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Online Appendix for the following October JACC article miocardial infarction

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Online Appendix for the following October JACC article miocardial infarction Powered By Docstoc
					Online Appendix for the following March 7 JACC article



TITLE: Patients with Hibernating Myocardium Show Altered Left Ventricular Volumes and

Shape, which Revert Following Revascularization: Evidence that Dysynergy May Directly

Induce Cardiac Remodeling



AUTHORS: Erberto Carluccio, MD, Division of Cardiology, University of Perugia School

of Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Paolo Biagioli, MD, Division of Cardiology, University of

Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Gianfranco Alunni, MD, Division of Cardiology,

University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Adriano Murrone, MD, Division of

Cardiology, University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Claudio Giombolini,

MD, Division of Cardiology, University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy,

Temistocle Ragni, MD, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Perugia School of

Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Paolo N. Marino, MD, Division of Cardiology, University of

Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy, Gianpaolo Reboldi, MD, PhD, MSc, Division of Internal

Medicine, University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy, Giuseppe Ambrosio,

MD, PhD, FACC, Division of Cardiology, University of Perugia School of Medicine,

Perugia, Italy




APPENDIX



List of Publications Linking Left Ventricular Remodeling to Inflammation/Scar

Formation Following Transmural Necrosis:
1.     Gurantz D, Cowling RT, Varki N, Frikovsky E, Moore CD, Greenberg BH. IL-1beta

and TNF-alpha upregulate angiotensin II type 1 (AT[1]) receptors on cardiac fibroblasts and

are associated with increased AT(1) density in the post-MI heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol

2005;38:505-15.



2.     Harada M, Qin Y, Takano H, et al. G-CSF prevents cardiac remodeling after

myocardial infarction by activating the Jak-Stat pathway in cardiomyocytes. Nat Med

2005;11:305-11.



3.     Wang B, Ansari R, Sun Y, Postlethwaite AE, Weber KT, Kiani MF. The scar

neovasculature following myocardial infarction in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol

2005;289:H108-13.



4.     Matsumura SI, Iwanaga S, Mochizuki S, Okamoto H, Ogawa S, Okada Y. Targeted

deletion or pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 prevents cardiac rupture after myocardial

infarction in mice. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:599-609.



5.     Soeki T, Kishimoto I, Okumura H, et al. C-type natriuretic peptide, a novel

antifibrotic and antihypertrophic agent, prevents cardiac remodeling after myocardial

infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:608-16.



6.     Liu YH, Wang D, Rhaleb NE, et al. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein

kinase protects the heart against cardiac remodeling in mice with heart failure resulting from

myocardial infarction. J Card Fail 2005;11:74-81.
7.     Iwanaga K, Takano H, Ohtsuka M, et al. Effects of G-CSF on cardiac remodeling

after acute myocardial infarction in swine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;325:1353-9.



8.     Yoshinari K, Yaoita H, Maehara K, Maruyama Y. Different therapeutic responses to

treadmill exercise of heart failure due to ischemia and infarction in rats. Cardiovasc Res

2005;65:457-68.



9.     Sugano Y, Anzai T, Yoshikawa T, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

attenuates early ventricular expansion after experimental myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc

Res 2005;65:446-56.



10.    Nahrendorf M, Spindler M, Hu K, et al. Creatine kinase knockout mice show left

ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation, but unaltered remodeling post-myocardial infarction.

Cardiovasc Res 2005;65:419-27.



11.    See F, Thomas W, Way K, et al. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition

improves cardiac function and attenuates left ventricular remodeling following myocardial

infarction in the rat. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1679-89.

12.    Maekawa Y, Anzai T, Yoshikawa T, et al. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-

stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. J

Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1510-20.

13.    Cavasin MA, Tao Z, Menon S, Yang XP. Gender differences in cardiac function

during early remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in mice. Life Sci 2004;75:2181-92.
14.    Kaikita K, Hayasaki T, Okuma T, Kuziel WA, Ogawa H, Takeya M. Targeted

deletion of CC chemokine receptor 2 attenuates left ventricular remodeling after experimental

myocardial infarction. Am J Pathol 2004;165:439-47.



15.    Fieno DS, Hillenbrand HB, Rehwald WG, et al. Infarct resorption, compensatory

hypertrophy, and differing patterns of ventricular remodeling following myocardial

infarctions of varying size. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:2124-31.



16.    Hattori T, Shimokawa H, Higashi M, et al. Long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase

suppresses left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. Circulation

2004;109:2234-9.



17.    Sakata Y, Yamamoto K, Mano T, et al. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases

precedes left ventricular remodeling in hypertensive heart failure rats: its inhibition as a

primary effect of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Circulation 2004;109:2143-9.



