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Corsi Block Tapping Task- TR

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					ACEP Vocabulary Test .............................................................................................................. 2

Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory .......................................................................................... 4

Corsi Block Tapping Task- TR .................................................................................................. 6

Digit Span Task-for Mother ....................................................................................................... 8

Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System ..................................................................... 10

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory-TR ...................................................................................... 13

Frog Story Protocol .................................................................................................................. 15

Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) -TR ................................ 17

Index of Support to the Mother from Friends .......................................................................... 20

Marital Quality Scale ............................................................................................................... 22

Mother‟s General Health Perception ........................................................................................ 24

Mother‟s General Health Perception about Her Child ............................................................. 27

Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support .............................................................. 30

Neighborhood Ecologies Survey .............................................................................................. 32

Parenting Goals Questionnaire ................................................................................................. 34

Parenting Questionnaire - TR ................................................................................................... 36

Short Temperament Scale for Children .................................................................................... 38

The Brief Symptom Inventory ................................................................................................. 41

TIFALDI Receptive Language Test ......................................................................................... 43




                                                                                                                                       1
ACEP Vocabulary Test

       The vocabulary test developed by Gülgöz (2004) is used in order to measure mothers‟

knowledge of Turkish vocabulary. Gülgöz (2004) reports satisfactory reliability and validity

for the test. Although the original test contains 30 item, in the present study a 24-item short

form was used with a multiple-choice format. Wrong answers are scored as 0, right answers

are scored as 1. The internal reliability of the test was found as 0.77 by Kağıtçıbaşı et. al. (in

press). In order to show the Convergent validity of the ACEP vocabulary test, the correlations

between ACEP and mother‟s completed year of education and between ACEP and language

stimulation subscale score of the HOME inventory were examined. The correlation between

ACEP and language stimulation was found as r= 0.45, p<0.00 and the correlation between

mother‟s year of education and ACEP was found as r=0.55, p<0.00. These data provide

further evidence for the convergent validity of the ACEP vocabulary score.




                                                                                                     2
References

Gülgöz, S. (2004). Psychometric properties of the Turkish Vocabulary Test. Unpublished

     manuscript, Koc University, İstanbul.



Kagitcibasi, C., Sunar, D., Bekman, S., Baydar, N., & Cemalcilar , Z. (in press). Continuing

     effects of early intervention in adult life: The Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22

     years later. Applied Developmental Psychology.




                                                                                               3
Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory

        The original Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory (ASBI; Hogan, Scott, Bauer, 1992)

is a 30 item questionnaire, addressing the preschool social competence. The items are rated on

a 3 point Likert scale with respect to frequency. Initially, ASBI was used as three separate

subscales: express (e.g., “Understands others‟ feelings, like when they are happy, sad or

mad.”), comply (e.g., “Is helpful to other children.”), and disrupt (e.g., “Is bossy, needs to

have his/her way.”). The Inventory was translated into Turkish by the ECDET team (Baydar

et al., 2007). Although the Turkish version has 30 items and three subscales as same as the

original version , it was changed into 5 point Likert scale to make consistent with the other

scales used in the ECDET and some expressions in the items were modified. The items allow

the estimation of a total adaptive social behavior frequency scale and internal reliability of the

total scale is .85 (Baydar, et. al., 2008).




                                                                                                 4
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

      Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Unpublished

      Raw Data.


Baydar, N; Kuntay, A; Goksen, F; Yagmurlu, B; Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Uyumlu Sosyal

      Davranış Envanteri (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory), Unpublished Manuscript.



Hogan, A., Scott, K. G. ve Bauer, C. R. (1992). The Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory

      (ASBI): A new assessment of social competence for high risk three-year olds. Journal

      of Psychoeducational Assessment, 10, 230-239.




                                                                                         5
Corsi Block Tapping Task- TR

         The original Corsi Block Tapping Task (Corsi, 1972) measures the visual and working

memory capacity for children. The Corsi apparatus consists of nine, wooden blocks fixed to

an 9

(Berch, Krikorian, & Huha, 1998). The task requires reproducing the same tapped sequence

immediately after it has been shown to the subject until she/he gives inaccurate response. The

Turkish version of Corsi Block Tapping Task was adapted by Baydar et al. (2008) for 3 years

old children. Display characteristics and the administration of the task differ from the original

one. Corsi-TR apparatus consists of five beige blocks fixed to an 33.5 cm × 25 cm green flat

board. The blocks are 4 cm × 4 cm squares. In order to simplify the administration of the task

for 3 years old children, Corsi-TR is administered with a plastic monkey instead of pointing

with a pencil or finger as in the original one. The monkey figure is placed on the squares with

a fixed sequence. The subject is expected to place the monkey figure on the squares in a

shown sequence. It consists of 5 levels with 3 items in each level. The score a subject is

getting from each item can be „0‟, „1‟ or „2‟. If the subject incorrectly does both the sequence

and position she/he gets „0‟; if she/he does the position correct and the sequence incorrect

she/he gets „1‟; and if she/he correctly does both the sequence and position she/he gets „2‟

points. The subject progresses until she/he can not get 2 points from any of the three items in

that particular level (Baydar et al., 2008). Convergent validity of Corsi- TR was demonstrated

by calculating its correlation with other similar measures. Corsi- TR was found to be

associated with mother‟s forward digit span task score (r =0 .22, p< .05), backward digit span

task score (r =0 .26, p< .05) and total digit span task score (r =0 .27, p< .05). (Baydar et al.,

2008).




