Egypt and Mesopotamia (DOC)

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					1. The ancient Greeks certainly weren't the first to study the stars. Earlier
Mesopotamians and Egyptians had done a great deal of scientific
observation of the universe before them. What set the Greek study of
astronomy apart from that of other ancient cultures was its application of
logical thinking and geometry to stellar observations. In this activity,
students will calculate the circumference of the Earth using the same
method as the Greek astronomer Eratosthenes.

Eratosthenes and his fellow astronomers realized that the Earth was
spherical because they observed that the shadow cast by the Earth during
a lunar eclipse was always circular. Around 200 B.C., Eratosthenes heard
that in the city of Syene, Egypt, which is on the equator, the Sun shone
directly down the vertical walls of a well at noon on the first day of summer.
He also observed that in Alexandria, roughly 830 kilometers to the north,
the Sun shone at a 7.2-degree angle at the same time on the same day.

Given that a complete circle is made up of 360 degrees, develop an
equation that you think Eratosthenes could have used to determine the
circumference of the Earth. (7.2/360 = 830/x) Solve your equation. (x =
41,500) Now look up the actual circumference of the Earth (in kilometers)
on the Internet or in a reference book. (40,008 kilometers at the poles; 40,075
kilometers at the equator.) How close was your estimate? (Within 1,500

3. What we use as currency today--coins and paper money--hasn't always
had the same value. In the ancient world, people used valuable materials
that they could find or produce as currency to trade for goods or services.
If you wanted to purchase a coat in the ancient world, you may have given
someone decorative beads, grain or a tool as payment. If you want to buy a
coat today, you give someone paper money and coins as payment. While
currency looks quite different today than it did many centuries ago, it still
represents value and we use it in a lot of the same ways.

What are some ways people use money? (Earn it, spend it, save it, invest it,
donate it, give it as gifts, etc.) Name some items other than coins and paper
bills that represent currency today. (Checks, money orders, credit or debit
cards, gift cards or certificates, etc.)

Ask students to imagine that they are going to create an entirely new form
of currency for use in the classroom. Encourage students to think as
ancient peoples did and use what is readily available and valuable to them
(i.e., crayons, scissors, game pieces, etc.). They should consider how it can
be earned, what can be purchased with it and where it can be stored. Ask
students to set up a "bank" using their new form of currency, and to
purchase goods or services from one another. Then, ask them to reflect on
the value associated with each student's new currency.

4. Myths, fables, drama and epic poetry are a few key literary forms that
have existed since ancient times. The focal point of many of these classical
works, including Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid and Sophocles'
Antigone, is the hero, the central figure blessed with tremendous gifts and,
often, cursed by some weakness or tragic set of circumstances. Those
same qualities still hold true in the forms that the hero takes in modern
literary works.

In your own words, define what it means to be a hero. Think about some
heroes in modern literature (Harry Potter, for example). What special
abilities or heroic character traits do they possess? What flaws or
unfortunate conditions must they fight to overcome? Are they successful
most of the time?

Ask students to cast themselves (or someone else they know very well) as
the hero of an epic adventure. They should consider what sort of
challenges they will face--both internally and externally--and what qualities
of their personality would be most useful in attempting to overcome these
challenges. Then have students write about their adventure and share their
stories with the class. Discuss the similarities and differences among the
students' heroes.

Name __________________________________________

Directions: read 92-95. supplies: colors. Egypt used
skilled archers from Nubia to help them in battle against
their enemies. In today's world we hire people with certain
skills to do jobs for us (construction workers, landscapers,
teachers, etc...). i want you to draw the perfect person for a
given job (athlete,cook,designer, police officer, etc..).

Job         _______________________________________
Skills      _______________________________________
                   Song about Egypt

     Name ________________________________

  Directions: Using the beat of a song you know, write a
 song about Egypt. Use pages 69 to 95 in your text book,
encyclopedias, and/or other Egyptian books in the room to
                  get your information.

Name _____________________

Use pages 32- 95 to label the map. Color
each of these locations.

Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia)
Black Sea
Caspian Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Persian Gulf
Tigris River
Euphrates River
Red Sea
Nile River
Read pages 2-11

During the Stone Age, humans relied primarily on stone tools. In some regions, humans
also made tools out of bone, wood, and/or antlers.
You are living in a Stone Age community 4,500 years ago. You are living in a cave. The
ceiling, walls and floor are made of stone. You move from house to house and one house
looks much like another. Each has a central fire place. All your furniture, beds,
cupboards, dressers, shelves are made of stone.
After a hard day of hunting and gathering, you would like to record this day by drawing
three Stone Age tools that you used on your cave wall. Give a brief description and tell
me how each of the tools were used.

In the community you are seen as an expert tool craftsman. Often you make tools for
others in exchange for food. Invent a new tool using only Stone Age materials.

Stepping out of the Stone Age period, compare and contrast a modern tool to its Stone
Age equivalent.

Draw a tool of the future.