1. The ancient Greeks certainly weren't the first to study the stars. Earlier Mesopotamians and Egyptians had done a great deal of scientific observation of the universe before them. What set the Greek study of astronomy apart from that of other ancient cultures was its application of logical thinking and geometry to stellar observations. In this activity, students will calculate the circumference of the Earth using the same method as the Greek astronomer Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes and his fellow astronomers realized that the Earth was spherical because they observed that the shadow cast by the Earth during a lunar eclipse was always circular. Around 200 B.C., Eratosthenes heard that in the city of Syene, Egypt, which is on the equator, the Sun shone directly down the vertical walls of a well at noon on the first day of summer. He also observed that in Alexandria, roughly 830 kilometers to the north, the Sun shone at a 7.2-degree angle at the same time on the same day. Given that a complete circle is made up of 360 degrees, develop an equation that you think Eratosthenes could have used to determine the circumference of the Earth. (7.2/360 = 830/x) Solve your equation. (x = 41,500) Now look up the actual circumference of the Earth (in kilometers) on the Internet or in a reference book. (40,008 kilometers at the poles; 40,075 kilometers at the equator.) How close was your estimate? (Within 1,500 kilometers.) 3. What we use as currency today--coins and paper money--hasn't always had the same value. In the ancient world, people used valuable materials that they could find or produce as currency to trade for goods or services. If you wanted to purchase a coat in the ancient world, you may have given someone decorative beads, grain or a tool as payment. If you want to buy a coat today, you give someone paper money and coins as payment. While currency looks quite different today than it did many centuries ago, it still represents value and we use it in a lot of the same ways. What are some ways people use money? (Earn it, spend it, save it, invest it, donate it, give it as gifts, etc.) Name some items other than coins and paper bills that represent currency today. (Checks, money orders, credit or debit cards, gift cards or certificates, etc.) Ask students to imagine that they are going to create an entirely new form of currency for use in the classroom. Encourage students to think as ancient peoples did and use what is readily available and valuable to them (i.e., crayons, scissors, game pieces, etc.). They should consider how it can be earned, what can be purchased with it and where it can be stored. Ask students to set up a "bank" using their new form of currency, and to purchase goods or services from one another. Then, ask them to reflect on the value associated with each student's new currency. 4. Myths, fables, drama and epic poetry are a few key literary forms that have existed since ancient times. The focal point of many of these classical works, including Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid and Sophocles' Antigone, is the hero, the central figure blessed with tremendous gifts and, often, cursed by some weakness or tragic set of circumstances. Those same qualities still hold true in the forms that the hero takes in modern literary works. In your own words, define what it means to be a hero. Think about some heroes in modern literature (Harry Potter, for example). What special abilities or heroic character traits do they possess? What flaws or unfortunate conditions must they fight to overcome? Are they successful most of the time? Ask students to cast themselves (or someone else they know very well) as the hero of an epic adventure. They should consider what sort of challenges they will face--both internally and externally--and what qualities of their personality would be most useful in attempting to overcome these challenges. Then have students write about their adventure and share their stories with the class. Discuss the similarities and differences among the students' heroes. Name __________________________________________ Directions: read 92-95. supplies: colors. Egypt used skilled archers from Nubia to help them in battle against their enemies. In today's world we hire people with certain skills to do jobs for us (construction workers, landscapers, teachers, etc...). i want you to draw the perfect person for a given job (athlete,cook,designer, police officer, etc..). Job _______________________________________ Skills _______________________________________ Song about Egypt Name ________________________________ Directions: Using the beat of a song you know, write a song about Egypt. Use pages 69 to 95 in your text book, encyclopedias, and/or other Egyptian books in the room to get your information. Name _____________________ Use pages 32- 95 to label the map. Color each of these locations. Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) Babylon Jerusalem Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf Tigris River Euphrates River Africa Asia Red Sea Israel Europe Nile River Egypt Read pages 2-11 During the Stone Age, humans relied primarily on stone tools. In some regions, humans also made tools out of bone, wood, and/or antlers. You are living in a Stone Age community 4,500 years ago. You are living in a cave. The ceiling, walls and floor are made of stone. You move from house to house and one house looks much like another. Each has a central fire place. All your furniture, beds, cupboards, dressers, shelves are made of stone. After a hard day of hunting and gathering, you would like to record this day by drawing three Stone Age tools that you used on your cave wall. Give a brief description and tell me how each of the tools were used. In the community you are seen as an expert tool craftsman. Often you make tools for others in exchange for food. Invent a new tool using only Stone Age materials. Stepping out of the Stone Age period, compare and contrast a modern tool to its Stone Age equivalent. Draw a tool of the future.