                                                                                                    6
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.



Berch, D. B, Krikorian R. & Huha E. M. (1998) . The Corsi Block-Tapping Task:

       Methodological and Theoretical Considerations. Brain and Cognition, 38, 317–338.



Corsi, P. M. (1972). Human memory and the medial temporal region of the brain. Dissertation

       Abstracts International, 34 (02), 891B. (University Microfilms No. AAI05–77717).




                                                                                          7
Digit Span Task-for Mother

        In order to determine mothers‟ working memory capacity, forward (DF) and backward

digit (DB) span tasks developed by Gülgoz (2008) were used. The DF task begins with 3

digits and if the subject correctly repeats it, increasingly long sequences were given until the

subject repeated incorrectly in two consecutive trials. DF task consists of six tasks; one 3-

digit, two 4-digit, two 5-digit and one 6-digit. The DB task begins with a 2-digit and if the

subject correctly repeats it, increasingly long sequences are given until the subject repeats

incorrectly in two consecutive trials. It consists of 6 tasks; one 2-digit, two 3-digit, two 4-digit

and one 5-digit. For both the DF and DB tests if the subject gives two consecutive wrong

responses, the test is finalized.

        Scoring of the DF and DB is based on both the given order of the numbers and

correctness of the numbers. If both of them are wrong it is scored as 0, if numbers are right

but order is wrong it is scored as 1, if both of them are right it is scored as 2.

        In order to examine the convergent validity of the Digit Span Task, a correlation

between digit span task and mothers‟ completed year of education was calculated. The results

showed a significant correlation (r=0.50, p<.05) between digit span task performance and

mothers‟ completed year of education.




                                                                                                   8
References

Gülgöz, S. (Personal communication, April 25, 2008).




                                                       9
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System

        Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) (Robinson & Eyberg, 1981)

is a behavioral observation system used in assessing the quality of parent-child interaction.

DPICS focuses on the overt verbal and physical behaviors during the social interaction

between the parent and the child. The observed behaviors are coded as 23 parent categories

and 8 child categories in terms of frequency. Parent categories (e.g. direct and indirect

command, praise, physical positive and negative, warning, and critical statement etc.) give

information about parenting styles. Child behavior coding categories (e.g. cry/whine/ yell,

smart talk, physical negative and compliance, positive affect, etc.) capture overt defiant and

prosocial behaviors.

        The Turkish version of the DPICS was developed by ECDET team (Baydar et al.,

2007) to score the videotaped interactions recorded in the main study. The original manual

was translated into Turkish and its feasibility for Turkish families was tentatively established

in a pilot study with several observations from the pilot assessments of ECDET. Some new

parent behavior categories such as threat, ignore of negative behavior of child, no answer and

neglect were added. Additionally, some culturally appropriate examples were added to the

manual. The interactions between 120 mother-child dyad were recorded in ECDET wave 1,

and coded by two coders. The inter-rater reliability for the all categories was .85 (Baydar, et.

al., 2008).

        The convergent validity for the DPICS was demonstrated by calculating its correlation

with other similar measures. The number of externalizing behaviors of the child measured by

DPICS was found to be associated with Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) total score

(r= .19, p<0.05). In addition, the number of physically negative child behaviors was found to

be associated with ECBI total score (r=.30, p<0.05).




                                                                                                 10
       The verbally expressive parenting composite behavior measure of DPICS was

associated with inductive reasoning subscale of Child Rearing Questionnaire (r= .28, p<0.05),

ACEP vocabulary test (r=.45, p<0.05), HOME language stimulation (r= .28, p<0.05) and

academic stimulation (r= .34, p<0.05) subscales.




                                                                                           11
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Unpublished

       Raw Data.


Baydar, N., Küntay, A., Gökşen, F., Yagmurlu, B., Cemalcılar, Z. (2007). Dyadic Parent-

       Child Interaction Coding System, Unpublished Manuscript.



Robinson, E. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (1981). The dyadic parent-child interaction coding system -

       standardization and validation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49,

       245-250.




