that is able to host several applications in parallel like Network Access Applications or even banking or ID-applications. Current Network Access Applications (NAA) defined for the UICC are: USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module) which is the NAA for UMTS ISIM (IP-multimedia subsystem Subscriber Identity Module) for accessing the IMS system CSIM (CDMA2000 Subscriber Identity Module), the NAA for CDMA2000 TSIM (TETRA Subscriber Identity Module), the NAA for TETRA Over time, the role of the UICC has evolved and it has become known as the only operator owned part of the network residing in the hands of each subscriber. It is therefore the perfect tool for an operator to distribute his services to the subscriber. And due to its portability and ability to work in any mobile handset it enables operators to offer network specific services and customization irrespective of the mobile phone. This uniqueness of the UICC permits a variety of new enhanced features, all to the benefit of the operator and the subscriber. Now, with the market introduction of LTE the role of the UICC needs to be adapted. The main change coming with LTE is the change to an all-IP based system offering much higher bandwidth than existing mobile communication systems, meaning the mobile communication world and the internet world are converging. This move to IP and the higher bandwidth also means new opportunities for operators. The following paragraphs describe these new features with an explicit focus on LTE. Remote File Management (RFM) / Remote Application Management (RAM) RFM is an enhancement of the over-the-air capabilities of the SIM card. It allows for management of the content of the UICC (remove, add, update) in a standardized and secure way. RAM also provides the capability to manage complete applications in a standardized and secure way. With these features an operator can always keep the content of his UICCs up-to-date and adapt the content to the needs of the subscriber. The UICC supports IP-based remote management by making use of bearer independent protocol (BIP). Using this technology and with the high UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 4/8 bandwidth offered by LTE it offers an efficient and fast way to offer many new services such as dynamic application management, phonebook synchronization, and preferred roaming solutions. As well, synchronization of subscriber’s contacts and the contact manager, allows storage of full contact details including pictures and many more features, is a particularly promising application. Security services and identity management With LTE and the concept of all IP, security and identification is a crucial topic. As is widely known, the internet is not a secure environment. Many security threats exist and attacks happen every second. By combining the mobile communication world with the internet, these threats and attacks extend also to the mobile world. Until today mobile communication systems have been relatively secure but there are now new challenges. The UICC can play a vital role in providing security in an open environment. It can be used to protect specific communication services and can provide the security means to set up secure VPN-connections for business users. Additionally the UICC is the perfect tool to securely identify users, manage identities, protect access to personal information during open identification scenarios, and so on. Another aspect is the open operating systems in mobile devices where malicious applications may be downloaded. The UICC can provide the security means to protect the device and the network against such malicious and fraudulent applications. A good example is the Femtocell hosting party authentication, whereby on top of all threads introduced by the all IP concept mobile operators open their network to Femtocell's devices meaning that their network infrastructure becomes more vulnerable. Even if the device itself is authenticated and certified by the MNO, the UICC offers a solution to authenticate the hosting party and then provide to the mobile operator a secure solution to deploy and manage securely such new devices. The ISIM (IP multimedia subsystem Subscriber Identity Module) The ISIM is one of the currently defined applications for the UICC. It is similar to the USIM, which is the NAA for UMTS but provides additionally the access to IMS (IP multimedia subsystem). By using the ISIM, the access to IMS is secured by additional authentication and thus providing a higher security level and protection against fraudulent use of the IMS. IMS itself is a corner stone of the LTE network. 3GPP has specified the support of voice, SMS, emergency calls and other supplementary services in LTE by using IMS. The voice solution in LTE is IMS VoIP and for SMSs the solution is SMS over IP using IMS. The UICC is providing the security to protect the access to the IMS by means of the ISIM. Smart Card Web Server (SCWS) The Smart Card Web Server provides the ability to present the subscriber with card-based applications with a rich multimedia experience. Using a standard mobile phone browser the user experiences a seamless service offering when using UICC based applications. UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 5/8 The Smart Card Web Server allows for applications accessing dynamic content or to store pre- loaded links to service specific web-pages on the UICC. UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 6/8 Together with LTE the Smart Card Web Server