18.    Force T, Kuida K, Namchuk M, Parang K, Kyriakis JM. Inhibitors of protein kinase

signaling   pathways:   emerging    therapies   for   cardiovascular   disease.   Circulation

2004;109:1196-205.



19.    Hu K, Naumann A, Fraccarollo D, et al. Heart rate reduction by zatebradine reduces

infarct size and mortality but promotes remodeling in rats with experimental myocardial

infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004;286:H1281-8.
20.    Ohtsuka M, Takano H, Zou Y, et al. Cytokine therapy prevents left ventricular

remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction through neovascularization. FASEB J

2004;18:851-3.



21.    Shiomi T, Tsutsui H, Matsusaka H, et al. Overexpression of glutathione peroxidase

prevents left ventricular remodeling and failure after myocardial infarction in mice.

Circulation 2004;109:544-9.



22.    Takeshita K, Hayashi M, Iino S, et al. Increased expression of plasminogen activator

inhibitor-1 in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction. Am J

Pathol 2004;164:449-56.



23.    van Rooij E, Doevendans PA, et al. MCIP1 overexpression suppresses left ventricular

remodeling and sustains cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Circ Res 2004;94:e18-

26.



24.    Takahashi T, Anzai T, Yoshikawa T, et al. Angiotensin receptor blockade improves

myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling: a

possible link between beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 and protein kinase C epsilon isoform.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:125-32.



25.    Yang Y, Tang Y, Ruan Y, et al. Comparison of metoprolol with low, middle and high

doses of carvedilol in prevention of postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in rats. Jpn

Heart J 2003;44:979-88.
26.    Yamaguchi O, Higuchi Y, Hirotani S, et al. Targeted deletion of apoptosis signal-

regulating kinase 1 attenuates left ventricular remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

2003;100:15883-8.



27.    Fraccarollo D, Galuppo P, Hildemann S, Christ M, Ertl G, Bauersachs J. Additive

improvement of left ventricular remodeling and neurohormonal activation by aldosterone

receptor blockade with eplerenone and ACE inhibition in rats with myocardial infarction. J

Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1666-73.



28.    Saitoh T, Nakajima T, Kawahara K. Possible involvement of apoptotic death of

myocytes in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Jpn J Physiol

2003;53:247-52.



29.    Hayashidani S, Tsutsui H, Shiomi T, et al. Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

gene therapy attenuates left ventricular remodeling and failure after experimental myocardial

infarction. Circulation 2003;108:2134-40.



30.    Villarreal FJ, Griffin M, Omens J, Dillmann W, Nguyen J, Covell J. Early short-term

treatment with doxycycline modulates postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation

2003;108:1487-92.



31.    Yuejin Y, Pei Z, Yingmao R, et al. Comparison of the effects of losartan, enalapril

and their combination in the prevention of left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial

infarction in the rat. Chin Med Sci J 2002;17:236-41.
32.    Flesch M, Hoper A, Dell’Italia L, et al. Activation and functional significance of the

renin-angiotensin system in mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of tumor necrosis

factor. Circulation 2003;108:598-604.



33.    Zou Y, Takano H, Mizukami M, et al. Leukemia inhibitory factor enhances survival

of cardiomyocytes and induces regeneration of myocardium after myocardial infarction.

Circulation 2003;108:748-53.



34.    Lindsey ML, Yoshioka J, MacGillivray C, et al. Effect of a cleavage-resistant

collagen mutation on left ventricular remodeling. Circ Res 2003;93:238-45.



35.    Nakamura H, Umemoto S, Naik G, et al. Induction of left ventricular remodeling and

dysfunction in the recipient heart after donor heart myocardial infarction: new insights into

the pathologic role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from a novel heterotopic transplant-

coronary ligation rat model. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:173-81.



36.    Shiomi T, Tsutsui H, Ikeuchi M, et al. Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

exacerbates left ventricular remodeling and failure after experimental myocardial infarction. J

Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:165-72.



37.    Cittadini A, Monti MG, Isgaard J, et al. Aldosterone receptor blockade improves left

ventricular remodeling and increases ventricular fibrillation threshold in experimental heart

failure. Cardiovasc Res 2003;58:555-64.
38.    Yarbrough WM, Mukherjee R, Brinsa TA, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition

modifies left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in pigs. J Thorac Cardiovasc

Surg 2003;125:602-10.



39.    Filippatos G, Parissis JT, Adamopoulos S, Kardaras F. Chemokines in cardiovascular

remodeling: clinical and therapeutic implications. Curr Mol Med 2003;3:139-47.



40.    Oishi Y, Ozono R, Yano Y, et al. Cardioprotective role of AT2 receptor in

postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Hypertension 2003;41:814-8.