                                                                                            12
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory-TR

       The original Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI; Eyberg and Robinson, 1983)

measures the conduct problems for children between the ages of 2 and 17. It consists of 36

items that are first rated by parents with respect to frequency, and next regarding whether they

perceive each behavior as a problem. The Turkish version of the ECBI was adapted by

Baydar et al. (2007). It includes 36 items and maintains the original structure except that the

frequencies of behaviors are rated on 5 point Likert scales instead of 7. The items allow the

estimation of a total behavior problem intensity scale as well as 3 intensity subscales:

aggression intensity (e.g., “Fights with the peers”), demand for attention intensity (e.g.,

“Whines”), and conduct problems intensity (e.g., “Argues with the parents about rules.”). The

internal reliability of these scales are 0.93, 0.80, 0.63, and 0.88 for total intensity scale,

aggression intensity scale, demand for attention intensity scale, and conduct problems

intensity scale respectively (Baydar et al., 2008).

       The Eyberg-TR items are also used to generate “problem” scales. In order to create

problem scales, each item score representing the frequency is weighted by the corresponding

problem score coded 2 if the mother declared the behavior a “problem” and 1 if the mother

did not consider that behavior a problem. The resulting “problem” scales have the following

reliabilities: total problem scale 0.94; aggression problem scale 0.83; demand for attention

problem scale 0.69; and, conduct problems problem scale 0.90. In general, intensity scale

scores are highly correlated with the problem scale scores (coefficients range between 0.90 -

0.95) (Baydar et al., 2008).




                                                                                                 13
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.


Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Eyberg Child

       Behavior Inventory- TR, Unpublished Manuscript.


Eyberg, S. & Robinson, E. A. (1983). Conduct problem behavior: Standardization of a

       behavioral scale with adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 347-354.




                                                                                          14
Frog Story Protocol

       This protocol is based on a picture book by Mercer Mayer (1969). The book‟s

illustrations depict a boy‟s panic and disappointment at discovering that his pet frog has

escaped from the jar that he puts it in it, followed by a relatively complicated series of

attempts to find the frog and the boy‟s eventual reunion with his pet. It is asked to the subjects

to peruse the wordless picture book and tell a story afterwards (Berman & Slobin, 1994;

Strömqvist & Verhoeven, 2004). “Frog Story Protocol” was administered to 120 mother-child

dyads in order to get information about mother‟s and child‟s verbal expressive ability (Baydar

et al., 2008). All the narratives were simultaneously audiotaped. There is no time limit in this

task. Before the coding all of the narratives were transcribed verbatim. Then by using a

software program, CLAN (Computerized Language Analysis), the narratives were examined

in terms of number of words, number of clauses, number of words per clause, number of word

types, and number of word-form types. Narrative complexity measures were rated by two

different coders independently.




                                                                                               15
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

     Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved May

     25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.



Berman, R. & Slobin, D. (1994). Relating events in narrative: a cross linguistic development
     study. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.



Mayer, M. (1969). Frog, where are you? New York: Dial Press.



Strömqvist, S & Verhoeven, L (2004). Relating Events in Narrative: Typological and
     Contextual Perspectives. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.




                                                                                           16
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) -TR

       The original Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME;

Bradley and Caldwell, 1984) measures the effects of environment on child development.

This inventory aims to measure the factors that affect the child development in home

environment by systematic observation (Bradley, 1981; Bradley, & Caldwell, 1979 ).

Although the original inventory includes observation and unstructured interview, almost in all

implementations for large samples, observation and structured interview is used. The original

HOME consists of 55 items for 3 years old children. The Turkish version of HOME was

adapted by Baydar & Bekar (2007). It includes 52 items and due to interview items‟

administration easiness, interviewer training easiness, and coding easiness, it was changed

into structured and closed- ended interview. Also, the content of the items was adapted

according to living conditions of Turkish children.

       The items allow the estimation of 7 subscales: learning materials (α=0.91; e.g., “Child

has toys which teach colors, sizes, and shapes”), language stimulation (α=0.84; e.g., “Parent

teaches child simple verbal manners: please, thank you, I‟m sorry”), physical environment

(α=0.72; e.g., “Building appears safe”), responsivity (α=0.82; e.g., “Mother holds child close

at least 5 minutes during the visit.”), academic stimulation (α=0.82; e.g., “Do you help your

child to learn the name of colors?”), experience variety (α=0.55; e.g., “Did you go to a trip to

somewhere else (to a prairie, village, town or city) with your child during last year?”), and use

of harsh discipline to the child (α=0.61; e.g., “Mother conversed with the child in a harsh

manner, scolded at or derogated him more than once during visit”) (Baydar et al., 2008).