offers operators a rich multimedia based environment to design and distribute service offerings to customers. The Smart Card Web Server makes use of standard internet protocols like HTTP and uses standard html content. On-card applications and pre-loaded content can be presented to the subscribers in a fashionable way, also helping offloading the networks and avoid congestion. Links to operator and third party web pages can easily be provided without the need to pre-configure the mobile handset with this information. This allows, for example, direct access to web-based information services or customer support and service pages on the operator portal, thus reducing customer care requests and costs. LTE provides the perfect means for a fast and cost-effective connection together with the Smart Card Web Server. Storage capabilities Over the past few years the UICC has evolved in many areas. One of the new capabilities is the ability to store a huge amount of information in a proven secure manner. Today UICCs already offer several gigabytes of memory, and, as with all silicon technologies, this capacity is constantly increasing. With the use of the new features of the UICC the capability to store huge amounts of data is getting more and more important. The primary advantage of storing content on the UICC is portability. No hassles when changing the mobile phone – just put your UICC in and all the content is available again. UICC offers the possibility to store personal and multimedia content in a secure and protected way. When a subscriber loses his phone or the phone is stolen, his important and sensitive data is protected against unauthorized use. High speed interface (USB) When storing a lot of data on the UICC, there is also the need for a high speed interface between the UICC and the device. The USB-inter-chip standard provides the solution for a fast and reliable interface allowing the operator to provide new sophisticated services leveraging end to end high speed communication. SIMalliance’s Position The SIMalliance is positioning UICC-based solutions within the LTE environment (all IP, always on, low latency, need of trust) as the “mandatory” means for carriers to offer differentiated, high-value premium services to their end-users. The UICC offers operators a range of highly secure solutions for deploying premium services. As a matter of fact, the combination of LTE and UICC value added solutions fully leverages the new benefits of LTE networks to support the uptake of operators’ premium services. These solutions aim to restore the balance between the mobile operator’s service and that offered by the pure internet players. In so doing, it permits a more direct correlation between the increase in data traffic and revenue growth. Together with LTE network conveniences, the LTE UICC also offers operators and end-users an open catalogue of advantages. Combining LTE UICC premium services to the SIM card, means operators UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 7/8 will have an important role to play inside the mobile ecosystem. With the emerging applications and services moving towards the 4th generation of mobile networks, the UICC will help end-users to benefit from LTE in a secure and interoperable way. Examples of such applications include an enhanced communication suite, enhanced phone book, rich calls, enhanced media sharing, enhanced roaming over networks, technologies, and femtocells, localization for mobile marketing advertising, tracking, and intelligent routing over 2G/3G/LTE/CDMA. Conclusion LTE is the bridge towards 4th generation mobile networks. Many wireless network operators believe that LTE offers the best value proposition to increase network capacity, improve quality of service and significantly enhance data rates all the while reducing costs. With its high speed (100 Mb/s download) and low latency, LTE offers an excellent end-user experience for applications where data throughput is important – it means faster emails, file uploads, enhanced VPN connections, cloud computing and application-sharing when the users are on the move. It also opens up new application areas in the consumer or corporate user’s digital life environment, like high definition video, live TV, multi-user gaming, faster social contacts synchronization and peer-to-peer application transfers. Permanent connectivity also gives LTE great potential for vertical markets where instant and reliable reception of asynchronous messages is mandatory. Supporting a broader ecosystem, this technology bridges the gap between the mobile and consumer electronics worlds thereby enabling connectivity between more than just smart phones, computers and fixed line networks. The combination of LTE and UICC value added solutions fully leverages the new benefits of LTE networks. In a world of anytime, anywhere access to mobile internet, operators will be able to offer simple, reliable, innovative and secure services on the widest range of devices while device and handset manufacturers will also benefit from this model, since they will need to spend less effort on customizing devices for operators. The UICC has always been the ideal connected, secured, interoperable platform for the rapid mass deployment of services on any device. It will continue playing a key role in the development of technologies that place LTE & Web 2.0 at the heart of the mobile services ecosystem. UICC in LTE: A Guidance from SIMalliance May 2010 - 8/8
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