41.    Nahrendorf M, Frantz S, Hu K, et al. Effect of testosterone on post-myocardial

infarction remodeling and function. Cardiovasc Res 2003;57:370-8.



42.    Jugdutt BI. The dog model of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

J Card Fail 2002;8 Suppl:S472-5.



43.    Mann DL. Tumor necrosis factor-induced signal transduction and left ventricular

remodeling. J Card Fail 2002;8 Suppl:S379-86.



44.    Shiomi T, Tsutsui H, Hayashidani S, et al. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-

activated receptor-gamma agonist, attenuates left ventricular remodeling and failure after

experimental myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;106:3126-32.



45.    Nakamura R, Kato J, Kitamura K, et al. Beneficial effects of adrenomedullin on left

ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats. Cardiovasc Res 2002;56:373-80.
46.    Nahrendorf M, Hu K, Hiller KH, et al. Impact of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a

reductase inhibition on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction: an

experimental serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Coll Cardiol

2002;40:1695-700.



47.    Abbate A, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Baldi A. Pathophysiologic role of myocardial apoptosis

in post-infarction left ventricular remodeling. J Cell Physiol 2002;193:145-53.



48.    Mulder P, Boujedaini H, Richard V, et al. Long-term survival and hemodynamics

after endothelin-a receptor antagonism and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in rats

with chronic heart failure: monotherapy versus combination therapy. Circulation

2002;106:1159-64.



49.    Jugdutt BI, Menon V. Beneficial effects of therapy on the progression of structural

remodeling during healing after reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction:

different effects on different parameters. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7:95-107.



50.    Oie E, Yndestad A, Robins SP, Bornerheim R, Asberg A, Attramadal H. Early

intervention with a potent endothelin-A/endothelin-B receptor antagonist aggravates left

ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats. Basic Res Cardiol 2002;97:239-47.



51.    Bayat H, Swaney JS, Ander AN, et al. Progressive heart failure after myocardial

infarction in mice. Basic Res Cardiol 2002;97:206-13.
52.    Dairaku Y, Miura T, Harada N, et al. Effect of ischemic preconditioning and

mitochondrial KATP channel openers on chronic left ventricular remodeling in the ischemic-

reperfused rat heart. Circ J 2002;66:411-5.



53.    Yaoita H, Sakabe A, Maehara K, Maruyama Y. Different effects of carvedilol,

metoprolol, and propranolol on left ventricular remodeling after coronary stenosis or after

permanent coronary occlusion in rats. Circulation 2002;105:975-80.



54.    Hayashidani S, Tsutsui H, Shiomi T, et al. Fluvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl

coenzyme a reductase inhibitor, attenuates left ventricular remodeling and failure after

experimental myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;105:868-73.



55.    Lindsey ML, Gannon J, Aikawa M, et al. Selective matrix metalloproteinase

inhibition reduces left ventricular remodeling but does not inhibit angiogenesis after

myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;105:753-8.



56.    Hwang MW, Matsumori A, Furukawa Y, et al. Neutralization of interleukin-1beta in

the acute phase of myocardial infarction promotes the progression of left ventricular

remodeling. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1546-53.



57.    Francis J, Weiss RM, Wei SG, Johnson AK, Felder RB. Progression of heart failure

after myocardial infarction in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol

2001;281:R1734-45.
58.    Scherrer-Crosbie M, Ullrich R, Bloch KD, et al. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

limits left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. Circulation.

2001;104:1286-91.



59.    Bauersachs J, Galuppo P, Fraccarollo D, Christ M, Ertl G. Improvement of left

ventricular remodeling and function by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase

inhibition with cerivastatin in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction. Circulation

2001;104:982-5.



60.    Creemers EE, Cleutjens JP, Smits JF, Daemen MJ. Matrix metalloproteinase

inhibition after myocardial infarction: a new approach to prevent heart failure? Circ Res

2001;89:201-10.



61.    Delyani JA, Robinson EL, Rudolph AE. Effect of a selective aldosterone receptor

antagonist in myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;281:H647-54.



62.    Takahashi C, Kagaya Y, Namiuchi S, et al. Nonselective endothelin receptor

antagonist initiated soon after the onset of myocardial infarction may deteriorate 24-hour

survival. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2001;38:29-38.



63.    Mankad S, d’Amato TA, Reichek N, et al. Combined angiotensin II receptor

antagonism and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition further attenuates postinfarction

left ventricular remodeling. Circulation 2001;103:2845-50.
64.    Peterson JT, Hallak H, Johnson L, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition

attenuates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in a rat model of progressive heart

failure. Circulation 2001;103:2303-9.



65.    Yoshiyama M, Omura T, Takeuchi K, et al. Angiotensin blockade inhibits increased

JNKs, AP-1 and NF- kappa B DNA-binding activities in myocardial infarcted rats. J Mol Cell

Cardiol 2001;33:799-810.