       Convergent validity of HOME-TR was demonstrated for each subscale by calculating

its correlation with other similar measures. HOME-TR learning materials subscale was found

to be associated with total materials family own (r =0.68, p< .05), socioeconomic status




                                                                                                17
(r =0.66, p< .05), and mother‟s completed years of education (r = 0.51, p< .05). HOME-TR

language stimulation subscale was associated with mother‟s completed years of education

(r = 0.39, p< .05) and ACEP total vocabulary score (r = 0.45, p< .05). Likewise, HOME-TR

physical environment was associated with total materials family own (r = 0.39, p< .05) and

neighborhood physical sources subscale (r =0.32, p< .05). HOME-TR responsivity subscale

was associated with PQ-TR parental warmth subscale (r = 0.37, p< .05) and PQ-TR inductive

reasoning subscale (r =0.36, p< .05). Similarly, convergent validity of HOME-TR experience

variety subscale was demonstrated by the association of it with total materials family own (r

= 0.52, p< .05), socioeconomic status (r =0.52, p< .05) and mother‟s completed years of

education (r =0 .40, p< .05). HOME-TR use of harsh discipline to the child was associated

with PQ-TR punishment subscale (r =0.47, p< .05), Parenting Goals Questionnaire

compliance goal subscale (r = -0.10, p< .05), and PQ-TR obedience demanding behavior

subscale (r = 0.19, p< .05). Lastly, HOME-TR academic stimulation was associated with

mother‟s completed years of education (r = 0.35, p< .05) and father‟s completed years of

education (r = 0.27, p< .05) (Baydar et al., 2008).




                                                                                             18
Reference

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.


Baydar, N., & Bekar, O. (2007). HOME-TR observation and interview scales, Unpublished

       Manuscript. Retrieved May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.



Bradley, R. H. (1981). Preschool home environment and classroom behavior. Journal of

       Experimental Education, 49, 196-206.



Bradley, R.H. & Caldwell, B.M. (1979). Home observation for measurement of the

       environment: A revision of the preschool scale. American Journal of Mental

       Deficiency, 84, 235-244.


Bradley, R.H., & Caldwell, B, M. (1984). The relations of infants‟ home environments to

       achievement test performance in first grade: A follow-up study. Child Development,

       55, 803-809.




                                                                                            19
Index of Support to the Mother from Friends


       Index of Support to the Mother from Friends was developed by adapting the Support

Index (Henderson et al., 1978) to Turkish (Kumru, Sayıl, Yağmurlu, 2006). Index of Support

consists of 15 items that are rated by the participants with respect to the degree of how much

the participant agrees with a statement. Index of Support to the Mother from Friends includes

10 items that are rated by the mothers with respect to the degree of how much the statement is

true or false for the participant. The items are rated on a five point scale which is the same

with the original index. The items allow the estimation of the perception of the mother about

rate of support that she receives from her friends and a total support scale (e.g. “My friends

don‟t come to visit me as often as I would like.”). The internal reliability for Index of Support

to the Mother from Friends is 0.90 (Baydar et al., 2008).

       Convergent validity of Index of Support to the Mother from Friends was demonstrated

by calculating its correlation with other similar measures. Index of Support to the Mother

from Friends was associated with depression subscale of Short Symptom Inventory score (r =

.-29, p<.05).

       In order to examine the discriminant validity of the index of social support to the

mother from friends it was examined whether the scores of this scale and the answer to the

question whether the mother is doing anything in order to earn money ( X = 64.80, SD

=19.30) or not ( X = 58.23, SD =20.10) were significantly different from each other. The

results showed that they are significantly different from each other (F=(2, 1050) = 9.872,

p<0.00).




                                                                                                 20
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Henderson, S., Duncan-Jones, P., McAuley H., and Ritchie K. The patient's primary group,

       Br. J. Psychiatry 132 (1978), pp. 74–86.



Kumru A., Sayıl M., Yağmurlu B. ( 2006). TUBITAK Project “Career: Children‟s

       longitudinal study of cognitive, emotional and positive social development.”




                                                                                           21
Marital Quality Scale

        Marital Quality Scale (Baydar, and Yumbul, 2004) consists of 20 items that are first

rated by the mother with respect to how true or false a specific behavior is on a 3 point Likert

scale, and next regarding whether the target behavior of the spouse is perceived as upsetting

on a 4 point Likert scale. The items allow the estimation of two quality subscales: lack of care

and supportive behavior (e.g. my husband does not appreciate the tasks that I manage to do),

and aggression and harassment (e.g. sometimes my husband insults me). The internal

reliability of these scales are 0.85, and 0.89 for lack of care and supportive behavior scale, and

aggression and harassment scale respectively (Baydar et al., 2008).

        The Marital Quality Scale items are also used to generate “upsetting” scales. In order

to create upsetting scales, each item score representing how true or false a specific behavior is

weighted by the corresponding problem score rated on a 5 point Likert scale. The resulting

“upsetting” scale has the following reliability: 0.89 for lack of care and supportive behavior

scale, and .91 for aggression and harassment scale. In general, quality scale scores are highly

correlated with the upsetting scale scores (coefficients range between -0.789 -0.972) (Baydar

et al., 2008).

        Convergent validity of Marital Quality Scale was separately demonstrated for each

subscale. Lack of care and supportive behavior subscale of marital quality scale was

associated with “upsetting” subscale of lack of care and supportive behavior, (r = .-95, p<.05),

short symptom inventory depression subscale, (r = .-47, p<.05), and short symptom inventory

anxiety subscale, (r = .-44, p<.05). Agression and harassment subscale of marital quality scale

was associated with “upsetting” subscale of aggression and harassment subscale, (r = .-97,

p<.05), short symptom inventory depression subscale, (r = .-47, p<.05), short symptom

inventory anxiety subscale, (r = .-46, p<.05), and short symptom inventory hostility subscale,

(r = .-40, p<.05).



                                                                                                 22
References

Baydar and Yumbul (2004). Evlilikte Doyum Ölçeği, Unpublished Manuscript.



Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

         Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

         May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm




                                                                                          23
Mother’s General Health Perception

In order to assess mother‟s own health perception, General Health Perception (GH) subscale

of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form- 36‟s (SF-36) (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992) was

used. The validity and reliability of SF-36 for Turkish population have been tested by

Demirsoy (1999). Although SF-36 consists of 36 item and eight subscales to evaluate

different domains of Health related quality of life (HRQOL): 1) physical functioning (PF); 2)

role limitations because of physical health problems (RP); 3) bodily pain (BP); 4) social

functioning (SF); 5) general mental health (psychological distress and psychological well

being) (MH); 6) role limitations because of emotional problems (RE); 7) vitality (energy/

fatigue) (VT); 8) general health perception (GH), only GH subscale was used in ECDET

(Baydar et al., 2008). GH contains five items which aims to evaluate personal health from

poor and believes it is likely to get worse to evaluate personal health as excellent. The total

score of the GH varies between 0 and 100; higher scores represent better perception of general

health. The first item of the scale was asked to assess the mother‟s general health perception

on a 5 point Likert scale from “Excellent” to “Poor”. For the other four items it was asked to

evaluate her own health by using 5-point Liket scale changing from “Definitely True” to

“Definitely False”. (e.g. I seem to get sick a little easier than other people). The internal

reliability of the GH was found as 0.78 (Baydar et al., 2008). In order to examine the

discriminant validity of the GH it was examined whether the scores of GH and the answer to

the question whether the mother had any chronic illness were significantly different from each

other or not. To examine this One-Way ANOWA was performed. The results showed that the

GH scores of the mothers with a chronic health condition ( X = 50.23, SD =18.87) are

significantly different (F (1, 1051) = 238.00, p<0.00) from the GH scores of the mothers with

no chronic health condition ( X = 67.74, SD =15.59). Additionally, the Convergent validity of

the GH was examined by performing a correlation between GH and somatization subscale of


                                                                                                  24
the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results showed a significantly negative correlation (r = -

.46, p<.05) between GH and somatization. These data provide further evidence for the

convergent validity of the GH score.




                                                                                              25
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

     Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved May

     25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Demirsoy, A. D. (1999). The MOS SF-36 Health survey: A validation study with a Turkish

     Sample. Unpublished Master Thesis. İstanbul: Boğaziçi University , Department of

     Psychology.



Ware, J. E. & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF36).

     Conceptual framework and item selection”, Medical Care, 30(6), 473-483.




                                                                                          26
Mother’s General Health Perception about Her Child

To assess mother‟s perception about her child‟s health, General Health Perception (GH)

subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form - 36 (SF-36) (Ware & Sherbourne,

1992) was used. The validity and reliability of SF-36 for the Turkish population have been

tested by Demirsoy (1999). SF-36 consists of 36 items and eight subscales to evaluate

different domains of Health related quality of life (HRQOL). The eight subscales are the

following: 1) physical functioning (PF); 2) role limitations because of physical health

problems (RP); 3) bodily pain (BP); 4) social functioning (SF); 5) general mental health

(psychological distress and psychological well being) (MH); 6) role limitations because of

emotional problems (RE); 7) vitality (energy/ fatigue) (VT); 8) general health perception

(GH). In the current study, data are available only for the GH subscale.

GH consists of five items that aim to evaluate personal health from “poor and believes it is

likely to get worse” to “excellent.” In order to use this subscale for the child, the wording was

changed so that the mother could report her perceptions of the child‟s health. The total score

of the GH varies between 0 and 100. High scores represent a positive perception of the child‟s

general health by the mother. The first item of the scale elicits the mother‟s general health

perception about her child on a 5 point Likert scale from “Excellent” to “Poor.” The

remaining four items elicit ratings of statements about the child‟s health by the mother on 5-

point Likert scales ranging between “Definitely True” to “Definitely False” (Ex. My child

seems to get sick a little easier than other children). The internal reliability of the GH for the

child was found as 0.79 (Baydar et al., 2008).