66.    Kinugawa S, Tsutsui H, Hayashidani S, et al. Treatment with dimethylthiourea

prevents left ventricular remodeling and failure after experimental myocardial infarction in

mice: role of oxidative stress. Circ Res 2000;87:392-8.



67.    Sam F, Sawyer DB, Chang DL, et al. Progressive left ventricular remodeling and

apoptosis late after myocardial infarction in mouse heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol

2000;279:H422-8.



68.    Ning XH, Zhang J, Liu J, et al. Signaling and expression for mitochondrial membrane

proteins during left ventricular remodeling and contractile failure after myocardial infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:282-7.

69.    Mansuy P, Mougenot N, Ramirez-Gil JF, et al. Effects of prolonged propranolol

treatment on left ventricular remodeling and oxidative stress after myocardial infarction in

rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;35:806-13.
         Baseline Clinical Characteristics of Individual Patients




Pts   Gender   Age   Hypertension   Diabetes   Hypercholest. Smoker   Hystory Dysfunctional    Viable     No of     Percentage NYHA
                                                                       of MI   Segments at    segments   Diseased   of Stenosis Class at
                                                                                 Baseline     at LDDE    Vessels         *      Baseline
BE      M      71        Yes          Yes          Yes        No        No         13            6          3           85         3
BG      M      58        Yes          No           No         Yes      Yes         10            5          1           85         4
BP      M      58        No           No           Yes        No       Yes         13            2          3           99         4
CA      M      74        Yes          Yes          No         No       Yes         13            5          3           70         3
CA      M      64        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         10            8          1           75         4
CB      M      66        Yes          No           No         No        No         12            4          1           75         4
CC      M      66        Yes          No           No         No        No          8            5          2           70         2
CE      M      64        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         12            6          3           90         3
CG      M      72        No           No           No         No        No          8            0          3           90         4
CG      M      70        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         13           10          3           90         2
CM      F      79        Yes          Yes          No         No       Yes         12            4          2           85         4
CN      M      61        No           No           Yes        Yes       No          8            6          1           95         3
DA      M      76        Yes          Yes          No         No        No         10            2          1          100         4
DM      M      62        Yes          No           Yes        No       Yes         12            7          2           85         3
DS      M      55        No           Yes          Yes        No       Yes         16            2          2           80         4
EB      M      57        No           Yes          Yes        Yes       No         16            8          3          100         2
FD      F      45        Yes          Yes          Yes        No        No          9            7          3          100         2
FV      M      75        Yes          No           Yes        No       Yes         10            8          2           99         3
GA      M      49        No           No           Yes        Yes      Yes         11            5          3           80         3
GO      F      67        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         12            4          3           90         4
GS      M      44        No           Yes          Yes        Yes      Yes          7            5          3          100         3
HG      M      58        No           Yes          No         No       Yes         12            6          3           85         4
LN      M      78        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         10            6          3           80         3
MD      M      70        No           Yes          Yes        No       Yes         12            7          2           80         3
MM      F      73        Yes          No           Yes        No       Yes         16            2          3           80         2
MR      M      73        No           No           Yes        No        No         14            6          3           70         3
MU      M      71        Yes          Yes          No         No        No         16            6          2           80         2
PA      M      63        Yes          Yes          No         No       Yes         16            8          2           95         3
PG      M      75        No           No           Yes        No       Yes          9            0          3          100         3
PM      M      68        No           Yes          Yes        No       Yes         16           11          3           90         3
PS      M      61        Yes          No           Yes        No       Yes         16           12          3           80         2
PT      F      73        Yes          No           Yes        No        No         11            8          1           90         4
RA      M      64        No           Yes          Yes        No       Yes         14            6          2           80         2
RG      F      68        No           No           No         No       Yes         14            8          3           95         2
RR      M      74        No           No           Yes        No       Yes         16            7          2           85         3
RV      M      69        Yes          No           No         No        No         12            6          3           70         4
SD      M      46        No           No           No         Yes       No         16            8          3          100         4
SG      M      54        Yes          No           Yes        Yes      Yes         12            7          2          100         3
TF      M      57        Yes          No           No         Yes       No         12            2          3           80         4
TR      M      70        No           Yes          No         No       Yes         14            8          3           99         2
VP      F      74        Yes          Yes          Yes        No        No          9            5          2           90         2
ZR      M      53        Yes          No           Yes        No       Yes         12            8          3          100         3
         *Refers to stenosis of coronary arteries subtending dysfunctional segments.
         Hypercholest. = hypercholesterolemia; LDDE = low-dose dobutamine echocardiography; MI =
         myocardial infarction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; Pts. = patients.

				
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