The discriminant validity of this scale was established by comparing the mean GH scores of

children by the presence of a chronic condition and birth weight. There was a significant

difference (F (1, 1051) = 220.79, p<0.00) between the mean GH scores of the children who

had a chronic condition ( X = 51.41, SD =22.13) and those who did not have a chronic


                                                                                                 27
condition ( X = 69.59, SD =15.10). Similarly, there was a significant difference (F (1, 1051) =

13.25, p<0.00) between the mean GH scores of the children who were born with extremely

low birth weight ( X = 62.89, SD =16.38) versus normal birth weight children ( X = 70.91, SD

=17.81).




                                                                                            28
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

     Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved May

     25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Demirsoy, A. D. (1999). The MOS SF-36 Health survey: A validation study with a Turkish

     Sample. Unpublished Master Thesis. İstanbul: Boğaziçi University , Department of

     Psychology.



Ware, J. E. & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-

     36). Conceptual framework and item selection”, Medical Care, 30(6), 473-483.




                                                                                          29
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support

       The original Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS; Zimet et

al., 1988) was developed as a brief self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support

in which 12-item ratings were made on a 7-point Likert-type scale (ranging from very

strongly disagree to very strongly agree). The 12-item MSPSS was designed to measure the

perceived adequacy of support from the following three sources: family, friends, and

significant other.

       The Turkish version of MSPSS was adapted by Baydar et al. (2007) and it includes 9

items only considering support from the family members other than the children and the

husband. Items are rated by the mothers with respect to the degree of how much the statement

is true or false for the participant (e.g. There is a special person in my life who cares about my

feelings). Differently from the original scale, the items in the Turkish version are rated on a 5-

point Likert-type scale. Higher scores indicate higher perceived social support by the mother.

Internal reliability of the scale is determined as: 0.97 (Baydar et al., 2008).




                                                                                               30
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Baydar, N; Kuntay, A; Goksen, F; Yagmurlu, B; Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Mother‟s Perceived

       Social Support from Family, Unpublished Manuscript.



Zimet, G.D., Dahlem, N.W., Zimet, S.G. & Farley, G.K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale

       of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41.




                                                                                          31
Neighborhood Ecologies Survey

       Neighborhood ecologies survey (Baydar et al., 2007) was developed in order to

measure support received from the neighbors, social and physical structure of the

neighborhood and physical resources available in the neighborhood. Scales included in the

neighborhood ecologies survey are; Neighborhood support scale (e.g. “If I am sick, someone

from the neighborhood would help me”) which has 9 items with 5-point Likert-type scale,

physical and social structure and resources of the neighborhood (e.g. “Our neighborhood is

safe”) which has 7 items with 5-point Likert-type scale. Internal reliability of these scales are

.79 and .90 respectively.

       Convergent validity of Neighborhood Ecologies Survey was separately demonstrated

for each scale. Neighborhood support scale was associated with neighborhood social

materials, (r = .46, p<.05). Social and physical structure of the neighborhood scale was

associated with neighborhood social resources (r = .46, p<.05). Neighborhood physical

resources scale was associated with mothers‟ SES, (r = .41, p<.05), and total assets of the

mother (r = .41, p<.05).




                                                                                               32
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

         Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

         May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B., Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Neighborhood

       Ecologies Survey, Unpublished Manuscript.




                                                                                          33
Parenting Goals Questionnaire

       The original Parenting Goals Questionnaire (Schaefer, Edgerton, 1985) measures

mothers‟ and other family members‟ approach to child rearing and parenting. It consists of 18

items that are rated by the parents with respect to how important a particular statement in the

questionnaire is. The Turkish version of Parenting Goals Questionannaire was adapted by

Kumru, Sayıl, Yağmurlu (2006) and it was revised by Baydar et al., 2007. Turkish version

includes 11 items which are rated on a 4-point Likert scale regarding the desirability of a

certain characteristic for the parents that they want their child to carry. The items allow the

estimation of 2 parenting goals subscales: social skills goals (e.g. “Be able to get along with

people”), compliance goals (e.g. “Be quiet when asked”). The internal reliability of these

scales are .88 and .86 respectively (Baydar et al., 2008).




                                                                                                  34
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm



Baydar, N; Kuntay, A; Goksen, F; Yagmurlu, B; Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Ebeveyn Amaçları

       Anketi, Unpublished Manuscript.


Kumru A., Sayıl M., Yağmurlu B. (2006). TÜBİTAK Projesi “Kariyer: Çocukların bilişsel,

       duygusal ve olumlu sosyal gelişimlerinin boylamsal çalışılması.


Schaefer, E. S. & Edgerton, M. (1985). Parent and child correlates of parental modernity. In I.

       E. Sigel (Ed.), Parental belief systems (pp. 287-318). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence

       Erlbaum Associates, Inc.




                                                                                            35
Parenting Questionnaire - TR

       The original Parenting Questionnaire (PQ; Sanson, 1994) is a self-report measure for

parenting practices. It consists of 30 items that parents rate their own parenting behaviors with

respect to frequency. The Turkish version of the PQ was adapted by Baydar et al. (2007). PQ-

TR includes 30 items and maintains the original structure that the frequencies of behaviors are

rated on 5 point Likert scales. The items allow the estimation of 4 subscales: obedience

demanding behavior (e.g., “I expect unquestioning obedience from my child.”), punishment

(e.g., “When my child misbehaves, I use physical punishment.”), parental warmth (e.g.,

“There are moments in which my child and I are so close.”), and inductive reasoning (e.g., “I

discuss reasons for rules with my child.”). The internal reliability of these scales are 0.67,

0.82, 0.88, and 0.82 for obedience demanding behavior scale, punishment scale, parental

warmth scale, and inductive reasoning scale respectively (Baydar et al., 2008). Convergent

validity of PQ-TR was demonstrated for each subscale by calculating its correlation with

other similar measures. PQ-TR obedience demanding behavior subscale was associated with

PQ-TR punishment subscale (r =0.35, p< .05) and HOME-TR use of harsh discipline to the

child subscale (r =0.19, p< .05). Likewise, PQ-TR punishment subscale was associated with

HOME-TR use of harsh discipline to the child subscale (r =0.47, p< .05) and Brief Symptom

Inventory hostility subscale (r = 0.18, p< .05). PQ-TR parental warmth subscale was

associated with HOME-TR responsivity (r = 0.37, p< .05). In addition, PQ-TR inductive

reasoning subscale was associated with ACEP total vocabulary score (r =0.32, p< .05),

HOME-TR responsivity subscale (r =0.36, p< .05), and HOME-TR language stimulation

subscale (r = 0.45, p<.05). (Baydar et al., 2008).




                                                                                                 36
Reference

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved

       May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.



Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2007). Parenting

       Questionnaire-TR, Unpublished Manuscript.


Sanson, A. (1994). Parenting questionnaire for 3-7 year olds. Unpublished Manuscrript.

       Melbourne: University of Melbourne.




                                                                                          37
Short Temperament Scale for Children

       Short Temperament Scale for Children (STSC ; Prior, Sanson, & Oberklaid 1989) is a

30 item questionnaire to assess temperamental characteristics of the child. The items are rated

on 6-point Likert scales with respect to frequency. Four temperamental dimensions assessed

by the scale are Reactivity (e.g., “When upset or annoyed with a task, my child throws it

down, cries, slams doors, etc.”), Persistence (e.g., “My child likes to complete one task or

activity before going on to the next.”), Approach (e.g., “My child is shy when she/he first

meets new children.”) and Rhythmicity (e.g., “My child asks for or takes a snack about the

same time each day.”). The Turkish version of the measure was developed by Kumru, Sayıl,

and Yağmurlu ( 2006). The version used in the ECDET project has 30 items and maintains the

original structure including the same subscales but the rating is based on 5-point Likert scales.

The items allow the estimation of four subscales. The internal consistency for approach

subscale is .66, persistence subscale is .75, rhythmicity subscale is .51, reactivity subscale is

.75 (Baydar, et. al., 2008).

       The items of rhythmicity subscale deal with the sleeping and feeding patterns. There

was not a significant relation between mother reports of sleep and feeding for Turkish

children. Therefore, the concept of rhythmicity cannot be appropriate for this society.

       The convergent validity of the approach subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory was

demonstrated by calculating its correlation with the related item (“is confident with other

people”) in Social Adaptive Inventory and a significant relation was found between two

(r=0.31, p<0.05). In addition, the discriminant validity for approach subscale was established

by comparing the mean approach scores of the children who are confident with other people

and the ones who are not confident. The results indicated that confident children had higher

approach scores ( X =65,3, SD = 15,1) than the unconfident children ( X =43,9 SD = 21,0) (F

(4, 1047= 53,95, p<0.00). The discriminant validity for persistence subscale was established



                                                                                                38
by comparing persistence scores of the children by being easily distracted. There was a

significant difference (F (4, 1047) = 31,07, p<0.00) between the mean persistence scores of

the children who are easily distracted ( X =39,8, SD =20,1 ) and the children who are not

easily distracted ( X =58,3,SD = 16,1). The discriminant validity of the rhythmicity subscale

was established by comparing the rhythmicity scores of the children by refusing to go to bed

on time. There was a significant difference ( F (4, 1047) = 15,90, p<0.00) between the

rhythmicity scores of the children who refuse to go to bed on time ( X =51,8, SD = 11,8) and

the children who do not refuse to go to bed on time ( X = 61,8, SD = 13,1). The discriminant

validity for the reactivity subscale was established by comparing the mean reactivity scores of

the children by the response to the item “Accepts changes without fighting against them or

becoming upset” in adaptive Social Behavior Inventory. This item could discriminate the

reactivity of the children (F (4, 1047) = 27,49, p<0.00). In addition, the item “Yells or

screams” in the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory” was also discriminative fort he reactivity

subscale ( F (4, 1047) = 56,45, p<0.00).




                                                                                              39
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Unpublished

       Raw Data.


Kumru A., Sayıl M., Yağmurlu, B. ( 2006). TÜBİTAK Projesi “Kariyer: Çocukların bilişsel,

       duygusal ve olumlu sosyal gelişimlerinin boylamsal çalışılması (Longitudinal Study

       for cognitive, emotional and positive social development of children).



Prior, M., Sanson, A. ve Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian temperament project. In G. A.

       Kohnstamm ve J. E. Bates ve M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp.

       537-556). Chichester: John Wiley ve Sons.




                                                                                            40
The Brief Symptom Inventory

       The original Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1992) is a 53-item self-report

symptom inventory used to reflect the symptom patterns of psychiatric and medical patients

and non-patients. The measure was adapted and validated for Turkish population by Sahin &

Durak (1994). The version used in the ECDET project has 53 items and maintains the original

structure including the same subscales and same rating on 5 point Likert scales with the

original version. This inventory reports profiles of nine primary symptom dimensions :

somatization (α=0,77; e.g., “Faintness and dizziness”), obsessive-compulsive (α=0,76; e.g.,

“Having to check and double check what you did), interpersonal sensitivity (α=0,71; e.g.,

“Feeling that people are unfriendly or dislike you”), depression (α=0,82; e.g., “Feeling

lonely), anxiety (α=0,81; e.g., “suddenly scared for no reason”), hostility (α=0,66; e.g.,

“Feeling easily annoyed or irritated”), phobic anxiety (α=0,60; e.g., “Having to avoid certain

things, places, or activities because they frighten you”), paranoid ideation (α=0,77; e.g.,

“Feeling that most people cannot be trusted”), and psychoticism (α=0,63; e.g., “The idea that

someone else can control your thoughts”). There are three global indices of distress (α=0,58;

e.g., “Feeling of guilt”) (Baydar, et. al., 2008).

       The convergent validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory was demonstrated for

hostility, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression and anxiety. Hostility and

interpersonal sensitivity subscales were negatively associated with the index of support to the

mothers from friends (r=-.21, r=-.26, p<.05). The Somatization subscale was negatively

correlated with the general health perception subscale of Life Quality of the Mother Scale (r=

-.46, p<.05). In addition, the depression and anxiety subscales were highly correlated with

each other (r=.82, p<.05).




                                                                                              41
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

       Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Unpublished

       Raw Data.



Derogatis (1992). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Administration, Scoring and

       Precedures Manual II. Clinical Psychometric Research Institute.



Şahin, N. H., & Durak, A. (1995). Kısa Semptom Envanteri: Türk gençleri için uyarlanması.

       (Short Temperament Scale: Adaptaton for Turkish Youth). Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 9

       (31), 44 - 56.




                                                                                           42
TIFALDI Receptive Language Test

         TIFALDI-R is an individually administered test of receptive language ability for

children ages 3 through 6 years developed by Berument (2000). The standardization process

of TIFALDI was not complete at the time of this publication. The TIFALDI-R contains 83

items including two practice questions. Each test item requires the child to choose a picture

out of 4 pictures that best represents a given word. Baseline level contains nine items, age

three level contains 18 items, age four level contains 15 items, age 5 level contains 24 items

and age 6 level contains 15 items. The TIFALDI-R is an adaptive test which is administered

by establishing the basal level and the ceiling level for each child. The test is terminated when

the child incorrectly answers 2/3rd of the questions. A three-parameter logistic Item Response

Theory (IRT) model was applied to the 81 test items for the scoring of TIFALDI-R (Baydar,

2008). Age standardized latent ability scores and raw latent scores are available for each

child.

Convergent validity of TIFALDI-R was demonstrated by calculating its correlation with other

similar measures. TIFALDI-R was found to be associated with age standardized Corsi Block

Tapping Task that assessed working memory (r = 0.36, p<.05), mother‟s ACEP Vocabulary

Test score (r = 0.39, p<.05), mother‟s completed year of education (r = 0.31, p<.05) and

father‟s completed year of education (r = 0.27, p<.05). The TIFALDI-R scores also

significantly differed by child‟s birth weight, such that children with extremely low birth

weight ( X =-0.61, SD =1.03) are significantly different F (2, 1050) = 25.95, p<0.00) from

children with normal birth weight ( X = 0.10, SD =1.03) in terms of their age standardized

TIFALDI-R scores.




                                                                                                 43
References

Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). [The Study of

     Early Childhood Developmental Ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results]. Retrieved May

     25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.




Berument, S (2000). Ongoing TUBİTAK Project: The norm development study of Turkish

         Expressive and Receptive Language test (TIFALDI). TÜBİTAK, 1 SEPTEMBER

         2006 - 1 APRIL 2009.




                                                                                          44

				
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